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University of Wales Institute, Cardiff

School of Product & Engineering Design

BA (Hons) Product Design
Evaluation Document

Energy gel packaging

Author: Adam Price
Supervisor: Dr Stephen Thompson
Date of Presentation: Dec 16
Word Count: 7,848

Table of Contents
1 Table of Contents
Section 1: Research ______________________________________________ 2
2 Abstract / Summary ___________________________________________ 4
3 Introduction _________________________________________________ 5
4 The Need for a New Design _____________________________________ 6
5 Outline Project Brief __________________________________________ 7
6 Market Research ______________________________________________ 8
6.1 Secondary Research ________________________________________ 9
6.2 Analysis of Secondary Research _____________________________ 11
6.3 Primary Research __________________________________________ 12
6.4 Analysis of Primary Research ________________________________ 11
7 Project Management Plan _____________________________________ 19
8 Section 1 Conclusions _______________________________________ 20
9 Product Performance Specification 22
10 Revised / Expanded Product Design Brief 23
Section 2: Evaluation ____________________________________________ 24
11 Design concepts ____________________________________________ 25
12 3D Design Development ______________________________________ 28
13 Detailed design _____________________________________________ 29
14 Design Evaluation ___________________________________________ 29
15 Evaluation conclusions 39
16 References and/or Bibliography ________________________________ 46
16.1 References _____________________________________________ 51
16.2 Bibliography ____________________________________________ 53
17 Appendices ________________________________________________ 55

Section 1: Research

2 Abstract/Summary

This report is part experimental to test out the open innovation process, on a product
problem. (Lingeraard, 2010) The report documents the research carried out and how it
influenced the design at different stages. It explains the open innovation process
(Lingeraard, 2010) and is structured around the parameters set out in that process.
It sets out the important aspects to be considered in the final design: Provides an insight
into current products, the problems faced with them, the materials they use, their
manufacture, distribution, use, maintenance and the end of life treatment of the final design

3 Introduction

This product design project aims to develop a new way to package sports energy gels.

Structured around an open innovation process, (Lingeraard, 2010) utilising interdisciplinary
collaboration this project is centred on the process of developing a new product alongside
an industrial partner; Torq Fitness.

The user feedback will be drawn from the competitive mountain biking community to tap into
their embodied expertise from extensive use and therefore familiarity with the problems
inherent in current energy gel packaging. The project will be orchestrated to develop a way
in which the community can engage with these problems and with a number of parameters
identified by myself with the intention of realising an innovative product solution, which Torq
would like to compete with a product marketed by 'Unette' which virtually monopolises the
market. In the process of the project Torq will also provide information on the constraints of
their nutrition product. The role of the designer will be to understand the situation, to activate
the intellectual insight of the user community and to resolve this in terms of a practical and
realistic design solution with Torq.

This report explains the open innovation process (Lingeraard, 2010) and is structured
around the parameters set out in that process. It therefore:
Outlines the undertaken to date, and sets out the important aspects to be considered in the
final design:
Provides an insight into current products, the problems faced with them, the materials they
use, their manufacture, distribution: Sets out the parameters of use, maintenance and the
end of life treatment of the likely design solution.

Since this process is in part experimental, the success of the process will be measured by
the design and success of the open innovation process itself in the project as well as by the
resolution of the final product solution.

4 The Need for a New Design
Torq fitness need to compete with a product marketed by Unette which virtually monopolises the
Unette has been manufacturing in the same way for 40years now since they bought out the
innovative design of the single use saran tube.During the early 1990's which has become the
specialty platform for the company's activity and remains so today in many guises.
Times have changed, awareness of the effects of climate change are ever more apparent. Another
big change in the last 40years has been in the internet there are now Well over a billion people
using the internet, which is changing peoples attitude from its not my problem to realising the global
community. Harvard business professor estimates the internet has a $1.4trillion economic impact
annually in the United States alone. The awareness of the global community has led to greater
consumer intentions to buy green products. There has been a significant increase in the sales of
green products from 2010 to 2011 alone, the market has increased massively since the 1990s and
the market is continuing its growth.

(Environmentalleader, 2010)
As shown in the chart one of the largest green product markets is packaged food. The sustainable
packaging market is growing much faster than the overall packaging industry, and is expected to
double in size from 88 billion in 2009 to 170 billion in 2014. (Research, 2010)
TheGrowth drivers include increased awareness of environmental hazards related to disposal
and recycling of packaging wastes, government initiatives to minimize greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions, and stringent regulations.
Torq fitness needs to keep up with consumer demand for sustainable packaging and by doing so will
also help compete in the market with Unette as. 42% of Executives say Green Practices help
edge out the competitors. (OXOFilm, 2011)


The 20th Century innovation process used by the competitor Unette isnt keeping up with the
increase in social and sustainably innovation which has happened in the 21st Century.
Tim Berners-Lees vision of the World Wide Web was for a tool which created and gathered
knowledge through human interaction and collaboration. His vision has been realised. The web has
evolved from web 1.0 to web 2.0 from focus on company to focus on community from owning
content to sharing content from advertising to word of mouth from read only to read and write web.
As the internet has developed there is a new interconnectedness/global community which has led to
the re-invention of research and innovation there is now open innovation you can see the key
differences in the image above.
The world will not evolve past the current state of crisis by using the same thinking that created the
situation.Albert Einstein.
To successfully cater the need for a new sustainable way to package energy gels a new way of
innovation is needed.
From Charles leadbeaters book We:Think and Debbie Powell illustration, show the same shift from
pyramid to web.

5 Outline Project Brief

To design a socially responsible energy gel package that pushes sustainable innovation in
the industry and increases performance for the user.

6 Market Research: Open Innovation

6.1 Secondary Research

As mentioned in the introduction this report is structured around the open innovation
processbut what is it? It is a way of capitalizing on the internets inherent possibilities of
collective intelligence. Interdisciplinary collaboration and social networks provide all the
potential benefits of millions of people sharing a virtual space. It is the process of borrowing
all the really good parts of many different ideas and reforming them into something new.
Open innovation is a quicker innovation process that provides competitive unpredictability
the term itself will disappear in the future and just be innovation. (Lingeraard, 2010)

Why is the internet important for open innovation?
Web 2.0 with social networks, forums, and blogging are connecting us in a multitude of
ways with almost unlimited potential connections. The webs extreme openness, has the
capacity to generate untold possibilities for collaboration because it allows more people to
share ideas with more people in more ways. (Leadbeater, 2008)

A visual of the internet, captures the interconnection. (, 2003)

Josephine Green seminar Cardiff

A seminar by Josephine Green in Cardiff 2010 provided the spark for this design research
which is founded in open innovation. Green argues that in the West we are going through a
paradigm shift from a pyramid model of market innovation towards a pancake model of
sustainable social innovation. The differences of the two are illustrated below. The image on
the right has a strong resemblance to the movement image,
others have acknowledged the same shift rather than pancake others describe it as a mesh
or a web.Either way they portraying the shift from a linear controlled process to a non-linear
open process.
(Leadbeater, 2008)

(source, 2011) (Pyramid2pancake, 2011)

(Green, Whats it all about?, 2008)

Josephine highlights the differences between the two.

The market Society
Market innovation Social and sustainable innovation
Technology and R &D People and communities
Experts/professionals Partners and value network
Hierarchical Networked
Command Open
Top down Bottom up
Competition Collaboration
Standardizing complexity Distributing complexity (Green, 2011)

Innovation is shifting from a process we believe we can control to accepting the complexity
of the problems facing the 21
century and getting everyone involved in an open innovation
process to focus on the problems, needs and issues and working them out together.
Moving away from innovation being secretive and kept behind locked doors to being open
participatory and collaborative. The lone genius cant compare to the capabilities of
collective intelligence and unlimited possibilities of interdisciplinary collaboration today.
People are good at different things in different ways, open innovation is about getting the
right person to work on the right job.

