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1.

_____ is the application of the scientific method in searching for the truth about business
phenomena.

A. Induction
B. Application research
C. Business research
D. Science

2. Which type of research tries to verify a theory or to learn more about a concept and is not
intended to solve a particular business problem?

A. Performance-monitoring research.
B. Basic research.
C. Total quality management.
D. The scientific method.

3. Employees dressed professionally will generate greater sales than those dressed
casually is an example of a ___________.

A. theory
B. proposition
C. hypothesis
D. variation

4. All of the following are types of variables EXCEPT:
A. Continuous.
B. Categorical.
C. Constant.
D. Dependent.

5. In the statement: "Years of sales experience is an important variable in predicting unit
sales performance," what type of variable is "years of experience"?

A. Dependent variable.
B. Independent variable.
C. Categorical variable.
D. Classificatory variable.

6. A statement such as: "If we increase price ten percent, sales will likely drop five percent
or more," is an example of a _______.

A. hypothesis
B. dependent variable
C. problem definition
D. research objective

7. A survey can collect information using which of the following techniques?
A. Telephone.
B. Face-to-face interviews.
C. Mail.
D. All of the above.

8. Systematic errors are also called __________.
A. random sampling error
B. interviewer error
C. nonresponse error
D. non-sampling errors

9. En. Ali received a phone call asking him to participate in a survey. He told the interviewer
that he was too busy and could not participate. This is an example of _____.
A. random sampling error
B. administrative error
C. non-response error
D. interviewer error

10. When an interviewer asks the respondent to state which of six salary categories
represents his gross income the previous year, this is an example of a(n) _______.
A. unstructured question
B. social desirability question
C. structured question
D. disguised question

11. Revathi is participating in a research study in which she completes a questionnaire every
year. She has been doing this for the past five years, and the purpose of the research is to
study how consumers attitudes and preferences toward various food products change as
they age. This type of study in which respondents are questioned at multiple points in time
is called a _______.
A. cross-sectional study
B. longitudinal study
C. permanent study
D. structured study

12. For the following question, please categorize the type of measurement scale.

Please state your age: _______ years old.
A. Nominal scale.
B. Ordinal scale.
C. Interval scale.
D. Ratio scale.

13. For the following question, please categorize the type of measurement scale.

Please rank the university of your preference accordingly.
UUM ______
USM _______
UKM ______
UTM ______

A. Nominal scale.
B. Ordinal scale.
C. Interval scale.
D. Ration scale.

14. For the following question, please categorize the type of measurement scale.

Please state your highest academic qualification.
SPM ______
STPM ______
Degree ______
Master ______
PhD _______

A. Nominal scale.
B. Ordinal scale.
C. Interval scale.
D. Ration scale.

15. For the following question, please categorize the type of measurement scale.

Reward is very important to Job Satisfaction
(1 Strongly Disagree 2 Disagree 3 Neutral 4 Agree 5 Strongly Agree)

A. Nominal scale.
B. Ordinal scale.
C. Interval scale.
D. Ration scale.

16. In _____ we start with a general theory and than apply this theory to a specific case.
A. deductive reasoning
B. inductive reasoning
C. latent reasoning
D. abstract reasoning

17. A ______________ is one that surfaces between the time the independent variables
start operating to influence the dependent variable and the time their impact is felt on it.
A. mediating variable
B. extraneous variable
C. moderating variable
D. confounding variable

18. Which of the following does not include the process of building a theoretical framework?
A. Definitions of the concepts or variables in the model.
B. An operationalization of the concepts or variables in the model.
C. A logical explanation of the relationships within a model.
D. A graphical representation of the mode.

