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2014

Manoa N. Tupou
Nasau Youth Training Centre
6/30/2014
NYTC Batch 1 Final Report
NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Table of Content
Acknowledgement
Dedication
Staff Overview
Introduction
Advertisement and Interview
Enrolment and Orientation
Trainee Overview
Seed of Success Training
Modules
Theory
Module One
Module Two
Module Three
Module Four
Module Five
Module Six
Module Seven
Practical
Stakeholder Participation
Field Trip
Graduation
Conclusion


NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Acknowledgement
The first half of 2014 has been a challenging term for everyone at the National Youth
Training Centre. This report acknowledges the contribution, dedication, sacrifice and effort
that have been engaged into the first half of 2014 resulting in the successful completion of
Batch 1 training of Basic Agriculture.
A big Vinaka Vakalevu to:
the Staff and Management of the Ministry of Youth and Sports and the Staff and
Management of OISCA International Fiji;
the various stakeholders who take time off their busy schedules to be a part of the
learning experience of our trainee;
Our partners who have been very instrumental in the success of the 1
st
half of 2014;
The trainees for being our motivation.



Dedication
This 2014 Batch 1 Final Report is dedicated to the hard working staff and trainees of the
Nasau Youth Training Centre.









NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Staff Overview
The Nasau Youth Training Centre is jointly managed by the Ministry of Youth and Sports
and a Japanese NGO OISCA (Organisation for Industrial, Spiritual and Cultural
Advancement) International.
Ministry of Youth and Sports Staff
Mr. George Francis Director, Principal Youth Officer
Mr. Manoa Tupou Youth Officer
Mr. Apenai Vatucicila Carpentry Instructor
Mr. Mateni Mekerusa Clerical Officer
Mr. Sivo Storeman
Mrs. Aqela Mataitini Ratu Typist
Mr. Daven Vijay Driver
Mr. Eremasi Daugado Farm Hand I
Mr. Setareki Logavatu Stockman
Mr. Saimoni Vidovi Handyman
Mrs. Reijeli Seru Domestic Assistant
Ms. Ulamila Qaraniqio Cook
Mr. Eminoni Nacebe Assistant Stockman
Mr. Subir Sen Farm Hand II
Mr. Nacebe, Mr. Logavatu, Mr. Sen and Mr. Daugado are responsible for the practical
aspects of the Basic Agriculture training. This includes Poultry, Piggery, Fish farming as well
as root crops and vegetable farming.
OISCA International Staff
As per the Memorandum of Understanding signed between the Ministry of Youth and Sports
and OISCA International, OISCA has the following obligations:
To provide the experts available to for technical/guidance and other educational
opportunities.
To organize courses and to provide trainings to empower rural youth.
To provide agriculture training both in vegetables and livestock is farming at the
National Youth Training Centre.
Train youths on necessary agriculture knowledge and skills to enable.
NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


To submit monthly training progress reports to Ministry of Youth and Sports (Nasau
Youth Training Centre)
To provide agricultural, equipment consistent with OISCAs Budget.
To award scholarships for technical training to Fiji youth at OISCA approved training
centres in Japan.
To provide further training in selected disciplines for graduates of OISCA training
programme in Japan.
To advise and support OISCA graduates in community development projects.

OISCA International looks after the training of Basic Agriculture trainees as per the
agreements set out in the MOU.
Below are the names of the staff of OISCA International:
Mr. Kosei Sugawara Chief Representative
Ronda Gawan - Represetative
Sikeli Tamani Senior Adviser for Agriculture Training, Coordinator for Ra Province
Celua Vuratu Chief of Agriculture Training
Ronald MacDonald Training Staff
Luke Sisiwa Training Staff
Tevita Dakita - Coordinator
Meli Tawanakoro - Coordinator
Poasa Ratu - Coordinator

As far as training of Basic Agriculture trainees is concerned, Mr. Vuratu is responsible for the
overall training whilst Mr. MacDonald and Mr. Sisiwa are responsible for practical classes
especially on vegetable and poultry farming. Mr. Ratu, Mr. Tawanakoro and Mr. Dakita
looks are the sustainable aspect of the training.





NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Introduction

2014 started off with the recruitment drive for the new trainees of the Youth Training Centre
Nasau. Tasked with recruiting two batches of agriculture trainees where 15 trainees were to
be recruited at the beginning of the year to make up for Batch 1 of 2014 and another set of 15
trainees to be recruited for the second half of the year to make up for Batch 2 of 2014,
necessary arrangements were made to allow for the timely recruit of trainees.
This report aims to provide coverage of the training the Certificate in Basic Agriculture
trainees underwent whilst attending the Youth Training Centre at Nasau.
The aims of the training programme are:
To provide trainees with general knowledge of agronomy, livestock production, farm
management, basic farm machinery maintenance, forestry, sustainability and
marketing;
To assist trainees gain knowledge and skills in preparation to be become new farmers
or more informed and literate farmers;
To help trainees gain a greater understanding of their responsibilities towards the
environment, natural resources and the community;
To help trainees develop the ability to apply knowledge and skills to new situations
and also make wise decisions to help solve agricultural problems.
Advertisement and Interview
Advertisement seeking applications from potential trainees was published on the Fiji Times
from the 9
th
to the 10
th
of January 2014, attached as Attachment 1. Despite the early calls for
expression of interest to study at the NYTC were published, there were not as many
applications received compared to previous years. Some of the possible reasons for this are
set out below:
The Fiji Times was the only newspaper in which the advertisement was advertised;
No other media outlet was utilized, for example, the radio advertisements or
advertisement through the Ministry of Youth and Sports Talkback show;
Increase in the opportunities for unemployed youths to pursuing a career path through
the Fiji National University introduced programmes together with financial assistance
approved by the Government;
The absence of rigorous campaigning of Youth Coordinators stationed at Provincial
Offices. The Youth Coordinators play a crucial role being one of the link between the
Ministry and the Youths, in this case, the Youth Coordinators could have utilised their
accessibility to Provincial Council Meetings to have discussions with Provincial or
District Representatives concerning training at the National Youth Training Centre
NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Despite some of the setbacks above, sufficient number of people attended the interview even
though the numbers were not as many so as to allow the management of the National Youth
Training Centre the liberty to choose the best possible candidates for training.
The table below shows the number of potential trainees interviewed at each interview venue.
District Venue Dates Time Number Interviewed
Rakiraki Ra Provincial Council Office (town) 20/01/2014 9.00am 1- 00pm Carpentry

