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Chapter I

Welding Procedures

lntroduction

lnternaüonal

Ammon¡a ñefrigéraüon

iiCIr.

lnsütute ol

Ammonia refrigerating system piping is usuaily joined by welding. This chapter lists

applicable standa¡ds, deñnes cornmon terms, and gives examples of typical welding

procedures.

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Pertinent ANSI Codes and Standards for Welding

The list below briefly describes the scope of the referenced sta¡rda¡d. The most recent

revlqion applies.

1. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Seclon tr Material Specifications, Part A - Ferous. Specifies all ferrous materials approved for use with ASME Codes.

2. ASME Boiler an"d Pressure Vessel Code, Seclon II Material Specifications, Part C - Welding rods, Electrodes and Filler Metals. Specifies all welrling rods, electrodes and filler metals approved for use with ASME Codes.

3. A,SME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Seclon V Nondestructive Examination. Contains requirements and methods for nondestructive examinations required in other Code Sections. Intended to detect surface and internal discontinuances in materials, welds, and

fabricated parts and components, meüods include radiographic examination, ultrasonic examin¿¡is¡, üquid penetrant examination, magnetic particie examination, eddy curent

ex¡min¿¡is¡, üsual s¡amin¿fi6¡, and leak testing.

4. ASIvIE Boiler and, Pressure Vessel Code, Secion D( Welding and Brazing Quaiifications.

Covers qualiñcation of welders, welding operators, brazers, brazing operators, and the procedures employed in welding or brazi:rg in accordance with the ASME Code.

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NME 831 Codefor Pressure Piping,831.5 Refrigeration Piping. Contai¡s requirements

for refrigerant and secondary coolant piping. Heat exchanger coils to be added in tle near future.

AWS 82.1 Stanlardfor Welding Procedure and Performance Qualificar¡'ore Contains requirements welding procedure qualiñcation and for performance qualification of

welders and welding operators. Covers manual, semi-¿u1s6rtic, machine, and automatic

wslding, when referenced by a product code, standard, or specifi.cation. ASME Section D( permits referencing üis standard fs¡ \ryslding qualification i¡ contract documents when no

product standard appües.

7.

AWS 82.1-)0{ StandardforWelding Procedure Specifications (WPS) for (various methods and materials). Provides information for producing acceptable welds using various conditions and variables. The user needs a signifisan¡ knowledge sf \¡/slding and accepts fuIl responsibiüty for all aspects of üe work.

AWS AilO{ Nanous) Filler Metal Specifica¡ions. Provides standard classification systems for the purchase and distribution of filler metals without consideration of trade or brand

n?mes.

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Chapter 8, Welding Procedures

Jurisdictional Acceptance of Standards

Jurisdictional Acceptance of Standards

The American Sociery of Mechanical Engineers

standa¡ds under the rules of the Ame¡ican

provides procedurai oversight

qualifications,

specifi c

(ASME) develops voluntary consensus

National standa¡ds Institute (ANSI)' ANSI

for standards-development; it does not develop or support

coritainment technology, ASME Section D( of the Boiler and

and other general requirements, procedure

standards. For pressure

pressure Vessel Code defines weiding

performance qualifications and welding data. ASME does not publish

Welding Procedure Specifi cations (WPS's)'

The American Welding Society (AWS)

accordance with the rules of ANSI. For

uses similar welding

publications use the

include AWS Specif,cation

filier metals. In addition,

for pressure vessels,

also develops voluntary consensus standards in

pressure containment welding' AWS Bulletin B2'1

information as üat contained in ASME Section D(' Both same ASTIvI references and groupings for base metals' They both

and classification numbers for electrodes' welding rods and

AWS publishes marry welding Procedure specification's flMPS',s)

These

procedures are pre-qualified so that

of continuously qualifying welded joints.

piping, ,t o"t*es

do not accept other-than-ASME welding

some fabricators traditionally use AV/S or other

piping; ir some areas this is accepted' In the Model

fabricatitn

approved for üe ASME 831 Piping Codes'

Procedure qurincations

are allowed to avoid duplication of effort'-

competent glouP or agency may be used, provided all of

piping contractors "* urol¿ the expense

ASME and some jurisdictions maditionally

qualiñcations for use under ASME codes.

qualifi.cations for ammonia system

óUupr", concerning

other-than-ASME

WPS,s qualified by a technically

the following are met:

l.ThegrouporagencyqualifyingtheW?smeetsalloftheWPSqualificationrequirements

of the ASME Code.

