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High-temperature inelastic behavior of the austenitic steel AISI type 316

High-temperature inelastic behavior of the austenitic steel AISI type 316

High-temperature inelastic behavior of the austenitic steel AISI type 316
High-temperature inelastic behavior of the austenitic steel AISI type 316

Yevgen Gorash & Holm Altenbach

National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnical Institute”, Ukraine

&

Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany

Advanced Materials Modelling for Structures (AMMS 2012) April 23-27, 2012, Paris, France

for Structures (AMMS 2012) April 23-27, 2012, Paris, France IU AM International Union of Theoretical and

IU AM

International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics
International Union of Theoretical
and Applied Mechanics
OTTO VON GUERICKE UNIVERSITÄT MB MAGDEBURG
OTTO VON GUERICKE
UNIVERSITÄT
MB
MAGDEBURG

FAKULTÄT FÜR

MASCHINENBAU

National Technical University «Kharkiv Polytechnical Institute» Dep. of Dynamics and Strength of Machines Ukraine 61002 Kharkiv

Outline

Outline 1 Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard

1 Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures
Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures
2
2
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
3
3
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel

Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI type 316 Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316 Description of creep behavior for steel AISI type 316

Phenomenological and rheological aspects of the proposed model Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316 at 600 C Proposed viscoplasticity model and its schematic representati on

4
4

Verification of the proposed model with uniaxial experiments

5
5

Conclusions and Outlook

Outline

1
1

Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

2
2
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
3
3
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI

Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI type 316 Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316 Description of creep behavior for steel AISI type 316

Phenomenological and rheological aspects of the proposed model Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316 at 600 C Proposed viscoplasticity model and its schematic representati on

4
4

Verification of the proposed model with uniaxial experiments

5
5

Conclusions and Outlook

Outline

1
1

Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

2
2
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
3
3
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI

Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI type 316 Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316 Description of creep behavior for steel AISI type 316

Phenomenological and rheological aspects of the proposed model Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316 at 600 C Proposed viscoplasticity model and its schematic representati on

4
4

Verification of the proposed model with uniaxial experiments

5
5

Conclusions and Outlook

Outline

1
1

Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

2
2
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
3
3
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI

Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI type 316 Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316 Description of creep behavior for steel AISI type 316

Phenomenological and rheological aspects of the proposed model Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316 at 600 C Proposed viscoplasticity model and its schematic representati on

4
4

Verification of the proposed model with uniaxial experiments

5
5

Conclusions and Outlook

Outline

1
1

Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

2
2
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
3
3
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI

Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI type 316 Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316 Description of creep behavior for steel AISI type 316

Phenomenological and rheological aspects of the proposed model Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316 at 600 C Proposed viscoplasticity model and its schematic representati on

4
4

Verification of the proposed model with uniaxial experiments

5
5

Conclusions and Outlook

Outline

Outline 1 Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard

1 Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures
Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures
2
2
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
3
3
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel

Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI type 316 Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316 Description of creep behavior for steel AISI type 316

Phenomenological and rheological aspects of the proposed model Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316 at 600 C Proposed viscoplasticity model and its schematic representati on

4
4

Verification of the proposed model with uniaxial experiments

5
5

Conclusions and Outlook

Outline

Outline 1 Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard

1 Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures
Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures
2
2
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
3
3
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel

Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI type 316 Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316 Description of creep behavior for steel AISI type 316

Phenomenological and rheological aspects of the proposed model Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316 at 600 C Proposed viscoplasticity model and its schematic representati on

4
4

Verification of the proposed model with uniaxial experiments

5
5

Conclusions and Outlook

Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Stress response and yield surfaces under cyclic loading

σ σ max σ y 2 σ max Isotropic ε σ 2 hardening (R )
σ
σ
max
σ
y
2 σ max
Isotropic
ε
σ
2
hardening
(R )
∆ε t
σ 1

2

σ 1

σ 3

initial yield surface movement or/and growth

ε t

Strain-controlled test: time ∆ε t
Strain-controlled test:
time
∆ε t
growth ε t Strain-controlled test: time ∆ε t Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” &
growth ε t Strain-controlled test: time ∆ε t Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” &
growth ε t Strain-controlled test: time ∆ε t Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” &
growth ε t Strain-controlled test: time ∆ε t Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” &

Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Stress response and yield surfaces under cyclic loading

σ σ max σ y 2 σ max Isotropic ε σ 2 hardening (R )
σ
σ
max
σ
y
2
σ max
Isotropic
ε
σ
2
hardening
(R
)
∆ε t
σ 1
2
σ
σ
max
σ
y
2
σ y
Kinematic
ε
hardening
(X
)
σ
2
∆ε t
2

σ 1

σ 1

σ 1

σ 3

σ 3

initial yield surface movement or/and growth

ε t

Strain-controlled test: time ∆ε t
Strain-controlled test:
time
∆ε t
growth ε t Strain-controlled test: time ∆ε t Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” &
growth ε t Strain-controlled test: time ∆ε t Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” &
growth ε t Strain-controlled test: time ∆ε t Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” &
growth ε t Strain-controlled test: time ∆ε t Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” &

Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Stress response and yield surfaces under cyclic loading

σ σ max σ y 2 σ max Isotropic ε σ 2 hardening (R )
σ
σ
max
σ
y
2
σ max
Isotropic
ε
σ
2
hardening
(R
)
∆ε t
σ 1
2
σ
σ
max
σ
y
2
σ y
Kinematic
ε
hardening
(X
)
σ
2
∆ε t
2

σ 1

initial yield surface movement or/and growth

Anisotropic hardening σ σ 1 σ max σ 3 σ y σ max + σ
Anisotropic hardening
σ
σ
1
σ
max
σ
3
σ
y
σ max + σ y
ε
σ 1
σ
2
σ 3
∆ε t
σ 1
2
Strain-controlled test:
ε
t
σ 3
time
∆ε t
− σ 1
test: ε t σ 3 time ∆ε t − σ 1 Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach
test: ε t σ 3 time ∆ε t − σ 1 Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach
test: ε t σ 3 time ∆ε t − σ 1 Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach
test: ε t σ 3 time ∆ε t − σ 1 Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach

Outline

Outline 1 Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard

1 Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures
Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures
2
2
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
3
3
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel

Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI type 316 Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316 Description of creep behavior for steel AISI type 316

Phenomenological and rheological aspects of the proposed model Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316 at 600 C Proposed viscoplasticity model and its schematic representati on

4
4

Verification of the proposed model with uniaxial experiments

5
5

Conclusions and Outlook

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Stress response and summary of equations

System of coupled equations:

ε˙ p = σ v n sign(σ X )

K

—————————— σ v = | σ X | − R σ 0

X

= X 1 + X 2

˙

X 1 = C 1 (a 1 ε˙ p X 1 | ε˙ p | )

˙

X 2 = C 2 (a 2 ε˙ p X 2 | ε˙ p | )

˙

R

= b ( Q R ) | ε˙ p |

—————————— σ˙ = E ( ε˙ t ε˙ p )

σ 10 material constants: σ v K , n , σ 0 , b ,
σ
10 material constants:
σ
v
K , n , σ 0 , b , Q ,
R
C 1 , a 1 , C 2 , a 2 , E
σ
σ
0
Norton creep law:
X
n
ε˙ p = K −n σ
v
X
ε
p
σ
Rate-dependant behavior:
0
σ
R
σ
(
ε˙ t ) 3
σ
v
(ε˙ t ) 2
(ε˙ t ) 1
σ
0
R – isotropic stress
ε t – total strain
ε p – plastic strain
( ε˙ t ) 3 > ( ε˙ t ) 2 > (ε˙ t ) 1
ε
ε
ε p
t
e
σ – applied stress σ v – viscous stress X – kinematic stress
σ – applied stress
σ v – viscous stress
X – kinematic stress

