00 mi piace11 non mi piace

804 visualizzazioni15 pagineflow over weirs solteq model:fm26

Nov 01, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

DOCX, PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

flow over weirs solteq model:fm26

© All Rights Reserved

804 visualizzazioni

00 mi piace11 non mi piace

flow over weirs solteq model:fm26

© All Rights Reserved

Sei sulla pagina 1di 15

ABSTRACT

This experiment was conducted to observe the characteristics over a rectangular notch and a

triangular notch. The discharge coefficient,

The experiment was done by using a rectangular notch and triangular notch. At the beginning of

the experiment, the initial reading water level in the tank was noted and recorded. Then, the

depth of water with different height was tested by recording the time taken to collect 3L of water

which later will be used to calculate the flow rate of the flow. The data obtained were further

tabulated by calculating the discharge coefficient,

were plotted to analyze the characteristics of the flow. Based on the graph plotted for rectangular

notch, it was observed that there is a decrease in the discharge coefficient,

before it finally

reaches a constant value. Unlike triangular notch, the discharge decrease smoothly but the values

are higher than the rectangular notch. Therefore, from this experiment, it can be concluded that

triangular notch has higher discharge than rectangular notch.

2

INTRODUCTION

Weir is a barrier which is usually used to alter the characteristics of the flow. It is usually located

on top of the sidewall of the tank. Notch is almost similar to a weir but different in the structure

where the former is built in small structure and sharp edges. A weir is basically a combination of

an overflow structure with a broad crest which is built across an open channel. The weir results

an increase in the water level, or head, which is measured upstream of the structure. The flow

rate over a weir is a function of the head on the weir.

There are several different types of weirs but the most common weir constructions are the

rectangular weir, the triangular or v-notch weir, and the broad-crested weir. Sharp-crested weirs

are weirs which crests are constructed of thin metal plates, and broad-crested weirs are which

crests are made of wide timber or concrete.

Rectangular weir and triangular weir are often used in water supply, wastewater and sewage

systems. Weir structure is consists of a ponding basin, a stilling well, a notch, a flume and

concrete wings which slightly approaches outwards uphill to catch and direct the stream and any

nearby ground water into the flume and basin. The weir is anchored to the bedrock to ensure the

water can flow under it. The amount of water flowing through one or two components; a notch at

the downstream end of the basin for most flows or the flume for very high flows.

OBJECTIVES

To observe the flow characteristics over a rectangular weir and triangular weir.

To determine the discharge coefficient of the fluid flow.

3

THEORY

In this experiment, only 2 weirs will be used which are rectangular weirs and triangular weirs.

Therefore only these two weirs are focused on. Different weirs have different ways of calculating

the discharge coefficient,

characteristics.

Rectangular weir or rectangular notch is used to meter flow in an open channel. The head over

the rectangular weir is measured and correlated with the water flow rate through the open

channel (and over the weir). A rectangular weir equation gives water flow rate as a function of

head over the rectangular weir.

FIGURE 1

Referring to the figure 1, the flow in the element of height, H at a depth, h below the surface is

taken in measured. It was assumed that the flow of fluid is everywhere normal to the plane of the

weir and that the free surface remains horizontal to the plane of the weir. In reality, the flow

through the notch will not be parallel and thus it will not be normal to the plane of the weirs. As

a result, the viscosity and the surface tension will be greatly affected. There will be a

considerable change in the shape of the nappe as it passes through the notch with curvature of the

stream lines in both vertical and horizontal planes. In particular, the width of the nappe is

reduced by the contractions at each end.

4

The flow rate measurement in a rectangular weir is based on the Bernoulli Equation principles

and can be expressed as:

()

Where;

()

It was said that the discharge from the rectangular notch will be less approximately 60% of the

theoretical analysis due to the curvature effects. In order to obtain the discharge coefficient, the

equation above is rearranged. Therefore, the equation for discharge coefficient is:

()

A triangular weir/notch is also known as the V-notch. The name for a v notch weir is very

descriptive; refer to figure 2. A v notch weir is simply a 'v notch' in a plate that is placed so that

it obstructs an open channel flow, causing the water to flow over the v notch. It is used to meter

flow of water in the channel, by measuring the head of water over the v notch crest. The v notch

weir is especially good for measuring a low flow rate, because the flow area decreases rapidly as

the head over the v notch gets small. The head over the V-notch is measured and correlated with

flow rate through the open channel. A v notch weir equation will give the open channel flow

rate. The V-notch design causes small changes in discharge to have a large change in depth

allowing more accurate head measurement than with a rectangular weir.