19. The ________________ is the variable of primary interest to the researcher.
A. independent variable
B. intervening variable
C. moderating variable
D. dependent variable

20. The opposite of the null hypothesis is called the _____ hypothesis.
A. pure
B. alpha
C. alternative
D. secondary

21. The error caused by rejecting the null hypothesis when it is, in fact, true is called a ____.
A. Type II error
B. confidence level error
C. confidence interval error
D. Type I error

22. Confidence, as a characteristic of scientific investigation, refers to ______.
A. the probability that our estimations are correct
B. the idea that a simple model that explains a certain phenomenon has preference over a
complex model.
C. the fact that findings are generalizable
D. he fact that an investigation has a clear theoretical foundation

23. Scientific investigation is characterized by a good theoretical base and a sound
methodological design. These characteristics are both related to the _______ of the
investigation.
A. rigor
B. precision and confidence
C. objectivity
D. parsimony

24. The conclusion drawn through the interpretation of the results of data analysis should be
based on the fact of the findings derived from the actual data and not on emotional values.
This is known as _____.
A. rigor
B. precision and confidence
C. objectivity
D. generalizability

25. Parsimony refers to:
A. The probability that our estimations are correct.
B. The idea that a simple model explaining a certain phenomenon is preferred to a complex
model.
C. The fact that findings are generalizable.
D. The fact that an investigation has a clear theoretical base.

26. Students with a high need for academic achievement will be highly motivated to study.
When they get motivated, they will perform better in their academic achievement. However,
their motivation will not result in high academic achievement if they do not gave a high
commitment in their study.

What is the dependent variable in the above situation?
A. Motivation.
B. Commitment to study.
C. Academic achievement.
D. None of the above.

Question 27 29 are based on the following statement.

A manager finds that off-the-job classroom training has a great impact on the productivity of
the employees in her department. However, she also observes that employees over 60
years of age do not seem to drive much benefit and do not improve with such training.

27. What is the independent variable in the above situation?
A. Off-the-job classroom training.
B. Age.
C. Productivity.
D. Employees.

28. What is the moderating variable in the above situation?
A. Off-the-job classroom training.
B. Age.
C. Productivity.
D. Employees.

29. What is the dependent variable in the above situation?
A. Off-the-job classroom training.
B. Age.
C. Productivity.
D. Employees.

30. __________ refers to the entire group of people, events, or things of interest that the
researcher wishes to investigate.
A. Population
B. Sampling frame
C. Sample
D. Sampling unit

31. The most important disadvantage of a convenience sample is that ____.
A. it takes a lot of time and effort to find respondents
B. the research results cannot be generalized to the population
C. systematic biases are possible
D. it is relatively expensive

32. A single element or group of elements that is eligible for selection via the sampling
process is called a ______.
A. sampling panel
B. sampling unit
C. sampling error
D. sampling quota

33. In which type of sampling does every element in the population have a known, nonzero
probability of selection?
A. Absolute sampling.
B. Relative sampling.
C. Nonprobability sampling.
D. Probability sampling.

34. The medical inspector desires to estimate the overall average monthly occupancy rates
of the cancer wards in 80 different hospitals which are evenly located in the Northwestern,
Southeastern, Central, and Southern suburbs of New York City. What would be the most
appropriate sampling design?
A. Convenience sampling.
B. Simple random sampling.
C. Snowball sampling.
D. Judgment sampling.

35. What type of research is being conducted to answer the question: "What is the average
age of our employees?"

A. Exploratory research.
B. Focus group research.
C. Descriptive research.
D. Causal research.

36. Which of the following is most suitable when there is little to no insight in a certain
problem or when there is no information available on how similar problems or research
issues have been solved in the past?
A. Exploratory research.
B. Descriptive research.
C. Causal research.
D. Experimental research.

37. Operationalizing is _________________.
A. designing questionnaires
B. translating a problem definition into a research question
C. making an abstract concept measurable
D. defining difficult concepts in the research proposal

38. With which allows us to calculate a mode and a median, but NOT a mean?
A. A nominal scale.
B. An ordinal scale.
C. An interval scale.
D. A ratio scale.

39. Raihana stands on a pair of scales three times in a row. The first time she weighs 55
kilo, the second time 55 kilo, and the third time 55 kilo. Her real weight is 40 kilo. What is the
matter with the scales?
A. The pair of scales is not reliable and not valid.
B. The pair of scales is reliable but is not valid.
C. The pair of scales is not reliable but is valid.
D. The pair of scales is reliable and valid.

40. About a scale (set of questions) it can be said that it is _____if it measures what it
purports to measure.
A. reliable
B. accurate
C. valid
D. consistent