Sei sulla pagina 1di 35

Ch-2: Vapor Compression Cycle

Book:

 Refrigeration & Air-Conditioning by Wilbert F.


Stoecker / Jerold W. Jones

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 1


Vapor Compression cycle

The Carnot Cycle


 Ideal thermodynamically Reversible Cycle, first investigated by Sadi Carnot
in 1824
 A measure of the maximum possible conversion of heat energy into
mechanical energy
T2=T3
2 3

Temperature
Heat from high
temperature source

2 3
T1=T4 4
1

Turbine Work SA SB
Work Compressor Entropy

Process 1-2: Adiabatic Compression


1 4 Process 2-3: isothermal addition of heat
Cool Liquid Process 3-4: adiabatic expansion
Heat rejected to low
temperature sink Process 4-1: isothermal rejection of heat
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 2
Vapor Compression cycle

The Carnot Cycle


 Heat supplied during isothermal expansion (2-3) T2=T3
2 3

Temperature
= T2 (SB - SA)
 Heat rejected during isothermal compression
T1=T4
1 4
(4-1) = T1 (SB – SA)

 work done = Heat supplied – Heat rejected SA


Entropy
SB

= T2 (SB – SA) – T1 (SB – SA)


Process 1-2: adiabatic compression
= (SB – SA)(T2 – T1) Process 2-3: isothermal addition of heat
Process 3-4: adiabatic expansion
𝒘𝒐𝒓𝒌 𝒅𝒐𝒏𝒆 𝑺𝑩 − 𝑺𝑨 𝑻𝟐 − 𝑻𝟏 𝑻𝟐 − 𝑻𝟏 Process 4-1: isothermal rejection of heat
𝜼= = =
𝒉𝒆𝒂𝒕 𝒔𝒖𝒑𝒑𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝑻𝟐 𝑺𝑩 − 𝑺𝑨 𝑻𝟐
𝑻𝟏 Efficiency increases as T2 is increased and T1 is decreased
𝜼 = 𝟏−
𝑻𝟐
Heat should be taken in, at as high temperature as possible and rejected
at as low a temperature as possible.

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 3


Vapor Compression cycle

Reversed Carnot Cycle (i.e. Carnot Cycle for Refrigeration Cycle)


 A measure of the maximum performance to be obtained from a refrigerating
machine Heat to high
temperature source

3 2
3 2

Temperature
Net Work

Compressor 4 1
Work Turbine

Entropy
4 1
Cool Liquid 1-2: Adiabatic compression
Heat from low 2-3: Isothermal heat rejection
temperature sink 3-4: Adiabatic expansion
4-1: Isothermal addition of heat or isothermal
expansion

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 4


Vapor Compression cycle

Reversed Carnot Cycle (i.e. Carnot Cycle for Refrigeration Cycle)

 Heat absorbed from the low temperature source 3 2

Temperature
in process 4-1 is the Refrigeration Step
Net Work

 Carnot Cycle: 4 1

o A standard of comparison,
o A convenient guide to the temperatures Entropy
that should be maintained to achieve
maximum effectiveness 1-2: Adiabatic compression
2-3: Isothermal heat rejection
3-4: Adiabatic expansion
4-1: Isothermal addition of heat or
isothermal expansion

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 5


Vapor Compression cycle

Coefficient of Performance (COP)

 Ratio of out put to input would be misleading for 3 2

Temperature
a refrigeration system as the o/p in process 2-3 is
usually wasted Net Work

4 1
𝑴𝒂𝒈𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒖𝒅𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒅𝒆𝒔𝒊𝒓𝒆𝒅 𝒆𝒇𝒇𝒆𝒄𝒕
𝑪𝑶𝑷 =
𝑴𝒂𝒈𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒖𝒅𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝑬𝒙𝒑𝒂𝒏𝒅𝒊𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒆
Entropy

