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Oct 19, 2014

Math Research Final Paper

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For the Math Competition about Pi

© All Rights Reserved

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00 mi piace00 non mi piace

Math Research Final Paper

For the Math Competition about Pi

© All Rights Reserved

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Period 5 5/11/13

Math Research Final Paper: What is pi?

Now weve all heard of pi, from using it to solve the area of a circle or using it to square

a circle, yet do you know this history behind pi? pi, or is the representation of the ratio of the

circumference of a circle to its diameter, but who would be honored with its discovery?

Throughout the history of known mathematics, thousands of mathematicians have

attempted to find an approximation to the number behind the symbol, but only a few have

succeeded. The last known approximation of pi took place in Tokyo, by Professor Yasumasa

Kanada and other mathematicians. They calculated pi to 1.24 trillion decimal places, through a

supercomputer, but is there another way to approximate pi?

Some view as 3.14, others as

dates back to the Ancient Egyptians. Though they were quite intelligent during their time period,

they had not discovered an approximation to . The focus of the Ancient Egyptians wasnt to

discover pi, but to find the area of a circle, and in doing so, an approximation of pi was

discovered. They constructed a square with a side whose length is eighth ninths of the diameter

of the circle, with a squares area will be equal to that of the circle. The mathematicians in

ancient Egypt approximated the area of a circle by a square according to the rule that to get the

side of a square, one must shorten the diameter of a circle by 1/9 in order to find the area.

Therefore, they used 1 as the diameter and 8/9 as the side of a square, which is just

It

was the effort to construct a square with an area equal to that of a given circle that produced an

approximation of pi, however, they did know what they had just discovered. Let us try to find a

rather close approximation of pi using their calculations.

Today, we already know that: (

The area of the square is simply(

.

Since the Egyptians assumed these to be equal, we get the following equation:

Through simple cross multiplication

Back then they solved this out without , they hadnt known what they had just

discovered!

Soon follows Archimedes, one of the greatest contributors in the early history of

mathematics. In one of his proofs, he discovered a formula of the area of a circle. He

states: The area of a circle is equal to that of a right triangle when the legs of the right

triangle are respectively equal to the radius and circumference of the circle. Archimedes

D/2 8D/9

does that because in doing so, through simple multiplication, he discovers that there is

another variable in order to find the area of the circle and triangle, .

Using the formula for the area of a triangle,

()

circle.

Although Archimedes stated this in a somewhat convoluted way, it is amazing how in

that time of age he discovered what few people knew. Archimedes stated also stated that: The

ratio of the area of a circle to that of a square with side equal to the circles diameter is close to

11:14. For this, here is a ratio I set up through diagrams.

The area of the circle:

r

r

2 r

r

2r

2r

The area of the square: 4r

2

Archimedes was also the one who once stated the circumference of a circle is less than

this conclusion was by inscribing a regular hexagon in a given circle and circumscribe a regular

hexagon about this same circle. He was able to find the areas of the two hexagons and then knew

that the area of the circle had in somewhere in between.

He then repeated this with regular dodecagons and again

calculated the area of each under twenty-four sided

polygons, forty-eight sided polygons, and even ninety-

six sided polygons. Archimedes finally concluded that

the value of

Therefore, since

well Archimedes placed the value of .

In the passing years, the approximations became ever closer to the value of , so that in

200 BCE, Apollonius, a creat competitor discovered an even better approximation of thank

Archimedes:

.

Archimedes calculated an approximation of pi by

only inscribing polygons, which was much trickier

than inscribing and circumscribing.

First, Archimedes formed a circle and inscribed a

regular hexagon, and let AB be the diameter of a

circle. Next, he connected points A and C, and

forms , which was equal to

of a right

triangle. Next, he joined BC. meeting the circle at C make the angle CAB equal to one third of a

right angle. Join BC. Through proprtions of a 30:60:90 right triangle (a right triangle inscribed

of a circle is a right triangle), AC:CB= . Since AC:CB= , to make this much simpler,

lets just say AC=, CB= and AB=1560. Archimedes chose these numbers because as

we go on, he discovered that it will help him understand the results of his calculations.

Since we know that the diameter, AB, to one side of the hexagon, CB, is 2:1, he

estimated pi to be approximately 6/2, or 3.

Next, Archimedes bisected angle BAC with segment AD, where D is the midpoint of

, and d was the instersection of AD and BC. Then he joined segment BD. He then formed

Thus, triangles ADB and BDd

are similar. Therefore through proportions of similar triangles,

.

Now lets say that the length of BC is 780. Through simple division, AC:CB ( ) is

slightly less than 1351:780, while BA:BC = 2:1 = 1560:780

Through angle bisection, we know that <DAB=<DAC=15. Therefore, using the tangent

formula towards <DBA (which is 75), AD:DB < 2911 : 780

Thus AB:BD < . This is enough to give us our estimate for the 12 sided

inscribed polygons. Because AB is the hypotenuse of right triangle ABD, AB:DB less than the

calculated value

and ()

Archimedes then bisects with AE to get the 24 sided ratios.

Similarly 48 side case:

A

these proportions, your approximation of will constantly get closer.

In the 17

th

century, James Gregory discovered a formula for the approximation of pi

through a series of converges:

since the series converges very slowly. It would take one hundred thousand terms to get the first

five places accuracy of .

One of the most significant methods in discovering an approximation of is through

using arctan. Arctan is used to find the angle measure of the tangent (in a right triangle).

Therefore, if tan(x)=1, then arctan(1)=45.

James Gregory, a math mathematician in the 17

th

century wrote discovered a formula for

calculating the angle given the tangent t for angles up to 45.

arctan( t ) = t

t

3

+

t

5

t

7

+

t

9

...

