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10/23/2014 International Relations Midterm Exam Flashcards - Cram.

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Great powers trying for Peace and Pacifism (4)
- Prohibition on the launching of projectiles and
explosives from balloons.
-Prohibition on the use of asphxiating or
deleterious gases.
-prohbition on expanding bullets (dum dums)
-established international court on arbitration =
work out differences.
The Hague Peace Conference, 1899
-In the Netherlands
-Tsar Nicholas II of Russia initiates this = limits the
production of arms.
= Doesnt get achieved, no agreement, Germany
remains a major threat
==> They achieve a # of symbolic agreements
(peace and pacifism notecard).
-very unusual because its attended by Mexico,
Persia, Siam = inclusion of non-western world.
The Great Illusion by Norman Angel (1909)
= Push for internationalism
-world is so linked that war is
unprofitable/unthinkable = interdependent.
-translated into 25 languages, sold over 2 million
- economic and social interdependence
Ludovic Lazarus Zamenhof
- Inventor of Esperanto 1887
- Cultural Internationalism
- wanted to create a new language so everyone
can communicate and get along = intended to
make peace.
The Paris Universal Exposition 1900
-Cultural internationalism
-Fairs, expositions, etc.
= look at the achievements of past century and
twoard the future.
-big showing of people
- this is run by europeans and americans - there
are human zoos, not that international, very new
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-opposite of liberal democratic capitalism
-Communism is the next stage.
-When Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels get a hold
of it, it becomes threatening.
-very international
-Russian Revolution = it becomes a state ideology.
Definition = Any of various theories or systems of
social organization in which the means of
producing and distributing goods is owned
collectively or by a centralized government that
often plans and controls the economy.
The stage in Marxist-Leninist theory intermediate
between capitalism and communism, in which
collective ownership of the economy under the
dictatorship of the proletariat has not yet been
successfully achieved.
-Was very threatening
-No single leader very disparate
-Wanted to abolish state, government and any
coercive social institution (including property).
-Pushed voluntary cooperation for social welfare =
believed it was a better system.
-Used violence to advocate it.
-First Terrorist movement
-There were many assassinations and bombings
(especially in Europe).
-President William McKinley (1843-1901) was
assassinated by Leon Czolgosz (1873-1901)
-Nations are natural
-Nationalism is fostered by:
State education
Mass political Parties
National Languages
Bureaucratic State
-Austro Hungarian Empire, Russian Empire, Africa
and Asia = all kinds of nationalities
=> Huge threat to empires.
Possibilities and Challenges
Imperialism=The policy of extending a nation's
authority by territorial acquisition or by the
establishment of economic and political hegemony
over other nations
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Is the dominant international system
-mid-late 19th century - huge expansion
-renewal of imperialism.
3 Models of Imperialism (British)
1) Colonies of White Settlement
-trade, population outlet, agricultura, man power
(e.g. Austrailia and South Africa)
-> efforts made to stay white, keep out non-british
-self rule
-more autonomy and freedom
-britian controls foreign policy (naval help)
3 Models of Imperialism (British)
2) India
-trade, manpower, investment, resources, most
important colony
= defines British
-tea, rice, #s of troops, cotton, sell finished goods
back to them.
3 Models of Imperialism (British)
3) The Dependent Empire
-strategic importance, natural resources, prestige
-most colonies in africa and asia
-tutorage, teaching people
-used to extract natural resources - not a lot of
-> place to invest capital - infrastructure, railroads,
ports, etc.
French Imperialism (Algeria)
-no serious effort to settle colonies.
-religious = Catholicism (missionaries/civilizing
-some economic benefits (IndoChina, dont need
colonies to provide them food).
-racial/civilizing mission.
Sources of Imperialism (4) = no single clause
Number 1 = Religion
-Charles Darwin - The Origin of Species - major
shake/evolution/natural selection = undermines
-missionaries went to reinvigorate the faith by
spreading it abroad and converting people.
-some genuine efforst - hospitals/schools
-some react violently to missionaries (troops are
sent in, grows and grows, and new colonies form).
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Sources of Imperialism (4)
2) Racial Impulse
-Social Darwinism - Herbert Spencer - if evolution
is a struggle then its survival of the fittest (social,
the fittest should dominate).
-Scientific Racism = professionals, some races are
superior, race is scientifically natural (Count Arthur
de Gobineau ranked the races).
-Cecil Rhodes
- The White Man's burden by Rudyard Kipling =
duty to uplift people, bioloigcally ordained, moral
and ethic thing to do.
