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Question 1 (a) Give the meaning of the term health surveillance.

(2)

(b) Identify the types of checks that could be included in a health
surveillance programme. (6)

(c) Give the meaning of a short term exposure limit (STEL) AND a
long term exposure limit (LTEL). (6)

(d) Outline the limitations of exposure limits (ELs). (6)


Health surveillance is concerned with collecting and using information about a
workers health related to their work and systematically watching out for work related
ill-health in workers exposed to certain health risks. It could range from simple skin or
hearing checks to medical examinations involving a doctor and/or nurse. There were
not too many candidates who were able to give an adequate meaning of the term.

In answering part (b), candidates were expected to identify types of checks such as: a
health assessment by questionnaire; a clinical examination; diagnostic tests such as
by x-ray or scan; function measurements for example a lung function test; biological
tests as of the blood; skin checks for signs of rashes; eye and hearing tests; and self
checks once the symptoms have been explained. Despite the difficulty in answering
the first part of the question, most candidates were able to offer a number of the
checks that could be included in a health surveillance programme though only the
more able identified the full range.

For part (c), candidates should have considered that both the short term and long
term exposure limits are concerned with airborne concentrations of a substance over
a specified period of time and are expressed as a time weighted average. The short
term exposure limit (STEL) is usually averaged over a fifteen minute reference period,
and is aimed at avoiding acute effects from exposure to substances where there is
evidence that such an effect may be present. The long term exposure limit (LTEL) is
concerned with the total intake averaged over a reference period of eight hours and is
aimed at protecting against the known effects of long term exposure. Few candidates
had a good understanding of the exposure limits and some were obliged to repeat the
wording of the question in response for example, STEL is the short term exposure
limit and LTEL is the long term exposure limit.

The limitations of workplace exposure limits include the fact that they relate to
inhalation only and not to other routes of entry such as skin absorption and do not
therefore account for circumstances where both routes may be possible. Additionally,
they do not account for personal susceptibility since the majority of the work carried
out in their development has been carried out in the developed countries such as
Europe and the USA and is based mainly on the average male physiology. It has also
to be recognised that variations may exist in controlled conditions where local exhaust
ventilation may not always work consistently because of lack of maintenance and
excessive levels of contamination. Similarly lack of maintenance and misuse can lead
to inaccuracies in monitoring since measuring microscopic amounts of contamination
require very accurate and sensitive equipment. There are, also, synergistic effects
since the standards that are available relate to a single substance and often the
effects of exposure to multiple substances in the workplace need to be considered.
Finally some exposure limits are guidelines only and not requirements while others do
not assess all health effects of a particular substance.

4 EXTERNAL
Paper IGC2 March 2010
Control of international workplace hazards

Answers to this final part of the question were again very disappointing with some
candidates not even attempting to provide a response.



Question 2 (a) Identify THREE control measures to segregate pedestrians and
vehicles in the workplace. (3)

(b) Identify measures to reduce the risk to pedestrians when
segregation is not practicable. (5)


In answering part (a) of the question candidates could have identified control
measures such as the provision of separate walkways which are clearly marked; the
provision of barriers and fencing; site rules which are strictly enforced; the issue of
instructions to drivers; and the provision of instruction and training to pedestrians on
the precautions that must be observed.

For part (b), when segregation is not possible, measures to reduce the risk to
pedestrians include: the provision of designated safe crossing points and refuges;
fitting vehicles with audible or visual alarms for example to give warning of a reversing
operation; the use of a banksman to ensure safe vehicle movement in areas where
pedestrians are likely to be present; ensuring a good standard of visibility by the
provision of mirrors, transparent doors and CCTV; the introduction of a speed
restriction on vehicles; the use of trained and authorised drivers particularly for forklift
trucks; the provision and use of high visibility personal protective equipment; and the
provision of a good standard of lighting which avoids the possibility of glare.

The question was generally well answered though a few candidates got into
difficulties and repeated the answers they had given for part (a) for the second part.




Question 3 The construction industry has a high incidence of contact dermatitis.

(a) Identify FOUR substances used in construction that could cause
contact dermatitis. (4)

(b) Outline control measures that could be used to reduce the risk
of contact dermatitis. (4)


Substances in use in the construction industry that could cause contact dermatitis
include degreasers, descalers and detergents; epoxy resins and hardeners; sealants
such as acrylic silicone; bitumen, asphalt and tar; solvents used in connection with
paints, glues and other surface coatings; petrol, diesel, oil and greases; cement and
lime and insulation materials such as mineral wool. There were some reasonable
answers provided for this part of the question though some candidates tended to give
a list of products rather than substances.