Agriculture

Nausori Ministry of Agriculture Conference
Room (Rt Cakobau Hse)
21/01/2014 9.30 am 1.00 pm Carpentry

Agriculture

Navua Serua Provincial Council Office
(Conference room)
21/01/2014 2.00pm - 4.30 pm Carpentry

Agriculture

Lautoka Ministry of Youth & Sports Office
(conference room)
22/01/2014 9.00 am 1.00 pm Carpentry

Agriculture

Sigatoka Nadroga/Navosa Provincial Council
Office (conference room)
23/01/2014 9.00 am 1.00 pm Carpentry
4
Agriculture
4


Figure 1 - The above chart shows the number of candidates interviewed at each centre.
The interview panel for the first three days included Mr. George Francis, Director of the
National Youth Training Centre, Mr. Kosei Sugawara, Director of OISCA International, and
Mr. Apenai Vatucicila, the Carpentry Inspector. Mr. George Francis was however replaced
by Mr. Manoa Tupou Youth Officer on Thursday the 23
rd
of January.
Enrolment & Orientation
Enrolment at the National Youth Training Centre was scheduled from the 3
rd
to the 7
th
of
February 2014, 3 weeks after the advertisement calling for expression of interests from
4
3.2 1.2
2
3
Interview per Venue
Rakiraki
Nausori
Navua
Lautoka
Sigatoka
NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


interested youths who wish to pursue further training on Carpentry and Agriculture studies
based on the programme of the NYTC.
This year, 2014, saw a positive response from the general public and especially from the
trainees based on the arrival rate of trainees to the NYTC. Compared to the previous years,
this year, 30% of the participants arrived on the first day of enrolment. In total for the first
day of enrolment, 13 participants arrived into the NYTC; this is the combined number for
Carpentry and Agriculture trainees. Previous years record arrival on the first day of
enrolment rarely goes beyond 2 3 participants attendance.
Training plan for the NYTC for 2014 was scheduled much earlier if compared to year 2013;
this allowed the staff of the NYTC to work within the 5-6 months training for Basic
Agriculture trainees.
On enrolment, the trainees were asked to fill in the NYTC Registration Form; the registration
forms of trainees that were filled during enrolment week are attached also. Enrolment at the
NYTC took place on the first three days whilst Thursday and Friday were set aside as
Orientation day.
The tables below record the number of trainees arriving at the NYTC on the three enrolment
week.
Day 1
No. Date First Name Other Names Surname Programme
1.
03.02.14
Seruvatu Taito Raga
Agriculture

2. Laisenia Dolo
3. Menausi Kilihama
4. Saimone Naikelekele
5. Vetaia Kilihama
6. Josateki Tanalaba Nakabi
7. Timoci Ravutuba
8. Kalivati Batina

9.



03.02.14
Ruth Lavenia Pickering



Carpentry

11. Etuate Raikoso
12. Eroni Soqo
13. Napolioni Leka Cati
14. Saimone K.
15. Viliame Naivaluvou
16. Manasa Konataci
17. Asaeli Satala Matairavula
18. Ratu Joji Tuiraralevu
Natadra
Banuve
19. Eric Sovite
20. Apisai L. N. K. Tavutunawailala
NYTC Batch 1 Final Report



Day 2
No. Date First Name Other Names Surname Programme
21. 04.02.14 Mara Batina Agriculture
22. Aisake Rasuluka

23.

04.02.14
Netani Bulavakarua

Carpentry

24. Etuate Jiko Tuiraviravi
25. Jimione Lutuisalia
26. Alipate Wailutu
27. Josiua Nakava

Day 3
No. Date First Name Other Names Surname Programme
28. Adi Mere Komaisavai Agriculture

29.
05.02.14
Kemueli Tovilo
Carpentry

30. Lasa Naduvalevu
31. Timoci Ravuatuba
*Anareta Takoi was one of those placed on the reserve list, however, on day three of enrolment she turned up at
the NYTC with the former District Representative of Naqalimare. She was enrolled on the same day.
Day 4
No. Date First Name Other Names Surname Programme
32. 06.02.14 Anareta Takoi Agriculture

Day 5
No. Date First Name Other Names Surname Programme
33. 07.02.14 Peni Matawalu Agriculture

Whilst there was no specific programme for Orientation day, the first half of the first day was
used to introduce the trainees to the programme of the NYTC familiarising them with its
rules and regulation which was delivered by the Principal Youth Officer, NYTC, Mr. George
Francis. Following this, the trainers at the Centre has time to address the trainees directly on
the different areas they will be working closely on with the trainees. The second halves of the
first day, the trainees were discharged to their own programme where they were then briefed
on the activities of their respective programmes. OISCA International did the briefing for
Basic Agriculture training whilst the Carpentry Instructor briefed the Carpentry trainees. This
continued onto the second day.
NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


At the end of orientation and enrolment week, the NYTC had managed to welcome 30
trainees to the Centre. The remaining 5 trainees are due to arrive at the Centre on the first day
of the Seeds of Success workshop week.






















NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Trainee Overview
Agriculture Trainees
BATCH 1 of 2014 consists of 15 individuals from around the country. Of the 15 individuals,
3 were females. This section will provide an list of each individual trainee alphabetically.

No
.
First Name
Last Name
Date of
Birth
Residential
Address
Phone
Contact
Village District Province
1 Adi Mere
Komaisavai
31/12/1986 13 Vio Rd,
Waiyavi,
Ltka
9090760 Viwa Bau Tailevu
2 Aisake
Rasuluka
11/01/1991 Duivosavosa
,
Lovonivonu
8729067/958525
4
Lovonivonu Taveuni Cakaudrov
e
3 Anareta
Takoi
21/08/1993 Sautabu
village
6201154 Sautabu Naqalimare Navosa
4 Josateki
Nakabi
15/02/1993 Korovisilou 7254654 Nabukelevu Serua Serua
5 Kalevati
Batina
02/05/1988 Namara,
Vuda
9079776/670503
9
Nabulini Wainibuka Tailevu
6 Laisenia
Dolo
11/09/1992 Nasealevu
village
8431769 Nasealevu Sasa Macuata
7 Mara
Batina
26/12/1994 Nabulini
village
9409963 Nabulini Wainibuka Tailevu
8 Menausi
Kaukitoga
03/05/1994 Nalalawa
village
6030047/950394
1
Nalalawa Nalawa Ra
9 Peni
Matawalu
30/06/1992 Verevere 3543905 Verevere Nakorotub
u
Ra
10 Saimone
Naikelekele
24/03/2014 Rewasa, Ra 9358895/993223
1
Rewasa Rakiraki Ra
11 Taito
Seruvatu
Raga
16/11/1994 Nawiwi
Settlement,
Labasa
8431769/849391
6
Qelemumu Udu Macuata
12 Timoci
Ravutuba
14/07/1992 Narara,
Rakiraki
8042823 Drauniivi Rakiraki Ra
13 Vetaia
Kilihama
03/12/1995 Nakorokula
village
9183596 Nakorokula Wai Nadroga
14 Miliakere
Tikonasau
1984 Naivicula
Village
Naivicula Naloto Tailevu
15 Petero
Rerealoa
Muana
Village
Muana Tunuloa Cakaudrov
e


Below is a brief overview of each trainee. The trainees themselves provided the overview
after being provided with a few guide questions to guide them in developing these.


NYTC Batch 1 Final Report



Adi Mere Komaisavai
Mere Komaisavai is a 27 year old female from Viwa, Bau, Tailevu. She completed Form 6
studies and did Tertiary studies at the Tarining Productivity Authority of Fiji. She plans to do
farming on her mothers land at Nadali, Nausori. The land is a residential lot, of about 872
square metres on Mataqali Naocovonu land and is on Native Lease. The land is located near
Nadali Village in Nausori. She will be the first person in her immediate family to go into
extensive farming and will be guided by her uncles who are also farming in Nadali. She also
hopes to secure her aunts farm near Bau landing to plant in. This way she can develop into a
proper commercial farm and do Bee Keeping on her aunts land in Waiyavi, Lautoka.
Aisake Rasuluka
Aisake Rasuluka is a 22 year old Fijian boy who hails from Duivosavosa Settlement,
Lovonivonu Village, Taveuni. Aisake did Form 4 level. He has been doing farming on his
Mataqali land which is located at Duivosavosa settlement near Lovonivonu Village. He uses
10 acres of the mataqali land and is doing commercial farming there planting yaqona, dalo
and cassava.
Anareta Takoi
Anareta Takoi is a 20 year old Fijian who hails from Sautabu Village in the district of
Naqalimare in the province of Nadroga/Navosa. She did form 6 studies and had been farming
on her mataqali land called Nahoni. Nahoni is a 3-4 acres piece of land where Anareta has
been farming vegetables and yaqona. Nahoni is located near Koronisagana Village along the
valley road
Josateki Nakabi
Josateki Tanalaba is a 21 year old Fijian boy who hails from the village of Korovisilou in
Serua. He did Form 5 level at school and had been doing farming on his fathers leased land
called Naviyaraki which is located near Nabukelevu in Serua. The land is a native lease and
is about 200 acres in all. He hopes to do his farming on his fathers land pursuing commercial
farming practices
Kalevati Batina
Kalevati Batina hails from the village of Namara, in the district of Vuda in Ba. He is 26 years
old. Mr Batina attempted secondary education up to Form 3 level. Since he left school he had
been doing farming on his mataqali land which is about 4 acres where he plants cassava,
yams and vegetables for commercial use
Laisenia Dolo
Laisenia Dolo is a 21 year old Fijian. He is from the village of Nasealevu in the district of
Sasa in the province of Macuata. After attempting Form 5 of secondary school studies, he has
been doing farming on his fathers land called Namasi. He is using 10 acres of his fathers
land which is native land.
Mara Batina
Mara Batina is 19 years old. He hails from the village of Nabulini in Wainibuka in the
province of Tailevu. Mara attended Ra High School as a Form 5 student. After completing
his Form 5 education, he joined his relatives in Nabulini doing semi commercial farming on a
5 acre piece of land known as Bureloa. Mara plants yaqona, dalo, cassava and bananas on his
farm.
NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Menausi Kaukitoga
Menausi Kaukitoga is a 21 year old Fijian boy whi hails from Nalalawa Village in the district
of Nalawa in Ra. After attempting Form 5 education, Menausi has been doing subsistence
farming on his mataqali land called Ligicia which is located near Tobu Village. Menausi has
about 2 acres of land that he is planning
Miliakere Tikoinasau
Miliakere Tikoinasau is 30 years of age, she is from Naivicula, Naloto, Tailevu. She was
living in with her partner in his farm. After completing secondary school education, she went
on to tertiary level doing Information technology and inbound travel for tourism studies.
After her studies, Miliakere went back to the village doing dalo, piggery, fish and cocoa
farming. She is planning to lease 5-10 acres of her mataqali land. The name of her mataqali is
Namoa and the site that she wants to lease is Koronika. Its approximately 21/2 kilometres
away from her parents place and its located before her village. She wants to plant dalo,
vegetables, cassava, ginger, banana, vudi, poultry and also cocoa farming on that land and
become a commercial farmer.
Peni Matawalu

