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# Physics Formulas

## Kinematics: One-Dimensional Motion

d = displacement (in m)
d2 = final position (in m)
d1 = initial position (in m)
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t = time interval (in s)
t2 = final time (in s)
t1 = initial time (in s)
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v "bar" = average velocity (in m/s)
d = d = displacement (in m)
d2 = final position (in m)
d1 = initial position (in m)
t = t = time interval (in s)
t2 = final time (in s)
t1 = initial time (in s)
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a "bar" = average acceleration (in m/s2)
v = change in velocity (in m/s)
v2 = final velocity (in m/s)
v1 = initial velocity (in m/s)
t = time interval (in s)
t2 = final time (in s)
t1 = initial time (in s)
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a = acceleration (in m/s2)
v = change in velocity (in m/s)
vf = final velocity (in m/s)
vi = initial velocity (in m/s)
t = time interval (in s)
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vf = final velocity (in m/s)
vi = inital velocity (in m/s)
a = acceleration (in m/s2)
t = time (in s)
d = displacement (in m)
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vf = final velocity (in m/s)
vi = inital velocity (in m/s)
t = time (in s)
d = displacement (in m)
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vi = inital velocity (in m/s)
a = acceleration (in m/s2)
t = time (in s)d = displacement (in m)

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vf = final velocity (in m/s)
vi = inital velocity (in m/s)
a = acceleration (in m/s2)
d = displacement (in m)
g = - 9.80 m/s2
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Forces
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FNET = net force (in N)
m = mass (in kg)
a = acceleration (in m/s2)
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W = weight (in N)
m = mass (in kg)
g = acceleration due to gravity (9.80 m /s2)
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Ff = frictional force (in N)
= coefficient of friction (unitless)
FN = normal force (in N)
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at constant velocity only
Ff = frictional force (in N)
FA = applied force (in N)
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on a horizontal surface only
FN = normal force (in N)
W = weight (in N)
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at constant velocity on a horizontal surface only
FA = applied force (in N)
= coefficient of friction (unitless)
W = weight (in N)
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## Fg= force of gravitational attraction between two objects (in

N)
K = Universal gravitation constant = 6.67 X 10-11 Nm2/kg2
m1 and m2 = masses of the two objects (each in kg)
d = distance between the centers of the objects (in m)
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Vectors
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Pythagorean theorem relating the lengths of the legs (a and b)
to the hypotenuse (c) in a right triangle
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Trigonometric definition of sine as the ratio of the length of the
opposite side to the hypotenuse

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Trigonometric definition of cosine as the ratio of the length of
the adjacent side to the hypotenuse

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Trigonometric definition of tangent as the ratio of
the length of the opposite side to the adjacent side

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Trigonometric identity equating the sine of an angle to cosine of its complement

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Trigonometric identity equating the tangent of an
angle to reciprocal of the tangent of its complement

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Ax = length of the x-component of vector A
Ay = length of the y-component of vector A
A = magnitude of vector A
= angle of vector A (in standard degrees
counterclockwise from the x-axis)

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Statement showing that the x-component of a resultant vector is
equal to the sum of the x-components of the component vectors
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Statement showing that the y-component of a resultant vector is
equal to the sum of the y-components of the component vectors
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## Equation for the calculation of the magnitude of the

resultant vector given its components
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Equation for the calculation of the direction of the resultant
vector given its components

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F "perpendicular" = the perpendicular
component of the weight of an object on
an inclined plane (in N)
W = weight (in N)
= angle of inclination of an inclined plane (in degrees)
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F "parallel" = the parallel component of the
weight of an object on an inclined plane (in N)
W = weight (in N)
= angle of inclination of an inclined plane (in degrees)
m = mass (in kg)
g = acceleration due to gravity (9.80 m/s2)
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a = acceleration of an object down a frictionless inclined
plane (in m/s2)
g = acceleration due to gravity (9.80 m/s2)
= angle of inclination of an inclined plane (in degrees)
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## Ff = frictional force on an inclined plane (in N)