1-2: Adiabatic compression


𝑯𝒆𝒂𝒕 𝒂𝒃𝒔𝒐𝒓𝒃𝒆𝒅 𝒇𝒓𝒐𝒎 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒓𝒆𝒇𝒓𝒊𝒈𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒔𝒑𝒂𝒄𝒆 2-3: Isothermal heat rejection
=
𝑯𝒆𝒂𝒕 𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒓𝒈𝒚 𝒆𝒒𝒖𝒊𝒗𝒆𝒍𝒂𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒓𝒈𝒚 𝒔𝒖𝒑𝒑𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝒕𝒐 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒄𝒐𝒎𝒑𝒓𝒆𝒔𝒔𝒐𝒓
3-4: Adiabatic expansion
𝑼𝒔𝒆𝒇𝒖𝒍 𝒓𝒆𝒇𝒓𝒊𝒈𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 4-1: Isothermal addition of heat
=
𝑵𝒆𝒕 𝒘𝒐𝒓𝒌
or isothermal expansion

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 6


Vapor Compression cycle

Conditions for Highest Coefficient of Performance

 Useful Refrigeration is the heat transferred in


process 4-1, or the area beneath the line 4-1 3 2

Temperature
 Area underline 2-3 represents the Heat Net Work
Rejected from the cycle 1
4

 Area enclosed in rectangle 1-2-3-4 represents Refrigeration


the Net Work


Entropy (S)
Work done = Heat Rejected – Heat Supplied KJ / Kg.K

= T2 (S2 – S3) – T1 (S1 – S4)


= (T2 – T1) (S1 – S4) = Area of rectangle

𝑻𝟏 𝑺𝟏 − 𝑺𝟒 𝑻𝟏
𝑪𝑶𝑷 = =
𝑻𝟐 − 𝑻𝟏 𝑺𝟏 − 𝑺𝟒 𝑻𝟐 − 𝑻𝟏

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 7


Vapor Compression cycle

Coefficient of Performance (COP)

 COP indicates that a given amount of


3 2
refrigeration requires only a small amount of

Temperature
work
Net Work

 COP of the Reversed Carnot Cycle is entirely a 4 1


function of the temperature limits and can vary
Refrigeration
from zero to infinity

Entropy (S)
 To obtain maximum possible COP KJ / Kg.K
1-2: Adiabatic compression
o Cold body temperature T1 should be as high as possible
o Hot body temperature T2 should be as low as possible 2-3: Isothermal heat rejection
3-4: Adiabatic expansion
4-1: Isothermal addition of heat
or isothermal expansion

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 8


Vapor Compression cycle

Temperature Limitations

 All refrigeration works against certain temperature limitations

o Cold room to be maintained at -20 oC or 253 K


o Reject heat to the atmosphere at 30 oC or 303 K T Δt
3 2
 During 30 oC = 303 K Atmosphere
Heat Rejection Process,
refrigerant temperature must be
higher than 303 K -20 oC = 253 K Cold Room
4 1
Δt

 Duringthe Refrigeration Process, refrigerant


temperature must be lower than 253 K S

Q. Do we haveMechanical
the control over the temperature?
Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 9
Vapor Compression cycle

Temperature Limitations

 we can keep the Δt as small as possible T Δt

 3 2
Reduction of Δt can be accomplished by Atmosphere
increasing A or U in the heat exchange
equation: Cold Room
4 1
Δt
Q = U A Δt

S
 To decrease Δt to zero, either U or A would have to be infinite
 Infinite values of U and A would also require an infinite cost

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 10


Vapor Compression cycle

Carnot Heat Pump


 Heat Pump → Refrigeration system operates
for the purpose of delivering heat at a high
level of temperature

Refrigeration cycle absorbs heat at a


low temperature

Heat Pump rejects heat at a high


temperature

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 11


Vapor Compression cycle

Carnot Heat Pump

 Performance Factor T
3 2

𝑻𝟐 𝑺𝟏 − 𝑺𝟒 𝑻𝟐 𝑯𝒆𝒂𝒕 𝒓𝒆𝒋𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒆𝒅
= = = Net Work
𝑻𝟐 − 𝑻𝟏 𝑺𝟏 − 𝑺𝟒 𝑻𝟐 − 𝑻𝟏 𝑵𝒆𝒕 𝒘𝒐𝒓𝒌
4 1 Heat
Rejected

 COP of Refrigeration Cycle with the same S


temperatures would be: T1/(T2 - T1).