Sources of Imperialism (4)
3) Strategic impulse 1
British need a navy to protect/defend itself.
1) Sea Power =
-bases and coaling stations must be established
-military importance/protection
-economic importance
-chockepoints must be protected (Suez Canal)
-what if someone gains control of these
chockepoints - british did everything in their power
to control/defend these areas because its their
Sources of Imperialism (4)
3) Strategic impulse 2
2) Land Power = geopolitics
-Sir Halford Mackinder = what matters the most is
the heartland/pivot area.
-if you control that you're untouchable
-Eurasian landmass - Russia and central Europe
= alternative to sea power argument.
Sources of Imperialism (4)
4)Economic Impulse 1
John A. Hobson (1858-1940)
-Imperialism is entirely driven by finance capital
(money to invest anywhere you want)
- so much money that they cant invest profitably in
england anymore - driving england into the ground
Sources of Imperialism (4)
4)Economic Impulse 2
V.I. Lenin (1870-1924)
-abundance of money invested
-in the marxist ideology it is the last stage in
=fighting for control
-conflicting great powers.
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Imperial China
-never under direct control
-carved up by Great powers into spheres of
-completely economic
-somewhat religious
-set up treaty ports along coast
-european run custom houses (sources of revenue
for chinese govt)
-chinese laws dont apply
Boxer Rebellion
-anyone can come in and trade - america wants in.
Response -> anti-imperialists
-society of righteous and harmoneous fists aka
-agitated by invasion
-europeans put together a huge number of troops,
go into Pekind and the boxers are put down.
-Chinese govt is fined
1911- Revolution in CHina - becomes a republic
led by Dr. Len, forms the nationalist party.
-very important to the british empire
-british use indirect rule - Indian princes are left in
charge - they work thru the leaders.
-India is too big to conquer
-a system is set up for economic exploitation.
their military is a major contribution to britain.
-By 1914 Africa is colonized (only 2 independent
states left - Abysinia/Liberia)
-The Scramble for africa because of...anglo-french
-French is embarassed because of the defeat
against Germany/Prussia - send troops to conquer
weaker nations.
-German - Otto Von Bismark is the leader, knows
that Germany needs to protect itself from powers -
encourages french to go to africa.
-prestige, surplus capital, commerce, christianity,
-technology and medicine helped them do it.
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Great Powers Conflict tensions among global powers
Anglo-Boer War
Great Power Conflict
-British Vs. Dutch
-Dutch oppose the British colonization.
-Cecil Rhodes = racist, prime minister of cape
colony, diamond company ,wants money.
-Boers move north and 2 states are established,
the transvaal and orange free state.
-gold is found in the transvaal and the British come
in - tension.
-1899-war breaks out
-drags on for 3 years
-British set up concentration camps - costly$$
-1st drop for British - unpopular at home and lots of
troops used.
Fashoda Crisis
Great power conflict
-Britain wants to create the cape to cairo railroad
to connect the british empire (north to south)
-french want to build west to east
-fashoda = intersection.
-french want to get there first
-britain is fighting in suda - they carry down to
-Paris and London are allies on the homefront!!!
-French are outgunned and are worried about the
Germans so they want an alliance w/ britain.
-brought them to the verge of war.
Great Powers conflict
-French Sphere of Influence
-Kaiser Wilheilm II (Germany) gives speech telling
Morocans they should be free - this annoys the
-The moroccans support the French and the
French control in Morocco remains.
-Germany does want in though.
Russian Ports
Great Power Conflict
-Russia doesnt have a year round ice-free port
-they're kinda stuck
-british dont want them to have access to ports.
-Russians become increasingly restless.
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Cecil Rhodes
-anglo-saxons are the best race (cultural
-scientific racism - not for others benefit
-economic benefits for self/individuality
-very secretive to get people to do what he wants
-church missionary zeal for anglo-saxon race.
-economic basis of imperialism
-go elsewhere to use capital
-opposite of hobson.
-if you have power use it.
-we have the instinctive racial tendencies to
Kaiser Wilheilm II
-power lies on waters
-get out there and find new ports
-challenge British navally
-prestige of German Empire
Early 20th Century-rise of US and Japan
-competitive with each other
-pacific interests
Americas Rise to Power (timing)
Early 19th century they're not involved in
imperialism because they're not strong enough.
-by the end of the 19th century they rise in the
world power rank.
