Sei sulla pagina 1di 4

Lesson 22. Introduction to Subjunctive Mood Read ( twice) and complete.

In this series of lessons you will be learning as much about your own tongue as that of the Romans ~ the subjunctive is not fully active in English anymore. If it were, it would make learning this mood much easier because you would have something in your own language to build from, but alas ~ spoken languages contintually change, as you know.

Here are some subjunctive phrases/sentences that are rather antiquated now:

be that as it may

if need be

Were I he

It is critical that I see them.

Then I suggest that you run.

I wish this night were over. (rather than “I wish this night was over.”)

What if I were to grant you a kingdom?

If there were any other purpose

I’d prefer the Gestapo be kept out of these matters.

I wish I were back in England.

(rather than “If I was him”)

Do you notice a common theme in each of these?

They each contain an element of

It is

generally applied to verbs to show potential action (or wishes, prayers, and exhortations

uncertainty.

In fact, the Subjunctive may be called the Mood of Uncertainty.

which we will come to by and by). Mood of Uncertainty. Remember that!

In Latin there is another wide-use of the Subjunctive Mood; that is: to express Purpose.

In English we often express purpose with Infinitive verbs. However, in Classical Latin, this

is prohibited. The Romans used a subordinate clause in the Subjunctive Mood to

express purpose. For example:

Infinitive
Infinitive
Special Conjunction
Special
Conjunction

Subjunctive

Verb

In English: I went to Kroger to buy milk.

In Latin:

I went to Kroger in order that I might buy milk.

There is a specific conjunction

that signals a subordinate clause in

the

subjunctive. The verb in that subordinate clause is put in the Subjunctive Mood.

So, besides being the Mood of Uncertainty, the Subjunctive is also the mood used to express Purpose.

Let’s review what we know so far:

1. There are 2 moods in Latin. Up to this point we have been working with the

mood.

2. We will now begin studying and using the

which is also called the Mood of

express

3. In English we can express Purpose with

4. In Classical Latin we express Purpose with a

in the

mood.

mood,

and the mood used to

verbs.

clause

5. The first indicator of a subjunctive clause is a

and the part of speech showing subjunctive is the

Lastly, how do verbs show subjunctive? It’s easier than you might imagine. Look at the

Present Tense Subjunctive here:

1

st Conj.

2 nd Conj.

3 rd Conj.

4 th Conj.

laudEm

monEAm

mittAm

audIAm

laudEs

monEAs

mittAs

audIAs

laudEt

monEAt

mittAt

audIAt

laudEmus

monEAmus

mittAmus

audIAmus

laudEtis

monEAtis

mittAtis

audIAtis

laudEnt

monEAnt

mittAnt

audIAnt

that I may praise

that I may warn

that I may send

that I may hear

Do you see the pattern?

e ea a ia

If that is troublesome to remember, try this: ShE rEAds A dIAry.

Notice the personal endings, -m, -s, -t; -mus, -tis, -nt. We are accustomed to these endings. The only “new” thing with these verbs is the connecting vowels.

Note and memorize the translation of the Present Subjunctive ~ it uses the helping verb “may.”

Review.

1. What part of the verb changes to show subjunctive?

2. What is the vowel pattern for conjugating verbs into the subjunctive mood?

3. What is the mnemonic for memorizing the vowel pattern?

4. How is the present subjunctive translated?

5. Change these verbs from Indicative to Subjunctive keeping them in the same person,

then translate. The first one is done for you.

Subjunctive Form

Translation

You must know what conjugation a verb belongs to, to conjugate it properly.

laudamus

laudemus

that we may praise

parant

portat

moneo

tenetis

movemus

sustinent

ducis

gerunt

defendit

instruis

mittit

vincitis

petunt

pellit

pono

contendit

agunt

muniunt

venit

conveniunt

audimus

collocamus

adjuvimus

perturbamus

servant

incendunt

continet