J.-L. Chaboche “Constitutive equations for cyclic plastic ity and cyclic viscoplasticity” // Int. J. Plast., vol. 5 (1989)

cyclic viscoplasticity” // Int. J. Plast., vol. 5 (1989) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI”
cyclic viscoplasticity” // Int. J. Plast., vol. 5 (1989) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI”

Outline

Outline 1 Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard

1 Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures
Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures
2
2
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
3
3
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel

Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI type 316 Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316 Description of creep behavior for steel AISI type 316

Phenomenological and rheological aspects of the proposed model Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316 at 600 C Proposed viscoplasticity model and its schematic representati on

4
4

Verification of the proposed model with uniaxial experiments

5
5

Conclusions and Outlook

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Stress or strain response under constant and monotonic loading

σ

Creep test

ε

ε˙ cr

min

secondary

primary

tertiary

time

J. Lemaitre, J.-L. Chaboche “Mechanics of Solid Materials”// Cambridge University Press (1994)

σ = const

Suddenly apply σ and hold it

time

σ = const Suddenly apply σ and hold it time Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU
σ = const Suddenly apply σ and hold it time Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Stress or strain response under constant and monotonic loading

σ

Creep test

ε

ε˙ cr

min

secondary

primary

tertiary

time

Relaxation test ε ε t = const Suddenly apply ε t and hold it time
Relaxation test
ε
ε t = const
Suddenly apply ε t
and hold it
time
σ
σ
max
σ
min
time

J. Lemaitre, J.-L. Chaboche “Mechanics of Solid Materials”// Cambridge University Press (1994)

σ = const

Suddenly apply σ and hold it

time

σ = const Suddenly apply σ and hold it time Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU
σ = const Suddenly apply σ and hold it time Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Stress or strain response under constant and monotonic loading

σ

Creep test

ε

ε˙ cr

min

secondary

primary

tertiary

time

Relaxation test ε ε t = const Suddenly apply ε t and hold it time
Relaxation test
ε
ε t = const
Suddenly apply ε t
and hold it
time
σ
σ
max
σ
min
time

Monotonic test

ε

Gradually apply ε t at constant rate

d ε t dt

= const

time

σ

E p

True

Engineering

E

ε

J. Lemaitre, J.-L. Chaboche “Mechanics of Solid Materials”// Cambridge University Press (1994)

σ = const

Suddenly apply σ and hold it

time

σ = const Suddenly apply σ and hold it time Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU
σ = const Suddenly apply σ and hold it time Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Stress response under cyclic loading and low-cycle fatigue

Stress response under cyclic loading and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ

ε Strain Control:

Stress response under cyclic loading and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ

σ

σ

and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response Hysteresis
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response Hysteresis
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response Hysteresis
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response Hysteresis
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response Hysteresis
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response Hysteresis
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response Hysteresis
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response Hysteresis
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response Hysteresis
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response Hysteresis

ε t

time

time

∆ ε t time time Stress Response Hysteresis Loops S.S. Manson, G.R. Halford “Fatigue and Durability

Stress Response

Hysteresis Loops

S.S. Manson, G.R. Halford “Fatigue and Durability of Structural Materials”// ASM International (2006)

3

2

1

ε

Cyclic

(Isotropic)

Hardening:

3 2 1 ε Cyclic (Isotropic) Hardening: Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” & OvGU)
3 2 1 ε Cyclic (Isotropic) Hardening: Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” & OvGU)

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Stress response under cyclic loading and low-cycle fatigue

Stress response under cyclic loading and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ

ε Strain Control:

Stress response under cyclic loading and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ

σ

σ

and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response σ
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response σ
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response σ
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response σ
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response σ
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response σ
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response σ
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response σ
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response σ
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ ∆ ε t time time Stress Response σ

ε t

time

time

∆ ε t time time Stress Response σ time Hysteresis Loops σ S.S. Manson, G.R. Halford

Stress Response

σ

time

Hysteresis Loops

σ

S.S. Manson, G.R. Halford “Fatigue and Durability of Structural Materials”// ASM International (2006)

3

2

1

ε

1

2

3

ε

Cyclic

(Isotropic)

Hardening:

Cyclic

(Isotropic)

Softening:

Hardening: Cyclic (Isotropic) Softening: Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” & OvGU)
Hardening: Cyclic (Isotropic) Softening: Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” & OvGU)

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Stress response under cyclic loading and low-cycle fatigue

Stress response under cyclic loading and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ

ε Strain Control:

Stress response under cyclic loading and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ

σ

σ

and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ Total strain range ε ∆ t (log scale)
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ Total strain range ε ∆ t (log scale)
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ Total strain range ε ∆ t (log scale)
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ Total strain range ε ∆ t (log scale)
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ Total strain range ε ∆ t (log scale)
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ Total strain range ε ∆ t (log scale)
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ Total strain range ε ∆ t (log scale)
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ Total strain range ε ∆ t (log scale)
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ Total strain range ε ∆ t (log scale)
and low-cycle fatigue ε Strain Control: σ σ Total strain range ε ∆ t (log scale)

Total strain range εt (log scale)

ε t

time

time

N t

0. 5

ε

f

σ

f

E

Elastic

Total

Plastic

Stress Response

σ

time

Hysteresis Loops

σ

Low-Cycle Fatigue:

Cycles to failure N (log scale)

S.S. Manson, G.R. Halford “Fatigue and Durability of Structural Materials”// ASM International (2006)

3

2

1

ε

1

2

3

ε

Cyclic

(Isotropic)

Hardening:

Cyclic

(Isotropic)

Softening:

Hardening: Cyclic (Isotropic) Softening: Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” & OvGU)
Hardening: Cyclic (Isotropic) Softening: Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” & OvGU)

Outline

1
1

Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

2
2
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
3
3
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI

Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI type 316 Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316 Description of creep behavior for steel AISI type 316

Phenomenological and rheological aspects of the proposed model Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316 at 600 C Proposed viscoplasticity model and its schematic representati on

4
4

Verification of the proposed model with uniaxial experiments

5
5

Conclusions and Outlook

Outline

1
1

Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

2
2
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
3
3
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI

Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI type 316 Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316 Description of creep behavior for steel AISI type 316

Phenomenological and rheological aspects of the proposed model Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316 at 600 C Proposed viscoplasticity model and its schematic representati on

4
4

Verification of the proposed model with uniaxial experiments

5
5

Conclusions and Outlook

Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316

Chemical position by different standards and stress-strain curves of several stainless steels