5 EXTERNAL
In outlining control measures that could be used to reduce the risk of contact
dermatitis, candidates could have referred to the use of alternative substances where
this is possible; using gloves to protect skin on the hands and minimising contact with
the use of hand tools; providing washing facilities so that contaminants can be
removed from the skin as soon as possible; using barrier and moisturising creams;
providing information to workers on the hazards involved and the precautions to be
taken; encouraging them to report skin problems and arranging for supervisors to
undertake skin inspections. Answers were generally concerned only with the use of
gloves and barrier creams and the provision of training. Some candidates referred to
the hierarchy of control but then did not apply it to the scenario. A few seemed to have
little knowledge of contact dermatitis and suggested control measures more
appropriate to airborne contaminants such as the use of local exhaust or dilution
ventilation.



Question 4 (a) Identify the possible effects of electricity on the body. (4)

(b) Identify the emergency action to take if a person suffers a
severe electric shock. (4)


For part (a), most candidates were able to identify the effects of electricity on the
body. This included reference to the cardio-respiratory effects, in particular the risk of
fatal injury due to disruption to heart rhythm; muscular contraction resulting in an
involuntary grip on the live conductor, thus prolonging current flow through the body;
tissue burns with the main sites of damage being the entry and exit points with the
possibility of damage to internal organs and fractures or dislocations caused by a
resulting fall.

The second part of the question, which required candidates to outline the emergency
action necessary after someone receives an electric shock, was also well answered.
Depending on the circumstances, action may include isolation of the victim from the
supply (either by switching off or pushing him/her clear with a non-conductive
implement), summoning help, administering first aid such as cardio-pulmonary
resuscitation, treatment of burns and other injuries, placing the victim in the recovery
position and remaining with him/her until professional medical help arrives.

Answers to this question were to an acceptable standard with those provided for part
(b) better than those for part (a).



Question 5 Identify FOUR types of engineering control that may be used to reduce
noise in the workplace AND give a practical example of EACH. (8)


In answering this question, candidates were expected to identify types of engineering
control that might be used to reduce noise in the workplace such as changing the
process for example using screws instead of rivets or substituting a machine with a
diesel engine with one which was electrically driven; providing sound proof enclosures
such as a hood for a printer; controlling vibration by the use of resilient machinery
mounts and flexible pipes; damping by changing a material being used such as plastic
instead of glass; noise absorption by the use of acoustic absorbing ceiling baffles and
screens; using silencers to reduce sound energy emitted from exhaust pipes; and
introducing a programme of planned maintenance which would include lubrication of
moving parts of machinery.





6 EXTERNAL
This question was not well answered. Candidates seemed to have a poor
understanding of the term engineering control and the terminology used and
suggested controls such as the use of appropriate personal protective equipment and
safe systems of work. Examples that were given referred only to the use of barriers
and rubber mounts and the need for lubrication.



Question 6 (a) List FOUR specific types of injury that could be caused by the
incorrect manual handling of loads. (4)

(b) Identify factors in relation to the load that will affect the risk of
injury. (4)


In answering part (a), candidates could have chosen from a list of potential injuries
including spinal disc compression or prolapsed disc, strains to tendons or muscles,
hernia, dislocation or fracture of bones, cuts and abrasions and crushing or impact
injuries. Whilst most answers were to a good standard, a few candidates were not
sufficiently specific and identified injuries such as bad back or upper limb disorders for
which no marks could be awarded. There was the tendency to generalise and refer to
bad backs instead of listing specific types of injury as required.

Part (b) of the question explored candidates knowledge of the way the nature of a
load can present a risk of injury during manual handling activities. They should have
identified matters such as the size, weight and shape of the load, the possibility that
the contents might move or the load become unbalanced, the position of the centre of
gravity, difficulty in securing a firm grasp of the load, the presence of sharp edges and
the possibility that the contents of the load might be hazardous.

Some candidates did not read the question with sufficient care and provided answers
relating to the load, task, environment and the individual. Others confused task and
load and identified factors relevant to the former and not the latter.



Question 7 (a) Identify FOUR health effects of working outside in extreme heat
created by the sun. (4)

(b) Outline control measures that could be used to reduce the
effects of the sun on construction workers. (4)


Working out of doors in extreme heat caused by the sun may result in health effects
such as burns, damage to the eyes and skin cancer, dehydration and heat
exhaustion, heat stroke, sweat rash, prickly heat, headaches and fainting, and fatigue
and stress.

For part (b), control measures that could be used to reduce the effects of the sun on
workers include limiting the duration of exposure by job rotation ensuring periods of
work are alternated with periods of rest; avoiding work when temperatures are at their
highest; ensuring an adequate supply of drinking water; the use of appropriate
clothing for working in high temperatures and persuading workers to adopt a policy of
keeping their bodies covered; encouraging workers to maintain their salt levels;
working under canopies where this is possible; wearing hats and eye protection and
applying sun protection cream.