Shift from Market innovation to Social and Sustainable innovation

The main shift is away from market innovation. GDP is a measurement of the market value
of all final goods and services produced in a country in a given period. The GDP takes only
one measure of progress into account: activity, economic activity. But what sensible person
would call the effects of an oil spill progress? (Cradle to Cradle , 2009)

As the graph GDP shows market innovation increases the Economic activity produced by
businesses selling the function of their products and services but does not take into account
the cost of pollution from distribution and other unsustainable costs.

Example of distribution of a Sonicare Elite 7000 electric toothbrush
Produced in 11 locations and in five time zones, comprised of 38 components, parts
supplied by Japan, France, China and Malaysia, materials and production in Austria,
Sweden, assembly in Philippines and United States, when fully assembled and packaged in
Seattle the components have travelled a full 27,880 kilometres, two thirds of the Earth's
circumference. (Source: SPIEGEL Magazine)
The product ended up travelling 27,880kilometres which isnt sustainable; it is however the
most cost effective way of producing the toothbrush. The toothbrush itself costs 15.00
however this cost does not reflex the true environmental cost.

The movement is therefore away from market innovation towards sustainable and social
innovation whereThe creation of social outputs and outcomes based upon social needs
and aspirations creating solutions that accrue to society as a whole as well as individuals.
(Green, 2011)

User feedback

For some reasonmanufacturers have had difficulty getting direct feedback from
customers about product design. Consumer data is still in its infancy Kodak where lucky to
get 1% of their warranty cards returned. Manufacturers are however becoming increasingly
aware of user problems and proclivities. User feedback can drive forward innovations.
(Gansky, 2010)

Age of transparency

Consumers are also becoming aware of the catch 22s; for example consumers can now find
out the true cost of Britains clean wind power which creates disastrous pollution in China
with toxic lakes from rare earth processing plants which process neodymium. A rare
material found in China which is a key component of a wind turbine. (Scotland, 2011)

(Scotland, 2011)
The ethical consumer mays take opposing effects of products into account when purchasing
and more than likely consider an alternative. Consumer data is increasing as we progress
intoan age of radical transparency. The more transparent a market, economic theory
holds, the healthier it will be. (Golman, 2009)
Trust is built through honesty. Brands which are honest about their manufacture and
practises, will gain consumer trust. In the age of transparency and social intelligence
brands will be honest as news of bad practise can spread across twitter like wild fire, ruining
a brand reputation.
Eco Design- Product life cycle mapping
Life cycling thinking is an important aspect of eco design and due to the unsustainable
nature of the packaging to develop a new way of packaging the product in a sustainable
way an eco-design approach will be taken because Often the majority of the impacts of
products are hidden from designers and users. These include impacts at the raw materials
stage and what happens to the product after it has been disposed of. (Rafferty, 2010)

(Rafferty, 2010)
Research into all 5 areas has been done to ensure the design decisions are made being
well informed of all potential environmental impacts.
>>>>>>> (Please refer to Appendices D-Eco design and onwards) <<<<<<<

Here is a potential Life cycle calculation for a Torq energy gel, showing how it is possible to
measure a products CO2 impact over its lifecycle and allows innovations to be focused in
the correct areas.

(lcacalculator, 2010)

6.2 Analysis of secondary research

The research has shown (i) the unsustainable nature of the packaging and (ii) the antisocial
and un-ecological disposal of the packaging by mountain bikers.

Going into this project research I was optimistic about the potential for a natural or
biodegradable material innovation for the packaging. The quest for a magic material that is
commercially viable which provides the required shelf life and biodegrades when told too,
was a never ending one.
The research revealed bio plastics are improving into the future and are set to increase in
performance as oil for regular plastic depletes.

As research in to current products was done a realisation of how unsustainable the
packaging was became clear. <<< (Refer to appendices M Raw Materials)>>>

I will need to think outside of the packaging box to develop a realistic design that solves the
litter problems. Research has shown how important behaviour change is to the project and
that a product solution may end up being based around the incentives it provides the user to
take their litter home.

The research has also shown the almost unlimited potential connections in a multitude of
ways with consumers, manufacturers, engineers, anthropologists and journalists, allowing
for a whole host of Interdisciplinary collaboration and holistic design thinking.
<<< (Refer to Appendices L- Forum conversation)>>>>>

6.3 Primary Research- Open Innovation parameters

This report is based around the parameters of open innovation where Web 2.0 is used to
capitalize on the embodied expertise within the competitive mountain biking community
through the use of social networks and forums a survey is shared to tap into their expertise
that they have gained from extensive use and therefore familiarity with the problems
inherent in current energy gel packaging.
By doing this open innovation brings the users straight from the back end of the innovation
process to the front end. The first step in the Open innovation design process is to gain user
feedback by.addressing the community.
Hey Singletrack forum,
I was hoping to get a little bit of feedback from the wealth of knowledge that is the
Singletrack forum!
I'm an industrial design student from UWIC Cardiff and am starting my final year
undergraduate project which is aiming to improve energy gel packaging usability and
I'd love any feedback and have put together a quick questionnaire that I would be hugely
appreciative if everyone could click and answer a quick 10 question survey.
Many Thanks! Feel free to pm me or message me if you have any advice.

Accordingly the survey was posted onto
cycling community forums on UK, American, Australian and Canadian sites. It was emailed
directly to magazine editors and Elite athletes to fill out and posted onto cycling club pages
on Facebook.
The survey had a response of 100 people within the week and then grew to 200 over the
coming month.

>>>>> (For full survey results please refer to the online submitted report) <<<<<<

Forum links 25 posts along with over 1,297 views 317views 74 posts & 33 voices 264 Views
=f07c784de9e4b7601b9cc7e69fbc1796#p134354 278 Views Views no comments
#p471618 418 Views

Cardiff Ajax cycling club Facebook page 356 Members where Mark Alexander kindly
tweeted it to 143 people.

The community know the market best so they where asked.

Above are the brands that where not listed in the survey which users recommended taking a
look at. The chart below shows which brands are most popular in the UK. It shows the 3
strongest brands clearly, SIS and TORQ are two that use Unettes Saran Tube.

Existing Products

>>>>> (Please refer to Appendices A for existing products reviews) <<<<<

I also travelled up to Birmingham NEC for the cycle show to carry out some primary market
research as all the UK industries top sports nutrition companies where in attendance.
New and old brands where all available at the show to ask questions about their products,
specifically packaging problems.

The first interesting brand I spoke to where Qimmiq who are so new they still
havent had their product launch yet. But they were at the show to make their
This is one of the most innovative new gel packages I saw at the show.
With their attempt at producing a gel cyclists can open with one hand.
I asked if they were using bio-plastics and he explained bio-plastics dont
currently provide a strong enough
barrier to meet food packaging
He explained they do however
use recycled PET. The product is
laminated with PET, aluminium
foil and LDPE which is difficult to
recycle and therefore will still end
up in landfill.

To test user honesty I then asked

.this question tests the idea that users when questioned in this way will tell you what
they think you want to hear rather than tell you there true behaviour. Some honest
responces where displayed though with 50% of users admitting they throw gels on the
floor. A response from 170 showed they felt reluctant to pocket a sticky gel. This
imparticular reflects the benefit to be gained from a product which gives the user an
incentive to not drop litter.

A worrying response from one user was they put the used packet into recycling the current
products cant be recycled and will contaminate the recyclate downcycling the plastic.

