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Quantum Mechanics for Scientists and Engineers David Miller
Quantum Mechanics for
Scientists and Engineers
David Miller
Background mathematics 3 Coordinates and vectors
Background mathematics 3
Coordinates and vectors

z

y

y
z y Coordinate axes and vectors Ordinary geometry Three “axes” x , y , and z
z y Coordinate axes and vectors Ordinary geometry Three “axes” x , y , and z

Coordinate axes and vectors

z y Coordinate axes and vectors Ordinary geometry Three “axes” x , y , and z
z y Coordinate axes and vectors Ordinary geometry Three “axes” x , y , and z

Ordinary geometry Three “axes” x, y, and z All at right angles “Cartesian” axes (from René

x Descartes) Lines or directions at right angles are also called orthogonal

z

y

y
z y Coordinate axes and vectors Right-handed axes Using your right hand Thumb x Index (“first”)
z y Coordinate axes and vectors Right-handed axes Using your right hand Thumb x Index (“first”)

Coordinate axes and vectors

z y Coordinate axes and vectors Right-handed axes Using your right hand Thumb x Index (“first”)
z y Coordinate axes and vectors Right-handed axes Using your right hand Thumb x Index (“first”)

Right-handed axes Using your right hand Thumb

x

Index (“first”) finger y

Middle finger x No matter how you now rotate your whole hand the axes remain right- handed

z

y z
y
z

Coordinate axes and vectors

y z Coordinate axes and vectors If you use your left hand x Index (“first”) finger
y z Coordinate axes and vectors If you use your left hand x Index (“first”) finger

If you use your left hand

x

Index (“first”) finger y

Thumb

Middle finger

z

give left-handed axes x No rotation of this entire set of left-handed axes will ever make it right-handed We use right hand axes unless otherwise stated

z

Coordinate axes and vectors

y

y P . P origin . x P z P
y P
.
P
origin
.
x P
z P
Coordinate axes and vectors y y P . P origin . x P z P For
Coordinate axes and vectors y y P . P origin . x P z P For

For some point P in space The corresponding “projections” onto the coordinate axes give Cartesian coordinates

(x P , y P , z P )

x

x P , y P , and z P , relative to the origin of the axes Sometimes written (x P , y P , z P )

Coordinate axes and vectors

G

Coordinate axes and vectors G A vector is something with a magnitude such as a length
Coordinate axes and vectors G A vector is something with a magnitude such as a length

A vector is something with a magnitude such as a length and a direction

Usually written in “bold” font e.g., G

 

Sometimes G or

G

And shown as an “arrow” With “length” and direction

A

r

B

Coordinate axes and vectors

A r B Coordinate axes and vectors A vector could be the distance and direction you
A r B Coordinate axes and vectors A vector could be the distance and direction you

A vector could be the distance and direction you need to walk to get from A to B

Coordinate axes and vectors

F

Coordinate axes and vectors F A vector could be A force how hard you are pushing
Coordinate axes and vectors F A vector could be A force how hard you are pushing

A vector could be A force how hard you are pushing and what direction you are pushing

Coordinate axes and vectors

v

Coordinate axes and vectors v A vector could be A velocity how fast you are going
Coordinate axes and vectors v A vector could be A velocity how fast you are going

A vector could be A velocity how fast you are going (speed) e.g., the number on your car speedometer and what direction you are going in e.g., on a compass

r

F

v

Coordinate axes and vectors

r F v Coordinate axes and vectors An ordinary number which has no direction is called
r F v Coordinate axes and vectors An ordinary number which has no direction is called

An ordinary number which has no direction is called a “scalar” Distance how hard you push speed are all scalars Scalars are in ordinary fonts Usually italic in printing

y

G y G j G x k i G z
G
y
G
j
G
x
k
i
G
z

z

Coordinate axes and vectors

y G y G j G x k i G z z Coordinate axes and vectors
y G y G j G x k i G z z Coordinate axes and vectors

A vector has “components” along three orthogonal axes G x , G y , and G z We can also define vectors of unit length along each axis

x i – unit vector along x j – unit vector along y k – unit vector along z

z

y G y G G y j G x i G x G z k
y
G y
G
G y j
G x i
G x
G z k
G z

Coordinate axes and vectors

x

y G G y j G x i G x G z k G z Coordinate
y G G y j G x i G x G z k G z Coordinate

Then we can write G=G x i+G y j+G z k

z

y G y G G y j G x i G x G z k
y
G y
G
G y j
G x i
G x
G z k
G z

Coordinate axes and vectors

G G y j G x i G x G z k G z Coordinate axes
G G y j G x i G x G z k G z Coordinate axes

Then we can write G=G x i+G y j+G z k making the final vector up by adding its vector components

x

Background mathematics 3 Operations with vectors
Background mathematics 3
Operations with vectors
S G G + S G + S G S
S
G
G + S
G + S
G
S

Adding vectors

S G G + S G + S G S Adding vectors To add vectors graphically
S G G + S G + S G S Adding vectors To add vectors graphically