Answers provided for this question were generally to an acceptable standard.




7 EXTERNAL



Question 8 In a factory a conveyor system is used to transfer manufactured articles
to the warehouse area.

Identify the control measures to be taken to reduce the risk of injury to
workers from the conveyor. (8)


In answer to this question candidates should have referred to control measures such
as the provision of guarding for transmission machinery and the intakes of belts and
drums; the erection of barriers to keep workers away from the conveyor; the provision
of emergency stop buttons for the system conveniently situated and easily accessible;
ensuring operators are trained in the use of the conveyor system and the hazards
associated with its use such as the danger that could arise from overloading the
conveyor, wearing loose items of clothing or allowing long hair to hang loose; using a
signal to warn workers that the conveyer is about to be put into operation; ensuring
maintenance and servicing work is carried out only by authorised personnel and that
the power supply to the conveyer is disconnected or locked off before the start of the
work and encouraging workers to report unsafe practices to the supervisor.

Many candidates struggled with this question. Some appeared not to be familiar with
conveyer systems and could offer little more than a general reference to the provision
of guards. Only the better answers were able to envisage where the problems might
lie and to go on and suggest what control measures were necessary.



Question 9 (a) Identify the key components of the fire triangle. (3)

(b) Identify sources of ignition that may cause a fire to occur, AND
give a typical workplace example of EACH. (5)


Most candidates were able to identify that each side of the fire triangle represents one
of the three elements namely, fuel, oxygen and a source of ignition, heat or energy
that must be present for combustion to occur.

Possible sources of ignition that could have been identified included: electricity, such
as arcing or overheating due to faulty wiring, poor connections or excess current;
chemical reactions such as spontaneous combustion or exothermic reaction; hot work
such as welding or cutting; naked flame or smouldering material perhaps from
discarded smoking materials; friction caused by, for instance, inadequate lubrication
of machinery; and hot surfaces such as those on cooking or heating appliances.

There were some good answers too, for this part of the question. However, some
candidates identified a source of ignition or an example but not both while others
referred to methods of heat transfer rather than to sources of ignition.













8 EXTERNAL
9 EXTERNAL



Question 10 Outline the hazards and risks to which a worker could be exposed when
cutting down a tree using a petrol driven chainsaw. (8)


Candidates were able to identify a good range of hazards associated with the task
including contact with the moving parts or the hot exhaust system of the chainsaw;
exposure to fumes and dust; hazards arising from manual handling operations;
exposure to noise and vibration; falls from a height; handling lubricating oils which
might lead to dermatitis; flying particles such as tree bark and sawdust; uneven
ground or wet grass which could lead to slips and falls; falling objects such as
branches or the tree itself; contact with overhead services; hazards arising from
adverse weather conditions and stings or bites from insects or reptiles. A few
candidates forgot that the chain saw was petrol driven and referred to the possibility of
electrocution.



Question 11 (a) Identify TWO types of asbestos to which workers in the
construction industry may be exposed. (2)

(b) Give examples of where workers might find asbestos while
undertaking maintenance or refurbishment work on a building. (6)


In answer to part (a) of the question, candidates could have identified types of
asbestos such as crocidolite or blue asbestos, chrysotile or white asbestos and
amosite or brown asbestos. Not too many candidates were able to identify the
required two types of asbestos with some quoting cement or insulation.

For part (b), examples of where asbestos was likely to be encountered during
renovation work on a building would have referred to pipe lagging; asbestos cement
products such as roofing sheets; loose asbestos packing used as fire breaks in ceiling
voids; sprayed asbestos coatings on steel members to provide an element of fire
resistance; asbestos wool used as loft or wall insulation; asbestos rope; certain
textured coatings or decorative plasters; and gaskets on boilers and cookers.

Answers to this part of the question were disappointing. Many tended to refer to
locations such as roof or ceilings without specifying the type of material that might
be found there or what form the asbestos might take.


4 EXTERNAL






Question 1 (a) The team leader in a warehouse is giving training to his team
about manual handling.

Identify SIX factors in relation to the load which he could include
in his talk AND, for EACH, give a practical example that could
be present in the warehouse. (12)

(b) The manager of the warehouse has recognised that the
environmental conditions are contributing to risks from the
manual handling of loads and has decided to make
improvements.