Identifying the Problem
To generate innovation in this project the designer must be an active agent. The designer
must actively seek to identify user problems and fully understand the complexity of them.
The open innovation process recognises and acknowledges the inadequacy of a single
designer as an agent in this process.
The first step is to address this problematic, the open innovation process suggests that the
social intelligence of many agents in a community are better placed to identify problems
rather than a single designer. The designer then acts as a catalyst in that community to
enable it to identify its own needs and problems.
By then extracting the user feedback from the survey the project can be orchestrated to
develop in a way in which the community can engage with the problems that have been
Above are the top ten problems with the current energy gels as described by the embodied
expertise within the competitive mountain biking community. Out of the 200 responces to
this question these where calculated to be the 10 most common.
That then is narrowed down to 6 problems.

Litter cased by discarded packaging.
Packets are hard to open when cycling.
Gells from open packets often cause messy and uncomfortable pockets.
Energy gell packets make it difficult to extract all of their contents.
Energy gell packets tear tab becomes serperated/lost and cause litter.
Energy gell packets are not recyclable and produce landfill.

Collection of user feedback.
By extracting the user feedback drawn from the survey the project can then be orchestrated
to develop a way in which the community can engage with the problems identified.
The next question that engaged the 200 community members was..

Here are the top 11 Ideas from the users.This question identified a lack of common
To realise an innovative product solution the parameters of the project must be identified
and communicated to the community in a way that they can give input into the development
of the product solution.Web 2.0 fascilitates this through the use of blogs and forums that can
be used to create an information commons.

> (Pleaser refer to appendices L and M for Blog and Forum information commons.) <

6.4 Analysis of primary research.

The community engaged with the survey, expressing their thoughts on the current problems
inherent in energy gel packaging. They also identified clearly the need for a new design and
problems with energy gel packaging and suggested solutions.

A few users in the survey said they put empty packets into the recycling; the current
products cant be recycled and will contaminate the recyclate. This shows lack of knowledge
of the materials and manufacture of the product and should be addressed in an information
commons on a blog or forum. It showed clearly the lack of common understanding between
the users and the manufacturer.

The information commons that was then created was held on a number of forum pages
where users, race organisers, packaging engineers where all able to discuss issues and
problems related to energy gel packaging engineers set straight the reasons why they are
difficult to open and users explained their proclivities and troubles they have with the current
gels. This has led to a common understanding of the problems.

All the problems in the lifecycle of of the product are to be considered through out design
process .

The users have summed up the problems and concluded the research inconversations had
>(Please refer to appendices L- Forum conversation singletrack world and onwards)<

7 Project Management Plan

My plan chopped and changed throughout the 12 weeks constantly setting new goals as originals were or were not reached on the
time. But one thing didnt change the deadline. Thats why this isnt a greatly linear plan but illustrates the workflow.

8 Section 1 Conclusions
The research concluded that people dont respond well
to being told off or dictated. A product that minimises
the litter issues needs to provide incentives to change
peoples behaviour. Campaigns like the one on the
right have not been successful in the past. The final
solution must provide an extra motive/incentive for the
user. (, 2010)
Research also showed there are a
lot of mountain bikers running
around the country side Project
Velo anticipate the market will
crack the 3 billion mark by 2015,
particularly due to the influence of
the 2012 Olympics.
(Harker, 2010)
More and more riders are
competing and consuming energy
gels and their packets are ending up in the countryside, landfill, contaminating
recycling systems or adding to the pacific garbage patch. The Olympics is sparking
the growth in sporting activities here in the UK and LOCOG are pushing for a
sustainable Olympics. (LOCOG, 2011) That includes food packaging; it illustrates
there is a good opportunity for a new design.
Photos below are taken at British Cycling National XC round at Plymouth Newham

The rest of the research will coincide with concept development, design detailing and
>>> (Please refer to appendices for further research details) <<<<

Revised Brief

9 Revised and expanded brief

This product design project aims to develop a way to tackle the problems associated
with energy gel packaging (i) the unsustainable nature of the packaging and (ii) the
antisocial and un-ecological disposal of the packaging by mountain bikers. The
product will be aimed at XC mountain bike racing market. The design should be
socially responsible and push sustainable innovation. This project should utilise
interdisciplinary collaboration and work alongside an industrial partner; Torq Fitness.

10 Initial Product Design Specification
SIS Sports in Science
Hammer gel
Honey Stinger
Market constraints
Must be a feasible price for market i.e. low cost to not increase the cost
to race. Or increase the cost of the energy gel product which currently
costs 1.35 per sachet.
Must be designed for a Global market.

Aesthetics, appearance and finish
The finish must have strong graphical communication of the brand and
race event and number.
Have a premium, natural aesthetic to represent the Torq brands current
image of high performance, organic, natural and fair-trade product
Easy to install
Must be easy to extract gel.
Must be easy to load gel wrappers, full and empty in the product.
Must be easy to use in a rush/race situation.
Controllable when cycling over rough terrain.
Target Product Cost (TPC)
Based on current competitor products it will cost between 90p-4.00

Must be durable to sustain in all weathers.
Should be chosen based on entire life cycle of the product to decipher
the most sustainable material whether that ends up being recyclable or
Must choose material coinciding with the design for manufacture.
Standards, Legislation and Specifications
MHRA assembly licence standards and hold ISO 9002 accreditation.
Must meet design requirements for food safety set by PAS 223:2011
Materials criteria to meet food grade standards BS EN 15136:2006
Should abide by and adjust to legislation and standards currently in law
and meet future directives.
The General Product Safety Directive (2001/95/EC)
Awareness of the enforcers and implementers of laws and legislation

Disposing of litter inappropriately is unacceptable. Not only is it anti-social and
unpleasant, littering is also ILLEGAL, and those who throw down, drop, or deposit
and leave litter in any place, even if it is just a cigarette end or chewing gum, can be
fined or face a court prosecution.

Areas continually degraded by litter, or private land that frequently accumulates litter
and refuse, can give rise to a sense of civic shame and fear of crime, and set the
scene for other environmental crimes and anti-social behaviour such as fly-tipping
and graffiti. Not only are there laws governing an individuals behaviour, but action
can also be taken against businesses where their activities contribute to littering, and
against occupiers or private landowners who frequently allow their premises to be
defaced by litter and refuse. (, 2010)

A Mountain bike racing requirement set out by the Union Cycliste
International (UCI)
UCI Rules and Regulations 4.1.027 Official training is only permitted
after licences have been checked, other registration formalities
completed and handlebar numbers distributed
Riders must display their handlebar numbers during training sessions
and race.
Patents, literature and product data
Must not encroach on any current patents, literature or product data
listed below.,244,467


Unettes Saran Tube BS888 drawing, must not be overstepped in the

End of life must be one of the below.
Must communicate clearly the number of the rider.
Must be easy to attach and secure.
Must hold energy gel securely and effectively
Must withstand all weather conditions.
Be robust as will be used in muddy, wet tough conditions
The product is aimed at Cross Country Mountain bike racers aged from
16years to 70years.
Political and social implications
Will enforce the mentality of sustainability, recycling and environmental
harm prevention.
Change consumer behaviour to prevent/minimise litter.
Shelf Life (Storage)
3 Years

Section 2: Evaluation

11 Design Concepts

(Leadbeater, 2010)
I set out to explore the problem of sports energy gel packaging. I had two main
concerns (i) the unsustainable nature of the packaging and (ii) the antisocial and un-
ecological disposal of the packaging by mountain bikers. I decided to act out some of
the ideas I have been exploring in my dissertation regarding open innovation concept
generation. Open innovation concept generation is a way of producing ideas through
directed conversations. The internet has the potential as a means to generate a lot of
ideas, by making it possible to have really big conversations or to have lots of small
I brainstormed and developed ideas with users on forums. Through the forum I was
able to have a conversation with 50 or more people from different disciplinces
ranging from
An energy gel company (Matt Hart director, and other staff, Torq Fitness Ltd)
An gel packaging manufacturer (Alex Terrell, Sales Director, Unette Ltd)
A distributer (Luke Humphries , partner Juice Lubes Ltd)
A Packaging Engineer (John Gillespie)
The online Mountain biking community(anonymous via an online survey)
A race organiser (anonymous via an online survey)
Bike Shed Wales staff and owners (Martin Higgins owner and Simon Lingard)
Design Lecturers
The Eco Design Centre (Merel Claes)
Keep Wales Tidy (Olwen Mosely)
An elite racing cyclist (Luke Morris)
A endurance athlete (Martin Williams)

The simple question I asked was: What would you improve on the current energy gel
packaging? This question was answered by over 200 people who engaged with an
online survey. As part of that a more conversational open innovation section
produced a lot of design intelligence and ideas. An example of two of these
conversations is shown below. Refer to appendices L for entire conversation and
questionnare results.