America's Rise to Power
1) Manifest Destiny
-By John Gast (1872)
-continental expansion
-> Advertisement = figure (angelic) moving across
nature, dark setting of uncivlized america,
symbols/imagery of American-expansion.
-Texas annex (1845)
-1846-Mexico and US go to war -- acquire S.W.
-Manifest destiny = rational, mid-1850s, bring the
continent under control, ordained by god.
-2 Forms of Manifest destiny
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2 Forms of Manifest Destiny
-religiously inspired
-serves as an example for the old world to follow
-US doesnt need to go out, its an example.
2 Forms of Manifest Destiny
2) Late 19th Century/Early 20th Century
-America as a regenerative force (interventionist)
-Sacred-Secular mission: spread democracy
(secular) and Christianity (sacred) thru the world.
America's Rise to Power
2) The Frontier and Overseas Expansion
1890 = Census announced that the frontier was
closed because there were more than 2 people per
square mile.
-when the frontier closed people wondered what
will happen now.
2) The Frontier and Overseas Expansion
"The Significance of the Western Frontier" (1893)
-Frontier is central to Americans
-the Frontier makes America
=Democracy, liberalism, etc.
-Frontier experience creats individualism of
It allowed immigrants to become Americans.
America's Rise to Power
2) The Frontier and Overseas Expansion (US)
-U.S. doesnt want to be left behind - When country
cant expand, people worry, no more
-Domestic Economcy -Depression 1893-1900 =
shock @ depression, major railroad companies go
bankrupt, panic on wallstreet, gold supply levels-
people dont think they can trade gold for money
-mass bankrupcy
America's Rise to Power
2) The Frontier and Overseas Expansion (US)
would stimulate the economy
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America's Rise to Power
2) The Frontier and Overseas Expansion (US)
-immigrants are strike breakers or leaders
-americans dont like immigrants - they are the
causes and they bring in foreign issues
--> foreign policy is created
America's Rise to Power
2) The Frontier and Overseas Expansion (US)
only the fittest wills urvive
-racism makes imperialism less likely.
America's Rise to Power
2) The Frontier and Overseas Expansion (US)
-cultural reason
-idea that feminism is beocming loud and because
the depression puts men out of work they're not
breadwinners anymore.
-leisure time if or women. and if men get this
they're feminized.
-> Go out and fight wars to become manly.
America's Rise to Power
2) The Frontier and Overseas Expansion (US)
"The Influence of Sea Power on History (1890)"
-all major powers are sea powers.
-strong navy = power
-20th century - sea power
-US must build a navy so they're not left behind or
vulnerable to attack from other powers.
-> Need bases, coaling stations, control of sea
-very influential (Roosevelt, Kaiser Wilheilm,
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
Long term causes: US must build a navy to protect
itself from an attack and to be a power.
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
resulted in the United States gaining control over
the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and
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America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
=Predominant power in the Western Hemisphere
-1823 Spain will lose their empire
-Cuba is still theirs
-Chile,Peru, Aregentina = revolution and
->Fear that other powers will colonize Latin
-President James Monroe - Latin America is
America's interest.
-US doesnt want monarchical rule in Latin America
-symoblic power
-G.B. isnt interested in colonizing there they just
want to trade.
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
increasing interest in the colonies of Spain
-US has had a long term interest in annexing Cuba
- epxanding slavery for the south, former slave/AA
place - dont want an uprising of former slaves.
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
1895, uprising against spain.
-Spanish are oppressive - Concentration camps,
starvation, execution.
-> Good opportunity for the US to annex Cuba.
-Yellow Press/Jingoism = emergence of the
popular press.
-Yellow press whips up pro-war sentiment (2
papers = NY World and NY Journal) fighting for
readership control.
-cartoons, Spanish = apes
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
Feb, 1898
- Spanish minister for Cuba in D.C. writes letter
calling president weak to Spanish minister in
spane = de Lome Letter
-published in the US
-outraged @ foreginer.
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
-American Battleship in Havana Cuba explodes
-Yellow Press blames the Spanish
-> Cuases a war fever, remember the maine to hell
with spain!
-270 soldiers killed.
-McKinley asks for a declaration of war 1898
-460 troops die in war.
-5,000 die of disease
->inefficient and incompetent
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America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
-war spreads to Phillipines
-Roosevelt is the army leader sends fleet to
-Spanish fleet there is destroyed
-Sent to Puerto Rico
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
-Spain recognizes Cubas independence
-Cedes Puerto Rico and Guam to the US
-Sells Philippines to US for $20 million.