2.Theweldingemployeracceptsresponsibiüryforthenon-ASMEW?sbysigningüe

required euaüncatitn Recoids,

which show the date

qualifications, the welders

assigned to each.

and results of WPS and performance

and/or welding operators used, and the identification symbol

3.Theemployerhasqualifiedatleastonewelderorweldingopefatorusingüenon.ASME

WPS.

Definitions of Terms

Procedure specification (wPS): a document which delineates or references all

Record (PQR): a document providing the actual welding

produce an acceptable test weld, and the results of qualiñcation tests

if consÚucted by iqualified welder' The welding procedure

est¿büshes the properties of the weldment, not the skill of the welder or

welding

welding variables required to provide direction for welding'

Procedure Quatification

variables or"¿ to

conducted on the test weld. The wPS and the PQR deterrnine that üe proposed weldment hry the required properties

for its intended application

qualification test

welding operator.

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Chapter 8, Welding Procedures

Welding Processes

Record of Welder or Welding Operator Qualification Tests (Performance Qualification Test Record): a record of welder or welding operator tests that qualify a welder to perform manual or semi-automatic welding, or qualify a welding operator to perform machine or automatic welding. The welder or welding operator performs the test with a specific WPS. The record includes guided bend test results, radiographic results, and fillet weld test results where applicable.

Qualified Welding Procedure: a welding procedure which meets qualiñcation

requirements. Documents qualification tests of weldments made in accordance with the WPS and recorded on a PQR. Qualified welding procedwes are of two types:

1. Procedu¡es ildependently q¡r¡lifisd by an employer for his own use.

2. Standard procedures permitted for use without further qualification.

Welding Frocesses

Typical Welding Machines

A variety of single-purpose and muiti-purpose welding machines are available, both electric and gas-engine powered. Portable macbjnes have input capacities up to 10kW,

whiie fixed machines range uP to 30kW. §pical multi-purpose shop machines can handle

Stick, MIG, AC TIG, DC TIG, and Flux Core welding.

Typical Pipe Welding Procedures

A typical pipe butt-weld procedure for carbon steel pipe, without the use of backing bands

(or chill rings), makes one pass using Stick (SMAV/) with 86010 electrodes and two more

with E7018 eiectrodes. A cleaner procedure when not using backing bands is a MIG (GMAIüD root pass withB7? tungsten wi¡e foliowed by two or more cover passes using

Stick (SMAW) with 87018 electrodes. A typical butt-welding procedure with backing

bands makes tlree passes with Stick using E7018 electrodes. Socket fillet welds use

procedures simila¡ to that for buft welds with backing bands.

Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW, or Stick Welding)

This process uses a consumable electrode, or stick, to forrn an arc between the electrode and the workpiece. As the weld bead forms, the stick contributes molten metal to the weld

puddle. Eventually, the electrode must be replaced. 1'lo preserve the integdty of the weld, the electrode is coated with a flux that vaporizes to form a protective atnosphere around the a¡c. The flux forrns a slag blanket which must be removed after the weld has cooled. Stick is a relatively slow process that requires a moderately high level of skiIl. It is suitable

for steel and stainless, 1/8 inch and thicker.

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW, or MtG Wetding)

This a¡c welding process uses a continuous wire electrode to forrn the arc and add molten

metal to the weld puddle. A feeding system drives wire constantly through the gun. Unlike

Stick welding, electrodes need not be constantiy replaced. An atmosphere of shielding

gas, also delivered through the welding gun, protects the puddie. A short-circuit MIG process delivers pellets of molten electrode into the weld puddle, reducing spatter, providing gfeater control, and producing very clean welds with no slag blanket.

Ammonia Flefrigeration Piping Handbook

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Chapter 8, Welding Procedures

Sample Specifications for Welding of Ammonia Piping

Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)

Similar to MIG Welding, FIux Cored Arc Welding CAV/) uses a wire wiü a central core

of protective flux wtrich may eliminate the need for gas shielding.

Both MIG and FCAW are very fast processes which require a moderate level of skill. They

are suitable fo¡ steel, stainless and aluminum, 20 gauge (0.036 inch) and üicker.

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)

Also known as TIG Weiding, üis process uses a virrually non-consumable tungsten alloy electrode to forrn the arc between the power source and the weldment. If additional

material is needed in the puddle, the operator normally hand-feeds a metal rod into the arc.