1250 Standard JIS / ASTM BS DIN ISO Martensitic (ASTM grade 420): 316 S X5CrNiMo
1250
Standard
JIS / ASTM
BS
DIN
ISO
Martensitic (ASTM grade 420):
316
S
X5CrNiMo
Designation
SUS 316 HTB
/ TP 316 H
quenched and
tempered
33
17-12-2
C
0.04
- 0.10
< 0.07
1000
Martensitic-austenitic
(16Cr-5Ni-1Mo):
Si
<
0.75
1.00
< 1.00
quenched and
tempered
Mn
<
2.00
Ferritic-austenitic
750
P
< 0.04
<
0.045
(ASTM grade S31803)
S
<
0.03
10.5
-
10.0
-
Ni
11.00 - 14.00
13.5
13.0
500
16.00
-
Ferritic
Cr
16.00 - 18.00
16.50 - 18.50
Austenitic
18.00
(ASTM
grade 444Ti)
(ASTM grade 316)
2.50 -
2.00
-
2.00
-
Mo
2.00
- 3.00
3.00
2.50
3.00
250
Ni
<
0.1
<
0.11
Yield strength
>
205
> 245
[MPa]
0
Tensile
410
-
>
515
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
strength [MPa]
710
Engineering strain (%)
[1] B. Leffler // Stainless steels and their properties (1998)
[2] F. Abe // “18Cr-12Ni-Mo steel” in Creep Properties of Heat Resistant Steels & Superalloys, 227-246 (2006)
Chemical composition [wt%]
Engineering stress (MPa)
(2006) Chemical composition [wt%] Engineering stress (MPa) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” & OvGU)
(2006) Chemical composition [wt%] Engineering stress (MPa) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” & OvGU)
(2006) Chemical composition [wt%] Engineering stress (MPa) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” & OvGU)
(2006) Chemical composition [wt%] Engineering stress (MPa) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” & OvGU)

Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316

Specific heat (J /[kg ◦ C]) Temperature dependence of the material properties 220 1.9e–5 90
Specific heat (J /[kg ◦ C])
Temperature dependence of the material properties
220
1.9e–5
90
650
200
1.8e–5
80
600
180
1.7e–5
70
550
160
1.6e–5
60
500
Density mm kg 333
140
1.5e–5
50
450
Thermal expansion (11 /1 ◦ C)
120
1.4e–5
40
400
0
200
400
600
800
0
200
400
600
800
Temperature ( ◦ C)
Temperature ( ◦ C)
225
8.0e–6
E – Elasticity modulus (GPa)
α – Coefficient of thermal expansion
200
7.9e–6
1
C
T ref = 20 ◦ C – Reference temperature
J
175
7.8e–6
K
– Thermal conductivity
[h
mm ◦ C]
150
7.7e–6
125
7.6e–6
σ y – Yield stress (MPa)
7.5e–6
0
200
400
600
800
Temperature ( ◦ C)
R = 2. 041 · 10 −10 – Stefan Boltzmann constant, when
dimensions in [mm], temperature in [ ◦ C], time in [hours]
P.J. Karditsas & M.-J. Baptiste // Thermal and structural properties of fusion related materi als (1995)
ElasticityYield
modulusstress
(MPa)
(GPa)
Thermal conductivity (J /[h mm ◦ C])

C

– Specific heat

[kg C]

J

100

ρ – Density mm kg 333

µ = 0. 3 – Poissons ratio

m m kg 3 3 3 µ = 0 . 3 – Poissons ratio Y. Gorash
m m kg 3 3 3 µ = 0 . 3 – Poissons ratio Y. Gorash
m m kg 3 3 3 µ = 0 . 3 – Poissons ratio Y. Gorash
m m kg 3 3 3 µ = 0 . 3 – Poissons ratio Y. Gorash

Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316

Stress-strain curves at different temperatures

1600 Temperature: 1400 True strain rate 20 ◦ C in experiments a : ε˙ =
1600
Temperature:
1400
True strain rate
20
◦ C
in experiments a
:
ε˙ = 0. 00004 (1/s)
1200
430
◦ C
649
◦ C
1000
816
◦ C
800
used in isotropic hardening model,
where
the equivalent plastic strain:
600
t
2
pl
ε
=
3 εεε˙˙˙ pl :
εεε˙˙˙ pl dt
400
0
200
0
0 0 .1
0 .2
0 .3
0 .4
0 .5
0 .6
0 .7
0 .8
0 .9
1
True stress (MPa)

True plastic strain

a ASM International // Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves (2002)

ASM International // Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves (2002) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” &
ASM International // Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves (2002) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” &

Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316

S-N diagrams showing low-cycle fatigue properties

0 .035 Strain rate in experiments a : Number of cycles to fatigue failure: B
0
.035
Strain rate in
experiments a :
Number of
cycles to fatigue
failure:
B
Q
0
.03
10 −3 (1/s)
10 −4 (1/s)
10 −5 (1/s)
f
N
∗ (∆ε, T )
=
A exp ∆ε exp
R
T
Q
fht
Q
f (T ) =
0
.025
1
+
exp [− k (
T − T tr )]
A
=
2,
B =
0. 04, k =
0.
1,
T
= 46 ◦ C
tr
0
.02
10000
7500
Q fht = 10000
5000
0
.015
2500
Q f (T
)
0
0
200
400
600
Temperature ( ◦ C)
0
.01
Temperature:
20
◦ C
400
◦ C
0
.005
500
◦ C
600
◦ C
700
◦ C
0
100
1000
10000
100000
Total strain range
Activation
(J/mole) energy

Number of cycles to failure

a NRIM fatigue data sheet // No. 15 (1979)

to failure a NRIM fatigue data sheet // No. 15 (1979) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach
to failure a NRIM fatigue data sheet // No. 15 (1979) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach
to failure a NRIM fatigue data sheet // No. 15 (1979) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach
to failure a NRIM fatigue data sheet // No. 15 (1979) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach

Outline

1
1

Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

2
2
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
3
3
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI

Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI type 316 Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316 Description of creep behavior for steel AISI type 316

Phenomenological and rheological aspects of the proposed model Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316 at 600 C Proposed viscoplasticity model and its schematic representati on

4
4

Verification of the proposed model with uniaxial experiments

5
5

Conclusions and Outlook

Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316

Deformation mechanism map of steel AISI type 316

1000 Power-law creep 100 1 10 −9 s Application area 10 −10 1 s 10
1000
Power-law
creep
100
1
10 −9
s
Application area
10 −10
1
s
10
Linear (viscous) creep
10 −11
1
10 −12
s
1
10 −13
1
s
s
1
500
600
700
800
Stress (MPa)

Temperature ( C)

L. Kloc, J. Fiala “Viscous creep in metals at intermediate te mperatures” // Kovov´e Mater., 43 (2005)

te mperatures” // Kovov´e Mater., 43 (2005) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” & OvGU)
te mperatures” // Kovov´e Mater., 43 (2005) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” & OvGU)

Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316

Fitting of creep constitutive equations to experiments -2 10 Ref. [1] plasticity 500°C -3 550°C
Fitting of creep constitutive equations to experiments
-2
10
Ref. [1]
plasticity
500°C
-3
550°C
10
600°C
650°C
-4
10
700°C
750°C
-5
10
Ref. [2]
500°C
550°C
-6
10
600°C
650°C
-7
700°C
10
750°C
Ref. [4]
-8
650°C
10
Ref. [3]
700°C
600°C
750°C
diffusion
-9
650°C
10
700°C
10
100
700
Stress (MPa)
750°C
low
moderate
high
Experiments:
[1] M. Rieth et al. // Report FZKA 7065 (2004)
[3] NRIM creep data sheet // No. 6B (2000)
[2] NRIM creep data sheet // No. 42 (1996)
[4] L. Kloc et al. // Mat. Sci. & Eng.
A, 319-321 (2001)
Strain rate (1/h)
power-law
breakdown

Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316

Fitting of creep constitutive equations to experiments -2 10 Ref. [1] plasticity 500°C -3 550°C
Fitting of creep constitutive equations to experiments
-2
10
Ref. [1]
plasticity
500°C
-3
550°C
10
600°C
650°C
-4
10
Power
700°C
creep law:
750°C
500°C
-5
10
550°C
Ref. [2]
600°C
500°C
650°C
550°C
-6
10
700°C
600°C
750°C
650°C
-7
700°C
10
750°C
Ref. [4]
n = 15
-8
650°C
10
Ref. [3]
700°C
1
750°C
diffusion
600°C
-9
650°C
10
700°C
10
100
700
Stress (MPa)
750°C
low
moderate
high
Experiments:
[1] M. Rieth et al. // Report FZKA 7065 (2004)
[3] NRIM creep data sheet // No. 6B (2000)
[2] NRIM creep data sheet // No. 42 (1996)
[4] L. Kloc et al. // Mat. Sci. & Eng.
A, 319-321 (2001)
Strain rate (1/h)
power-law
breakdown

Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316

Fitting of creep constitutive equations to experiments -2 10 “Sinh” creep model: Ref. [1] plasticity
Fitting of creep constitutive equations to experiments
-2
10
“Sinh”
creep
model:
Ref. [1]
plasticity
500°C
650°C
500°C
-3
550°C
700°C
550°C
10
600°C
750°C
600°C
650°C
-4
10
Power
700°C
creep law:
750°C
500°C
-5
10
550°C
Ref. [2]
600°C
500°C
650°C
550°C
-6
10
700°C
600°C
750°C
650°C
-7
700°C
10
750°C
Ref. [4]
n = 15
-8
650°C
10
Ref. [3]
700°C
1
750°C
diffusion
600°C
-9
650°C
10
700°C
10
100
700
Stress (MPa)
750°C
low
moderate
high
Experiments:
[1] M. Rieth et al. // Report FZKA 7065 (2004)
[3] NRIM creep data sheet // No. 6B (2000)
[2] NRIM creep data sheet // No. 42 (1996)
[4] L. Kloc et al. // Mat. Sci. & Eng.
A, 319-321 (2001)
Strain rate (1/h)
power-law
breakdown

Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316

“Power-law” equation: Norton (1929), Bailey (1930) ε˙ cr = g (σ, T ) = c
“Power-law” equation: Norton (1929), Bailey (1930)
ε˙ cr = g (σ, T ) = c exp − R Q T cr σ n ,
where creep constants are:
n = 15 , c = 10 − 11 h − 1 , Q cr = 330000 (J/ mole)
Creep constitutive equation: Nadai (1938), Dyson (1998, 20 01) ε˙ cr = f (σ, T
Creep constitutive equation: Nadai (1938), Dyson (1998, 20 01)
ε˙ cr = f (σ, T ) = A ( T ) sinh [ B (T ) σ ] ,
where the temperature-dependent creep material parameters:
A ( T ) = a exp − R Q T ln
and B
( T ) = b exp − R Q T pl ,
where the creep constants are:
a =
75776 (h − 1 ), Q ln = 170000 (J/ mole) ,
b = 0 . 7 (MPa − 1 ), Q pl = 12000 ( J/ mole) .

Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316

“Power-law” equation: Norton (1929), Bailey (1930) ε˙ cr = g (σ, T ) = c
“Power-law” equation: Norton (1929), Bailey (1930)
ε˙ cr = g (σ, T ) = c exp − R Q T cr σ n ,
where creep constants are:
n = 15 , c = 10 − 11 h − 1 , Q cr = 330000 (J/ mole)
Creep constitutive equation: Nadai (1938), Dyson (1998, 20 01) ε˙ cr = f (σ, T
Creep constitutive equation: Nadai (1938), Dyson (1998, 20 01)
ε˙ cr = f (σ, T ) = A ( T ) sinh [ B (T ) σ ] ,
where the temperature-dependent creep material parameters:
A ( T ) = a exp − R Q T ln
and B
( T ) = b exp − R Q T pl ,
where the creep constants are:
a =
75776 (h − 1 ), Q ln = 170000 (J/ mole) ,
b = 0 . 7 (MPa − 1 ), Q pl = 12000 ( J/ mole) .

Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316

Fitting of time-to-rupture relations to experiments

cavity nucleation (C) wedge cracking cavity nucleation (σ ) Ref. [1] Ref. [3] Ref. [2]
cavity nucleation (C)
wedge cracking
cavity nucleation (σ )
Ref. [1]
Ref. [3]
Ref. [2]
Ref. [4]
500°C
650°C
550°C
650°C
500°C
600°C
550°C
700°C
500°C
700°C
550°C
transgranular fracture
650°C
600°C
750°C
600°C
750°C
600°C
700°C
600
750°C
100
20
10 10 2
10 3
10 4
10 5
10 6
highmoderatelow
Stress (MPa)

Time to fracture (h)

10 6 highmoderatelow Stress (MPa) Time to fracture (h) Experiments: [1] M. Rieth et al. //
10 6 highmoderatelow Stress (MPa) Time to fracture (h) Experiments: [1] M. Rieth et al. //
10 6 highmoderatelow Stress (MPa) Time to fracture (h) Experiments: [1] M. Rieth et al. //
10 6 highmoderatelow Stress (MPa) Time to fracture (h) Experiments: [1] M. Rieth et al. //

Experiments:

[1] M. Rieth et al. // Report FZKA 7065 (2004) [3] NRIM creep data sheet // No. 42 (1996)

[2] M. Schirra et al. // Report KfK 4861 (1991) [4] NRIM creep data sheet // No. 6B (2000)

Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316

Fitting of time-to-rupture relations to experiments

cavity nucleation (C) wedge cracking cavity nucleation (σ ) Ref. [1] Ref. [3] Ref. [2]
cavity nucleation (C)
wedge cracking
cavity nucleation (σ )
Ref. [1]
Ref. [3]
Ref. [2]
Ref. [4]
500°C
650°C
550°C
650°C
500°C
600°C
550°C
700°C
500°C
700°C
550°C
transgranular fracture
650°C
600°C
750°C
600°C
750°C
600°C
700°C
600
750°C
n = 15
1
100
Hoff’s model:
500°C
550°C
600°C
650°C
700°C
750°C
20
10 10 2
10 3
10 4
10 5
10 6
highmoderatelow
Stress (MPa)

Time to fracture (h)

10 6 highmoderatelow Stress (MPa) Time to fracture (h) Experiments: [1] M. Rieth et al. //
10 6 highmoderatelow Stress (MPa) Time to fracture (h) Experiments: [1] M. Rieth et al. //
10 6 highmoderatelow Stress (MPa) Time to fracture (h) Experiments: [1] M. Rieth et al. //
10 6 highmoderatelow Stress (MPa) Time to fracture (h) Experiments: [1] M. Rieth et al. //

Experiments:

[1] M. Rieth et al. // Report FZKA 7065 (2004) [3] NRIM creep data sheet // No. 42 (1996)

[2] M. Schirra et al. // Report KfK 4861 (1991) [4] NRIM creep data sheet // No. 6B (2000)

Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316

Fitting of time-to-rupture relations to experiments

cavity nucleation (C) wedge cracking cavity nucleation (σ ) Ref. [1] Ref. [3] Ref. [2]
cavity nucleation (C)
wedge cracking
cavity nucleation (σ )
Ref. [1]
Ref. [3]
Ref. [2]
Ref. [4]
500°C
650°C
550°C
650°C
500°C
600°C
550°C
700°C
500°C
700°C
550°C
transgranular fracture
650°C
600°C
750°C
600°C
750°C
600°C
700°C
600
750°C
n = 15
1
100
Hoff’s model: M-G relation:
500°C
500°C
550°C
550°C
600°C
600°C
650°C
650°C
700°C
700°C
750°C
750°C
20
10 10 2
10 3
10 4
10 5
10 6
highmoderatelow
Stress (MPa)