Identify FOUR environmental conditions that the manager could
consider AND identify risk control measures which he could
introduce. (8)


Factors relating to the load which could be included in the team leaders talk include
its weight which might be too heavy for one individual to lift and carry; its bulk which
could be a large box or a number of items tied together; the temperature of the load
especially in relation to cold storage items such as frozen food; the difficulty in
gripping the load for example if it was a parcel wrapped in plastic or if no handles
were provided on a bulky package; a centre of gravity which might be off-set such as
the presence of a live animal in the load; a shifting centre of gravity which could occur
with sacks of granules or powders; loads containing hazardous contents such as
chemicals, toxic solids, and acids in bottles; and loads with sharp cutting edges such
as needles, glass and metal bands. Candidates did not seem to realise that it was
concerned solely with factors relating to the load with some basing their answers on
TILE (task, individual, load, environment) and discussing each of its components in
turn. Those who had not read the question with sufficient care or perhaps did not
appreciate what was required, described a safe method of lifting a load which was not
what was required.

For part (b), candidates were expected to identify environmental conditions such as
heat, which could be controlled by the provision of ventilation or air conditioning and
arranging for the work to be carried out during the cooler periods of the day; cold,
which might be alleviated by the provision of heating and warm clothing and gloves;
noise, which could be controlled by the provision of acoustic barriers or the wearing of
personal protective clothing such as ear defenders or ear plugs; uneven slippery
surfaces which could be dealt with by weather proofing the building, the use of
absorbent mats and the introduction of procedures for dealing with spillages;
inadequate lighting suggesting the introduction of additional artificial lighting; and lack
of space which would point to the need to re-organise the warehouse to provide
additional clear areas. The quality of response provided for this part of the question
was again poor. Conditions such as rough seas, earthquakes and the weather in
general were suggested ignoring the fact that the scenario involved was a warehouse.
Examiners were concerned at the apparent lack of attention given by candidates to
the wording of the question.







Paper IGC2 September 2011
Control of international workplace hazards


5 EXTERNAL

Question 2 Identify FOUR types of ignition source that may lead to a fire in the
workplace AND identify a control measure for EACH. (8)


Possible sources of ignition that could have been identified included: electricity, where
control measures that could be introduced include inspection, testing, regular
maintenance, earthing, bonding and the fitting of the correct fuses into equipment;
chemical sources which can be countered by correct storage procedures and a good
standard of housekeeping; hot work such as welding or cutting where control
measures include the use of a permit to work system, separation of the work and the
provision of a fire watch; overheating of machinery caused by friction which may be
controlled by regular maintenance and lubrication; hot surfaces such as those on
cooking or heating appliances where separation would be necessary between the
equipment and its fuel source and discarded smoking materials which can be
controlled by introducing a smoking ban in the workplace and providing a separate
smoking area.

With many candidates, the quality of answer provided was just sufficient to obtain a
pass standard but others were only able to offer sources of ignition such as hot work
and smoking. A number of candidates again appeared to have misread the question
and discussed types of fuel rather than ignition sources. There were the occasional
references to convection, conduction and radiation, to fire spread and the use of
extinguishers and to the classification of fires, none of which were relevant and worthy
of marks.

_________________________________________________________________________________
_

Question 3 Outline control measures that could be used to reduce the risk from the
use of electrical equipment in a workplace. (8)


Answers could have included reference to control measures such as visual
inspections for damage to cables, plugs and sockets; the need to ensure that all
fuses are of the correct rating; the use of double insulated or battery operated
equipment, or equipment connected to a reduced voltage system or a residual current
device; ensuring that means of isolation are provided and that equipment is switched
off after use; checking that equipment is sited such that outlets are not overloaded,
cables are not in vulnerable positions and extension cables are fully uncoiled;
checking the equipment to ensure its suitability and conformity with recognised
standards, for example CE or BS marking; and introducing a specific testing
procedure for portable appliances together with a procedure for reporting defects or
damage.

Answers to this question were generally to a reasonable standard, though some
candidates wrote about the hazards arising from the use of electrical equipment.
Examiners again strongly recommend that the attention of candidates should be
drawn to the General Comments at the beginning of this Report and particularly to the
section on Common Pitfalls.


6 EXTERNAL


Question 4 (a) Identify TWO possible health effects caused by exposure to
asbestos. (2)

(b) Identify THREE types of product that contain asbestos AND, for
EACH, give an example of where these can be found in the
workplace. (6)


In answer to part (a) of the question, candidates could have identified health effects
such as asbestosis; lung cancer; mesothelioma or cancer of the lining of the chest
and/or abdomen; and cancer of the stomach, intestines or rectum. Answers to this
part of the question were to a reasonable standard though some candidates lost
marks by identifying cancer without giving any further indication of its potential
location.