Petero Rerealoa
Petero Rerealoa is a 22 year old Fijian whi hails from Muana, Tunuloa, Cakaudrove. Petero
farms a piece of land in Muana called Tunua which is 5 acres belonging to his father.
Saimone Naikelekele
Saimone Naikelekele is a 21 year old Fijian boy who hails from Rewasa Village in the district
of Saivou in the province of Ra. Saimone did Form 6 level. He had been doing farming on his
mataqali land called Naulunivuaka which is located near Rewasa Village and it is a Native
lease. His farm is about 3 acres where he does semi commercial farming.
Taito Seruvatu

Timoci Ravutuba
Timoci Ravutuba hails from the village of Narara in the district of Saivou in the province of
Ra. He is 21 years old and did Form 6 studies at Penang Sangam High School and has a piece
of land own by his Mataqali which is about 2 acres. The piece of land is called Nailoaloa and
is located near Rakiraki town and Rewasa village. At the time of enrolment, Timoci was
doing subsistence farming planting cassava, vudi, banana etc
Vetaia Kilihama
Vetaia Kilihama hails from Nakorokula Village, in the district of Wai in the province of
Nadroga/Navosa. Vetaia is now 19 years old; last year he was a Form 6 student at Lomawai
Secondary School. Kilihama has been doing farming on a piece of land called Tagina which
is about 7 acres. Tagina is a native land; apart from the farming that Kilihama does, there is
no major infrastructural development there.



NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Seed of Success Training
The Seed of Success Workshop was conducted from the 10
th
to the 14
th
of February at the
Nasau Youth Training Centre. Initially, arrangement was made for S.O.S Trainer Mrs. Lorna
Foster to facilitate the training, however, due to pre-arranged meeting; she was not available
for the week long training. She was replaced by Mr. John Tamani.
The training was attended by 33 trainees both from the Trade Certificate in Carpentry Class
III and Certificate in Basic Agriculture programmes. The names of the trainees that attended
the week-long event are provided below:

No. First Name Other Names Surname Programme
1. Seruvatu Taito Raga






Agriculture
2. Laisenia Dolo
3. Menausi Kaukitoga
4. Saimone Naikelekele
5. Vetaia Kilihama
6. Josateki Tanalaba Nakabi
7. Kalivati Batina
8. Mara Batina
9. Anareta Takoi
10. Peni Matawalu
11. Adi Mere Komaisavai
12. Petero Rerealoa
13. Miliakere Tikoinasau
14. Timoci Ravutuba
15. Aisake Rasuluka

1. Ruth Lavenia Pickering









Carpentry




2. Etuate Raikoso
3. Eroni Soqo
4. Napolioni Leka Cati
5. Viliame Naivaluvou
6. Manasa Konataci
7. Asaeli Satala Matairavula
8. Ratu Joji T. N. Banuve
9. Eric Sovite
10. Apisai L. N. K. Tavutunawailala
12. Netani Bulavakarua
13. Etuate Jiko Tuiraviravi
14. Jimione Lutuisalia
15. Alipate Wailutu
16. Josiua Nakava
17. Kemueli Tovilo
NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


18. Lasa Naduvalevu
19. Kaminieli Batigone

Of the 33 participants, 4 were females; where 3 females were enrolled into the Certificate in
Basic Agriculture programme and 1 female is enrolled into the Trade Certificate in Carpentry
Class III programme; the rest of the participants are male numbering 29 in all, where 17 are
enrolled into the Trade Certificate in Carpentry Class III and 12 enrolled into the Certificate
in Basic Agriculture programme.
Generally, the weeklong training was a very open one as far as discussions on specific issues
are concerned. The trainees actively involve themselves in the activities assigned and there
was a lot of discussion after the sessions by the trainees themselves, this is a positive
indication that the trainees were quite interested in the Seed of Success training.
Attached as Attachment 2, is the Seed of Success Final Report from Mr. John Tamani, the
facilitator of the weeklong event.















NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Training
After internal consultations, the prescription for Certificate in Basic Agriculture was
reviewed in 2012 following recommendations arising from internal consultation within the
newly established Ministry of Youth and Sports. In 2013, the Revised Prescription for Basic
Agriculture training was first used and has been in use since then.
The new Prescription consists of 7 Modules designed to be implemented in a span of 6
months. The revised prescription was designed for youths who intend to become new
farmers. It comprises of 30% Theory and 70% Practical with continuous assessments during
the course of training and focuses more on informal training. It aims to provide basic
knowledge to trainees for subsistence as well as commercial enterprise development.
Below is a brief description of the modules covered under the programme:

Modules Reference Number Subject/Topic Week
Empowerment Training Seed of Success 1
Module 1

Unit 1 Introduction to
Agriculture
1
Module 2 Unit 2 Soil Formation and
Properties
2
Unit 3 Soil Management
Module 3 Unit 4 Crop Production 3
Organic Farming
Module 4 Unit 5 Forestry and
Environment
2
Module 5 Unit 6 Livestock Production 4
Establishment and Monitoring
Module 6 Unit 7 Farm Management and
Marketing
2
Module 7 Unit 8 Farm Plan
Development
2

The Prescription for Certificate in Basic Agriculture is attached as Attachment 3. The Nasau
Youth Training Centre have however, made a few changes to the coverage of the Modules to
better reflect the training needs of the trainees without changing the Modules covered but
rather, reducing the number of weeks the modules are covered from 25 to 20 weeks and a
rearrangement of the amount of time given to the coverage of a particular Module.
Attached as Attachment 4 the training Calendar for Batch 1 trainees, which aims to show the
training programme of the trainees as well as the changes that have been incorporated.
NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Theory
This section seeks to report on the coverage of each of the 7 Modules that makes up Basic
Certificate in Agriculture adopted at the Nasau Youth Training Centre. All the modules will
be discussed separately using the following questions as guide line to the discussion on each
of the Module. The questions are outlined below:
What is objective of the Module?
How long are the trainees expected to complete coverage of the module?
How did the trainees respond to the lessons conducted?
How well did the trainees grasp the lessons in each Module?
It should be noted that where there are more than one unit in a module, both units will be
discussed as one.
Module One General Agriculture
Module one, general agriculture is the first of the seven modules covered under the
Certificate in Basic Agriculture Programme. Upon completion of the Module, trainees should
be able to relate to the following objectives of the Module:
- Define the term Agriculture
- Describe the history of Agriculture
- Identify and explain the problems facing the development of agriculture in Fiji and
suggested solutions
- List at least 3 financial institutions for farmers and explain their roles
- Suggest ways of increasing crop and livestock production
- Explain the land tenure system in Fiji
- Briefly explain Governments assistance to farmers
- List at least three economic, social, and basic importance of agriculture
- Identify major import and export crops and livestock in Fiji
- Explain the possible effects of Agriculture production on natural resources.
Module one was covered in the first week of training where trainees were given notes
provided for in the handbook. The general response was quite good and they relate very well
to this module given its simplicity and straight forward presentation. The trainees relate better
to this module given the simplicity of the words used and the style in which the module was
devised.
Module Two Soils and Soils Management
Module 2 consists of 2 topics that were delivered as one module. Unit two is on soils whilst
unit 3 is on soil management. At the end of the two units, the trainees were able to, for unit 2
Describe the origins of parent material and the formation of soil;
Explain the five factors responsible in the formation of soil;
Define the term weathering;
NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Explain the physical, chemical and biological factors in weathering;
Study a soil profile and describe the characteristics of topsoil, sub-soil and parent
material;
Explain the soils physical properties, that is, soil structure, soil texture, soil air, soil
water and soil colour;
Differentiate the characteristics of sandy, clay, silt and loam soil;
Explain how physical characteristics of soil affect crop production;
Describe how physical characteristics of soil affect tillage;
Conduct experiments on physical and chemical properties of soil;
Explain the chemical properties of the soil and their significance;
Identify the causes of soil acidity;
Describe how soil acidity is corrected;
Explain the importance of soil pH in agriculture.
For unit 3 on soil management, trainees at the end of the unit were expected to;
Explain methods of proper land management;
List the essential elements of plant growth;
State the effect of major elements on plant growth;
Explain how organic matter affects soil productivity;
List at least 3 methods of maintaining organic matter;
Discuss organic farming and its importance;
Discuss the ways of identifying soil nutrient deficiencies.
The two topics were covered in a span of two week with soil science taking appropriately 6
days to cover. Given that the trainees are doing 30% of theory and70% of their work
comprises of practical activity there was not ample time available for the coverage of the unit.
This is reflected in the trainees general response to this module where while modules 5 and 6
were being covered, trainees were still enquiring about module 2. Revisiting the module a
couple of times into the training proved to be quite useful and helped the trainees in
understanding this particular module.
Module Three Crop Production
This module was divided into two separate units, namely crop production and organic
production. It was covered in a span of three weeks where one week, the third week, trainees
were sent for an attachment with the Taiwan Technical Mission at Nacocolevu. The first two
weeks was spent at the Youth Training Centre Nasau. At the completion of the two units; for
module 3 on crop production and organic farming, the trainees were expected to;
Explain and demonstrate the cultivation of suitable vegetables and field crops under
the following headings:
o Soil requirements;
o Site selection;
NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