Time to fracture (h)

10 6 highmoderatelow Stress (MPa) Time to fracture (h) Experiments: [1] M. Rieth et al. //
10 6 highmoderatelow Stress (MPa) Time to fracture (h) Experiments: [1] M. Rieth et al. //
10 6 highmoderatelow Stress (MPa) Time to fracture (h) Experiments: [1] M. Rieth et al. //
10 6 highmoderatelow Stress (MPa) Time to fracture (h) Experiments: [1] M. Rieth et al. //

Experiments:

[1] M. Rieth et al. // Report FZKA 7065 (2004) [3] NRIM creep data sheet // No. 42 (1996)

[2] M. Schirra et al. // Report KfK 4861 (1991) [4] NRIM creep data sheet // No. 6B (2000)

Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316

Fitting of time-to-rupture relations to experiments

cavity nucleation (C) wedge cracking cavity nucleation (σ ) Ref. [1] Ref. [3] Ref. [2]
cavity nucleation (C)
wedge cracking
cavity nucleation (σ )
Ref. [1]
Ref. [3]
Ref. [2]
Ref. [4]
500°C
650°C
550°C
650°C
500°C
600°C
550°C
700°C
500°C
700°C
550°C
transgranular fracture
650°C
600°C
750°C
600°C
750°C
600°C
700°C
600
750°C
n = 15
1
100
Hoff’s model: M-G relation:
Combination:
500°C
500°C
500°C
550°C
550°C
550°C
600°C
600°C
600°C
650°C
650°C
650°C
700°C
700°C
700°C
750°C
750°C
750°C
20
10 10 2
10 3
10 4
10 5
10 6
highmoderatelow
Stress (MPa)

Time to fracture (h)

10 6 highmoderatelow Stress (MPa) Time to fracture (h) Experiments: [1] M. Rieth et al. //
10 6 highmoderatelow Stress (MPa) Time to fracture (h) Experiments: [1] M. Rieth et al. //
10 6 highmoderatelow Stress (MPa) Time to fracture (h) Experiments: [1] M. Rieth et al. //
10 6 highmoderatelow Stress (MPa) Time to fracture (h) Experiments: [1] M. Rieth et al. //

Experiments:

[1] M. Rieth et al. // Report FZKA 7065 (2004) [3] NRIM creep data sheet // No. 42 (1996)

[2] M. Schirra et al. // Report KfK 4861 (1991) [4] NRIM creep data sheet // No. 6B (2000)

Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316

Time to ductile rupture: Hoff (1953) 1 1 t ∗ ( σ, T ) =
Time to ductile rupture: Hoff (1953)
1 1
t ∗ ( σ, T ) =
,
n g (σ, T ) =
n
c exp − R Q T cr σ n
where g ( σ, T ) – “power-law” creep constitutive model
and n , c , Q cr are taken from “power-law” model
Monkman-Grant relation: Monkman & Grant (1956) 1 t ∗ ( σ, T ) = D
Monkman-Grant relation: Monkman & Grant (1956)
1
t ∗ ( σ, T ) =
D [ f ( σ, T )] m ,
where f (σ, T ) – “sinh” creep constitutive model
and the creep constants are: m = 0 . 55 , D = 0 . 07 (h m )

Combination of Hoff’s model and M-G relation

t ∗ (σ, T ) = n g (σ, T ) + D [ f
t ∗ (σ, T )
= n g (σ, T ) + D [ f (σ, T )] m − 1

Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316

Time to ductile rupture: Hoff (1953) 1 1 t ∗ ( σ, T ) =
Time to ductile rupture: Hoff (1953)
1 1
t ∗ ( σ, T ) =
,
n g (σ, T ) =
n
c exp − R Q T cr σ n
where g ( σ, T ) – “power-law” creep constitutive model
and n , c , Q cr are taken from “power-law” model
Monkman-Grant relation: Monkman & Grant (1956) 1 t ∗ ( σ, T ) = D
Monkman-Grant relation: Monkman & Grant (1956)
1
t ∗ ( σ, T ) =
D [ f ( σ, T )] m ,
where f (σ, T ) – “sinh” creep constitutive model
and the creep constants are: m = 0 . 55 , D = 0 . 07 (h m )

Combination of Hoff’s model and M-G relation

t ∗ (σ, T ) = n g (σ, T ) + D [ f
t ∗ (σ, T )
= n g (σ, T ) + D [ f (σ, T )] m − 1

Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316

Time to ductile rupture: Hoff (1953) 1 1 t ∗ ( σ, T ) =
Time to ductile rupture: Hoff (1953)
1 1
t ∗ ( σ, T ) =
,
n g (σ, T ) =
n
c exp − R Q T cr σ n
where g ( σ, T ) – “power-law” creep constitutive model
and n , c , Q cr are taken from “power-law” model
Monkman-Grant relation: Monkman & Grant (1956) 1 t ∗ ( σ, T ) = D
Monkman-Grant relation: Monkman & Grant (1956)
1
t ∗ ( σ, T ) =
D [ f ( σ, T )] m ,
where f (σ, T ) – “sinh” creep constitutive model
and the creep constants are: m = 0 . 55 , D = 0 . 07 (h m )

Combination of Hoff’s model and M-G relation

t ∗ (σ, T ) = n g (σ, T ) + D [ f
t ∗ (σ, T )
= n g (σ, T ) + D [ f (σ, T )] m − 1

Damage Mechanics in Creep Modeling

Continuity: Kachanov (1958, 1986) ψ n = (A 0 − A ω )/A 0 ,
Continuity: Kachanov (1958, 1986)
ψ n = (A 0 − A ω )/A 0 ,
n undamaged state
fracture
ψ n = 1
ψ n = 0
n
A ω
damage state
1 > ψ n > 0
isotropic damage
ψ ≡ ψ n
A 0
1 > ψ n > 0 isotropic damage ψ ≡ ψ n A 0 Effective Stress
Effective Stress Concept: Rabotnov (1959) ˜ ˜ A = A 0 (1 − ω ),
Effective Stress Concept: Rabotnov (1959)
˜
˜
A = A 0 (1 − ω ),
σ˜ = F / A = σ/ (1 − ω ),
ω ≡ 1 − ψ

Accumulation Character of Damage Parameter

1 (ductile) l = 3 Time to ∗ 1 0.8 t l +1 ω (t
1
(ductile) l = 3
Time to
1
0.8
t
l +1
ω (t ) = 1 − 1 −
rupture (t ∗ )
l = 7
t
0.6
(mixed)
0.4
(brittle) l = 15
0.2
Time (t )
0
Damage
Parameter (ω )

Damage Mechanics in Creep Modeling

Continuity: Kachanov (1958, 1986) ψ n = (A 0 − A ω )/A 0 ,
Continuity: Kachanov (1958, 1986)
ψ n = (A 0 − A ω )/A 0 ,
n undamaged state
fracture
ψ n = 1
ψ n = 0
n
A ω
damage state
1 > ψ n > 0
isotropic damage
ψ ≡ ψ n
A 0
1 > ψ n > 0 isotropic damage ψ ≡ ψ n A 0 Effective Stress
Effective Stress Concept: Rabotnov (1959) ˜ ˜ A = A 0 (1 − ω ),
Effective Stress Concept: Rabotnov (1959)
˜
˜
A = A 0 (1 − ω ),
σ˜ = F / A = σ/ (1 − ω ),
ω ≡ 1 − ψ