For part (b), candidates could have identified products such as building materials for
example cement sheets, drainpipes, gutters and roof tiles; thermal insulation such as
sprayed coatings and laggings; plastics such as asbestos floor tiles; friction products
such as gaskets and brake pads; adhesives and sealants such as putty, resins, tile
adhesives and mastic; decorative products such as textured coatings or decorative
plasters; and mill board or asbestos rope used for fire proofing.

Answers to this part of the question were disappointing, and although many
candidates mentioned the three types of asbestos with others producing a list of
building materials, the majority were unable to proceed further and Examiners were
left with the impression that they were not well briefed on the subject of asbestos.



Question 5 Outline precautions to be taken when repair work is to be carried out on
the sloping roof of a building. (8)


Initially an assessment should be made to gauge the condition of the roof and to
check for the presence of fragile materials. It would then be necessary to provide safe
means of access, normally by the erection of a scaffold; to use roof ladders or
crawling boards; to erect edge protection with guard rails and toe boards to prevent
the fall of persons and materials and either to provide barriers and signage around
areas on the roof containing fragile materials or to cover them to prevent persons
falling through. Other precautions would include provision for transporting tools and
materials to the roof and the removal of waste; the use of appropriate personal
protective equipment such as hard hats and footwear; the employment of competent
personnel together with a high level of supervision; and the erection of signs and/or
barriers to prevent members of the public from passing beneath the work area.

In general, answers to this question were to a reasonable standard. If there was a
weakness it was that some candidates provided a list of precautions rather than the
required outline alluding, for example, to the prevention of falls without specifying how
this might be achieved.











7 EXTERNAL



Question 6 Identify the main hazards associated with excavation work on
construction sites. (8)


In answer to this question, candidates were expected to identify the main hazards
associated with excavation work such as the unstable nature of the sides of the
excavation; contact with buried services such as electricity or gas; ingress of water;
build-up of fumes and lack of oxygen; the dangers associated with excavation
machinery such as contact with overhead lines or being struck by the machines; the
effect of the excavation work on adjacent structures causing them to collapse; the
failure to provide protection for the edges of excavations; the restrictions on access
and egress; biological hazards such as leptospirosis; coming into contact with
contaminated land and even the possible presence of an unexploded bomb.

While answers to this question were generally satisfactory, a few candidates
discussed control measures rather than hazards, perhaps a further example of paying
insufficient attention to the wording. There was too, a suggestion that some were
confused between a hazard and a risk, suggesting the hazard of people or vehicles
falling into the excavation which is the risk which could arise from the hazard of the
absence of edge protection for the excavation.



Question 7 A display screen equipment (DSE) workstation user has complained of
neck and back pain.

Identify features associated with the workstation that might have
contributed towards this condition. (8)


Features associated with the workstation which might have contributed towards the
users condition include the position of the screen at an incorrect height which would
cause repeated head movements; the incorrect position of the keyboard; the incorrect
height of the chair because of a lack of adjustability and the incorrect adjustment of
the backrest; the monitor set at too great an angle for the keyboard which would again
force movement of the head; glare and reflections on the screen which would drive
the user to adopt awkward postures; the pointing device such as the mouse in a non-
optimal position; the lack of or the incorrect siting of the document holder; the location
of the workstation as far as lighting and draughts were concerned; and materials
stored round the workstation which would restrict space and affect the users posture.

It was to be expected that most candidates would have used a DSE workstation on
occasions and so a logical approach, dealing with each item of the workstation in turn
should have provided enough information to answer the question. However many
concentrated only on the chair whilst others referred to long working hours without
breaks, lack of sleep and a failure to provide training, features which were not directly
associated with the workstation.



8 EXTERNAL


Question 8 Outline issues that should be considered by an organisation when
developing a system for the safe collection and disposal of its waste. (8)

____________________________________________________________________
_

In answering this question, candidates were expected to outline issues such as: the
identification of waste by its hazardous properties for example general, biological or
special and by its nature, for example solid or liquid; the quantity produced and the
frequency of removal; the need for separation of incompatible and recyclable wastes;
the means for containing waste such as sharps boxes and bags and its marking and
labelling; the provision of safe storage on site and the methods of transportation to
and from the storage facility; the means for processing waste such as by crushing,
compacting or incinerating; the appointment of a competent and/or licensed waste
contractor; the keeping of necessary records; the possibility of pollution issues arising
from spillages; the competence and training of staff and the issue and use of suitable
personal protective equipment such as overalls and gloves.

Most candidates struggled with this question which proved to be the least popular on
the paper and which was avoided by many. Those who did attempt it generally
showed little knowledge of the safe collection and disposal of waste and were able to
refer only to the different types of waste, storage on site and fire issues.



Question 9 Outline factors to consider when carrying out a fire risk assessment of a
workplace. (8)


A good answer to this question would initially have referred to the statutory
requirements and then gone on to identify structural, physical and procedural factors
in turn.

