Sei sulla pagina 1di 11

Biology

lida ketsbaia

 

What are genes?

 

Found in the chromosomes in the nucleus, genes contain

 

information about the characteristics of an organism.

 

What is inherited characteristics?

 

Variation that comes from characteristics that are passed from

 

parents to their offspring, I n the genes.

 

What is environmental variation?

 

Variation that comes from characteristics that are not passed on

 

from parents, but depend on the environment or conditions in which the

 

organism lives.

 

How do we inherit characteristics from our parents?

 

From genes

 

Which is the male sex cell for humans?

 

Sperm

 

Which is the female sex cell for humans?

 

Egg

 

What is natural selection?

 

Certain inherited characteristics are well suited to the natural

 

conditions, and these are passed on to the next generation.

 

What is artificial selection/selective breeding?

Choosing parent organisms with certain characteristics and matting them to try and produce offspring to have
Choosing parent organisms with certain characteristics and matting
them to try and produce offspring to have these characteristics
Which are the parts of a flower?
Where is the pollen located?
In the anther
Which is the male and female part of a flower?
Male: anther
Female: ovary
How does fertilization happen?
Pollen travels from the stamen of a flower to a stigma, then the
pollen fertilizes egg
How is pollen transferred from one flower to an other? By wind and insects What is
How is pollen transferred from one flower to an other?
By wind and insects
What is selective breeding?
When humans choose the pollen that is transferred in the stigma
What is reproduction?
Combination of the male and female sex cell so that fertilization
happens
What are the differences between sexual and asexual reproduction?
Sexual
Asexual
Humans:sperm fertilizes egg
Only one parent is used
Plants: pollen fertilizes egg
Offspring have the same genes as
their parents
Offspring: gets a combination of
genes from both parents
The offspring are slightly different from each other and from the parents What are the advantages
The offspring are slightly different
from each other and from the
parents
What are the advantages and disadvantages of asexual
reproduction?
Advantages
Disadvantages
No need for 2 parents
No variation
Stable environments
If there is a disease in a certain
area it can wire out all the
organisms
Not a lot amount of energy
Cloned organisms are more likely to
succeed in the same stable as their parents What is a clone? Organisms with the same
succeed in the same stable as their
parents
What is a clone?
Organisms with the same characteristics

Physics

lida ketsbaia

How is energy involved in doing useful things? It is transferred from one place to another
How is energy involved in doing useful things?
It is transferred from one place to another and transformed from
one type of energy to another

Biology

lida ketsbaia

Types of energy: ∑ Thermal(heat) ∑ Light ∑ Sound ∑ kinetic ∑ potential(gravitational) ∑ potential(elastic) ∑
Types of energy:
∑ Thermal(heat)
∑ Light
∑ Sound
∑ kinetic
∑ potential(gravitational)
∑ potential(elastic)
∑ electrical
∑ chemical
what are the types of energy that can be store?
Potential (gravitational)energy is energy stored in something high up. The
energy will be changed to kinetic.
Potential (elastic) energy is stored in something that is stretched or
twisted, such as elastic band. If you let go, the stored energy changes to
kinetic(and sound) energy as the elastic band snaps back.
Chemical energy is stored in batteries and also food
Know the symbols of a circuit
lamp
Biology lida ketsbaia Types of energy: ∑ Thermal(heat) ∑ Light ∑ Sound ∑ kinetic ∑ potential(gravitational)
Biology lida ketsbaia Types of energy: ∑ Thermal(heat) ∑ Light ∑ Sound ∑ kinetic ∑ potential(gravitational)

Biology

lida ketsbaia

 
 
 

battery

 
 
 
 
 

voltmeter

 
 
 
 
 

ammeter

 
 
 
 
 

motor

 
 
 

Why do we use a voltmeter in a circuit and how do we connect it?

 

We use a voltmeter to measure the voltage(potential difference). It

 

is connected in parallel

 

Why do we use an ammeter in a circuit and how do we connect it?

 

We use an ammeter to measure the current it is connected in

 

series.

 

Where is electricity generated?

 

In a power plant

Biology

lida ketsbaia

 

Know the national grid.

 

Electrical energy is generated at power stations. It then goes into a

 

network of wires called the national grid. This transfers it to our homes.

 

Here the electrical energy is transformed to useful energy in appliances

 

such as hair driers and TVS

 

What is the formula of he power rating?

 

Power=energy

 

Time

 

What are the 4 different methods in generating electricity?

 

By burning petrol: The mobile generator on the right is driven by a small

 

petrol engine. The shaft of the engine turns the generator to produce

 

electricity.

 

In a fossil fuel power station: the burning gas heats and turns into heat

 

the moving steam flows over the turbine blades and makes them

 

spinethe turbine turns the generator which generates electricitythe

 

waste steam is cooled to water in a cooling towerthen everything

 

happens all over again.

 

In a wind turbine: wind farms are power stations as will they convert the

 

kinetic energy that the wind has into electricity energy. The wind turns

 

the blades, and these turn the generator

Biology

lida ketsbaia

What happens to wasted energy? It is dissipated
What happens to wasted energy?
It is dissipated

Chemistry

lida ketsbaia

Chemistry lida ketsbaia