5

FIGURE 2

The flow rate for V-notch can be calculated based on the equation below:

) ()

Where;

Thus, the discharge coefficient can be calculated;

) ()

6

APPARATUS

SOLTEQ Flow Over Weirs (Model: FM26)

Stopwatch

PROCEDURE

Start-up Procedure

1. The hydraulic bench was positioned so that its surface is horizontal (necessary because flow

over notch is driven by gravity).

2. The rectangular notch was mounted into the flow channel and the stilling baffle was

positioned.

3. In order to measure the datum height (with the height gauge) of the base of the notch, the

instrument carrier was positioned in the opposite way round.

4. Then, carefully the gauge was lowered until the point was just above the notch base and the

coarse adjustment screw was locked.

5. Then, by using the fine adjustment, the gauge was adjusted until the point just touched

the notch bottom and a reading would be taken.

6. The instrument carrier was mounted and it was approximately located half way between the

stilling baffle and the notch plate.

7. The bench control valve was opened and water was admitted to the channel. The valve was

adjusted to give approximately 10mm depth above the notch base.

7

Experimental Procedure

1. The general features of the flow were observed and recorded.

2. To take an accurate height reading, the fine adjustment was used to lower the gauge until the

point just touched its reflection in the surface.

3. The flow rate was ensured large enough to prevent the outflow from the notch clinging to the

notch plate; it was projected clear of the plate.

4. The volume flow rate was determined by measuring the time required to collect 3L volume in

the volumetric tank. Using the ball valve to close the tank outflow did this and then the volume

collected would be determined from the sight-glass

5. After determined the volume collected, the valve was opened again at the end of the

measurement.

6. This procedure was repeated by having opened the bench valve further to produce increase in

depth of approximately 10 mm at the level was checked in stable condition before taking

readings.

7. Readings with increasing flow rate were continued had been taken until the level reached the

top of the notch.

8. Before starting this test, there was sufficient water in the bench main tank checked to allow the

pump to operate without drawing in air at the maximum flow.

8. The rectangular notch plate was replaced with the Vee notch plate and procedure above was

repeated.

Shut-down Procedure

1. The water supply valve and venture discharge valve was closed.

2. The water supply pump was turned off.

3. Water from the unit was drained off.

8

RESULT

Rectangular Weir

Volume

(L)

Water

Heigh

t

(cm)

Time

(s)

Average

Time

(s)

Flow rate, Q

(

)

Discharge

coefficient,

1

st

2

nd

3

rd

3 1 29 33 27 29.67

1.1414

3 2 12 17 18 15.67

0.7641

3 3 6 6 9 7.00

0.9310

3 4 4 5 5 4.67

0.9064

3 5 3 4 4 3.67

0.8256

Triangular Weir

Volume

(L)

Water

Heigh

t

(cm)

Time

(s)

Average

Time

(s)

Flow rate, Q

(

)

Discharge

coefficient,

1

st

2

nd

3

rd

3 1 58 58 66 60.67

2.0932

3 2 18 18 19 18.33

1.2247

3 3 5 6 7 6.00

1.3577

3 4 3 4 5 4.00

0.9921

9

Graph for Rectangular Weir

H Cd

0.01 1.1414

0.02 0.7641

0.03 0.9310

0.04 0.9064

0.05 0.8256

0

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.01

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

F

l

o

w

r

a

t

e

,

Q

^

2

/

3

Depth of water, H

Q^(2/3) Vs H

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

D

i

s

c

h

a

r

g

e

C

o

e

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

t

,

C

d

Depth of water, H

Cd Vs H

Series 1

10

Graph for Triangular Weir

H Cd

0.01895 0.01 2.0932

0.03059 0.02 1.2247

0.04782 0.03 1.3577

0.05624 0.04 0.9921

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

F

l

o

w

r

a

t

e

,

Q

^

2

/

5

Depth of water, H

Q^2/5 Vs H

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04

D

i

s

c

h

a

r

g

e

c

o

e

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

t

,

C

d

Depth of water, H

Cd Vs H

11

CALCULATIONS

Rectangular Weir

1. To calculate the flow rate,

Using result for the 1

st

reading where;