o Land preparation;
o Seedbed preparation;
o Seed germination;
o Recommended varieties;
o Planting and spacing;
o Care and maintenance;
o Pests and disease control;
o Harvesting and marketing.
Most of what was being covered here is the theoretical aspect to the practical work that the
trainees engage in for most of their training time given the emphasis placed on vegetable
farming. There were a number of practical tests that they did in groups on the headings
mentioned above to measure how well the trainees grasp the gist of what was being shared to
them. It was very encouraging to see trainees being creative in using the resources around
them to help them achieve set targets for specific headings. This also increased their level of
awareness on the module.
Module Four Forestry and Environment
The objectives of module four sits well with the work that OISCA International Fiji currently
does in the country, being a champion in mangrove planting, marine conservation and
reforestation. At the end of module four, the trainees were expected to:
List and explain the importance of forestry to the economy of Fiji;
Explain ecological role of forests;
Define the two types of forestry;
Discuss reasons for afforestation and re-afforestation;
Demonstrate ways of planting trees;
Demonstrate asexual methods of plant propagation;
Briefly explain agroforestry and its importance;
Define sustainable agriculture and its importance.
This module was covered in two straight weeks and it included OISCA International Fiji
environmental programmes which the trainees enjoyed thoroughly as this module allowed
them time to visit other places close to the Centre that they do not always have the liberty of
visiting. Going to the communities increased the trainees awareness on the roles that they
must play in conserving their environment and using their natural resources in a sustainable
way.
Module Five Livestock Production
This module was covered in four straight weeks with emphasis given to livestock that are
being reared at the Youth Training Centre Nasau even though the module provided that
trainees study the following livestock:
Fisheries
NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Poultry;
Apiculture;
Cattle;
Goats;
Pigs;
Sheep.
As already mentioned above, emphasis was only placed on those livestock that were reared at
Nasau as this would also be the platform on which the trainees could do their practical classes
here at the Centre without having to go out. This included the following:
Pigs;
Poultry;
Apiculture;
Fisheries.
At the end of this module, the trainees were expected to understand the following headings
whilst study the various livestock chosen for their programme:
History and importance of livestock;
Enterprises and systems;
Environment and management;
Harvesting and post-harvest;
Use of by-products.
What is objective of the Module?
Response from the trainees was quite positive with some of the trainees requesting for plans
and quotations for poultry and pig shed that they can use when they return to their
communities. With the objective of having to launch these trainees to be commercial farmers
someday, a lot of the trainees thought it necessary to do livestock farming so as to provide
leverage for the high cost of meat in their localities.
Module Six Farm Management and Marketing
This is the last of the modules initially designed for the course; however, farm plan
development was later removed from this module to be a module on its own, to allow trainees
to spend a considerable amount of time on the preparation of their farm plan. At the end of
this module, the trainees were expected to have gained an insight and understanding on the
following:
Define the term farm management;
Discuss the five major resources in a farm;
Discuss the basic important activities involved in farm management;
Differentiate between short term and long term goals;
State three reasons why keeping records is important;
NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


State the importance of farm planning;
Discuss variable costs and fixed costs;
Use gross margin analysis to determine the relative profitability of different
enterprises of a farm;
Formulate a cash flow plan
Differentiate between import and export markets;
Discuss how to market produce locally.
As the modules are being concluded the trainees are showing enthusiasm on the
developments that they intend to undertake in their farms. There was much excitement during
the discussion of the gross margin analysis which proved to be an eye opener for the trainees
when they are able to match farm produce and the approximate value of the what they
produce on the farm to the local market. However, an issue that was constantly raised was the
insecurity and unstable markets. Nevertheless, the trainees are eager to implement what they
have learnt so far when they return to their farms.
Module Seven Farm Plan
At the end of this module, the trainees were expected to successfully complete their
individual farm plans that they are to use when they go back to their farms.
The farm plans are attached.














NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Practical
Practical work covers for 75% of the work that the trainee do in Nasau. For every module
covered, there is a practical that the trainees are required to do apart from the work that they
do at the farm every day. Majority of what they do at the farm daily constitutes for a major
part of their programmes.
The 15 trainees are usually allocated into one of the three groups per 5 trainees where they do
rotational practical work on the three sites around the Youth Training Centre Nasau on a
weekly basis. The three sites are as below:
YTC-Nasau farm;
OISCA International Fiji farm;
Livestock farm
o YTC-Nasau Piggery farm:
o YTC-Nasau Poultry farm;
o OISCA International Fiji Poultry farm.
Of the five days of training in a week, 3 days are spent on the practical sites while 2 days is
allocated for classroom learning.
Below are the modules covered and the practical activity allocated for each module:
Module 1 General Agriculture
o For this module, the trainees are expected to farm study where they were to
identify a farm and compile a brief report on the following areas.
Name of farmer/club
Location
Enterprise
Assistance addressing the following questions
What
Who
How
When
Timeline
Monitoring and evaluation
The trainees did a farm study on Barara farm, a Chinese owned commercial farm located at
Nacocolevu, Sigatoka. All 15 trainees did their individual assessment on the farm under the
topics and the questions noted above.
Module 2 Soils and Soil Management
o For this module, the trainees were expected to do 4 practicals which are listed
below
Soil Identification
NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