In the first case the fire resistance of the structure would need to be confirmed and
consideration given to the fire protection and prevention measures taken, the escape
routes and exits bearing in mind the travel distances involved and also to the provision
of emergency lighting.

As for physical factors, these would include matters such as the identification of
possible ignition sources; the quantities of flammable and combustible materials used
or stored in the workplace; and the size of the building and number of people to be
evacuated including particular groups at risk such as the disabled and visitors.

In identifying procedural factors, candidates could have referred to the means of
raising the alarm and the positioning and audibility of the alarms provided; the means
of making contact with the emergency services; the adequacy and positioning of fire
fighting equipment and its accessibility; the procedures for the maintenance of
equipment, alarms and detection systems; the adequacy of emergency signs; the
positioning of a fire assembly point; and the training of personnel in evacuation
procedures including those with special responsibilities such as fire marshals.

On the whole, this question was well answered though a small number of candidates
restricted their answers to escape routes only and did not consider other issues such
flammables, ignition sources and procedures that should be put in place.






9 EXTERNAL




Question 10 A portable electric sander is being used in the production area of a
factory.

(a) Identify hazards that may be present. (4)

(b) Outline precautions that could be taken to reduce the risk. (4)


Hazards associated with the use of the sander include entanglement with the rotating
and abrasive parts of the machine; being struck by ejected material; those arising
from the use of electricity; exposure to dust, noise and vibration; and ergonomic
issues related either to the design of the equipment or to the way in which the work is
carried out. This part of the question seemed to present few problems though some
candidates did not identify the potential ergonomic hazards.

For part (b), control measures that should be taken to reduce the risks include the
introduction of procedures for the regular mechanical and electrical testing of the
equipment; ensuring that a fuse of the correct rating is fitted to the sander and that it
is connected either to a residual current device or to a reduced voltage system whilst
in use; the necessity to carry out pre-use checks of the equipment; the provision and
use of personal protective equipment such as eye and hearing protection; ensuring
that operators do not wear items of loose clothing which might become entangled in
the machine; the installation of local exhaust ventilation; introducing job rotation and
ensuring that operators are trained to use the appliance in a way that will minimise the
risk of fatigue and discomfort.

Answers were again to a reasonable standard though there was only the occasional
reference to the clothing that operators should wear and to organisational precautions
that should be taken to counter the possible environmental risks.



Question 11 (a) Identify FOUR hazards that can cause slips or trips. (4)

(b) Identify control measures that can be used to reduce the risk of
slips or trips. (4)


There are many reasons why people slip or trip including the floor being poorly
maintained or conversely highly polished; changes in level caused by ramps, slopes
or kerbs; slippery surfaces caused by oil, water or chemical spillages; dusty surfaces
such as those with a covering of sand; general obstructions in walkways such as
trailing cables, pipes and air hoses; mats and rugs; damaged flooring such as torn
carpets and linoleum; the presence of ice and snow and the wearing of inappropriate
footwear. Answers to this part of the question were generally to an acceptable
standard.

Control measures that might be used to reduce the risk of slips or trips include the
initial design and layout of the workplace with designated walkways and non-slip
floors; a system of maintenance which ensures the prompt repair of floor defects such
as holes and bumps; procedures for avoiding and dealing with spillages; the
provision of adequate lighting and highlight strips to warn of a difference in levels; the
provision of hand rails and edge protection on stairways; the replacement of damaged
or worn carpet, linoleum and tiles; a good standard of housekeeping including the
proper management of cables and hoses; procedures for reporting defects and the
wearing of appropriate footwear. Answers normally referred to many of the above
control measures though candidates should avoid using phrases such as proper

10 EXTERNAL
lighting and proper housekeeping which have little meaning and are not worthy of a
mark.

5 EXTERNAL






Question 1 A factory producing furniture uses wood in the manufacturing process
and is concerned about the health risks of wood dust.

(a) Identify operations which are likely to produce high levels of
wood dust in the workplace. (4)

(b) Identify health risks which could be associated with the wood
dust. (4)

(c) Outline control measures which could reduce the risk from the
wood dust. (12)


In the scenario described, operations which are likely to produce high levels of wood
dust include sawing, routing, sanding, planing, turning, cleaning items or areas with
compressed air lines and emptying dust extraction systems. There were not too many
references made either to sawing or sanding or to cleaning with air lines whilst a few
candidates suggested grinding which is not normally an operation practised on wood.

In part (b) candidates tended to refer to general respiratory problems rather than to
specific health risks. A few seemed unfamiliar with the health risks associated with
wood and referred to silicosis and asbestosis.