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
-Cuba will become independent
-troops are in cuba preparing them for indep.
-1902 - Consitution = Cuba is forced to accept the
PLATT Amendment = can't make treaties w/o
Americans, US has right to intervene whenever
Cuban indep of US interests are threatened and
create a permanent naval base (Guantalemo Bay)
--> Independent but lots of US control.
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
-US will give independence eventually.
-Emilio Aguinaldo = insurgency against US
presenece (1899)
-200,000 troops, 4,000 die
-Fights them with same tactics the Spanish used
-William Howard Taft = 1901= is made Civilian
Governer of Philippines
-insurgencies wind down
-Taft rebuilds and grants increasing independence
-> US gets Subic Bay (naval base for Pacific
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America's Rise to Power
4) The Annexation of Hawaii (1898)
-Independent Rule by Queen Liliuokalani
-Sugar cane and fruit planters dominate
political/economic life
-no tariff on Hawaiian sugar to the US
-1890 - abolished, pay duties
-> Sends Hawaiian economy down.
America's Rise to Power
4) The Annexation of Hawaii (1898)
Sanford B. Dole
-Leads coup against Queen in 1893
-Gives up authority
-appeals to the US to annex them - no interest.
-1898, Reublicans in power and they annex Hawaii
-no duty/tarffs for them.
-US gets Pearl Harbor (naval base/mid-pacific)
=> Need a big Navy to protect the empire.
America's Rise to Power
5) Connecting the Oceans
-bordered by the Atlantic and Pacific
-no way of connecting and concentrating fleet.
Roosevelt, 1904
-cancels treaty with British to build canal.
buy rights from France to Panama canal (40%
-workers are dying, Yellow fever cure
-Panama is apart of Colombia -> lease a 6 mile
wide zone - $10 million with least every year
$250,000. Not ratified.
-T.Roosevelt gets a coup/rebellion to start -
marines sent in and Panama becomes
independent and they're offered the same deal -
completed in 1914.
America's Rise to Power
6) Roosevelts Collary, 1904
->US is a soverign power and it has power of the
Western Hemisphere
-makes Monroe doctrine official, they actually have
the power to back themselves.
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Japan's Rise to Power
-becomes a major power
-prior to 1854 it was isolationist
-1853 Comodor Matthew Perry, US, demanded
trading rights
-Japanese are surprised and horrified and rejected
-Perry says he'll return - 1854 he presents a treaty
of frienship in 2 specific ports
-> inspires other european powers to do this too
-Japan is fuedal, run by a shogun, not
Japan's Rise to Power
1) Meiji Restoration, 1868
-oligarchs, try to resist domination, revolution,
fuedal leadership falls.
-Modernization and Westernization - in order to
advance they emulate the West (naval, commerce,
economy and education) - take best elements and
recreate them.
->Growth and change.
Japan's Rise to Power
1) Meiji Restoration, 1868
Challenges to Growth
-shortage of raw materials
-shortage of agricultural/arable land
-excess population: land and food supply.
Japan's Rise to Power
2) Colonial Expansion
= because of challenges to Growth
1. Korea = Under Chinese Control.
-helps them move into Manchuria (tempting target
for them)
-1894-95 = Sino-Japanese War = victory over
-Korea is independent and get Liaotung Peninsula
(Port Arthur)
-this is a problem for Russia because they had
controlled this area pre-japan.
->Russia pressures Japan and Russia occupies
-continues for 10 years...then
Japan's Rise to Power
1) Colonial Expansion
Because Russia occupied Korea
-Japanese are victorious
-Russia needs a port
-Russian navy is destroyed.
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Japan's Rise to Power
1) Colonial Expansion
-Revolution breaks out in Russia = cant keep
-Roosevelt intervenes
-Japan leases Liaotung and Port Arthur from China
-Japan gets a priviledged position in Manchuria
-Japan gets a protectorate over Korea (Japan
annexes it in 1910)
-Secret Taft-Katsura Agreement = Japan has
Korea and US has Philippines.
Racism in US because of Japanese expansion
Racial tensions in Hawaii, West Coast US because
they're petrified of Japanese Expansion.
People want to keep them out - wave of racism.
The European Arms Race
-Britain is dominant power but its losing its
-Germany, Weltpolitik "A Place in the Sun" = wont
be left behind, big navy, wants to rival or take over
-Germany establishes colonies in Africa and Asia
(Pacific Islands)=huge threat
European Alliance System is set up
-1882-Triple Alliance (defensive) - Germany, A-H,
Italy against France and Russia
-1894- Franco-Russian Alliance - response to
Germany (2 front war)
-1904- Anglo-French Entente = policy of the Kaiser
= huge threat, demonstration of common interest.