The survey showed that the key problems related to energy gells are:
1) Energy gell packets tear tabs becomes serperated/lost and cause litter.
2)Litter cased by discarded packaging.
3) Packets are hard to open when cycling.
4)Gells from open packets often cause messy and uncomfortable pockets.
5)Energy gell packets make it difficult to extract all of their contents.
6)Energy gell packets are not recyclable and produce landfill.

So I started out tackling each of these problems one by one. Along with the best
suggestions/ideas from the community that took part in the survey.

1) User 94 suggested) tear off top should be
attached to the main body so it doesn't get
dropped . (Oct 5, 2011 9:45 AM)

A simple cord that connects the two
parts together.
Adhesive to stick string.

2)User 47 suggested ) add a "hook" or Velcro to connect to running/cycling jersey
(Oct 11, 2011 4:18)

Velcro and nano hooks
derived from seeds.
Quick strong grip to the
shorts and jersey.

(biomimicry, 2008)

3) User 170 suggested) One handed opening where the entire wrapper
can be kept. Something that doesn't leak after you've used it. Oct 4,
2011 12:01 PM
This idea is based on a syringe.
Differing from a normal syringe in that it
can be used one handed.
Easy to clean and re-use.

4) User 96 Suggested) it would be better with
one handed extraction Oct 5, 2011 9:16 AM
Natural aesthetics of a flamingo.
Uses a plunging mechanism similar to
that used in oil cans.
One handed use
Great extraction of gel out through a
No mess. (Oilcan, 2011) (pictures, 1997)
5) User 98 suggested) more tapered at mouth end Oct 5, 2011
8:38 AM
Injection moulded out of polypropylene which can be
commonly recycled.
Easy open twisting mechanism.
Has a bit of give in it to squeeze out gel.
Re-usable, dish washable.

After this concept I had a Interim Viva where a group of design students along with
input from Lecturer Dr Steve Thompson discussed the concepts so far and then
ideated and concept sketched further together in a group.
The discussion led to the realisation, that the main issue is behaviour change and
can be tackled by changing the way energy gel is monetarized or encorporated into
another product.
Thinking along the lines of energy gel handlebar grips and deposit schemes where

This was opened up to XCracer forum and sparked another discussion online.See

Then realised this idea below.

6) Gels from open packets often cause messy and uncomfortable pockets
Easy to use.
Quicker access to gels when cycling
Storage for empty gels that wont end up in the
washing machine.
No more sticky pockets.
No more user reluctance to litter gels.
Doesnt put you at a competitive dissadvantage.

All of the above concepts where anaylised against the specification and a datum in a matrix
evaluation below, to decide on which concept is suitable to develop.
Matrix Evaluation Datum







Premium, natural

s s - +

Reduce litter
s + + + + +
s s + + + +
Ease to use
s s + + + +
s s - - s +
Minimal separate
s s + - S +
Easy to clean
s - + - S +
Possible to use
one handed
S s + + + +
Can be used with
gloves, sweaty
hands and in
muddy conditions
S s + + + S
Can be used whilst
cycling over rough
s s s _ + S
S s + + + +
1 8 7 7 8
1 2 4 0 0
11 9 1 0 4 3
0 1 6 3 7 8
+ (plus): better than, faster, stronger, less prone to, cheaper etc
- (minus): for worse than, slower, more expensive, prone to etc.
S (same): same as the datum.

After the matrix evaluation the litter board idea was developed further.

This led on to the concept development of the litter board.Starting by improving how
the board attaches to the bike, a selection of fittings where sketched.

More sketches but with longer straps which can Velcro to the handlebar this should
cut down on cables ties and faff.

This concept below allows the tear tab which becomes separated to stay fixed, to the
number board. This was inspired by the existing product called gelrilla grips. (Gelrilla,

Furthering the concept above to hanging the gel off the side of the board but then
realised the potential strength issues and returned to a simple pouch.

These concepts will be tested in 3D modelling.

12 3D Design Development
The feasibility of a number board energy gel container will be tested out through 3D
models which will be able to show what works and what doesnt.

1) The security of the energy gel in the pouch will be tested over rough terrain along
with the number board.
2) Ease of attachment to the bike.
3) Ease of use, getting the gel out and putting the empty one back in.
4) Clear communication of the number and marketability.
5) Aerodynamics and likelihood of causing damage to bike.

The target market use 1 to 2 energy gels for a 2 hour
race so it must accommodate that. This shows the
difference between an empty and a full energy
packet. That has to be taken into account when
designing the pouch.

Models will be based on
existing number boards.

User proclivities found through the research where tucking gels under shorts,
fastening them to drinks bottle and Runners safety pin gels to their shorts all three
where tested and illustrate below.

Number boards are normally attached by cable ties. This model tests out the use of
adhesive Velcro. Cardboard is a good natural material with the application of natural
mussel glue a water proof coating can be provided. (glue, 2011)

Positives: Easy to install
Negatives: Adhesive Velcro is expensive
Marks the handlebars not good aesthetics

Another test was done on these elastic clips no extra surface was needed to be
attached to the handlebars and the elastic can be re-used over and over and again.
Next option pictured below was using toe straps.

Positives: Reusable
Negatives: Costly
Scratch handlebars, which can cost up to 200

(loop, 2010)

Then based on the Cateye loop light concept, elastic was used.

Positives: Easy to install
Good adjustability to fit any shape or thickness of handlebar
Fasten board smoothly and tightly to the handlebar

Negatives: Insecure
Not aerodynamic.

This aim is to create a pouch more sustainably rather than extracting more raw
materials, this idea uses recycled inner tubes, attached by adhesive Velcro. The
board is clamped with a single reflector bracket.

Positives: The gel is secure in pouch
Ease to attach gel
Number board is secure to bike.
Recycled materials

Negatives: Aesthetics are unprofessional
Velcro isnt secure
Slow and fiddly to fit board
Awkward to get empty gel into pouch

Care was taken to ensure that the gels are clearly seen above the board providing a
form of advertising for Torq energy. It is a key feature to ensure the marketability of
the product.

The cable ties are reusable and the location is lower down bringing the board higher
up. A small cardboard pouch is laminated and glued with adhesive to the board.

Positives: Easy to gets gels in and out
Natural card
Reusable cable ties
Clear display of number
Negatives: Not aerodynamic
Litter security

User testing- Semi Professional
This prototype was tested out by a Scott Law Unfortunately its shallow pocket failed
to hold the gel even along the road.

With the failure of not holding the gel, a bigger pouch is needed to secure the gel.
Multiple attempts to make the pouch out of recycled material or recyclable material
were unsuccessful. The entire board needs to be redesigned to incorporate a pouch.

So I moved away from the boards above and on to origami based boards. I was
avoiding using more material to make the pouch as it would not give the
environmentally friendly message that Im trying to portray. But on the plus side
polypropylene is commonly recycled so at the end of life it can be turned into
something else.