Accumulation Character of Damage Parameter

1 (ductile) l = 3 Time to ∗ 1 0.8 t l +1 ω (t
1
(ductile) l = 3
Time to
1
0.8
t
l +1
ω (t ) = 1 − 1 −
rupture (t ∗ )
l = 7
t
0.6
(mixed)
0.4
(brittle) l = 15
0.2
Time (t )
0
Damage
Parameter (ω )

Damage Mechanics in Creep Modeling

Continuity: Kachanov (1958, 1986) ψ n = (A 0 − A ω )/A 0 ,
Continuity: Kachanov (1958, 1986)
ψ n = (A 0 − A ω )/A 0 ,
n undamaged state
fracture
ψ n = 1
ψ n = 0
n
A ω
damage state
1 > ψ n > 0
isotropic damage
ψ ≡ ψ n
A 0
1 > ψ n > 0 isotropic damage ψ ≡ ψ n A 0 Effective Stress
Effective Stress Concept: Rabotnov (1959) ˜ ˜ A = A 0 (1 − ω ),
Effective Stress Concept: Rabotnov (1959)
˜
˜
A = A 0 (1 − ω ),
σ˜ = F / A = σ/ (1 − ω ),
ω ≡ 1 − ψ

Accumulation Character of Damage Parameter

1 (ductile) l = 3 Time to ∗ 1 0.8 t l +1 ω (t
1
(ductile) l = 3
Time to
1
0.8
t
l +1
ω (t ) = 1 − 1 −
rupture (t ∗ )
l = 7
t
0.6
(mixed)
0.4
(brittle) l = 15
0.2
Time (t )
0
Damage
Parameter (ω )
Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316 Damage evolution equations: Rabotnov (1959) ∗ 1 t
Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316
Damage evolution equations: Rabotnov (1959)
1
t
1
l +1
ω (t ) =
1 − 1 −
ω˙ cr =
t
t ∗ (l + 1) (1 − ω cr ) l ,
dω f
1
=
dN
N ∗ (l + 1)
(1 − ω f ) l ,
where N ∗ – number of cycles
to fatigue failure
Strain equivalence principle: Lemaitre (1971) ε˙ cr = f (σ, T ) / (1 −
Strain equivalence principle: Lemaitre (1971)
ε˙ cr = f (σ, T ) / (1 − ω cr − ω f ) l

Equation for creep rupture strain

t 0.9 − l ε ∗ (σ, T ) = f (σ, T ) 1
t 0.9
l
ε ∗ (σ, T ) =
f (σ, T ) 1 − t ∗
l +1 dt,
t
0
where time to fracture with ω ∗ = 0 . 9:
t 0 . 9 = t ∗ 1 − (1 − ω ∗ ) l +1
Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316 Damage evolution equations: Rabotnov (1959) ∗ 1 t
Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316
Damage evolution equations: Rabotnov (1959)
1
t
1
l +1
ω (t ) =
1 − 1 −
ω˙ cr =
t
t ∗ (l + 1) (1 − ω cr ) l ,
dω f
1
=
dN
N ∗ (l + 1)
(1 − ω f ) l ,
where N ∗ – number of cycles
to fatigue failure
Strain equivalence principle: Lemaitre (1971) ε˙ cr = f (σ, T ) / (1 −
Strain equivalence principle: Lemaitre (1971)
ε˙ cr = f (σ, T ) / (1 − ω cr − ω f ) l

Equation for creep rupture strain

t 0.9 − l ε ∗ (σ, T ) = f (σ, T ) 1
t 0.9
l
ε ∗ (σ, T ) =
f (σ, T ) 1 − t ∗
l +1 dt,
t
0
where time to fracture with ω ∗ = 0 . 9: t 0 . 9 = t ∗ 1 − (1 − ω ∗ ) l +1
Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316 Damage evolution equations: Rabotnov (1959) ∗ 1 t
Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316
Damage evolution equations: Rabotnov (1959)
1
t
1
l +1
ω (t ) =
1 − 1 −
ω˙ cr =
t
t ∗ (l + 1) (1 − ω cr ) l ,
dω f
1
=
dN
N ∗ (l + 1)
(1 − ω f ) l ,
where N ∗ – number of cycles
to fatigue failure
Strain equivalence principle: Lemaitre (1971) ε˙ cr = f (σ, T ) / (1 −
Strain equivalence principle: Lemaitre (1971)
ε˙ cr = f (σ, T ) / (1 − ω cr − ω f ) l

Equation for creep rupture strain

t 0.9 − l ε ∗ (σ, T ) = f (σ, T ) 1
t 0.9
l
ε ∗ (σ, T ) =
f (σ, T ) 1 − t ∗
l +1 dt,
t
0
where time to fracture with ω ∗ = 0 . 9: t 0 . 9 = t ∗ 1 − (1 − ω ∗ ) l +1

Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316

Fitting of model rupture strain to experiments 1 Ref. [1] ductile rupture 500°C 0.5 550°C
Fitting of model rupture strain to experiments
1
Ref. [1]
ductile rupture
500°C
0.5
550°C
600°C
Ref. [3]
650°C
600°C
700°C
650°C
750°C
700°C
750°C
0 .1
Ref. [2]
500°C
Model rupture strain
with constant l = 4:
550°C
brittle
500°C
650°C
600°C
650°C
550°C
700°C
700°C
600°C
750°C
750°C
0
.02
10
100
500
Stress (MPa)
low
moderate
high
Creep strain
mixed
500 Stress (MPa) low moderate high Creep strain mixed Experiments: [1] M. Rieth et al. //
500 Stress (MPa) low moderate high Creep strain mixed Experiments: [1] M. Rieth et al. //

Experiments:

[1] M. Rieth et al. // Report FZKA 7065 (2004) [2] NRIM creep data sheet // No. 42 (1996)

[3] NRIM creep data sheet // No. 6B (2000)

Creep behavior of steel AISI type 316

Plane stress isochronous rupture loci 1.25 α = 1, β = 0 α = 0,
Plane stress isochronous rupture loci
1.25
α
= 1, β = 0
α = 0, β =
1
1
0 .75
α = 0, β = 0
0 .5
Experiments a at 600 ◦ C and 593 ◦ C
I 1 = σ I + σ II
0 .25
σ
+ | σ II |
II
σ max t = max σ I + | σ I |
,
σ II
2
2
0
σ 0
σ vM = ( σ I − σ II ) 2 + σ I 2 +
σ
II 2
-0 .25
2
Damage equivalent
stress b :
ω
σ
− α − β ) I 1
-0 .5
eq = α σ max t + β
α = 0. 15
and β
σ vM + (1
= 0. 7
-0 .75
α = 0. 15, β = 0. 7
-1
-1
-0 .75
-0 .5
-0 .25
0
0 .25
0 .5
0 .75
1
1 .25

σ I /σ 0

a Q. Xu & D.R. Hayhurst “The evaluation of high-stress creep ductility for 316

b K. Naumenko & H. Altenbach “Modeling of creep for structural analysis” // Springer (2006)

// Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 80 (2003)

” // Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 80 (2003) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU
” // Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 80 (2003) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU
” // Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 80 (2003) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU
” // Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 80 (2003) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU

Outline

1
1

Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

2
2
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
3
3
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI

Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI type 316 Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316 Description of creep behavior for steel AISI type 316

Phenomenological and rheological aspects of the proposed model Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316 at 600 C Proposed viscoplasticity model and its schematic representati on