For part (c), candidates might initially have suggested measures such as the
enclosure and/or segregation of the dust generation operations from other areas of
production or, if this was not possible, the use of engineering controls such as the
provision of local exhaust ventilation which would need to be regularly inspected and
maintained.. A further measure would involve the provision and use of respiratory
protective equipment and other personal protective equipment such as eye protection,
overalls and gloves. Additionally, a good standard of housekeeping including the use
of high efficiency vacuum cleaning equipment with HEPA filters would have to be
maintained, while cleaning with compressed air lines and hand brushes would have to
be prohibited. Washing facilities, separate storage for and laundering of work clothing
would have to be provided while workers themselves would need to practise a high
standard of personal hygiene by changing overalls and washing hands before eating
or drinking.

The most common answers provided relied on the provision of personal protective
equipment and local exhaust ventilation but little more. A few did suggest damping
down which was not particularly practicable for the processes involved whilst others
relied on the usual provision of information and training which are not primarily hazard
control measures.

Paper IGC2 March 2012
Control of international workplace hazards


6 EXTERNAL


Question 2 (a) Identify hazards associated with the use of a cement mixer. (4)

(b) Outline control measures that can be used to reduce the risks of
injury to operators of a cement mixer. (4)


In answering this question, Examiners expected candidates to refer to hazards such
as manual handling; the corrosive and irritant properties of cement; inhalation of
cement dust; machinery hazards such as moving parts, ejection of materials and
noise; hazards associated with the power supply to the mixer whether electricity or
petrol; and being struck by moving vehicles.

Control measures that might be used to reduce the risks include mechanical handling,
or, if this was not possible, positioning the materials to be used close to the mixer and
in a position that would reduce the amount of twisting on the part of the operator;
setting the mixer up on level ground and ensuring guards are in place and the engine
cover closed to provide protection against moving parts; providing hearing protection
to counter the noise; if the mixer was powered by electricity, a system of regular
inspection and testing of the equipment and the use of residual current devices to
minimise the risk of shock should be in place while if petrol was the fuel, storage
facilities for the fuel would be necessary together with the prohibition of use of the
mixer in confined areas; and the introduction of a traffic management system to
prevent the possibility of contact with vehicles.

There were some good answers provided for this question but there were some
candidates who were not prepared for this syllabus area and only outlined risk
assessment and the hierarchy of controls as measures that should be taken.



Question 3 (a) Identify the key components of the fire triangle. (3)

(b) Identify sources of ignition that may cause a fire to occur, AND
give a typical workplace example of EACH. (5)


Most candidates were able to identify that each side of the fire triangle represents one
of the three elements that must be present for combustion to occur.

Possible sources of ignition that could have been identified included: electricity, such
as arcing or overheating due to faulty wiring; chemical reactions such as spontaneous
combustion or exothermic reaction; friction caused, for instance, by inadequate
lubrication of machinery; and hot surfaces such as those on cooking or heating
appliances.

Answers to this part of the question were not to the same standard. Hot work was a
popular answer and in some cases the only source of ignition quoted whilst others
identified a number of different electrical faults which could only be awarded one
mark. Many candidates did not give the required examples.

7 EXTERNAL


Question 4 The manager of a large taxi company is concerned that his drivers are
suffering from stress.

(a) Identify behaviours that could indicate high stress levels. (4)

(b) Identify work-related factors that could be causing stress. (4)


In answer to part (a), candidate were expected to identify behaviours such as
increases in sickness absence and staff turnover; poor levels of performance and
behaviour leading to customer complaints; and intra-group disputes. This part of the
question was poorly answered with few showing an appreciation of the types of
behaviour which could indicate that a person was suffering from stress. Some
provided factors that might cause stress leaving them with nothing to add in answer to
the second part of the question.

Work related factors that might be causing stress include long hours and lack of
breaks particularly in those cases where taxi driving was in fact a second job; traffic
conditions together with the strain of driving in adverse weather; role isolation;
unpredictable demands and the ever present threat of violence from customers; and
the design of the seating in the taxi resulting in having to drive for long periods in an
uncomfortable position. There was an improvement in the answers to this part of the
question although some candidates did not tailor their responses to the scenario
given whilst others identified factors which tended to be personal rather than work-
related.



Question 5 Describe FOUR types of guard used on machinery AND, in EACH case,
identify a workplace application. (8)


Candidates could initially have referred to a fixed guard, describing it as a physical
barrier which was not linked to the machine operation and required a special tool for
its removal. This kind of guard is often used on belt and pulley drives to machines.
They could then have gone on to cite the interlocked guard, which is linked to the
machine operation and prevents access when the machine is in a dangerous
condition while also preventing operation of the machine until the guard is in position.
An appropriate application of this type of guard would be on the door of a washing
machine. A third category of guard, the trip device, stops movement of the machine
when approach is detected and is often found as a means of protection on drilling
machines whilst finally, an automatic guard such as a push away guard on a guillotine,
is linked to the machine mechanism and physically moves the operator away from the
danger zone.