Interim Viva feedback Lecturer-Dr Steve Thompson 21

I brought in a number board to discuss with
Steve suitable ways to attach or include a
pouch in the design. He took the number
board I bought in and folded the corner
over in a vice. This illustrated the great
fatigue resistance of polypropylene a
live/living hinge allows 10,000 repeated
folds. I can create live hinges and fold the
plastic into origami shapes. (Hinge, 2009)

Here is the first origami shape,
simple but functional.
Its nothing fancy but as Victor
Papanek onces said The only
important thing about design is how
it relates to people.This simplicity
will connect with the mountain biker
racers whos mind is focused on

These are simply folded and the one below a knife was used to score the lines
creating good living hinges.

Positives: Secure deep pouch
Easy to use simply line up the holes
Attaches to bike easily
DFD design for disassembly-vinyl removable graphics
DFR design for recycling-Recyclable
DFM design for manufacture-Low cost to manufacture

Negatives: Extra material

Final Model
The gels fit deeply into pouch, no chance of flying out. Transparent so shows gel
brand well. One sheet off polypropylene folds directly in half along a live hinge.

13 Detailed design

Manufacturing- Dependent on business scale

1) Single Item/made by hand- a guillotine is used to cut the edges of the plastic
cleanly and precisely before placing them into a wooden jig to accurately cut out
the form with a Stanley knife and score the fold lines.
Vinyl is printed at local printers. A hand drill is then used to cut precise holes.

2) Batch production- a laser cutter to cut the sheet polypropylene to size and the
laser scored to make the fold lines. The vinyl graphics can also be laser cut.

3) Mass production- a large rotary die cutting machine to cut the plastic. Then
vinyl graphic are printed by an industrial vinyl cutter.

Material Grade

Polypropylene Eco Facts
It takes less energy to recycle polypropylene than paper.
(ecofacts, 2009)

Material type- The Homopolymer variety of polypropylene
is a general purpose grade that can be used in a variety of
different applications.


Each product will be manufactured from one sheet of polypropylene 1mm thick
400mm wide x 318mm long.

Costs depending on size of event

Regional event- need 240boards = 75

National event- 60 boards that are 200x160mm can be cut out of 2000x1000mm of
A national round where 500riders attend, the cost will be 125.37 as 9 Sheets are
needed. 4.00 per unit

Mountain Mayhem event has 2700 competitors 45 sheets are needed costing
625 2700 divided by 625 = 4.32 per unit each competitor.

Working drawing
Back sheet and side view of the product. This is folded in half along a living hinge.4
more living hinges are made over into a small secure pouch for the empty and full
energy gels. There will be hinge/score lines on the plastic clearly to allow for the
sheet to fold into a pouch. The user simply aligns the holes off the two sheets
together make the pouch. The holes need to be aligned for the user to attach to the
bike handlebars with cable ties.

Back panel with 4 fold lines for pouch

This shows the complete product and the front panel with side views.

This will be manufactured from 1mm thick Polypropylene

Final Graphic Design

The final design has strong graphical communication of the brand and has room
for other sponsors and event details.
It has a premium, natural aesthetic which represents the Torq brands current
image of high performance, after speaking to Torq I learnt that they use black
backing in all there packaging as this represents and is associated with a quality

<<<<<<<<<<<(Development of graphics see Appendices M)>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

14 Sustainability

When designing the product an Ecodesign approach was used, the product life cycle
was taken into account in the design process every aspect of the product from raw
materials, extraction, manufacture, distribution, use and disposal where considered.

Considerations of impact
The negative impact of the production of this product is counterbalanced by the
environmental benefits it provides.
The product itself prevents litter of energy gel packets, and allows the collection of
the packets which are then sent off to a unique recycling facility Enval limited that can
recycle laminated products.
Collecting the packets from the races no litter directly effects the environment and
the energy gel packets no longer end up in landfill or in the pacific garbage patch.
The packets are recovered and sent to
Engineering Site:
Enval Limited
Unit 3
High Town Enterprise Centre
York Street

Where they are able to then recover and recycle the unsustainable products.

100% recovery of aluminium from plastic/aluminium laminate waste
Recovered, impurity-free, aluminium ready for re-use
Oils and gases generated by the process suitable for heat/electricity
Low cost alternative to the current methods for disposal of laminate waste

Only one plastic has been used and that one chosen is polypropylene. Polypropylene
is very widely recycled and provides just the right amount of malleability for the live
hinges and robust enough for great weather resistance.
Also used is vinyl which again is chosen for its great recyclability.

Dematerialisation- Is a common eco design term that means the absolute or
relative reduction in quantity of materials used. (ecodesignnetwork, 2010)

Downcycling Is recycling that creates a new material that has properties inferior to
the original. (SimonORafferty, 2010)
This is what we dont want to happen the aim is to have a recyclable product which
can be recycled over and over again as the quality of the recyclate stays the same.
To ensure this design for disassembly must happen.

Design for disassembly is done by using vinyl instead of colouring the plastic itself
this allows the vinyl and the polypropylene to be separated at the end of life.
Preventing down cycling as described above.

Vinyl = longer circulation of materials = less use of new materials + less plastic in
landfills = WIN

By using vinyl the graphic can be removed so the event organiser can keep the
plastic product and simply maintain the graphic with the new sponsors graphics etc
each season or each race.

Could use recycled plastic from the pacific garbage patch.

15 Design Evaluation
I set out to tackle two main problems (i) the unsustainable nature of the packaging
and (ii) the antisocial and un-ecological disposal of the packaging by mountain
bikers. The design does both of those things.

(i) By acting as a collection for empty wrappers, gel wrappers can then be
transported to a recycling plant that can recycle laminated products. My research
found only one recycling facility in the UK that has the technology to recycle
laminated packaging.

(ii) Research showed users antisocial disposal of gels packets was primarily due
reluctance to put them in their pockets as they become messy and can end up in the
washing machine along with time and effort to get them in pockets whilst cycling.
This product makes it quicker and easier to pocket the wrapper when cycling and is
and prevents messy pockets. These strengths make the user less reluctant to litter, it
is so easy and hassle free to use there is no longer an excuse to litter.

Maybe one day a magical material will be available that provides great shelf life and
biodegrades in an instant. But until then this will have to do.
The biggest weakness with this product is the fact it is only really used in race
situation. It doesnt quite tackle the problems highlighted above caused from
mountain bikers who ride at the weekend. But I would argue that rider out the
weekend are under less time constraint and would eat an energy bar instead of a gel.
Gels are primarily used in a race situation.

Evaluation from 24hour Mountain Bike racer Ranked 5
in the UK Luke Morris-
Fact-He has consumed 23 energy gels in one race-Sponsored by Ison distribution.

Hi Adam

Thanks for sending me the number board I tried it the other night.

First impressions are all good I placed 3 gels in the board and found it very easy
to grab them and even put the empty wrappers back into the board. This proved
to be easier than putting them back in my pocket or shorts. As a product I think
its a great idea and would like to see it used at races.

All the best


16 Evaluation conclusions

I learnt so much over the course of the last 12 weeks. Ive learnt about the great
complexities in energy gel packaging, the reality and feasibility of pushing innovation
in this area.
I realised how important it is to catalyse the collective intelligence inherent in the
mountain bike community, designers and engineers.
I found that matching expectations is the stepping stone to exceeding peoples
expectations. This happens best when every discipline has access to a transparent
information commons. Also the development of ideas through open conversations on
forums in person and on blogs gave the ability to find out what ideas had legs and
what didnt a lot quicker than usual.

Next time around I would manage my time better, and record every step I made in
more detail. I learnt the importance of documenting the thought process going along,
as major steps in the project in my head didnt reflect what was on paper. I would
make more time, create extra financial backing and get a team behind the project.

USP-Key product strengths

Product shifts responsibility away from packaging engineers to users
Simple design solutions to a complex problem
Its realistic, functional, manufacturability
Commercially viable
Priceless PR conveying the Torq brand to environmental stewardship
Brands honesty gains consumer trust.
It is a UCI requirement to have a number board so being responsible does not
put the rider at a competitive disadvantage by the added weight of the
product, which competitor products do.

