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Aktion T4

This was an euthanasia program during WWI, which physicians would murder thousands
of people who were judged incurably sick, by critical medical examination. Hitler generaly
granted mercy death on the considered incurable patients.
Albert Speer
He was a German architect, but then became the Minister of Armaments and War
Production for Nazi Germany. He was also appointed by Hitler to improve Germanys
economy during WWII.
Anglo-German Naval Agreement
This is an agreement between Britain and Germany regulating the size of the Germanys
marine in relation to Britains Navy. Germany is allowed to have a their marines to be 35%
of the total of Britains navy. The UK signed this treaty because they think that Hitler has
been cheating his way through the Versailles Treaty and its a good idea to limit their
military strength. France was terrified of his movement because this only limits Germanys
navy strength, not their army power.
The German word for annexation. Hitler wanted to reunited Austria and Germany as one
country. He has been attempting to do this since as early as 1918 when the Republic of
German-Austria attempted union with Germany but was forbidden by the Treaty of
Versailles peace treaty.
Ardennes Offensive
This was a major German offensive campaign launched through the forested Ardennes
region of Belgium and France on the Western Front. The surprise attack caught the allied
forces completely off guard.
This was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi
Germany in Polish areas occupied by Germany during WWII. It was first constructed to
hold Polish prisoners, it then become a major site of the Nazis Final Solution to the Jewish
question. Transport trains would deliver Jews to the camps gas chambers from all over
German-occupied Europe, where they were killed with the pesticide Zyklon B. Those who
were not killed in the gas chambers died of starvation, forced labor and diseases.
Battle of Britain
This is and air battle by the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) against the United Kingdom
during WWII. This was the first major campaign to be fought entirely by air forces, (Royal
Air Force and Luftwaffe). Germanys target was to attack main shipping centers, but they
shifted their attacks to Royal Air Force airfields. The Luftwaffe also targeted aircraft
factories, and eventually they attacked political areas with bombing strategy. (The Blitz)
In the end, Germany failed to destroy Britains air force.
1) They were fighting in Britain territory. Fuel can be refilled quickly, troops can be gained
2) Even though Germany has a larger air force, UK had better planes. (The Spitfire)
3) The German leader of the offensive, Gring wasnt organized. Kept changing target.
This was considered its first major defeat for Germany.
This is a method of warfare which is an attacking force spearheaded by a dense
concentration of armored and motorized formations, and heavily backed up by close air
support. This forces a breakthrough into enemys line of defense through a series of short,
fast and powerful attacks. Once in the enemys territory, they would proceed to dislocate
them using speed and surprise, and then encircle them. This attempts would unbalance
the enemy by making it difficult for them to respond effectively. This was introduced by
Germanys military general: Guderian.
Campaign Against the Churches
After launching The German Christian Movement. This movement was not popular among
the people and it was considered very strange. The Nazis then created some harassments
and chaos against the traditional Christians. The SA would harass the Sunday prayers,
they would also intentionally schedule Hitler Youth events on Sunday church activities so
make sure people dont go to church. This plan backfires eventually.
Colonel Stauffenberg
He was a Germany army officer and one of the leading members of the failed plot of the
assassination of Hitler and remove the Nazi Party from power. He was executed after the
failed attempt of Operation Valkyrie.
Confessing Church
After the Campaign Against the Churches, the people was upset and furious about this
movement. They came up with the Confessing Church, which was an anti-Nazi Church.
This was led by famous people: Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Martin Niemoeller.
Danzig is a Germany City which was taken from Germany after their lost in WWI. This city
doesnt belong to neither countries (Poland and Germany), it is supervised by the League
of Nations. The Nazi party in Nazi wants to returned to their homeland.
Dunkirk Evacuation
This was the evacuation of allied solders from the beaches of Dunkirk, France. The reason
of this operation was because large numbers of British and French troops were cut off and
surrounded by the German army during the Battle of France in WWII. By British Prime
Minister Winston Churchill??
