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4.461: Building Technology 1 CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS

FALL TERM 2004 SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING: MIT

Professor John E. Fernandez

 

Concrete and Composites

Stadelhofen Station Zurich Santiago Calatrava Valls

Composites Stadelhofen Station Zurich Santiago Calatrava Valls Image courtesy of Per Waahlen, photographer, and Structurae

Image courtesy of Per Waahlen, photographer, and Structurae

concrete and composites

1. Introduction

practice research

2. Concrete Issues ductility CO 2 generation durability

3. Improved Structural Materials substitution dematerialization technology transfer

4. Material Selection and Evaluation (CES) multi-objective optimization material indices/ CES software

5. New and Emerging Materials new concretes composites

6. Architectural Form and Research Priorities research development: NFRC design

concrete and composites

1. Introduction

practice research 2. Concrete Issues

ductility CO 2 generation durability

3. Improved Structural Materials substitution dematerialization technology transfer

4. Material Selection and Evaluation multi-objective optimization material indices/ CES software

5. New and Emerging Materials new concretes composites

6. Architectural Form research development: NFRC design

5. New and Emerging Materials new concretes composites 6. Architectural Form research development: NFRC design
5. New and Emerging Materials new concretes composites 6. Architectural Form research development: NFRC design

concrete and composites

ductility

Stress - Strain Curves Not To Scale brittle ceramics full plasticity metals partial plasticity reinforced
Stress - Strain Curves Not To Scale
brittle ceramics
full plasticity metals
partial plasticity reinforced concrete
extensive cold drawing plastic
plastic flow
viscous flow elastomer
Stress, σ, P/A
Stress, σ
Stress, σ

Strain, δ, ∆L/L

∆σ ∆δ elastic zone
∆σ
∆δ
elastic zone

Strain, δ

E = ∆σ/∆δ

brittle

brittle ductile
brittle ductile
brittle ductile
brittle ductile

ductile

brittle ductile
brittle ductile

Strain, δ

Image by MIT OCW.

concrete and composites

Failure strain, Є f

Є f - measure of the deformation of the material at final fracture stress

Ceramics Fracture and failure is unpredictable

stress Ceramics Fracture and failure is unpredictable Probability function Fracture stress (ceramic) Image s
Probability function
Probability function

Fracture stress (ceramic)

Images by MIT OCW.

Figure X

ductility

Material

ε

f

concrete, unreinforced (compression)

0

concrete, reinforced

0.02

soda glass

0

low-alloy steel

0.02-0.03

mild steel

0.18-0.25

carbon steel

0.2-0.3

stainless steel,

0.45-0.65

austenitic

stainless steel,

 

ferritic

0.15-0.25

cast irons

0-0.18

iron

0.3

aluminum

0.5

copper

0.55

brasses and bronzes

0.01-0.7

natural rubber

5.0

Tensile Ductility, ε f (except for certain materials such as concrete, unreinforced)

concrete and composites

Toughness, G f , and Fracture toughness, K c

measures of energy absorption potential through resistance to crack propagation.

G f ( toughness), K c (fracture toughness) -

both material properties.

G f = energy per unit of crack area

Various ways of measuring depending on the material.

Therefore, search for materials that have high resistance to cracks that are formed through loading or other lifecycle stresses.

Sometimes toughness is also referred to as the area under the stress-strain curve.

or other lifecycle stresses. Sometimes toughness is also referred to as the area under the stress-strain

ductility

Silicon Nitrid e (Glass ceramic) Aluminium Nitrides (Glass ceramic) 10 Alum ina Fibre Granite C
Silicon Nitrid
e (Glass ceramic)
Aluminium Nitrides (Glass ceramic)
10
Alum
ina Fibre
Granite
C
arbon Fibre
Lim
estone
1
Normal Density Concrete
Machineable Glass Ceramic
Ice (H2O)
0.1
Aerated Concrete
Low Density Refractory Brick
Ceramic foam (carbon)
Lightweight Concrete
0.01
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
1e6
Fracture Toughness (ksi.in^1/2)

Price per density

concrete and composites

Ecological Issues

Concrete production contributes 8% of world’s total CO 2 emissions.

Research in building materials for the developing world is a moral obligation.

Issues

Poverty allevation

Safety

Health (IAQ, toxicity)

Resource Management

Cultural Issues

Form (resonance with place)

Process (acknowledges local skill set)

Material (regional resources)

place) • Process (acknowledg es local skill set) • Material (regional resources) CO 2 generation

CO 2 generation

place) • Process (acknowledg es local skill set) • Material (regional resources) CO 2 generation

Young's Modulus (10^6 psi)

100

10

1

0.1

0.01

1e-3

1e-4

1e-5

Carbon Steel

Alumina

Tungsten - High Alloy (<89%W)

Diamond

Concrete (High Performance)

Cement (Super Sulphate)

Sandstone(2.35)

Common Hard Brick

Granite(2.63)