17 References and/or Bibliography

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Publishing , p. 264.
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[Accessed 04 12 2011].
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1 Appendices

Appendices A - Existing energy products.
Appendices B- Existing products Alternative solutions to packaging that solve
litter and user problems
Appendices C-Existing products in other areas
Appendices D-Eco design
Appendices E - Raw Materials (Extraction and processing)
Appendices F - Manufacture Components and assembly.
Appendices G-Distribution/Retails and packaging transport
Appendices H- Use and Maintenance Energy/consumables
Appendices I-End of Life
Appendices J - History and context of energy gels/Ergogenic Aid.
AppendicesK - Sustainable Olympics
Appendices L- Forum conversation single-track world

Appendices A- Existing energy products.

I saw a number of brands that sell gel bottles and a 700g refill
such brands as Bike food, Squeezy and Agisko
Positives- Buy in bulk, Re usable bottle, Controllable gel
intake, Re-sealable lid, No-messy pockets, Ergonomic 125ml
Negatives-Expensive initial cost 19.99 over 1.00,
Inconvenient to fill up bottle, Very hard to get gel
out when bottle starts to empty-Bulky.
Hammer gel do a very similar product but also
provide a syringe to extract the gel with.

Vooma Gel is produced by ultimate nutrition a South African
Brand and they supply the equivalent of 3 gels in single toothpaste
tubes. Toothpaste is manufactured in huge quantities so USN can
provide great value as the cost is relatively low.

Gu Energy gel-Are the founder of the
Gel and produce their own packaging in house which means
they have excellent quality control and because they
manufacture the packaging specifically for energy gels
alone, compared to some contract packaging manufactures
that produce laminated tubes for the cosmetic and

lubrication industries. The Gu gel actually tears open a lot easier than other brands,
because they can control the thickness of material around the tab. They can ensure it
open reliably.

TORQ Energy
Lucozade Sport
Mule Bar
Science in sport
CNP (British cycling team sponsor)

All 7 of the above nutrition brands are manufactured by
Unette these are the biggest brands in the UK industry. You can see Unette has a
strong monopoly in the industry there are no real packaging competitors for the
brands to consider.
These are laminated flexible packages that Torq energy are looking to get away
from. User friendly sustainable packaging would make a brand like Torq energy
stand out from its competitors.

Here is a collection of brands that all use very similar packaging
indeed. All laminated with 2 types of plastic and an Aluminium foil. A variety of
tear tab forms.

The litter leash prevents litter.
32g rather than 45g serving small packet.
Extra material for litter leash
Patented litter leash prevents more brands using the idea.

These three brands have a re-
sealable lid, which is easy to
open and close when you are
not cycling when cycling this is
time consuming and not suitable
for fast racing. But slower

touring and Ultra long distance these are good. No sharp edges on the mouth piece

Appendices B- Existing products Alternative solutions to packaging that
solve litter and user problems

This cycling jersey has a specific pocket for empty gel wrappers.
Its a practical solution to the
problem of sticky wrappers.
Races often take place in scenic
areas and we shouldnt see 150
riders littering national parks and
open country. But put the empty
packaging back into your rear
pockets and it can stick to unused
things meaning its hard to tell
whats useful when you next dip your hand back in.
(rubbishjersey, 2011)

Gel-Bot Bike Bottle A revolutionary water bottle design that
allows both gel and water (or energy drink) to be dispensed from
the same bottle. With the cap valve pressed in, squeeze the bottle
and gel is released. Pull out the cap valve, squeeze, and you get water (or energy
drink). The Gel-Bot holds up to 24 ounces of liquid and 3.2 ounces of gel.
(bicyclenews, 07)

The Gelrilla Grip- is an alternative solution
which, makes it easier to open your gel on the
move and holds onto the tab which is prone to be
Windose-This is another good example of
using old technology and applying it to a
different use. Here a syringe is a single serving
gel. This allows easier extraction of entire gel contents and provideseasier one
handed use. If anything it is a bit to heavy and sharp edges when in pocket.

Appendices C-Existing products in other areas

This is manufactured in Llantrisant at an injection moulding plastic manufascturing
company. They have used PET a commonly recycled plastic which has a reasonable
amount of squeeze ability to control and get out more honey.
The seal at the top prevents any honey coming out in less it squeezed out. This
applied to an energy gel would be good at preventing messy pockets. The lid can be
open and closed on the move one handed and this allows the user to reseal the

This product is a design from Brazil used to open up sauce sachets easily and it
keeps hold of the torn off bits. It works like a sharpener.

Here is some organic puree which is a lamination that seals around a re-sealable lid.

Appendices D-Eco design

As identified in the introduction it is important in an eco-design to identify the need for
design in every aspect of the product life cycle from raw materials
(extraction/processing), Manufacture (components/assembly), Distribution/Retail
(packaging/transport), Use and Maintenance (energy/consumables) and the end of

Appendices E - Raw Materials. (Extraction and processing)
The three materials used in the current energy gel are Aluminium foil, Polyethylene
Terephthalate and Low Density Polyethylene laminated together and then heat
PET/Alu/PE. This typical triplex structure incorporates Aluminium foil for improved
oxygen and light barrier performance for food.

LDPE/LLDPE -Resource extraction includes
Natural gas, crude oil, peroxides, additives and
catalysts. It is commonly used in grocery bags other
packaging and containers, film, shipping envelopes
and more. It has poor recyclability once collected
and used will be discarded. (, 2011 )

Aluminium- Resource extraction includes
Bauxite ore which is refined by the bayer
process to produce alumina, Caustic soda,
Calcined lime and Cryolite Carbon anodes
are used to convert
it to aluminum metal via the hall-heroult
smelting process. Commonly used in
Beverage cans,
Containers, Pouches, Multi-laminate packages, Aseptic packages, Foils, Aluminum
aerosol cans and Cosmetics packaging (caps, tubes, fitments). (, 2011

Polyethylene Terephthalate(PET)- Resource
extraction includes Crude oil, Natural gas, Catalysts,
Additives. Commonly used in Bottles (e.g. soft drink,
water, liquor, edible oil,
condiments), Food jars (peanut butter, mayonnaise,
etc.), Strapping, Cosmetic jars, Food trays
Clamshells (e.g. take-out food, pre-washed salad,
etc.), Blister packages Cups, Coatings and Films.(, 2011 )

Food packaging properties/Shelf life
J onathan Gillespie Food Packaging Engineer.

The main barrier properties that have to be addressed moisture, gas, and light
(some foods are moisture sensitive, some are sensitive to gases like oxygen or
nitrogen, others are sensitive to exposure to light).
OTR = oxygen transmission rate
WVTR = water vapor transmission rate
MVTR = moisture vapour transmission rate
This chart shows the oxygen and moisture vapour transmission rates for all the
materials used in current products and more.

Biodegradable materials

Plastics take 500years to decompose in a landfill. By adding starch to poly it will
begin to decompose in months. But its uses are limited for food packaging since poly
isnt a good barrier and it is designed to decompose when exposed to heat, moisture
and light (UV).
All of these exist in a landfill, but also, in the supply path.

Scientists have discovered that by adding starch to Poly it will begin to
decompose in months. While this sounds great, its uses are limited for food
packaging since Poly isnt a very good barrier and this film is designed to
decompose when exposed to heat, moisture and light (UV). All of these exist in
a landfill, but also, to some degree, in the supply path. Florescent lights on the
store shelf and heat and humidity in shipping and warehousing all have to be
controlled to maintain the integrity of the package.

The most commercially advanced and available biodegradable, renewable
resource-based film on the market continues to be PLA [polylactic acid]. It has good
clarity, sealability, and deadfold, and all commercially available films meet the ASTM
D6400 compostability requirements.