4
4

Verification of the proposed model with uniaxial experiments

5
5

Conclusions and Outlook

Outline

1
1

Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

2
2
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
3
3
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI

Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI type 316 Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316 Description of creep behavior for steel AISI type 316

Phenomenological and rheological aspects of the proposed model Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316 at 600 C Proposed viscoplasticity model and its schematic representati on

4
4

Verification of the proposed model with uniaxial experiments

5
5

Conclusions and Outlook

Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity

Instantaneous strain of steel AISI type 316 at 600 ◦ C 1 AISI SUS 316
Instantaneous strain of steel AISI type 316 at 600 ◦ C
1
AISI
SUS
316 L(N), FZKA, Germany [1]
316-HP, NRIM, Japan [2]
elastic strain ε el ,
E = 145 GPa [3]
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.0001
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Stress (MPa)
Experiments:
[1] M. Rieth et al. // Report FZKA 7065 (2004)
[2] NRIM creep data sheets // No. 42 (1996) & No. 6B (2000)
[3] J.B. Kim et al. // Proc. of SMiRT 18 Conf. (2005)
Strain

Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity

Primary stage of idealized creep curve

 

kinematic hardening

   

parameter K

 

Strain ε

 

isotropic hardening

 

Stress σ, Damage ω

parameter H

 

min. creep rate ε˙ cr

min

 

I

primary creep strain ε

pr

 
 

plastic strain ε

pl

instantaneous strain ε ins

   

elastic strain ε

el

Time t

J.A.H. Hult // Creep in engineering structures (1966)

t J.A.H. Hult // Creep in engineering structures (1966) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI”
t J.A.H. Hult // Creep in engineering structures (1966) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI”
t J.A.H. Hult // Creep in engineering structures (1966) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI”
t J.A.H. Hult // Creep in engineering structures (1966) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI”

Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity

Secondary stage of idealized creep curve

Isolated cavities Orientated cavities kinematic hardening parameter K isotropic hardening parameter H min. creep
Isolated cavities
Orientated cavities
kinematic hardening
parameter K
isotropic hardening
parameter H
min. creep rate ε˙ cr
II
min
pr
I
primary creep strain ε
Creep damage starts
pl
plastic strain ε
el
instantaneous
strain ε ins
elastic strain ε
damage parameter ω
Time t
Strain ε
Stress σ, Damage ω

J.A.H. Hult // Creep in engineering structures (1966)

J.A.H. Hult // Creep in engineering structures (1966) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” &
J.A.H. Hult // Creep in engineering structures (1966) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” &
J.A.H. Hult // Creep in engineering structures (1966) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” &
J.A.H. Hult // Creep in engineering structures (1966) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” &

Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity

Tertiary stage of idealized creep curve

Isolated cavities Orientated cavities Microcracks Macrocracks Fracture kinematic hardening parameter K III
Isolated cavities
Orientated cavities
Microcracks
Macrocracks
Fracture
kinematic hardening
parameter K
III
isotropic hardening
parameter H
min. creep rate ε˙ cr
II
min
pr
I
primary creep strain ε
Creep damage starts
pl
plastic strain ε
Damage
el
instantaneous
strain ε ins
accumulates
elastic strain ε
damage parameter ω
Time t
time to fracture t ∗
Strain ε
creep strain ε cr
rupture strain ε ∗
Stress σ, Damage ω

J.A.H. Hult // Creep in engineering structures (1966)

J.A.H. Hult // Creep in engineering structures (1966) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” &
J.A.H. Hult // Creep in engineering structures (1966) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” &
J.A.H. Hult // Creep in engineering structures (1966) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” &
J.A.H. Hult // Creep in engineering structures (1966) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI” &

Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity

Creep strain rate (log scale)

Schematic representation of creep rate vs. strain dependence

kinematic hardening

 
   

stability

III

I

II

ε˙ cr

min

   

isotropic stable metal

 
 
 

stability

III

I

II

ε˙ cr

min

Creep strain (log scale)

I II ε ˙ c r min Creep strain (log scale) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach
I II ε ˙ c r min Creep strain (log scale) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach
I II ε ˙ c r min Creep strain (log scale) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach
I II ε ˙ c r min Creep strain (log scale) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach

Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity

Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening

Cyclic

σ

(isotropic)

hardening

Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening

Schematic representation of creep rate vs. strain dependence

kinematic hardening 3 2 isotropic III 1 hardening stability ε II I ε˙ cr min
kinematic hardening
3
2
isotropic
III
1
hardening
stability
ε
II
I
ε˙ cr
min
isotropic stable metal
hardening metal
III
stability
II
I
ε˙ cr
min
Creep strain (log scale)
Creep strain rate (log scale)
min Creep strain (log scale) Creep strain rate (log scale) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU
min Creep strain (log scale) Creep strain rate (log scale) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU
min Creep strain (log scale) Creep strain rate (log scale) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU
min Creep strain (log scale) Creep strain rate (log scale) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU

Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity

Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening

Cyclic

σ

(isotropic)

hardening

Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening Cyclic (isotropic) softening σ
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening Cyclic (isotropic) softening σ
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening Cyclic (isotropic) softening σ
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening Cyclic (isotropic) softening σ
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening Cyclic (isotropic) softening σ
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening Cyclic (isotropic) softening σ

Cyclic

(isotropic)

softening

σ

Cyclic (isotropic) softening σ
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening Cyclic (isotropic) softening σ
Cyclic σ (isotropic) hardening Cyclic (isotropic) softening σ

Schematic representation of creep rate vs. strain dependence

kinematic hardening 3 2 isotropic III 1 hardening stability ε II I ε˙ cr min
kinematic hardening
3
2
isotropic
III
1
hardening
stability
ε
II
I
ε˙ cr
min
isotropic stable metal
hardening metal
softening metal
1
isotropic
2
III
3
softening
stability
II
ε
I
ε˙ cr
min
Creep strain (log scale)
Creep strain rate (log scale)
min Creep strain (log scale) Creep strain rate (log scale) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU
min Creep strain (log scale) Creep strain rate (log scale) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU

Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity

ε

E k E h

ε in

ε ins cr ε λ k λ h el pl ε pr ε ε dh
ε ins
cr
ε
λ k λ h
el
pl
ε pr
ε
ε
dh
ε el =
σ
E (T )
=
E
dt
k
IV
λ
k
σ
E
h
I
II
λ
h
dk
=
F k (σ, T )
dt
J.A.H. Hult // Creep in engineering structures (1966)

F h (σ, T )

Rheological model for inelasticity of steel AISI type 316

in

d dt ε = G (σ, T , k , h , ω )

ε ss + ε tr d ω = H (σ, T ) dt σ III
ε ss + ε tr
d ω
=
H (σ, T )
dt
σ
III
AISI type 316 in d d t ε = G ( σ, T , k ,
, ω ) ε ss + ε tr d ω = H (σ, T ) dt
, ω ) ε ss + ε tr d ω = H (σ, T ) dt
, ω ) ε ss + ε tr d ω = H (σ, T ) dt
, ω ) ε ss + ε tr d ω = H (σ, T ) dt

Outline

1
1

Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

2
2
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
3
3
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI

Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI type 316 Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316 Description of creep behavior for steel AISI type 316

Phenomenological and rheological aspects of the proposed model Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316 at 600 C Proposed viscoplasticity model and its schematic representati on