𝑻𝟐 𝑻𝟐 𝑻𝟐 − 𝑻𝟏
= = − +𝟏
𝑻𝟐 − 𝑻𝟏 𝑻𝟐 − 𝑻𝟏 𝑻𝟐 − 𝑻𝟏
Performance
Factor 𝑻𝟏
= + 𝟏 = 𝑪𝑶𝑷 + 𝟏
𝑻𝟐 − 𝑻𝟏
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 12
Vapor Compression cycle

Example

Carnot refrigeration cycle absorbs heat at 270 K and rejects heat at 300 K.

(a) Calculate the coefficient of performance of this refrigeration cycle.

(b) If the cycle is absorbing 1130 kJ/min at 270 K, how many kJ of work is
required per second.

(c) If the Carnot heat pump operates between the same temperatures as the
above refrigeration cycle, what is the coefficient of performance.

(d) How many kJ/min will the heat pump deliver at 300 K if it absorbs 1130
kJ/min at 270 K.

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 13


Vapor Compression cycle

Carnot Refrigeration Cycle for Vapor as Refrigerant

 If vapor/gas such as air is used as the refrigerant, cycle would differ from the
familiar rectangle of the Carnot cycle.

 Cycle differs from the Carnot cycle by the x


2
addition of areas x and y 3 Atmosphere
T

 Effect of area x is to increase the work required,


Cold Room
which decreases the COP. 1
4 y

 Effect of area y is to increase the work required S


and in addition reduce the amount of refrigeration

 Both these effects of areas x and y reduce the COP

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 14


Vapor Compression cycle

Revision of the Carnot Cycle

Wet Compression versus Dry Compression

 The Compression process 1-2 is called wet


compression T
3 2 Atmosphere
 With a reciprocating compressor, the wet
Cold Room
compressor is not suitable 4 1 Saturated
o liquid refrigerant may be trapped in the head of the Saturated
Vapor

cylinder by the rising piston and may damage the Liquid


compression valves and the cylinder itself
S

o Another possible danger of wet compression is that the droplets of liquid may wash
the lubricating oil from the valve of the cylinder thus increasing wear

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 15


Vapor Compression cycle

Revision of the Carnot Cycle

Wet Compression versus Dry Compression

 If the refrigerant entering the compressor is saturated vapor as point 1, the


compression from point 1-2 is called Dry Compression

 Compression of a dry vapor results in a


2
temperature at point 2 which is higher than T Super
the condensing temperature. 3 Heated Horn

 Area of that part of the cycle which is above 4 1


the condensing temperature is called the
Super Heated Horn

S
 Super Heated Horn represents additional work required by dry compression

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 16


Vapor Compression cycle

Revision of the Carnot Cycle

Expansion Process

 Carnot cycle demands that the expansion 3-4 takes place Isentropically and
that the resulting work be used to help drive the compressor

 Expansion Engine is not found suitable


T
2

o Work derived from the expansion engine is a small 3

fraction of that to be supplied to the compressor


1
4
o Difficulties such as lubrication intrude when a fluid
of two phases drives the engine
S
o Economics of the Power Recovery has not justified the cost of the expansion process

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 17


Vapor Compression cycle

Revision of the Carnot Cycle

Expansion Process

 A Throttling Device such as a valve or other T


2
restrictions is almost universally used for this 3
purpose

1
4

 No change in potential and kinetic energy and S


with no transfer of heat, → constant enthalpy
process i.e. h3 = h4 i.e. process is Isenthalpic