The barrier maps compare the barrier properties of the plain 80-g PLA film to the
SiOx-coated or metallized PLA, and then the coated PLA laminated to another 80-g
PLA layer. These properties are overlayed on a barrier map showing the barrier
requirements of typical food packaging applications.
We have shown that it is now possible to achieve truly high barrier all-PLA package
with a two-ply structure of reverse-printed Ceramis coating PLA laminated to a
metallized Enviromet PLA.
Figure 1: CERAMIS PLA Barrier Properties

Figure 2: Enviromet PLA Barrier Properties

Dematerialisation Is the absolute or relative reduction in quantity of materials used
and/or the quantity of waste generated in the production of a product. A common
indicator is the intensity of material use per unit of economic output.

Additives and Coatings
What is Ceramis?Ceramis is a technology by which a SiOx coating is applied to
various types of substrates. This technology is used for demanding applications in
both packaging and technical markets. (limited, 2011 )

Appendices-F - Manufacture Components and assembly.
The way the packets are manufactured dictates what materials can be used and how
tightly the packet is sealed shut, which affects how easy it is to open. The packages
are designed to be opened at the top end and this region will often become
separated from the main body.

Print: 70 x 122.7666mm Issued: 12/11/09 Print: 70 x 80.43mm Issued: 23/11/09

Unette Corporation, the originator of single-use tubes, has been producing
tubes since 1955 and continues to increase its production capabilities.

Unette are a contract packaging / manufacturing company of over 40 years
standing with facilities in Lancashire and Cheshire in the UK, and in New
Jersey in the USA. Our core business is liquid filling.

Currently Unette has a monopoly on flexible packaging for energy gels. They
manufacture flexible packages for Lucozade, Torq energy, CNP, Maxifuel,
Mule bar the top high leading brands in the nutrition industry.

Flexible packaging has since come to be the hottest marketing trend because
of its acceptance by consumers as being convenient.
In the world of flexible packaging, Laminates are combinations of different or
similar films designed to optimise the mechanical and functional properties of
each single film which when glued together with an adhesive, act to multiply
the performance of the individual films. Adhesives are typically solvent free
systems but can be solvent, water, UV, extrusion or hot melt systems.

Unettes Foil Laminates can be hot stamped up to your custom artwork. Unette can
reproduce sophisticated, high resolution, 7 colour process or spot colour graphics on
our foil laminates.

Primary research

I spoke to Alex Terrell Assistant at Unette UK up in there Crew office.
This is main selling points of flexible packaging. They are being pushed as
Sustainable in the sensethat they are using less plastic, weight reduction improve
distribution costs, use less space and most importantly cost less to the business.

So when I asked him if they had looked into designing a new tab for their single use
tube which prevented the littering of the tab by ensuring the tube and tab stayed
together when it was openedhis response was.
We have got a design which does this but it is not going into tooling. Our customers
are not demanding it and the design involves adding more material to the design.
The leash has not gone into development very much like gu who believe that the
excess material is not worth it. It also hasnt been properly tested so the designer is
not sure whether or not it has sharp edges. As there are already complaints in my
survey of people cutting mouth and gums its probably safe not to bring that into
The current packaging uses less material so why change it?
I then followed that question up with this..Why do you not use biodegradable
The bio plastics are out there but they are too flimsy for the current manufacturing
process. compared to foil laminates consisting of Polyethylene and Aluminium mix
which is more rigid to handle than bio plastics.
I kept pressing him on this question and he kept responding you cant achieve
everything you have to compromise somewhere.
I believes it is not an issue. The flexible packaging industry is sustainable because it
uses less raw material. Still uses a hell of a lot of raw material though. A lot more
than if it was flexible.

Appendices G-Distribution/Retails and packaging transport

I spoke to Duncan Mellor who works in the packaging
industry, particularly manufacturing the type of films used for
gels, bars etc. Shed some real light on the issue.

There is still not a real solution for packaging bars and gels
in bio-degradable film as these
products have a very long shelf life due to the relatively slow
sales and usage pattern.
Also the nature of the product requires good pack integrity
hence heat sealing which makes them difficult to get into
compared with chocolate or crips which use cold seal

Most gels sold are low in preservatives so the film in which they are packed needs a
good oxygen barrier and is a laminate of PET and LDPE to give the good seal, some
have foil layers or metallised film.

Easy open tears and tags to retain the torn off portion is not new technology , this is
usually done by the filling machine and since these products are contract packed, it is
down to investment by the packer. The only real solution is not to dispose of the
wrappers irresponsibly, buying gels or bars in paper bags or corn starch based films
is not practical given the other performance requirements of these packs.

Appendices H- Use and Maintenance Energy/consumables
Users are purchasing them in single serving sachets for convenient use. It is possible
to make your energy gel at home but it takes time and effort which is why flexible
packaging is a good option.

The problem from users feedback is the difficulty of getting all the gel content out of
the packet when they want to quickly use half a single serving, which when pocketed
leaks and manages to spread sticky mess everywhere.
The tabs are hard to tear off particularly when cycling along one handed, with
sweaty hands, and when competing in a race fatiguing and a heart rate going
through the roof. The tab of the gel is not easy to grip due to the PET outer coating,
which is hard to grip. The aluminium middle laminate, which is a good barrier of
oxygen also provides good integrity but when torn can leave a sharp edge which cuts
the user.

Simon Mustill gives an insight in to a user experience.
Top tip, do not try to rip the top off the sachet with your teeth whilst cycling and
grasping said sachet quite firmly and competing in your first triathlon! Half the gel
went in my ear, the other half hit the guy I was overtaking straight between the eyes!
Eco Design Key Facts and conversations.

Food packaging
Food shelf life depends on packaging barrier properties ability to preventing the foods
exposure to moisture, gas and light which would make the food go off.

Gels have a long shelf life due to the relatively slow sales and usage pattern. No
retailer will invest in stock if it bio degrades in 6months and therefore they dont sell
the all the stock they bought they make a loss.

Client Matt Hart director of Torq energy interview.
Matt explained to increase his sales the packaging should aim to ensure the gel shelf
life is 3 years, if retailers can invest in stock in confidence that they can sell all of
what they buy more retailers will buy the product and with more stock comes shop
presence so they will sell more aswell. There are a lot of small bike shops in Britain
that make small sales over longer periods unlike the big online shops etc that can
churn out more stocks. So if small retailers are confident they will eventually be able
to sell the product they will buy it. This will increase the amount of bike shops that
Torq energy is sold in.

Due to the nature of the product, it requires integrity to withstand being squeezed in
running belts,pockets and as stated the long shelf life needed. This is why the current
gels packets are heat sealed to give a strong oxygen barrier no moisture is getting
through a heat seal.But the heat seal is also tough to tear open.Melted plastic seals it
shut the user has to tear through 2 types of plastic melted to alluminium foil. When
the athelete is tired even the simplest of tasks is difficult and tearing a tough gel one
handed over bumpy terrain is a challenge.

Packaging engineer John Gillespie

The performance of biodegradble films doesnt provide equivalent barrier
properties(moisture,gas and light) compared to non-biodegradble.

But can increase sustainability in other ways by downgauging and downsizing. Using
less material and creating a package that is reusable.( which would help with litter

EU biopackaging will remain niche despite massive growth.

In the UK total plastic consumption is 2,414 tones of which 60% is packaging
discarded as soon as it is open. Many of these end up in landfill, where they stay for

The price of non renewable plastic is set to increase drastically, while the price of
renewable polymers is expected to decrease. Price stabilization of bioplastics is
expected in 2015.