4
4

Verification of the proposed model with uniaxial experiments

5
5

Conclusions and Outlook

Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316

Available creep curves in low stress domain at 600 C

0.1 0.01 -3 10 Experiments 80 MPa 170 MPa 70 MPa 120 MPa from FZKA:
0.1
0.01
-3
10
Experiments
80
MPa
170
MPa
70
MPa
120
MPa
from FZKA:
60
MPa
100
MPa
-4
10
3
4
5
100
10
10
10
Time, h
Total strain

M. Rieth et al. “Creep of the Austenitic Steel AISI 316 L(N): E xperiments and Models” // Report FZKA 7065 (2004)

E xperiments and Models” // Report FZKA 7065 (2004) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI”
E xperiments and Models” // Report FZKA 7065 (2004) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI”
E xperiments and Models” // Report FZKA 7065 (2004) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI”
E xperiments and Models” // Report FZKA 7065 (2004) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI”

Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316

Available creep curves in high stress domain at 600 C

1 Experiments from ONERA: 255 MPa 300 MPa 230 MPa 280 MPa 200 MPa 270
1
Experiments from ONERA:
255
MPa
300
MPa
230
MPa
280
MPa
200
MPa
270
MPa
0.1
0.01
3
4
5
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
10
10
10
Time, h
Total strain

J.-L. Chaboche “Constitutive equations for cyclic plastic ity and cyclic viscoplasticity” // Int. J. Plast., vol. 5 (1989)

cyclic viscoplasticity” // Int. J. Plast., vol. 5 (1989) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI”
cyclic viscoplasticity” // Int. J. Plast., vol. 5 (1989) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI”
cyclic viscoplasticity” // Int. J. Plast., vol. 5 (1989) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI”
cyclic viscoplasticity” // Int. J. Plast., vol. 5 (1989) Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI”

Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316

Strain rate vs. strain dependence derived from creep curves at 600 C

0.01 high stresses low stresses -3 10 from ONERA: from FZKA: 300 MPa 170 MPa
0.01
high stresses
low stresses
-3
10
from ONERA:
from FZKA:
300
MPa
170
MPa
-4
280
MPa
120
MPa
10
270
MPa
100
MPa
255
MPa
80
MPa
-5
230
MPa
70
MPa
10
200
MPa
60
MPa
-6
10
-7
10
-8
10
-9
10
-4
-3
10
10
Total strain
0.01
0.1
0.2
Strain rate, 1/h

Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316

Modeling of minimum creep strain rate at 600 C

-3 10 low stress tests from FZKA -4 10 high stress tests from ONERA Sinh
-3
10
low stress tests from FZKA
-4
10
high stress tests from ONERA
Sinh
model:
ε˙ min cr = A sinh (B σ ) ,
where
-5
A
= 2. 335 · 10 −10 (1/h) and B = 0
. 053 (1/MPa)
10
Power law: ε˙ cr
C σ n
, where
min =
-6
C
= 5. 647 · 10 −23 (1/h) and
n = 7. 515
10
-7
10
-8
10
-9
10
10 20
30
40
50
100
200
300
400
Minimum creep strain rate, 1/h

Stress, MPa

300 400 Minimum creep strain rate, 1/h Stress, MPa Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI”
300 400 Minimum creep strain rate, 1/h Stress, MPa Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI”

Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316

Modeling of minimum creep strain rate at 600 C

-3 10 low stress tests from FZKA -4 10 high stress tests from ONERA Sinh
-3
10
low stress tests from FZKA
-4
10
high stress tests from ONERA
Sinh
model:
ε˙ min cr = A sinh (B σ ) ,
where
-5
A
= 2. 335 · 10 −10 (1/h) and B = 0
. 053 (1/MPa)
10
Power law: ε˙ cr
C σ n
, where
min =
-6
C = 5. 647 · 10 −23 (1/h) and
n = 7. 515
10
σ
∆ε t
-7
ε Strain Control:
10
∆ε t
ε
-8
time
10
-9
10
10 20
30
40
50
100
200
300
400
Minimum creep strain rate, 1/h

Stress, MPa

300 400 Minimum creep strain rate, 1/h Stress, MPa Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI”
300 400 Minimum creep strain rate, 1/h Stress, MPa Y. Gorash & H. Altenbach (NTU “KhPI”

Outline

1
1

Introduction Schematic representations of hardening behavior

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Chaboche unified viscoplasticity model

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures

2
2
model Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel
3
3
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI
Standard uniaxial tests at elevated temperatures 2 3 Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI

Mechanical properties and creep behavior for steel AISI type 316 Mechanical properties of steel AISI type 316 Description of creep behavior for steel AISI type 316

Phenomenological and rheological aspects of the proposed model Basic assumptions for modeling of inelasticity Experimental creep data of the steel AISI type 316 at 600 C Proposed viscoplasticity model and its schematic representati on

4
4

Verification of the proposed model with uniaxial experiments

5
5

Conclusions and Outlook

Proposed unified viscoplasticity model

Evolution equations and its schematic representations

System of coupled equations:

ε˙ in = A sinh (B σ v ) = f (σ v ) ——————————

σ v =

 

1 h σ + H + σ 0 sign (σ K ) K

˙

H

= C 1 ( h H ) | ε˙ in |

˙

K

= C 2 [σ 0 sign (σ K ) K ] | ε˙ in |

—————————— σ˙ = E (ε˙ t ε˙ in )

Anisotropic

Hardening variables H and K
Hardening
variables
H and K

σ

ε

7 material constants: A , B , σ 0 , h , C 1 ,
7 material constants:
A , B , σ 0 , h ,
C 1 , C 2 , E
7 material constants: A , B , σ 0 , h , C 1 , C
7 material constants: A , B , σ 0 , h , C 1 , C
7 material constants: A , B , σ 0 , h , C 1 , C
7 material constants: A , B , σ 0 , h , C 1 , C

Proposed unified viscoplasticity model

Evolution equations and its schematic representations Bilinear System of coupled equations: σ Isotropic Hardening
Evolution equations and its schematic representations
Bilinear
System of coupled equations:
σ
Isotropic
Hardening
ε˙ in = A sinh (B σ v ) = f (σ v )
——————————
variable
H
σ v =
1 − h σ + H + σ 0 sign (σ − K ) − K
˙
H
= C 1 ( h − H ) | ε˙ in |
ε
˙
K
= C 2 [σ 0 sign (σ − K ) − K ] | ε˙ in |
——————————
σ˙ = E (ε˙ t − ε˙ in )
Anisotropic
Hardening
σ
Non-linear
σ
Kinematic
variables
H and K
Hardening
ε
ε
7 material constants:
variable
A , B , σ 0 , h ,
C 1 , C 2 , E
K

Proposed unified viscoplasticity model

Evolution equations and its schematic representations Bilinear System of coupled equations: σ σ Perfect Isotropic
Evolution equations and its schematic representations
Bilinear
System of coupled equations:
σ
σ
Perfect
Isotropic
Plasticity
Hardening
ε˙ in = A sinh (B σ v ) = f (σ v )
——————————
variable
H
σ v =
1 − h σ + H + σ 0 sign (σ − K ) − K
˙
H
= C 1 ( h − H ) | ε˙ in |
ε
ε
constant
˙
K
= C 2 [σ 0 sign (σ − K ) − K ] | ε˙ in |
h
——————————
σ˙ = E (ε˙ t − ε˙ in )
Anisotropic
Hardening
σ
Non-linear
σ
Kinematic
variables
H and K
Hardening
ε
ε
7 material constants:
variable
A , B , σ 0 , h ,
C 1 , C 2 , E
K