For this practical, the trainees were tasked with identifying the
soil pH, texture and composition on various sites around the
Centre.
Soil Profile
In groups of 5 (their practical groups) trainees were tasked with
constructing a model of the soil profile.
Types of Soil
At various sites around the Centre, the trainees were tasked
with identifying different types of soil such as sandy soil; clay
soil; silt soil and loam soil.
Liming Materials
o For Unit 3 on soil management, trainees in their practical groups the trainees
were tasked with identifying sites for planting of crops and preparation of soil
for a model farm. In addition to this, they did practical work on cover
cropping; mulching; terracing; contouring; and silt traps.
Module 3 Crop Production
o As part of their daily training, the practical aspect of this module included the
following:
Site selection for new farm sites;
Preparation for new seed bed;
Process of seed germination;
Planting and spacing demonstration for specific crops;
Knapsack calibration;
Making a compost;
Care and maintenance of crops;
Pests and disease control;
Harvesting and marketing tips;
Organic farming
Module 4 Forestry and Environment
o This module incorporates the work OISCA International Fiji does which
included coral planting; marine conservation practices; and tree planting
around various sites around the greater Sigatoka area.
Module 5 Livestock Production
o In their groups of 5, the trainees did farming practical on each of the livestock
farm site which included management practices; harvest and post-harvest
tactics; record keeping and maintenance of records.
Module 6 Farm Management and Marketing
o The practical for this module unlike the previous modules was done indoors.
Trainees were grouped into their 3 groups and were tasked with the following:
Identifying a farming project and determining the short and long term
goals for that particular farming project;
NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Use the gross margin to analyse profits and losses; formulate a cash
flow budget.
Module 7 Farm Plan
o This module involves the assistance of OISCA Officials in developing of
individual farm plans
Agriculture is a very practical subject. Farmers are expected to spend quite a considerable
amount of their time on the farm implementing their farm plans. To help trainees gain more
insight and invent news approaches to farming, training at the YTC-Nasau is driven by 75%
of practical work.




















NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Stakeholder Participation
In an attempt to expose trainees to as wide an area of understanding on Agriculture as
possible, principal stakeholders were identified from relevant line Ministries and Agencies to
come and talk to the trainees on specific topics during training.
The stakeholders were identified according to the expertise that they can offer and to allow
our trainees to identify those stakeholders who they will need to be engaging with.
Identifying stakeholders well before hand will allow the trainees to be on par with the
developments that are occurring in the agriculture sector.
Please find below the stakeholder participation engagement table:
Week Date Topic Covered Stakeholder Participating
03-07/02/14 Enrolment and
Orientation

10-14/02/14 Seed of Success
1 17-21/02/14 Unit 1: Introduction
to Agriculture
Police Department

2 24-28/02/14 Unit 2: Soils
Unit 3: Soil
Management
Health
Land Resource
Planning and
Development
3





4


5
03-07/03/14 Unit 4: Crop
Production
Nacocolevu Research
Station
31/03-04/04/14 OISCA International
Taiwan Technical
Mission, Nacocolevu

6
7
8
9
07-11/04/14 Unit 5: Animal
Production
Nacocolevu Research
Station

14-18/04/14
21-25/04/14
10

11
28/04-02/05/14 Unit 6: Environment Environment
05-09/05/14 Forestry
12
13
12-16/05/14 Unit 7: Farm
Management
Nacocolevu Research
Station
19-23/05/14
14

15
26-30/05/14 Unit: 8 Marketing Co-Operative
Department
02-06/06/14 ANZ Bank
16




17
09-13/06/14 Farm Plan and Action
Plan
Nacocolevu Research
Station
16-20/06/14 F.D.B & IHRDP
18 23-27/06/14 Field Trip
19 30/06-04/07/14 Graduation
NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Based on the stakeholders we identify in the table above, we send our invitation letters to
those identified requesting them to engage with our trainees in the identified areas. Despite
all the necessary work being done, we only received 3 stakeholders; the Department go
Health from Sigatoka; Taiwan Technical Mission staff; and the Sigatoka Branch Manager of
the Fiji Development Bank.
Some government departments have replied to our invitation and have stated that they are
willing to attend the intervention, but they do not turn up on their specified dates for
intervention.
The challenge remains for us is getting the stakeholders to come and attend their
interventions at the indicated time. This is a continuing challenge for us. To limit this
challenge, we tried to limit the number of agencies that we want to engage but trying to
engage the Department of Agriculture on most of our modules since the Department of
Agriculture will be the stop shop for the trainees when they start their own farms.
Unfortunately for us, we were not able to engage them even though we have written and have
had verbal confirmation from their officers at the Nacocolevu Agriculture Research Station.
The Taiwan Technical Mission has been very helpful and even offered to have our trainees to
do a 1 week attachment programme with them focusing on vegetable farm. At the end of that
one week attachment, the trainees were given Certificates on Fruit and Vegetable Production.
The Director of the Taiwan Technical Mission Office at Nacocolevu has agreed to run the
same programme for the Batch 2 trainees of 2014.
The Fiji Development Bank being fully aware of the relationship it will have with the trainees
when they start their own farms, was ever ready to assist when possible in areas where we
needed their intervention. There was a thorough coverage on the work that the Bank does in
helping out farming and how farmers can access their services. It was quite illuminating to
most of the trainees who agreed that it was indeed an eye opener for them.









NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Field Trip
The National Youth Training Centre conducts field trips every year; one each at the end of
training for Batches 1 and Batches 2.
This field trip which is scheduled on the 27
th
of June proposed that the first field trip for year
to be held on this date.
16 trainees of the Youth Training Centre - Nasau will participate in this exercise and are
expected to be accompanied by at least 3 trainers from the Centre.
The purpose of the field trip is to allow trainees the opportunity to expose themselves to the
stark realities around them whilst at the same time, help them link theoretical and practical
work that they do at the Youth Training Centre - Nasau to what stakeholders do. This trip will
also allow them to understand the key responsibilities, and roles other stakeholders play in
which they could also partner in even if it means on a smaller scale. Exposure to the various
methods and styles adopted by various organisations and individuals should shape opinions
amongst the aspiring young farmers on best practices that they can adopt.
The approach to increasing the numbers of literate farmers, demands that young aspiring
farmers be developed through a holistic approach through which each aspiring farmers can
find a way that is most relevant and suits them perfectly well.
The objective remains, to create a group of young farmers who can utilise the technical
know-how and skills that they adopt whilst being trained at the Centre to launch into
commercial farming activities.
As was the practice, field trips are usually scheduled for two days, however, it has been
observed that during the two days of field trip, most of the trainees loose grip of the objective
of the trip that were organized and supposedly assume the trip to be more of a day sight-
seeing trip without much consideration for the lessons they stand to learn from such trips.
Based on this observation, it has been decided against having a 2 day field trip but rather a
one day trip with sites carefully selected to allow proper exposure. The logic behind this
move is to ensure that trainees are fully aware of what is happening around them. In order to
improve on the feedback provided by the trainees, an Observation Assessment Sheet has been
completed and was used by the trainees during the trip out. The assessment sheet was sent out
to the sites managers prior to the field trip so that they can provide some answers on
questions raised beforehand in order to allow the travelling team to keep with up with the
scheduled itinerary.
The travel itinerary for the field trip had to be changed twice after Officials of the Fiji
Correction Services Department proposed that visit to the Naboro Prisons Farm be postponed
until after elections this year for security reasons. For this reason, the travel itinerary was
changed at the eleventh hour to accommodate the needs and interest of trainees.
Below is the original itinerary for the field trip for Batch 1 of 2014.
NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Itinerary for Agriculture field trip 27/06/2014
Date Time Proposed Site Visit Accommodation
Depart

Arrive


27
June
2014
BREAKFAST


Youth Training
Centre Nasau
5.00am 8:00am Prisons Farm
10:00am 10:45a
m
Mesakes Riverside Farm
11:15am 11:30a
m
Naduruloulou Fisheries Research Station
Naduruloulou Agriculture Research Station
12:00 12:00 LUNCH
1:00pm 1:45pm Organic Cocoa Farm
2:15pm 4:45pm Sisas Farm
5:15pm
7:00pm
YTC-Nasau


The itinerary identified six sites altogether, even though, Organic Cocoa Farm is an option
open to the travelling team which could be forfeited if there is not enough time at hand to
cover all six sites. Naduruloulou on this itinerary has been given 30 minutes for the 2 sites
(Naduruloulou Agriculture Research Station and the Naduruloulou Fisheries Research
Station, mainly because its a walk through from one site to another. The three most
important sites are the 2 Naduruloulou Research Stations and the Naboro Prisons farm as
Naboro is hosts to vegetable and root crop farm; poultry farm; piggery farm; fish farming and
honey bee farm. The sites cover everything that the students have been studying. Given that
the scale might be too big for an emerging young farmer, the other two sites, that is, Sisas
farm and Mesakes River side farm are chosen as these two farmers were ex-trainees and the
trainees will be able to relate better to their experiences.
After the confirmation from the Fiji Corrections Services was received, arrangement was
made for possible sites that can replace the Fiji Prisons Farm. A few sites were chosen,
namely, Ram Sami farm at Navua to cover for poultry farming, Koronivia Research Station.
The others sites remained on the itinerary except for the Fiji Prisons Farm.







NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Graduation
The graduation of the Batch 1 of 2014 Certificate in Basic Agriculture trainees was held on
the 4
th
of July 2014 after it was postponed for one week. Initially, it was scheduled to be held
on the 27
th
of June 2014, however, it was decided that it be postponed after confirmation was
received from OISCA Headquarters in Japan that we will be receiving some of the sponsors
of OISCA activities from Japan who will be touring the country on the week of June the 23
rd

to the 28
th
.
As can be seen from the programme below, the graduation started at 9:45am and was
concluded around 1:00pm.

NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


The graduation was officiated by the Director for Youth and Sports Mr. William Naisara who
presided the programme as the Chief Guest after the Permanent Secretary for Youth and
Sports had declined due to prior travel arrangements.
All 15 trainees successfully completed the programme and received their Certificates. Below
are the names of those who received their Certificate in Basic Agriculture:
















By 4:00pm of the 28
th
, the last group of Batch 1 trainees left the compound after presenting
their itatau at the Centres Hall.




List of Trainees
Batch 1 Agriculture Trainee 2014
1. Adi Mere Komaisavai
2. Aisake Rasuluka
3. Anareta Takoi
4. Josateki Nakabi
5. Kalevati Batina
6. Laisenia Dolo
7. Mara Batina
8. Menause Kaukitoga
9. Miliakere Tikoinasau
10. Peni Matawalu
11. Petero Rerealoa
12. Simione Naikelekele
13. Taito Seruvatu Raga
14. Timoci Ravutuba
15. Vetaia Kilihama

Advance Trainee2014
1. Savenaca Koroinivalu Naliva

NYTC Batch 1 Final Report


Conclusion
The Basic Certificate in Agriculture programme was a success after having 15 youths go
through the programme and successfully graduating at the end of the training each receiving a
Certificate.
There continues to be challenges faced in roping in stakeholders who played a crucial role in
the development of rural farmers. Work still needs to be done in this aspect of training given
that the success of a farmers partly depends on how well one networks with the relevant line
Ministries and Agencies to assist an individual in carrying out their individual farm plans.