 Constant enthalpy throttling process is Irreversible and during the process


entropy increases
o Friction is one of the biggest reasons for any process to be irreversible
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 18
Vapor Compression cycle

Simple/Standard Vapor Compression System

1- Evaporator
8
 to produce a heat transfer surface
through which heat can pass from
the refrigerant space into the
vaporizing refrigerant 7
1

2- Suction Line 2 4

 carries the low pressure vapor from 5


the evaporator to the suction inlet
6
of the compressor 3

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 19


Vapor Compression cycle

Simple/Standard Vapor Compression System

3- Compressor
8
 To draw refrigerant vapor from the
evaporator and then it rises its
temperature and pressure to such a
7
point so that it may be easily 1
condensed with normally available
condensing media 2 4

4- Discharge Line or Hot Gas Line 5


6
 delivers the high temperature, high 3
pressure vapor from the discharge
of the compressor to the condenser

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 20


Vapor Compression cycle

Simple/Standard Vapor Compression System


5- Condenser

 to provide a heat transfer surface 8


through which heat passes from
the hot refrigerant vapor to the
condensing medium, which is 7
either air or water
1

 Energy rejected by the Condenser 2 4


comprises the heat energy removed by
5
each kilogram of refrigerant passing
through the Evaporator and the heat 6
3
energy added to each kilogram of
refrigerant passing through the
Compressor
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 21
Vapor Compression cycle

Simple/Standard Vapor Compression System


6- Receiver Tank
 Reservoir which stores the liquid 8
refrigerant coming from the
condenser and supplies it to the
evaporator according to the
requirement
7
7- Liquid Line
1
 carries the liquid refrigerant from
the receiver tank to the
refrigerant flow control valve 2 4

8- Refrigerant Flow Control or 5


Expansion Valve
 6
to supply a proper amount of refrigerant to 3
the evaporator after reducing its pressure
considerably so that the refrigerant may
take sufficient amount of heat from the
refrigerant space during evaporation

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 22


Vapor Compression cycle

Introduction to PH-Charts
 The properties of the refrigerants can be listed in tables or they can be shown
on a graph
 Most useful and commonly used in refrigeration work is called the Pressure
Enthalpy (P-h) or Mollier diagram

 Condition of the refrigerant in any


thermodynamic state can be
represented as a point in the P-h chart P 1 2 3
that represents the condition of the Saturated
Liquid Curve
refrigerant in any one particular
thermodynamic state
Saturated
 Once the state point has been located on Vapor Curve

the chart, other properties of the


refrigerant for that state can be h
determined directly from the chart

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 23


Vapor Compression cycle

Introduction to PH-Charts
Property Lines on the Pressure – Enthalpy Diagram

Saturated Liquid
Curve
P Iso-Enthalpy Saturated Vapor Curve
Line

Iso-Entropy Line

Iso-Pressure
Line
Iso-Specific
Iso-Thermal
Volume Line
Line

Iso-Quality Line

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 24


Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 25
Vapor Compression cycle

Performance of standard vapor compression cycle


3 Condenser 2

Expansion Compressor
Valve

4
Evaporator
1

 With the help of ph-diagram, significant P


quantities of the vapor compression (kPa) 3 Condensation
2
cycle will be determined:

Expansion
o Work of compression o COP
Evaporation
o Heat rejection rate o Volume flow rate per 4 1
KW of refrigeration
o Refrigeration effect
h, kJ/kg
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 26
Vapor Compression cycle

Performance of standard vapor compression cycle

Work of compression
 Change in enthalpy in process 1-2 P
(kPa) 3 Condensation
2

Expansion
W = ( h1 - h2 ) KJ/kg

 Knowledge of the work of compression is 4


Evaporation

important → this term may be one of the largest 1


operating costs of the system
h, kJ/kg

Heat rejection
 Change in enthalpy in process 2-3, → ( h3 - h2 ) → KJ/kg

 This heat rejection value is used in sizing the condenser and calculating the required flow
quantities of the condenser cooling fluid