German word for task forces. This was operated by the SS (Schutzstaffel) that were
responsible for mass murders, primarily by shooting during WWII. In the territories
conquered by Germany, they would murder the civilians, Jews and Gypsies throughout
Eastern Europe. They would murder high ranking jobs such as lawyers to prevent them
being a danger to Germany by creating leadership among the people. Germany would
spare lives of lower class civilians to keep them as labors.
Engelbert Dolfuss
The leader of Austria. He doesnt like the Nazi party in his country, he then bans them
from waring their Nazi uniforms publicly on the street, this caused the Nazis starting a
putsch. The Nazis eventually killed Dolfuss but was also defeated by the police. This gave
Hitler a pretty bad reputation.
Ethiopian War
Being influenced by Hitlers successful achievements, Italy Mussolini plans to invade a poor
African country, Ethiopia. Mussolini thinks that no country would dare to stop him from
doing this because they would need his force to stop Hitler one day. However, Britain took
action as a country from the League of Nation is invading a fellow country. Britain thought
of stopping their oil supply to Italy but at the same time they feared that this could start a
war between Italy, in the end Britain didnt take action. Mussolini conquered Ethiopia with
brutality, he used poison gas, machine guns, bombs. Hitler realized that Italy would win
this war easily, he planned to make it last longer than expected. He secretly sent weapons
to Ethiopia and Mussolini....
This is the belief and practice of improving the genetic quality if the human population. Its
a social philosophy advocating the improvement of human genetic traits through the
promotion of higher reproduction of people with desired traits (Aryans for Germany), and
reducing reproduction of people with less-desired or undesired traits (Jews). After invading
Poland, Hitler would sort out the Aryans and allow them to stay by Germanizing them. He
is also eager to conquer Norway as they have the largest Aryan population. German army
were also encouraged to breed with Norwegian woman. This was a Nazi breeding
Final Solution
This was seen as the final solution to the Jewish Question. This was Nazi Germanys plan
during WWII to systematically empty Germany-occupied Europe of its Jewish population.
This resulted in the culmination of the Holocaust.
This was the mass murder of approximately 6 million Jews during WWII, this program of
systematic state-sponsored murder was led by Hitler and the Nazi Party throughout the
Germany Reich and German-occupied territories. Concentrations camps were established
for slave labor.
Geneva Arms Talks
This was a conference held to discuss military limitations, a reduction in land forces and
limits on weapons were discussed. The Weimar Republic of Germany agreed to sign this
treaty and Hitler demands that UK and France will have equal military power and Germany
but they refused. Hitler then took Germany out of the League of Nations.
German Christian Movement
The Protestants were controlled by the Nazi state government, to prevent them being
resistance. However, Hitler wants to improve the Christian community, he creates the
Positive Christianity (German Christian), he wants the Protestant to be Nazified, with a
mixture of Nazi ideas and Christianity).
During WWI, ghettos were set up in Nazi-occupied Europe by Germany in order to confine
and segregate Jews and Gypsies into a usually tightly packed area within a city.
During the Spanish Civil War, a town in Spain: Guernica was attacked and bombed heavily
by Nazi Germanys Luftwaffe air force. Guernica was completely destroyed and the world
was horrified of this incident. How powerful Germany is???
Joachim von Ribbentrop
He is a Foreign Minister of the Nazi party. He was also appointed as German Ambassador
to Britain to sign an agreement Anglo-German Naval Agreement. Once the talk begins,
Ribbentrop demanded that Germanys terms must be accepted in their entirety, Britain
The Night of the Broken Glass. Jewish property were being vandalized by the SA and SS
troops. Jews were getting beaten up, even murdered. The reason of this event given by
the Nazis: A high-ranking German officer was murdered by a Polish-German Jew, in the
Frances German Embassy. The government then blamed the Jewish for the damage and
demands them to pay the amount of 1 billion marks.
Konrad Henlein
He was from the Sudetenland, also a politician in Czechoslovakia. He was told by Hitler to
constantly make demands from the Czechoslovakia government. Sort of a middle man?