-1907 =Anglo-Russian Entente - GB is slowly
getting involved.
The Great War
-more destructive and widespread
-global conflict
The Road to Armageddon
1) Prewar Alliances
Triple Entente
Triple Alliance
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The Road to Armageddon
2) Issues
-Franco-German rivalry over Alsace-Lorraine
-Germany wins it in Prussia-German War, France
isnt happy.
-Italy and Austria-Hungary over the Tyrol (Italy
wont enter war because of this, war isnt
-British and German naval rivalry
-Russia and Austria Hungary rivalry in the Balkans.
Rivalry in the Balkans
1) Pan-Slavism
-Russia vs. Austria Hungary
-Ottomans are forced out of Europe
-New Independent places form
-Serbia is independent 1888
-Bosnia is given to A-H empire
-Pan-Slavism = people in balkans share nationality
(serbia pushes this)
-> wants to unite all pan-slavic countries together
and create Yugoslavia.
-lots of Serbs in Bosnia, problem for them living in
A-H land.
-A-H empire is multiethnic and if Serbia is
successful in uniting Slavs people will want
independence = must stop serbs.
==Independence for slavic people in A-H and
Ottoman empire
Rivalry in the Balkans
Russians see themselves as slavs/protector of
slavs/leader of pan-slavic movement.
-Russian elite/tsar see this as a way to stabilize
Rivalry in the Balkans
3) Ottoman Empire
Ottoman empire is in control of
Instanbul/Constantinople = religious center for
-Russia in Balkans -Instanbul
-Dardenelle Straight is occupied by Turkish (both
sides) -> Constantinople gives access to West
Coast of Straight.
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Archduke Franz Ferdinand
-heir to Austria-Hungarian throne
-wants to bring unity back to empire - reach out to
all peoples so they're not as suseptible to Serbian
-Pan-slavinists see this as a threat - assasinate
-the black hand = slavist national group in bosnia
-Ferdinand visits Bosnia and is attacked by the
black hand.
-> Austria hungary sees Serbia as souce of
-A-H makes sure Germany is their ally
-give an ultimatum to Serbia - 10 points of demand
(anti-nationalist)Designed to be REJECTED
-Serbs turn to Russians, reject ultimatum and
Russia will deal with it.
= there is a feeling this war can be contained and
NOT true = alliances and mobilizing army make
localization impossible.
Mobilization of early armies
July-August 1914 - thought to be a quick war
-Russian army is fully mobilized against A-H and
-Germany mobilizes against Russia
-France has to mobilize to support Russia (2 front
-Germany declares war on France.
Blame for the beginning of the war - Germany
Germany = has a feeling of strength that is
Also, AH is a weak ally for them (increase value) -
want war with Russia because they're getting
stronger and Germany wants to gain economic
control over Europe.
Military Plans
1) Germany's Schlieffen Plan
=As soon as war breaks out, attack France
through neutral Belgium.
-belief that Russia can't mobilize fast enough
-Get rid of France to avoid a 2 front war.
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Problems with the Schlieffen Plan
1) Belgium = neutral = ask for permission/rejected.
-Germans do it anyway and they come too short of
2) Britain enters war because Belgium's neutrality
was breached (august 4, 1914)
-treaty of 1839 = all great powers will defend the
neutrality of belgium.
-also because they want to protect ports against
-small/professional army
-kaiser isnt too concerned.
3) french want Alsace-Lorain (fails)
=>Excitement for war esp among upper and
middle class.
The 1st Battle of Marne
-Russians mobilize fast
-Germans send troops there and dont have
enough troops for Schlieffen plan to work.
-French are stronger than expected.
-German's regroup @ Marne River
-France and Germany faces off - very
=> people realize this isnt going to be a short war.
Stalemate and Slaughter
1) Trenchwarefare
-build trenches to set up defenseive posts
-both sides are on the defensive
-lots of slaughtering when attacked.
-no significant advances
-trenches have - barb war, rough land, filthy, open
land, mustard gas, lice, rats, etc.
-system of trenches - soldiers rotate
Stalemate and Slaughter
2) Technology
-machine guns give an advantage to the defense
(cant be assaulted)
-artillery (tanks)
-airplanes for scouting, bombings (Fakker Planes
(interupter gear = fire gun btw. propellers.)