How hard the product is to open comes down to the expected shelf life of the product
as retailers expect/hope the shelf life to be 2years this way they have more time and
chance to sell the product. Energy gels arent a product commonly bought regularly,
people will buy them for races ad

The market wants performance and its all about competition people will pay 1000s of
pounds for a product which saves a gram or 2 as dragging an extra gram around for
2hours adds up to minutes of time. So racers are reluctant to add weight of an
alternative product if it would be a competitive disadantage. If everyone is in the
same boat is doesnt matter because the best man will win.
Thats why the number board thing works because everyone has the extra material
no single person is at a disadvantage. But they have a choice to put there empty gels
in the number board or on the floor and hopefully more people will go for the later
If an incentive was put in place either financially or a deposit scheme then people are
more likely to aspect.
After talking to a trustee of Keep Wales Tidy (Olwen Moseley) I became aware that
people dont like being told or forced to do something or told off they need a motive
or incentive

The primary research undertaken identifies the needs for less litter one of the
community members gave the current product (Unette Saran tube) a new name of
landfill tube.

Litter Problem-Energy gels come in a small package and one associated problem is
litter. Unfortunately, many end up being thrown onto the trails or roads as cycling
athletes dont have enough hands to deal with the trash as it is time consuming and
the torn-off package tops can be misplaced or otherwise lost therefore creating a
litter problem.

Appendices I-End of Life
Once the user has managed to separate the upper tab off using teeth or hand while
cycling along will often misplace or loose the now separated packet which therefore
creates a litter problem.
The questionnaire showed the large majority of people attempt to take them home by
stuffing them up there shorts or jersey pocket, but admitted they dont always make it
home with them.

George Budd filled out my survey and responded with this
If the idea of this is to make biodegradable gel packaging with the idea that we can
just throw them on the floor, I'm not sure I like the idea. It will just look awfully messy
and sheep and turtles etc will still choke on them until they have degraded.
He is very true about the implications of biodegradable packets it will in fact promote
litter, motivating more people to stop taking their packets home with them.
A packaged dropped could find its way into the pacific garbage patch and end up

Dont worry Enval will recycle it!

Enval can help; by implementing our process, 100% of the aluminium from
plastic/aluminium laminate waste can be extracted and the plastic converted into
useable oils and gases.
With waste volumes constantly increasing, and composition becoming more complex,
there is a need for new technologies and processes to help recycle this new
packaging. The Enval process can treat wastes which are difficult to recycle with
conventional recycling processes. (Limited, 2011)

WRAP aims to improve market knowledge and transparency within the recycling
WRAP aims to be a leading, respected and authoritative provider of information
about the industry to help inform business decisions.

Closed loop

Pacific Garbage patch

Appendices J - History and context of energy gels/Ergogenic Aid.

A company based in Berkeley, California called GU Energy in 1991 invented the first
energy gels. (GU Energy) PowerBars were invented in 1986 and PowerGel came out
in 1996. (PowerBar).
Before energy gels, bars and beverages became readily available in the 1990s,
American endurance athletes used easy-to digest and relatively inexpensive natural
foods and beverages to maintain their energy levels from word of mouth and trial-
An anthropological look at energy gels for endurance athletes
An energy gel is semi-liquid or pudding-like, sweet and easily digestible source of 25-
30 grams of complex carbohydrates that are sold usually in single-serving disposable
sachets containing about 2 Tablespoons (36 grams) of gel. The purpose of energy
gels is to supply energy to an endurance athlete. Endurance athletes ingest energy
gels in order to replace depleted liver and muscle glycogen stores used up while
racing or training.
Professional coaches, sports nutritionists and exercise physiologists for endurance
athletes recommend carbohydrate replacement for continuous physical exertion that
exceeds 60-90 minutes in duration.

Food packaging and its meaning:
Energy gel manufacturers foster the belief that their products are a superior science-
based source of energy for endurance athletes with the words and image symbols
present on their packaging. Below is a review of some carbohydrate-only energy gel
packagings meaning laden-branding in words and images:
Hammer Gel: Hammer connotes a hard steel tool for pounding nail, Rapid Energy
Fuel emphasizes the mechanistic bio-medical view of the human body with power
and speed; packaging artwork is of a bike crank stylized to look light electricity
(power) shooting from it. Using cyclist lingo, to hammer on the bike means to go
very fast with extreme effort. The word chosen to describe the viscious syrupy food is
gel(from the word gelatin that is made from beef) and not honey or pudding or
custard which has less forceful connotations.

Cliff Shot: Shot connotes a fast bullet projectile shooting from a weapon; Cliff (the
company founders dogs name is similar to the word cliff which means a dangerous
perapice and opportunity for a wall climb by an climber, the packagine also includes
the words 90% organic entirely natural to emphasize its purity.

Search for the Competitive Edge: A History of Dietary Fads and Supplements1
Elizabeth A. Applegate and Louis E. Grivetti2

The premise and promise of ergogenic aid use is rooted in antiquity and is based
upon superstition and ritualistic behavior of athletes who perceive that past
performances were predicated upon unique dietary constituents or dietary
manipulation. Accounts from ancient times recommended that athletes and soldiers
preparing for battle consume specific animal parts to confer agility, speed or strength
associated with that animal.
Scientific understanding of the chemical and physiological nature of muscular work
in the early 20th century was followed by ergogenic aid use by athletes and
rationalized as scientific justification.
Ergogenic aids such as alkaline salts, caffeine, carbohydrate and protein have been
used by athletes with variable success. As nutritionists and exercise physiologists
discovered and perfected the scientific understanding of metabolic reactions, athletes
in turn experimented with the amount, form and timing of administration in the search
for optimal performance.

The promise of ergogenic aid to improve performance is rooted in antiquity. They
believed that good past performances where derived from the uniqe diet they had
leading up to that performance. Where similar to the mindset of Husain bolt who after
eating chicken nuggets in his beijing olympics now has the confidence if he eats
chicken nuggets hell be able to perform well.

Appendices K- Sustainable Olympics.

The Future
London put sustainability at the heart of its bid for the 2012 Games and the following
five themes will guide all the preparations for, and execution of, the event:

Climate change
Healthy living
Our vision aims to seize the opportunity to use the transformational power of the
Games to celebrate and promote the variety and quality of British regional food; to
inspire lasting, positive and sustainable change in the event, catering and hospitality
sectors; and to contribute to the growing public agenda on healthy living.

Appendices L- Forum conversation singletrack world.

Appendices M - Blog

Appendices M Graphic, Branding, Development.

Graphics development

Initial concept was to present a message which told
the cyclist off for littering hoping theyd change their
Until a conversation had with Keep Wales tidy trustee -
Olwen Moseley who explained that people dont
respond well to being told off. Litter issues need
incentives to change peoples behaviour. Marketing
campaigns dictating consumers have not been
successful in the past.
After reading Collaborative Consumption by Rachel
Botsman who explains the behaviour changes
happening in consumption today explained that when messages such as everyone
else is doing it are you? Messages like that help consumers become aware of what
others are doing and feel obliged to follow suit.
So the next concept was the message of. Everyone else is taking their litter home
with them are you?
Soon realised the depths of behaviour change created with messages like the above
was difficult as they tend to go in one ear and out the next.
The next concept was along the lines of trying to get the litter message across in a
more humorous way because humour sticks in your mind. Inspired by images like
the ones below.

The idea of being able to see the empty or full gels which are stored in the pouch
behind the number board could be scene at the front with a image. This would a way
to get nutrition brands to invest in this product and take responsibility for the litter
their packaging causes, as the image on the front would be of the said gel brand
acting as good marketing.

Then I realised the potential for clear plastic and the gels can poke out the top of the
pouch. This allows the 17 main brands on the market to show their pro riders clearly
using their gels. With that I went about creating a Torq specific branded board with
the curves synonyms with the Torq brand .

I felt the large logo was taking the attention away from the number too much.
The premium brand wasnt being communicated clearly.
And the number doesnt stand out.

To make the number stand out I gave it a red and grey backing to let it stand of
the page.

Then after a conversation with Torq energy and observing first hand that all their
packaging is black as it represents quality and as a premium brands
communiticates their philopshys well.
So I gave this a black background, improved the font and tucked the brand into
the corner.