There were some disappointing answers provided for this question with many
candidates having difficulty in describing the different types of guard. Some did
describe a guard correctly but then were unable to give an example of where it might
be used in the workplace. Others did not pay sufficient attention to the wording of the
question and identified rather than described the types of guard.


8 EXTERNAL


Question 6 Outline precautions to reduce the risk of fires being caused by electricity
in the workplace. (8)


Precautions to reduce the risk of electrical fires in the workplace include the initial
procurement of equipment to a national or international standard; carrying out periodic
testing of the fixed installation and of portable appliances and carrying out regular
inspections to check for damaged insulation and cables and defective wiring.

Many candidates seemed unaware of electrical faults that might cause fires and as a
consequence were unable to outline the precautions that should be taken. Some
wrote on the subject of electrical safety in general and while they suggested sensible
precautions they were unrelated to the risk of fire. Others outlined general workplace
fire precautions without specifying those which might prevent electrical fires.



Question 7 Identify possible causes of a mobile crane overturning on a construction
site. (8)


This question assessed candidates knowledge of causes a mobile crane on a
construction site might overturn. Candidates should have identified causes such as
the failure to set the crane on a level footing, siting it on poor and unconsolidated
ground and failing either to deploy outriggers or to distribute the weight of the crane
by providing adequate timber beneath the outriggers.

This question produced some reasonable answers although some candidates tended
to concentrate too much on machine examination and certification and operator
competence.




Question 8 Identify factors that could contribute towards the development of work-
related upper limb disorders (WRULDs) affecting supermarket checkout
workers. (8)

In answering this question, candidates were expected to identify factors such as
space constraints resulting in workers being forced to adopt fixed and static positions;
over reaching often during the handling of bulky and heavy articles; environmental
conditions such as temperature and humidity; the age of the workers with some
having pre-existing conditions and a lack of appropriate training and supervision.

The question did not seem to pose too many problems with most candidates
identifying a wide range of factors although the use of scanning equipment received
few mentions. Some widened the scope of the question and referred to general
supermarket workers such as those stacking shelves whilst a few introduced factors
that might result in leg disorders despite the reference in the question to those
affecting the upper limbs.


9 EXTERNAL


Question 9 Repair work is taking place on the roof of a two-storey building.

Outline precautions that could minimise the risk to workers below from
being injured by falling materials or tools. (8)


In answering this question candidates should have outlined precautions such as
providing safe means of access to and edge protection for the roof and if scaffolding
was to be used enclosing it where possible for example by the use of nets; covering
any openings in the roof; wherever possible excluding workers at ground level from
areas directly beneath the work being carried out on the roof and ensuring they were
provided with and were wearing head protection at all times.

The question was concerned with the precautions that should be taken to minimise
the risk to workers below but some candidates broadened their answers to include
information on how the roof work itself should be carried out including the precautions
to be taken to reduce the risk of falls from a height.



Question 10 (a) Identify possible effects of electricity on the body. (4)

(b) Identify emergency action to take if a person suffers a severe
electric shock. (4)


For part (a), candidates should have identified effects such as respiratory failure;
cardiac arrest; tissue burns with the main sites of damage being the entry and exit
points with the possibility of damage to internal organs and fractures or dislocations
caused by a resulting fall. Answers to this part of the question were disappointing.
Many generic answers referring to heart problems or breathing difficulties were
offered which did not result in the award of marks whilst a few could refer only to
electric shock.

The second part of the question required candidates to identify emergency actions
necessary after someone has received an electric shock. Candidates generally
provided better answers to this part although only a few referred to the need to place
the victim in the recovery position.



Question 11 Identify control measures to reduce slip and trip hazards in an
engineering workshop. (8)


Control measures which should have been identified included the initial design and
layout of the workplace with storage and disposal facilities, designated walkways and
non-slip floors; a system of maintenance which ensures the prompt repair of floor
defects such as holes and bumps; procedures for avoiding and dealing with spillages
particularly those associated with the filling and draining of machinery and its
maintenance; the provision of adequate lighting and highlight strips to warn of a
difference in levels; the provision of hand rails and edge protection on stairways; a
good standard of housekeeping including the proper management of cables and
hoses; erecting warning signs where necessary; the introduction of procedures for
reporting defects and incidents and ensuring that workers use footwear which is to an
adequate standard.

Few candidates identified sufficient control measures to gain the eight marks
available.