TIG uses different electrode types to control üe arc configuraüon and welding action with

remarkable precision. Greater ampeÉge means more power, and more power aliows the

welding of thicker metals. An inert gas, fed through the welding torch, protects the weld

from atmospheric contamitation. TIG is a very slow process, and it requires a high level of skill. It is suitable for all weldable metals, 22 gauge (0.033 inch) and thicker.

Gas Welding (FGW)

Also known as Oxyfuel Gas Weiding (OFG), Oxyacerylene GAS Welding (OA'V/), and

Oxyhydrogen Welding (OHW). In ttris gas welding process, a gas flame or flames (with or without the application of pressure and with or without fil1er metal) produce coalescence

of the base metal.

Sample Specifications for Welding of Ammonia Piping

Scope

This basic practice governs weiding qualifications for üe welding of:

.

Materials used in the construction of piping assemblies, pressure containing

equipmenl and attachments welded thereto.

.

Any other component when referenced by an appücable purchase document.

8-4

Table 8-1

Applicable Codes and Specifications

Section ll

Section ll

Section Vlll

Section lX

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes

Material Specifications, Part A - Ferrous Materials

Material Specifications, Part C - Welding Rods, Electrodes and Filler Metal

Pressure Vessels, Division 1

and Brazing Qualifications

ASME Piping Code

831.5 Refrigerant Piping

ANSUAWS Specifications

AS.>«

B,2.1

82.1.rc<

Filler Metal Specif ications

Standard Welding Procedure and Qualification, when applicable

Welding Procedure Specifications, when applicable

@ ilAH 2000

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Chapter 8, Welding Procedures

Sample Specifications for Welding of Ammonia Piping

The requirements in the hocedures üsted in Table 8-1 augment those in the ASME B&PV

Code, Section D(, Welding and Brazing Qualiñcation, which is the primary requirement.

Compliance wiü other codes, specifications or standards may be specified in üe

engineering design.

Procedures

 

All Welding Procedure Specifrcations ('WPS's) and Procedure Qualification Records (peR's) shall be submitted to the purchaser for approval prior to the start of fabrication or

construction. Basis for rejection shall be noncompliance with these procedures or failure to meet applicable codes or accepted indus§ practice.

lmpact Testing

The Supplemenrary Essential Variables in ASME Code Section D( shal1 apply to all impact-tested welding procedure specifications, even if impact testing is not a code

requirement.

P re q ualified P roced u res

prequalified procedures, such as in ANSUAV/S 82.1.xx bulleüns, shall be acceptable for

pressure and stmctural welding when approved in the jurisdiction of use. In such cases, no

PQR need be submitted.

Documentation

A Welding

essential,

Procedu¡e Specification is required for each weld or group of welds. It details sub-essential, and non-essential variables of welding data for joints, base metals,

filler met¿ls, positions, preheat, postweld heat ffeatment, gas, electrical characteristics,

technique and sketch.

For each change in essential variables, a separate Procedure Qualification Record is required.

Base Metals and Backing StriPs

Base metals not listed in ASME Section D( paragraph QW-422 or in AWS 82.1 Appendix C, but which possess equivalent chemicai and mechanical properties as listed materials,

may be classiñed in a listed material number. ASME uses P numbers. A'WS uses S to designate ASTM, PS to designate ASME and ASTM, and Q for other materials, where applicable.

Each base metal within a given Material number or Group Number having nominally different chemical or mechanicai properties, as designated in QW-422 of ASME Section

D( or in Appendix C of AWS 82.1, requires:

.

A separate WPS. This requirement does not apply to üfferent grades of P-8 Materials, Groups I andZ,provided the WPS specifies the fi]ls¡ mstal required for each different

base metal tYPe.

.

A separate PQR when, il üe opinion of the Purchaser, a welding-related operation

satisfactory for one base metal is unsatisfactory for another base metal within üe

same Material Number or Group Number'

Ammonia Refrigeration Piping Handbook

o ilAR 2000

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Chapter 8, Welding Procedures

Sample Specifications for Welding of Ammonia Piping

Backing strip material speciñcation or its nominal chemistry shall be considered a nonessential variable and must be recorded in the W?S or the applicable fabrication

drawing. For joints between similar materials, the backing strip chemistry shali match the

base metal chemistry.

Deletion of a backing strip in a single welded butt joint shall require a separate PQR.