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 27


Vapor Compression cycle

Performance of standard vapor compression cycle


Refrigerating Effect
 Change in enthalpy in process 4-1 P
( h1 – h4 ) → KJ/kg (kPa) 3 Condensation
2

Expansion
 Knowledge of the magnitude of this term is
necessary because performing this process is
the ultimate purpose of the entire system Evaporation
4 1
COP
𝒉𝟏 − 𝒉𝟒
𝑪𝑶𝑷 =
𝒉𝟐 − 𝒉𝟏 h, kJ/kg
 Volume flow rate per kW is usually expressed in cubic meter per second per kW
(m3/sec.kW).

 Volume Flow Rate is rough indication of the physical size of the compressor → Greater
the value of the term, greater must be the displacement of the compressor in m3/sec

 Efficient refrigeration system has a low value of power per kW, but a high COP

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 28


Vapor Compression cycle

Example

A standard vapor-compression cycle developing 50 kW of refrigeration using


refrigerant 22 operates with a condensing temperature of 35 oC and an
evaporating temperature of -10 oC. Calculate :
(a) the refrigerating effect in Kj/kg,
(b) the circulation rate of refrigerant in kg/s,
(c) the power required by the compressor in kW,
(d) the COP,
(e) the volume flow rate measured at the compressor suction,
(f) the power per kW of refrigeration
(g) the compressor discharge temperature.

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 29


Vapor Compression cycle

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 30


Vapor Compression Cycle

PH-Diagram of superheated R-22 Vapor

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 31


Vapor Compression cycle

Heat Exchangers

3 Condenser 2

1
Compressor
Heat
Exchanger

4
5
Evaporator
6 P Sub Cooling

 3
4 Condensation
Heat exchanger sub cools the liquid from the 2

Expansion
condenser with suction vapor coming from
the evaporator
Evaporation
h3 - h4= h 1 – h6 5 5/ 6 1
Super Heating

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 32


Vapor Compression cycle

Heat Exchangers
 System using the heat exchanger may seem to have obvious advantages
because of the increased refrigeration effect

 Both capacity and coefficient of P Sub Cooling


performance seem to be improved 4 3 Condensation
2

Expansion
This is not necessarily true

 Compression is pushed further out into Evaporation


the super heat region, where work of 5 5/ 6 1
compression in KJ/kg is greater than, it Super Heating
is closed to the saturated vapor line h

 Heat Exchanger is justified, where the vapor entering the compressor must be
super heated to ensure that no liquid enters the compressor

 Heat Exchanger subcools the liquid from the condenser to prevent bubbles of
vapor from impeding the flow of refrigerant through the expansion valve

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 33


Vapor Compression cycle

Actual Vapor Compression Cycle


 Difference b/w actual and Standard cycle can be shown by superimposing the
actual cycle on the Ph-diagram of the standard cycle

 Essential Differences between the actual and the standard cycle appear:

o In the pressure drops in the


condenser and evaporator
o In the sub cooling of the liquid P Sub Cooling Pressure Drop Actual Cycle

leaving the condenser 2


3
o in the superheating of the Standard Cycle
vapor leaving the evaporator

4
1
Pressure Drop Super Heating

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 34


Vapor Compression cycle

Example

In the vapor compression cycle a throttling device is used almost universally to


reduce the pressure of the liquid refrigerant.
(a) Determine the percent saving in net work of the cycle per kg of refrigerant if
an expansion engine could be used to expand saturated liquid refrigerant 22
isentropically from 35 oC to the evaporator temperature of 0 oC . Assume
that compression is isentropic from saturated vapor at 0 oC to a condenser
pressure corresponding to 35 oC.
(b) Calculate the increase in refrigerating effect in kJ/kg resulting from use of
the expansion engine.

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 35