Lebensraum means living space. This is an idea of territorial expansionism to gain a
healthy and vigorous people of superior races. Hitler wants to rebuild Germanys economy
which is also a build up for the war of conquer. He wants to conquer a big empire mainly
on Eastern Europe.
Maginot Line
The Maginot Line was built by France. This was a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles
and weapons installations that France constructed along its borders with Germany during
the 1930s. This is a line of defense against Germany strong military.
Munich Conference (1938)
The purpose of the conference was to discuss the future of the Sudetenland. Hitler made
demands that the land of Sudetenland to be returned Germany. This agreement was
signed by Germany, France and the United Kingdom. (Britains prime minister, Neville
Chamberlain wanted to keep Hitler happy and to avoid war.)
Nazi-Soviet Pact
This is the official Treaty of Non-aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union,
which also known as the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact or Nazi-Soviet Pact. This was a non-
aggression pact signed in Moscow in August 1939. The pact stated that a commitment
that neither party would ally with or aid an enemy of the other party. Germany would also
supply weapons to SE, and SE would supply raw materials to Germany. In addition,
territories of Poland was taken and divided by German (West) and Soviet Union (East).
The reason Stalin agreed to this treaty was because he dislikes that the UK and France for
being a coward, also he would get extra territory to fight with Germany if possible.
Neville Chamberlain
Chamberlain was the prime minister of Britain during 1937-1940. He suggested that the
war must be avoided at all cost. He also thought that it is possible to reach a deal with
Hitler, he then sent his right-hand man Lord Halifax to Germany.
Operation Barbarossa
This was the code name for Germanys invasion of the Soviet Union during WWII. This
ambitious operation was driven by Hitlers desire to conquer Eastern Europe. German had
victories and occupied some of he most important economic areas of the Soviet Union,
despite these successes, the German offensive stalled right outside the biggest cities
Moscow and Leningrad, they were pushed back by Soviets counter offensive. More
reasons they failed:
1) the operation was delayed for 6 weeks because of the war between UK.
2) Winter arrived.
3) Hitler was indecisive of where he would attack
4) Hitler underestimated Soviet Unions military and economy. He thought that the
Russians army were large but not effective. Moreover, SEs economy was much better
than Germany by producing military build up.
5) Also, Stalin reorganized his military factory on the west to Siberia by knowing the
western territory would be taken by Germany.
Pact of Steel
This is the pact of friendship and alliance between Germany an Italy, it was signed by by
the foreign ministers of each country. (Joachim von Ribbentrop) Year 1939 May.
Philippe Ptain
He was generally know as a French general, who was later Chief of State of Vichy France.
Because of his outstanding military leadership in WWI, he was viewed as a national hero
in France. He was appointed as Chief of State of the spa town of Vichy in central France.
Reoccupation of the Rhineland
Rhineland is located at the western border of Germany. According to the Versailles Treaty,
German is not allowed to keep any troops, forts or bases near this place, this is designed
to provide security to France and Belgium. However, Hitler thinks that Germanys military
power wouldnt be strong/powerful enough if they werent in control of this territory.
March 1936/37? ignoring the advices of his military generals, Hitler sent his military
forces to enter the Rhineland. This was significant because it violated the terms of the
Versailles Treaty. Hitler ordered his troops not to resist if France start the fight. Britain
thought that this isnt a big issue as Germany was just sending their military troops to
their own territory. France didnt take action either as they werent supported by Britain,
moreover, they have no confidence in their weak military, poor economy although they are
willing to fight a defensive war only.
Spanish Civil War
Spain socialist party just won the election, the conservatives in Spain were horrified.
Eventually, Spain was divided in two: the Socialist party, and the Nationalist party, which
was led by the general of the military, Francisco Franco. Francisco Franco actually received
support from Mussolini, mainly because they support fascism. Hitler also sent military to
Spain to please Mussolini, to support fascist Franco, also to try out their new military
weapons. Other countries?.... Franco eventually wins the civil war, the main reason was
the huge support from both Italy and Germany. Franco then became the dictator of Spain
after Madrid was conquered.