F "perpendicular" = the perpendicular component of the weight of an object on an
inclined plane (in N)
= coefficient of friction (unitless)
W = weight (in N)
= angle of inclination of an inclined plane (in degrees)
m = mass (in kg)
g = acceleration due to gravity (9.80 m/s2)

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= coefficient of friction (unitless)
= angle of inclination of an inclined plane when an object
first
begins to move (as the angle is slowly increased) (in
degrees)
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## FNET= net force experienced by an object on an inclined plane (in N)

F "parallel" = the parallel component of the weight of an object on an inclined plane (in
N)
Ff = frictional force on an inclined plane (in N)
= coefficient of friction (unitless)
F "perpendicular" = the perpendicular component of the weight of an object on an
inclined plane (in N)
W = weight (in N)
= angle of inclination of an inclined plane (in degrees)
__________________________________________________________________________________ __
a = acceleration of an object down an inclined
plane (in m/s2)
g = acceleration due to gravity (9.80 m/s2)
= coefficient of friction (unitless)
= angle of inclination of an inclined plane (in degrees)

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Kinematics: Two-Dimensional Motion
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x = horizontal displacement (in m)
vx = horizontal velocity (in m/s)
t = time
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y = vertical displacement (in m)
vy = initial vertical velocity (in m/s)
t = time
g = acceleration due to gravity (- 9.80 m/s2)
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vx = initial horizontal velocity (in m/s)
v = initial velocity at an angle (in m/s)
= initial angle (in degrees)
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vy = initial vertical velocity (in m/s)
v = initial velocity at an angle (in m/s)
= initial angle (in degrees)
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## vyf = final vertical velocity (in m/s)

vy = initial vertical velocity (in m/s)
t = time
g = acceleration due to gravity (- 9.80 m/s2)
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t = total time in the air for a horizontally-launched projectile (in s)
y = vertical distance, or height (in m)
g = acceleration due to gravity (- 9.80 m/s2)

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t = total time in the air for a projectile launched at an angle (in
vy = initial vertical velocity (in m/s)
g = acceleration due to gravity (- 9.80 m/s2)

s)

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## ac = centripetal acceleration (in m/s2)

v = circular velocity (in m/s)
r = radius (in m)
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Fc = centripetal force (in N)
m = mass (in kg)
v = circular velocity (in m/s)
r = radius (in m)
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v = circular velocity (in m/s)
r = radius (in m)
T = period of rotation (in s)
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ac = centripetal acceleration (in m/s2)
r = radius (in m)
T = period of rotation (in s)
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Fc = centripetal force (in N)
r = radius (in m)
m = mass (in kg)
T = period of rotation (in s)
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## T = period of rotation (in s)

f = frequency of rotation (in s-1 or Hz)

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## T = period of a pendulum (in s)

l = length of the pendulum (in m)
g = acceleration due to gravity (- 9.80 m/s2)
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Momentum, Work, and Power
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Impulse expressed in Ns
F = force (in N)
t = t = time interval (in s)
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p = momentum (in kg m/s)
m = mass (in kg)
v = velocity (in m/s)
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F = force (in N)
t = time interval (in s)
m = mass (in kg)
v = change in velocity (in m/s)
vf = final velocity (in m/s)
vi = inital velocity (in m/s)
p = change in momentum (in kg m/s)
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pA = initial momentum of object A (in kg m/s)
pB = initial momentum of object B (in kg m/s)
pA' = final momentum of object A (in kg m/s)
pB' = final momentum of object B (in kg m/s)
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mA = mass of object A (in kg)
mB = mass of object B (in kg)
vA = initial velocity of object A (in m/s)
vB = initial velocity of object B (in m/s)
vA' = final velocity of object A (in m /s)
vB' = final velocity of object B (in m/s)
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mA = mass of object A (in kg)
mB = mass of object B (in kg)
vA' = final velocity of object A (in m/s)
vB' = final velocity of object B (in m/s)