Welding Processes

Gas welding processes are limited to carbon steel pipe and tubing joints not exceeding

NPS 2 (DN 50) and a minimum specified tensile strength not exceeding 60,000 psi (413

mPa).

GMAW-S, a short circuiting gas metal arc welding process, is limited to any of the

following conditions:

.

.

.

The root pass for any material üickness.

Complete butt or fillet welds, provided the wall thickness of no member exceeds 3/8 inch (10 mm).

Complete butt or ñllet welds, provided the wall thickress of no member exceeds

1 inch (25 mm) and either of the foliowi:rg conditions is met:

Welding is done in any position except vertical-down and the curent is not less

than 170 amps.

Welding is done i¡ üe vertical-up position (3G) and üe heat input is not less than

35,000 Joules/inch (14,000 Joules/cm). Heat input is defined as:

.

amperage xvoltage x 60

trovel speed inch/m (crn/m)

GMA'W-S sha1l not be used for branch connections.

Flux Core arc welding (FCAW) eiüer with or without external gas shielding may be used

for either groove or ñllet welds. For pressure welds and welds with impact test requirements, only electrode classifications or types which are identified as multipass and

which have specified minimum impact test requirements shall be used.

Manual GTAW (TIG) welding must be used with the addition of ñller metal and high

frequency starting eqüpment. The addition or deletion of consumable inserts for single welded butt joints (without backing devices) requires separate WPSs and PQRs.

Welding processes using coatings or fluxes shali not be used for austenitic stainless steel, nickel or aluminum alloy root passes, unless the slag can be ¡emoved from the underside of the root passes and the area inspected.

Each combination of welding processes, or W?S, or boü, requires qualification as a combination unless speciñcally approved by the purchaser. Any process or WPS used

solely for the root passes may be eliminated without requalification for a double-welded,

butt joint or for joints using backing strips.

Filler Metals

Filler metals shall be specified in each WPS by AWS speciñcation and classification.

Exception: Filler metals which do not conform to a standard AV/S speciñcation and

classiñcation, or which have special requirements, shall be identjñed by the manufacturer and the type.

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Ammonia Refrigeration Piping Handbook

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Chapter 8, Welding Procedures

Sample Specifications for Welding of Ammonia Piping

When joining similar metals, the deposited weld metal shall match the chemistry and the mechanical properties of the base metal as closely as possible.

When joining two different ferritic steels, the filler metal shall conform to the nominal chemistry of either base metal or an intermediate composition.

Exception: For attaching nonpressure parts to pressure parts, the filler metal chemis§ shall match the nominal chemical composition of the pressure part.

Requirements for welding austenitic stainless steels:

.

.

When joining ASME P-8, Group 1, austenitic stainless steels, the ñller metal must

contain at least 1 FN (Ferrite Number) or l%o ferite. However, 347 electrodes shall

contai¡ at least 4 FN.

When joining two different austenitic stainless steels, the fills¡ rnstal may match

either.

When the thickness of carbon or low a11oy steel base metal exceeds Yznch (13 mm), groove or fil1et welds shall be made with frller metals producing low-hydrogen deposits. However, cellulose or rutile-type coated electrodes may be used for the root pass of a groove weld regardless of the base metal thickness.

A1l low-hydrogen-covered

of the applicable ANSVAWS filler metal specification regardless of the containers in

which they are supplied.

electrodes shail conform to the moisture content requirements

For fabrication requiring impact tests, all iow-hydrogen-covered electrode sizes having no

impact test requirements according to the appiicable ANSUAV/S filler metal specification must be cerrified by one of the following methods:

The next larger size of the same manufacturer's electode grade meets the ANSVAWS

.

.

impact requirements.

The speciñc size of üe same manufacturer's electrode grade meets the ANSVAWS

impact requirements for the applicable electrode classification.

Shielding and Purging Gases

When shielding gases are used, the WPS shall inücate the gas composition, its puriry, and

its flow rate.

When back purging is used, the WPS shali indicate:

1. The type ofgas and flow rate

2. The amount of gas injected into üe area prior to welding to insure removal of oxygen.

3. The method of venting to prevent excessive pressure buildup and to permit oxygen to

escape.

Whenever a back purging gas is selected to prevent oxidation or scale formation on the

underside of the weld, such purge shall be maintained until at least 3/8 inch (10mm) depth

of weld metal has been deposited.