This was a major battle of WWII between Germany and Soviet Union in the south-western
Soviet Union. It was the turning point of WWII, the German forces never regained the
initiative in the East. Germanys 6th army was cut off and surround in the Stalingrad area
by Soviet Unions Red Army.
Star of David Badge
This was a cloth patch that Jews were ordered to sew on their clothing to mark them as
Jews in public; It is intended to be a badge of sham associated with anti-semitism. This
was compulsory for Jews German occupied territories.
This is a German dive bomber and ground-attack aircraft. There were sirens being
mounted on the plane, it later became the propaganda symbol of German air power and
the blitzkrieg victories.
The Sudetenland is the German name to refer to those northern, southwest, and western
areas of Czechoslovakia which were inhabited mostly by German speakers.
The Phony War
This is a phase during year 1939-1940, early in WWII that was marked by a lack of major
military operations by the Western Allies (UK and France) against Germany. War was
declared by each side, but no Western power had committed to launching a significant
land offensive.
Vichy France
After Germanys victory over France in WWII, Vichy France was officially the French state.
It was led by former military general, Philippe Ptain, the Chief of State.

Wannsee Conference
This was a meeting of officials of Nazi Germany, held in Berlin. The purpose of the
conference, led by SS, was to ensure the cooperation of administrative leaders of the
government in the implementation of the final solution to the Jewish question. This
meeting talked about how European Jews would be rounded up and sent to extermination
camps, where they would be killed.
Werner von Blomberg
He is the minister of war, also the commander-in-chief of the Germany military. Hitler is
the leader of Germany but he still doesnt have full control of the military force, therefore
he tries to get rid of Blomberg. It is also because of Blomberg constant disagreements
with Hitlers plans of invading Austria and Czechoslovakia that made Hitler force his
Zyklon B
This was the name of a cyanide-based pesticide invented in the early 1920s. This product
was infamous for its use by Nazi Germany to murder Jews, in gas chambers of
extermination camps during the Holocaust.
Appeasement from UK and France
They think if they appease and gave germany what they want they can avoid war. This
appeasement policy was used frequently:
1) They felt guilty of the Versailles Treaty, may be too harsh to the Germans
2) USA was also at fault during the 1920s by giving isolation. The generals thinks that the
WWI was a mistake, decided not to interfere Europes activity anymore. The then
president FDR Roosevelt is not having isolationism, wanted to do more for Europes
activities, but the Depression was the main focus. Lack of USA participation and support
to the UK and France made them feel that USA is not supportive and theyre not
confident enough to confront Hitler.
3) WWI was a disaster, nobodys wants another one. France economy was poor too during
the 1930s. Just like Germany, France has social level issues, right wing parties
(socialist) came to power, the prime minster was Leon Blum who is a Jew. France
conservatives doesnt like the Jew PM, think it would be better if they were ruled by
Hitler. They are also not in a strong position to start a war. Joseph Stalin from SE was
very strong too. Not only they couldnt afford another war, with new technology and
weapons, the 2nd war would be worse. UK was also afraid of defending air forces/
bombers even though they have a strong navy.
Why didnt the Jews resist?
This is a question of shame for them. But they had resistance, they would run away to
the rebellion troops and fight against
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1942 was an example.
They also didnt know whats gonna happen, they never hear of Auschwitz, no knowledge.
They were also being told to be brought to work camps. also another reason is their
families are all gone, no point of living..
Did the German ciivilian know about the death camps? Not really, depends on who you
know. Moreover, the death camps are located in poland. They were also encouraged to
shut up and dont think too much about it or investigate. Theyre also reluctant to believe,
they think this is just a rumor from the UK.
USA and UK couldve bombed the camps, but they dont have the technology and accuracy
to reach that far. Railroads are easy to rebuild too. Moreover, to end this war, focus is
Hitler or military base.