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W = work (in J)
F = force (in N)
d = displacement in the direction of the force (in m)
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Fh = horizontal component of the force (in N)
F = force (in N)
= angle between the directions of the force and the
horizontal displacement (in degrees)
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W = work (in J)
Fh = horizontal component of the force (in N)
F = force (in N)
= angle between the directions of the force
and the horizontal displacement (in degrees)
d = horizontal displacement (in m)
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P = power (in W)
W = work (in J)
t = time (in s)
F = force (in N)
= angle between the directions of the
force and the horizontal displacement (in degrees)
d = displacement (in m)
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% Efficiency of a machine
Wo = work output (in J)
Wi = work input (in J)
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Energy
__________________________________________________________________________________ __
W = work (in J)
E = change in energy (in J)
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PE = gravitational potential energy (in J)
m = mass (in kg)
g = acceleration due to gravity (9.80 m/s2)
h = height above reference level (in m)
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KE = kinetic energy (in J)
m = mass (in kg)
v = velocity (in m/s)

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KEi = initial kinetic energy (in J)

## PEi = initial gravitational potential energy (in J)

KEf = final kinetic energy (in J)
PEf = final gravitational potential energy (in J)
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m = mass (in kg)
vi = initial velocity (in m/s)
g = acceleration due to gravity
(9.80 m/s2)
hi = initial height above
reference level (in m)
vf = final velocity (in m/s)
hf = final height above reference level (in m)
____________________________________________________________________________________
vi = initial velocity (in m/s)
g = acceleration due to gravity (9.80 m/s2)
hi = initial height above reference level (in m)
vf = final velocity (in m/s)
hf = final height above reference level (in m)
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Static Electricity and Electric Fields
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F = force of electrical attraction between two charged objects (in
N)
K = Coulomb's Law constant = 9.0 X 109 Nm2/C2
q and q' = charges of the two objects (each in C)
d = distance between the centers of the objects (in m)
e = -1.60 X 10-19 C
1 C = 6.25 X 1018 e
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V = potential difference or voltage (in V)
W = work done in moving the charged object (in J)
q = charge (in C)
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C = capacitance (in F)
q = charge (in C)
V = potential difference or voltage (in V)

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Current Electricity and Circuits
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I = current (in A)
q = charge (in C)
t = time (in s)

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## V = potential difference or voltage (in V)

I = current (in A)
R = resistance (in )
__________________________________________________________________________________ __
P = electrical power (in W)
V = potential difference or voltage (in V)
I = current (in A)
R = resistance (in )
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E = electrical energy (in J)
V = potential difference or voltage (in V)
I = current (in A)
R = resistance (in )
t = time (in s)
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RT = effective/equivalent/total resistance (in )
R1 and R2 and R3 = resistance of individual
resistors connected in series (in )
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## RT = effective/equivalent/total resistance (in )

R1 and R2 and R3 = resistance of individual
resistors connected in parallel (in )
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Waves and Sound
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c = 3.00 X 108 m/s
Speed of Sound (Room Temp @ 20 C) = 343 m/s
v = velocity of a wave (in m/s)
f = frequency of the wave (in Hz or s-1)
= wavelength of the wave (in m)
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T = period of a wave (in s)
f = frequency of the wave (in s-1 or Hz)

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i = angle of incidence (in degrees)
r = angle of reflection (in degrees)
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Light, Reflection and Refraction
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E = illuminance (in lx)
P= luminous flux of the light source (in lm)
d = distance from source to surface (in m)
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n = index of refraction (unitless)
i = angle of incidence (in degrees)
r = angle of refraction (in degrees)
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ni = index of refraction of incident medium (unitless)
nr = index of refraction of refracting medium (unitless)
i = angle of incidence (in degrees)
r = angle of refraction (in degrees)
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ns = index of refraction in a given substance (unitless)
c = speed of light = 3.00 X 108 m/s
vs = speed of light in the substance (in m/s)
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c = critical angle (in degrees)
n = index of refraction (unitless)

sin c

n2
n1

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Mirrors and Lenses
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f = focal length of mirror or lens (in m)
di = image distance (in m)
do = object distance (in m)
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m= magnification (unitless)
hi = image height (in m)
ho = object height (in m)
di = image distance (in m)
do = object distance (in m)
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