Plaster of Paris

Carbon Matrix Composite

Marble(2.7)

Epoxy SMC (Carbon Fibre)

Low Density Refractory Brick

Concrete (Insulating Lightweight)

Medium De nsity Aluminium Foam (0.24-0.48)

Insulation Board, perpendicular to board

Ultra Low Density Wood (Transverse) (0.09-0.22)

Natu ral Rubber (NR), unfilled

1

10

100

1000

10000

100000

Production Energy (kcal/lb)

concrete and composites

Concrete

Need for durable reinforcing and water impermeable concrete matrix

Especially for freeze/thaw climates

durability

Need for durable reinforc ing and water impermeable concrete matrix Especially for freeze/thaw climates durability
Need for durable reinforc ing and water impermeable concrete matrix Especially for freeze/thaw climates durability

concrete and composites

1. Introduction

practice research

2. Concrete Issues

ductility CO2 generation durability 3. Improved Structural Materials

substitution dematerialization technology transfer

4. Material Selection and Evaluation multi-objective optimization material indices/ CES software

5. New and Emerging Materials new concretes composites

6. Architectural Form research development design

CES software 5. New and Emerging Materials new concretes composites 6. Architectural Form research development design

concrete and composites

P 9 C 10 S(n) A B 8 S(r) 10 W(r) G 7 R 10
P
9
C
10
S(n)
A
B
8
S(r)
10
W(r)
G
7
R
10
W(n)
6
10
Projection
5
S(r)
10
W(n)
B
P
4
10
3
W(r)
10
A
S(n)
G
C
2
10
1
10
R
0
Year
Quantity (tons)
1750
1775
1800
1825
1850
1875
1900
1925
1950
1975
2000
2025
2020

Image by MIT OCW.

1875 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 2025 2020 Image by MIT OCW. dematerializati on, substitution, technology

dematerialization, substitution, technology transfer

1875 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 2025 2020 Image by MIT OCW. dematerializati on, substitution, technology
1875 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 2025 2020 Image by MIT OCW. dematerializati on, substitution, technology

concrete and composites

Concrete

Dematerialization: a decrease in the material input per unit service

Is occurring in certain industrial sectors but ‘ecological rucksack’ needs to be accounted for

Substitution: substituting concrete best in situations in which safety is at high risk of compromise

Technology transfer: best employed in situations in which to lengthen lives of existing building stock (such as infrastructure refurbishment using carbon/epoxy reinforcing)

dematerialization, substitution, technology transfer

dematerializati on, substitution, technology transfer 100 80 Projection 60 40 20 0 Percentage of Total
100 80 Projection 60 40 20 0 Percentage of Total (weight) 1900 1910 1920 1930
100
80
Projection
60
40
20
0
Percentage of Total (weight)
1900
1910
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020

Year

Measurement of Percentage of Renewable Versus Nonrenewable Materials Consumption in the US

Image by MIT OCW.

concrete and composites

1. Introduction

practice research

2. Concrete Issues ductility CO2 generation durability

3. Improved Structural Materials substitution

dematerialization technology transfer 4. Material Selection and Evaluation (CES) multi-objective optimization material indices/ CES software

5. New and Emerging Materials new concretes composites

6. Architectural Form research development design

concrete and composites

concrete and composites multi-objective optimization

multi-objective optimization

concrete and composites multi-objective optimization

concrete and composites

concrete and composites multi-objective optimization

multi-objective optimization

concrete and composites multi-objective optimization
100 Carbon Steel 10 1 0.1 Normal Density Concrete 0.01 1e-3 1e-4 1e-5 0.1 1
100
Carbon Steel
10
1
0.1
Normal Density Concrete
0.01
1e-3
1e-4
1e-5
0.1
1
10
100
Young's Modulus (10^6 psi)

Thermal Expansion (µstrain/°F)

ceramics • Glass ceramics Machineable, good fracture toughness • Very HPC (Ductal) Ductile concrete •
ceramics • Glass ceramics Machineable, good fracture toughness • Very HPC (Ductal) Ductile concrete •
ceramics • Glass ceramics Machineable, good fracture toughness • Very HPC (Ductal) Ductile concrete •

ceramics

Glass ceramics

Machineable, good fracture toughness

Very HPC (Ductal)

Ductile concrete

Ceramic foams

Lightweight, structural material

New laminated glasses

Laminated glass (Dupont SGP interlayer)

concrete and composites

Ductile concrete

Steel whisker reinforcement

Increased toughess

Increased water impermeability (few micropores)

toughess Increased water impermeability (few micropores) 60 ductile concrete 50 40 30 20 10 normal concrete
60 ductile concrete 50 40 30 20 10 normal concrete 0 0 300 600 900
60
ductile concrete
50
40
30
20
10
normal concrete
0
0
300
600
900
1200
Bending strength, MPa

Displacement, microns

Image by MIT OCW.

new concrete

normal concrete 0 0 300 600 900 1200 Bending strength, MPa Displacement, microns Image by MIT