Volume, L = 3L = 0.003

)

()

2. To calculate the discharge coefficient,

Using the flow rate for the 1

st

reading where;

Flow rate,

Discharge coefficient,

()

)

()

1.1414

12

Triangular Weir

1. To calculate the flow rate,

Using result for the 1

st

reading where;

Volume, L = 3L = 0.003

)

()

2. To calculate the discharge coefficient,

Using the flow rate for the 1

st

reading where;

Flow rate,

Discharge coefficient,

) ()

) ()

= 2.0932

13

DISCUSSION

Back to the purpose of conducting this experiment which is to observe the characteristics

over rectangular and triangular weir and to determine the discharge coefficient of the fluid flow,

the results achieved enable a conclusion to be made. The raw results that were obtained were

tabulated further in the forms of graphs to see a clearer relationship between the parameters of

this experiments which are the discharge coefficient and the depth of the water. The discharge

coefficient of each flow was calculated by using the equation given. Each weir has different

ways of calculating its discharge coefficient. The discharge coefficients equation was originally

derived from the equation of flow rate which is by dividing the actual volume flow rate and the

ideal volume flow rate.

Observing the result for both weirs based on the graph plotted for flow rate versus depth

of water, it shows that the flow rate of the fluid is proportional to the depth of water. Meanwhile,

for the graph of discharge coefficient over depth, it is observed that the discharge coefficient

decrease as the depth of the water increases. This is said to occur due to the resistance caused by

the surface water tension which obstruct the flow of the water approaching the weir. Thus,

affects the time taken to collect 3L of water and in return, affects the discharge coefficient

because both depend on the flow rate of the fluid.

Even though the experiment was successfully conducted, there were some flaws in the

value of the data obtained due to some errors created while doing the experiment. Firstly, while

taking the reading of the data, there was some confusion on where the zero marks were supposed

to be. It was only figured out after a few minutes of asking the previous group. Secondly, the

height of datum might not be very accurate as it is hard to determine whether the needle needs to

be on the surface of the water or above the surface of the water. As a result, it may cause a slight

inaccuracy in the reading obtained. Lastly, there might be some external errors while taking the

reading of the data. For example, vibration caused by the pump which causes the person trying to

read the reading from the gauge to hesitate while taking the readings.

14

CONCLUSION

As a conclusion for this experiment, it is concluded that the discharge coefficient for the

triangular weir is higher than rectangular weir. This is due to the shape of the weir itself and the

size of the space for the water to flow through the weir.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Make sure to check the apparatus before staring the experiment and always start by

carrying out the start-up procedure and finish by carrying out the shut-down procedures.

More type of weirs should be introduced in order to see more variations in terms of

shapes, discharge coefficient and depth of the water.

Ensure that the apparatus is not vibrating for it may contribute to the inaccuracy of the

results obtained.

Ensure the needle point is in zero positioning before setting the initial depth of the water.

When changing the weir, make sure the screw are tight to avoid any leakage while the

water flows.

REFRENCES

https://www.scribd.com/doc/37249588/Flow-Over-Weirs

https://www.scribd.com/doc/243828584/39520118-Flow-Over-Weirs

J.M Coulson, J.F Richardson, J.R Backhurst and J.H Harker, Chemical Engineering,

(2010), Elsevier.

SOLTEQ Flow Over Weirs Apparatus (Model: FM 26) Lab Manual

15

APPENDICES

## Molto più che documenti.

Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.

Annulla in qualsiasi momento.