To add vectors graphically connect them head to tail in any order

S S z k y j G z k G y j G + S
S
S z k
y j
G
z k
G
y j
G + S
G
x i
S x i

Adding vectors

k y j G z k G y j G + S G x i S
k y j G z k G y j G + S G x i S

To add vectors algebraically add them component by component

G S

G i

x

G

y

j

G k

z

  S k

x

S

y

z

S i

j

G

x

S

x

i

G

y

S

y

j

G

z

S

z

k

Multiplying vectors Two kinds of multiplications or “products” for geometrical vectors Dot product a 

Multiplying vectors

Multiplying vectors Two kinds of multiplications or “products” for geometrical vectors Dot product a  b

Two kinds of multiplications or “products” for geometrical vectors Dot product

ab

Gives a scalar result Cross product

ab

Gives a vector result

a

a 

a  angle  b Vector dot product One formula for the dot product is a

angle

b

Vector dot product

a  angle  b Vector dot product One formula for the dot product is a
a  angle  b Vector dot product One formula for the dot product is a

One formula for the dot product is

a b

a

b

cos

ab cos

Here the “modulus” sign “| |” means we take the length of the vector

a

a

Note that

ab ba

Also

So

2 aa  a a  aa
2
aa  a
a  aa
a 
a

angle

b

Vector dot product

a  angle  b Vector dot product One formula for the dot product is a
a  angle  b Vector dot product One formula for the dot product is a

One formula for the dot product is

a  b  a b cos  ab cos We can think of a
a  b 
a b
cos
 ab cos
We can think of
a b
cos
as

The projection of vector b onto the direction of vector a

Multiplied by the length of a

or

The projection of vector a onto the direction of vector b Multiplied by the length of b

a

 
 
 



 
 
 
 

b

Vector dot product

a   b Vector dot product One formula for the dot product is b Note
a   b Vector dot product One formula for the dot product is b Note

One formula for the dot product is

b

Note that

a

a

b

cos

ab cos

for two vectors at right angles

/ 2 90

and

cos/ 20

so

the dot product is zero

Vector dot product

j

k i

Vector dot product j k i The unit vectors along the coordinate directions are all orthogonal
Vector dot product j k i The unit vectors along the coordinate directions are all orthogonal

The unit vectors along the coordinate directions are all orthogonal (at right angles) So all their dots products with one another are zero

ij 0

ji 0

ik

k i 0 k j 0

0 jk 0

Also, since these are unit length

vectors, by definition

ii 1

jj 1

k k 1

a

a
a
a

b

Vector dot product

a b Vector dot product Since i  j  0 j  i  0
a b Vector dot product Since i  j  0 j  i  0

Since

ij 0

ji 0

ik

k i 0

0 jk 0

k j 0

Forming the dot product algebraically

ab

gives

a i a jka

xyz



b ijb

b k

xyz

ab a b a b a b

x

x

y

y

z

z

which is an equivalent formula for the dot product

G
G

G

G
G
G
G i Vector dot product The components of a vector can be found by taking the

i

Vector dot product

G i Vector dot product The components of a vector can be found by taking the
G i Vector dot product The components of a vector can be found by taking the

The components of a vector can be found by taking the dot product with the unit vectors along the coordinate directions For example

G i

G

x

i G jG k

y

z

i G

x

Vector cross product

a

a 

Vector cross product a  b For two vectors a  aaa i  x y

b

Vector cross product a  b For two vectors a  aaa i  x y
Vector cross product a  b For two vectors a  aaa i  x y

For two vectors

a aaai

x

y

z

jk

b bbbi

x

y

z

jk

the vector cross product is

a

b

n a

b

sin

n

absin

n is a unit vector with a direction given by the right hand screw rule

a  b
a
b

ab

gives vector n

away from you

ab

b

b 

 b a  b gives vector n away from you a  b b 

a

gives vector n

towards you

Right hand screw rule

b  a gives vector n towards you Right hand screw rule Imagine you have a
b  a gives vector n towards you Right hand screw rule Imagine you have a

Imagine you have a corkscrew With an ordinary right-handed thread with its handle lined up along vector a Now rotate the handle so it lines up with vector b The direction, in or out, that the corkscrew moved is the direction of the vector n

Vector cross product

a

a 

Vector cross product a  b Note that a  b  b  a If

b

Vector cross product a  b Note that a  b  b  a If
Vector cross product a  b Note that a  b  b  a If

Note that

ab ba If we have to turn clockwise to go from a to b So the corkscrew goes “in” So n points “inwards” Then we have to turn anti-clockwise to go from b to a So the corkscrew goes “out” So n point “outwards”

Vector cross product An equivalent algebraic formula for the vector cross product is a 

Vector cross product

Vector cross product An equivalent algebraic formula for the vector cross product is a  b

An equivalent algebraic formula for the vector cross product is

ab

aabb

yzzy

i aab

b

zxxz

j

a b

x

y

a b

y

x

k

A short-hand way of writing this is

 

i

j

k

a

b

a

x

a

y

a

z

 

bbb

x

y

z

which is the same as the determinant notation used with matrix algebra