Stalemate and Slaughter
3) Gallipoli
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-Winston Churchill
-German weak spot is the Ottoman Empire - attack
them and get troops.
-Dardenelles = Turkish Straights -> Russia
1) British send fleets to Turkish implacments along
straights, they have guns and mines - disasterous!
2) British land troops on the tip=Gallipoli =
disasterous - lasts 10 months - casualties/bad
1916 British leave after 10 months and are
humiliated at the stalemate.
Major Battles and Casualties
-Ypres, 1915
-Somme, 1916
-Verdum, 1916
-Passchendaele, 1917
-> Casualties are HUGE
-French and British mobilize colonial forces.
-British use conscription in 1916.
Military Dictatorship in Berlin
Hindenburg + Ludendorff = in charge of military
-war of attrition = kill as many as possible, starve,
-Fond of Submarine warfare
American Neutrality (1914) and Intervention 1916 Wilson Wins, kept US out of War.
American Intervention because:
1) Economic a) Lusitania
German U-boats
-British put a naval blockade on Germany
-US has a lucrative trade with germany and its
-US makes diplomatic protests but it statys neutral
-US starts trading with Britian and France on a
larger scale = stake in allied victory.
-Germany declares war zone in the ocean
-Lusitania = british passenger liner is blown up!
-1098 killed, including US citizens. - uproar in US
-Germany claimed it had munitions - uboat warfare
-French and British borrow moeny from US banks.
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American Intervention because:
1) Economic b) Allies low on $
American Intervention because
2) Political and Ethical Consderations
a) Immigration
-german-americans in US - dont want to go to war
-irish-americans - british dominate ireland (easter
-jews - escaped Russian control, Tsar wanted
them dead, anti-Russia
American intervention ethical considerations
=> Political problem for Wilson
-anglo file = bond with england
-romantic notion of French helping us getting
The Zimmerman Telegram
February 1917
-Germans reinstill unrestricted submarine warfare
-zimmerman (german foreign minister)
-sends telegram to Mexico
-British decode message
-Make mexico an offer they cant refuse - invade
US and get lost territory back.
-Japan is offered to join German side
==> Last straw, Wilson enters the war, April 6,
US entry into War
=make world safe for democracy
= an associate power - not a degenerate European
-Liberty bonds = govt sells to US people to fund
-Wilson declares "14 pts"
Wilson's 14 points
-no secret diplomacy
-freedom of seas
-removal of ecnomic barriers
-reduction in armaments
-settling colonial claims
-alsace lorain to france
-autonomy and independence in europe
-a general association of nations = league of
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Russian Withdrawal
-Russia is authoritarian, when they leave the US
wants democracy
-downhill after start of war
-Russian army is bad/poorly prepared.
-Tsar Nicholas II, takes personal control of military
= hes blamed for the misfortune and doesnt spend
enough time at capital.
-Gregory Rasputin = runs things in capital,
Alexandra's husband - murdered 1916.
-Terrible conditions on the home front.
By 1917 the situatino is out of control - abdicate -
new parliamentary government led by Prince
-worker groups cmpeting for power.
Russia: 2 Revolutions
March and October 1917
-Alexander Kerensky - continue to fight war!
-V.I. Lenin - German help Lenin back into Russia
from exile
-Bolsheviks (left party) gain power
-Kerensky asks them for help to put the right down,
but they overthrow the govt.
-Lenin wants peace - Germans respond.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918)
Peace negotations between Russia and Germany
-Trotsky vs. Germans
-Germans make demanding terms - want all of
western Russia = rejected and Germans march on
=Lenin wants to consolidate Revolution so Trotsky
signs treaty.
-March 1918 = Russia is out.
German control in Russia
They control all resouces of all land lost by Russia
-great for germans
-allies in shock
-germans can move most troops to the Western
Ludendorff Defensive
10/23/2014 International Relations Midterm Exam Flashcards - 21/21
-3 offensives to throw allies off
-shock troops to create suprising havoc.
-big artillery barages aren't used.
-germans cant keep up with selves.
-conditions are bad
-morale falls because troops realize they've been
told lies
-running out of supplies and men
-> huge counterattack - us plays a big role,
germans realize the games up.
-Wilheilm abdicates
-A republic is created in Germany
-Accept wilson's 14 pts
-armistice day, Nov 11, 1918
- social democrats wanted peace and are blamed
for losing the war.
- it isnt a surrender its an armistice.