Deletion of a back purgrng gas for a single welded butt joint without backing strip shall

require a separate PQR.

Welding Positions and Applicat¡ons

Additional procedure and perforrnance qualifications shall be perforrned whenever the accessibiüty, the restraint or the environment det¿iled in the code qualifications is not

achieved in production conditions.

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Chapter 8, Welding Procedures

Sample WPSs and PQRs

variables such as current, voltage, gas flow rate and travel speed shall be specified the normal variation of the equipment. For most processes this should not exceed

Welding

within

tl|Vo;however, automated processes, where heat input must be limited to meet impacts'

may require tighter limits.

For weld overlay operations, the overlap of adjacent beads is considered an essential variable. It must be speciñed in the WPS'

Preheating

Whenever material is wet or contains surface moisture or condensate, it shall be dried by

heating.

The minimum preheat temperatures

Table UCS-56 of ASME Code

shall not be less than those shown in Appendix R and

section vltr-l. Higher temperatures may be required for

restrained joints, such as closely spaced nozzles. For P-No. 9 Group Materials, the

highly

g,iaÁ"" provide in the Nonmandatory Appendix R will remain nonmandatory'

Ivfaximum interpass temperature limits shall be specified for austenitic and duplex stainless steels and for nonferrous alloys'

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Cleaning

Methods for cleaning the surfaces to be welded shall be detaiied in the WPS and tailored for the beveling and welding processes'

Ailsiagshallberemovedfromtheoutsideofeachcompleteweld.

All slag

shall be remove from the backside of each completed

austenitic stainless steel' or

nickel átoy welA. This includes slag from flux cored fi1ler metals.

Special APPlications and Testing

peRs shall include results of additional tests when these tests are specified for the welded

product such as:

1. Hardness:

such data shall be based upon a qualification test or if approved by the

purchaser may be obtained on a production weld. These tests shall be conducted on the

weld surface, not the cross section'

2. Impact values.

Sample WPSs and PQRs

Following are actual samples of qua'lified weld Procedure specifications and Procedure

Qualificalion Records. These

are time-tested and proven satisfactory for most welds used

They may be used by fabricators for qualifying serve as a guide for writing other procedures' As welding

in ammonia refrigeration piping.

procedures and welde¡s,

regulations and

or may

procedural requirements vary, do not use these sample procedures directly

without evaluation and qualification'

8-8

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Pl is carbon steel

Pt is stailless steel

Group 1 up to 60,000 psi tensile

Group 2 is higher tensile

Post Weld Heat Treatrnent -

Sample Weld Procedure Speciñcations (WPS)

PWHT

Chapter 8, Welding Procedures

Sample WPSs and PQRs

Table 8-2

Sample Weld Procedure Specifications (WPS) with Various Procedures

Qualif ication Records (PQR's)

WPS #

(aw-482)

SMA-P1

GTAW-P1

GMAW-1

KNP 17-61

TIG.SSl

Description

SMAW manual

P1 Groupl&2toP1

Group

'l

& 2

GTAW manual

P'lGroupl&2toP1

Group 1 & 2

GMAW-S,

P1

SemiAulomatic

Group 'l & 2 to P1

Group 1 & 2

GTAW manual

P1 Groupl &2toP8

Group 1

GTAW manual

P8 Group 1 to P8 Group 1

311-SM-O-E80

SMAW manual

P1 Group 1 or 2 to P1

Group 1 or 2

SMA-SS.1

GTAW/ SMAW manual P8 Group 1 to P8 Group 1

NCPWB,WPS

Reference

1-12-',1

1-3-1

1-5-1

8:1-3-1

8-3-1

N/A

8-32-1

POR #

(QW-483)

SMA 1-P1-1

GTA.1

RC-1C

31 982

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Ammonia Flefrigeration Piping Handbook

@ ilAR 2000

Description

SA-106 to SA 106

6

inch Sch. 40

SA-53 to SA-53

inch Sch. 40

6

SA-53 to SA-53 inch 0.154 Thickness

2

SA-106 to SA-312 §pe 304

6

inch 0.280 Thickness

SA-31 2 type 304 to SA-31 2

type 304

6 inch 0.280 Thickness

(no PQR)

(no PQR)

PQR

Reference

871

03

87112

871

16

87806

87804

N/A

87803

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Chapter 8, Welding Procedures

Sample WPSs and PQRs

Table 8-3

Sample Weld Procedure Specification (WPS) with Various Procedure