3

5

7

9

Using this formula, you can get quite a close approximation of pi:

The formula:

was

first discovered by Madhava, was later resembled by

Gregory and Leibniz. One of their examples of the

arctangent series is:

()

How to get this is quite simple: First, form a circle

with any radius. Then, with that radius, form a

tangent like to that circle that is equal to the length of

the radius. With that done, connect the center to the end point of the tangent line that is not the

point of contact. Since we know that a line that is tangent to a circle forms a right angle with the

radius at the point of contact, and that the length of the legs are congruent, you know that the

other two angles are congruent, and therefore they are 45 angles. Therefore, if you do tangent of

the sides, since its a 45-45-90 right triangle, it will be 1, and arctan (1)= 45. To find the area of

the arc, you must first find the circumference, which is 2 because we had made the radius 1. To

find the length of the arc, you must divide the circumference by 8 because the central angle of

the arc is 45, which is multiplied 8 times to get 360. Therefore, the length of arc is must be

Therefore, since

(

)

If you want to another approximation of , you can use the same formula.

Make the radius of the circle 1, then the tangent line must be equal to

. Therefore, the

circumference is 2, and since the central angle is 30, the arc that is intersected by the central

angle is

(

So

)

Another interesting method of approximating pi is using the counting squares method.

Lets form circle with radius r=8.

mCAB = 30.00

C

A B

D

First, form a circle, with a tangent line that

intersects the circle at the point of contact,

in which is also attached to the radius.

Following the same steps as the previous

example, however the side opposite the

central angle (30) is equal to half of the

hypotenuse since the triangle is a 30-60-90

right triangle.

By the known method, we get: Area=

There is also a way to approximate the value of pi by counting squares. To determine the

area of the circle we can cover it with a lattice of squares, where the length of each square is 1.

We would also have to count the number of squares (a) in the interior of the circle, and then we

will count the number of squares (b) that are intersected by the circles circumference.

A method used by German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss suggests you can

discover an approximation of by counting the number of lattice points of the square lattice in

the interior of the circle. He determined that if () represents the number of lattice points that

line in the circlular area with the radius r, then we get an approximation for :

Approximation value: Area of the circle

which is close to the actual 201 found by the

formula. This leads to as follows: The approximate area of

the circle is 194. This should be equal to

, so that

This gives a value for

The

approximation of becomes even closer when a larger

number of square is used.

With radius r=10, the area of the circle=

.

Approximate value: Area of circle

, which is closer to the "actual value, 314, as determined

by the formula above. Again, Area of circle=310=10

2

=100.

Thus,

previous approximation.

()

There is a formula for finding (), and here is an example:

()

()

It appears that this sequence head for the actual value of , 3.141592

For r=20, we already get the correct second place after the decimal point, and as the

numbers increase, the closer we get to the true digits of .

He started by forming a square (a 4-gon), which we will call the perimeter as P

4.

Since

each side of the square is a

4

= , then P

4

=

4

= 2. Considering that the inscribed circle with

circumference C

in

and the circumscribed circle with circumference C

circum

of the square pictured

above. The radius of the inscribed circle is:

h

4

=

The radius of the circumscribed circle is:

In 1450, Cusanus created a given

regular polygon with a fixed

perimeter of 2 with inscribed and

circumscribed circles. He used a

sequence of n-gons (n=4, 8, 16,

32).

R

4

=

We can see what Cusanus noticed, that the perimeter of the square is somewhere between

the circumference of the two circles, so we can compare the perimeter, P

4

, and the two

circumferences, C

in

and C

circum

, to get:

C

in

< P

4

< C

circum

or 2h

4

< 2 < 2r

4

h

4

< 1 < r

4

Dividing everything by pi results in: h

4

<

< r

4

Then, he took the reciprocal values of each of the term, which reverses the inequality:

Since r

4

=

, it follow that

rough approximation to the value of . However, Cusanus noticed that as he increased the

number of sides of the regular polygon, the estimates should get better.

The next approximation was done by

doubling the number of sides, which

would lead to an octagon (8-gon)

with h

8

as the radius of the inscribed

circle with radius C

in

and r

8

as the

radius of the circumscribed circle

with circumference C

circum.

Sine each

side is a

8

=

, the perimeter, p

8

, of the

regular 8-gon is p

8=

*

a

8

= 2.

Because <ABM connects an

inscribed angle from one endpoint of

the diameter to the radius, it bisects

the angle. The

measure of <ACM is a right angle

because an angle inscribed in a

semicircle is a right angle (semicircle

contains radius AM), therefore

<AMC=22.5.

This can be transformed into the following equation:

()

()

.

With the Pythagorean theorem, r

8

2

=h

8

2

+(

, we get r

8

=

For the perimeter, P

8,

and the circumferences, C

in

and C

circum

, we get C

in

< P

8

< C

circum

or 2h

8

< 2 < 2r

8

h

8

< 1 < r

8

Dividing everything by pi results in: h

8

<

< r

8

Then, he took the reciprocal values of each of the term, which reverses the inequality:

This means for the reciprocal values:

And also,

( )

Therefore, he discovered that must range between:

By observing the previous formulas, you can notice:

.

In this way one can generalize nested intervals for , if one iteratively determines the

radii of the inscribed and circumscribed circles with increasing numbers of sides of the regular n-

gon (with perimeter = 2).

After observing these calculations, one can wonder how Cusanus got his iteration

method. Here is how he started:

Assume AB=a

n

, MA=MB=r

n

, and MH=h

n

.

After doubling the number of sides, we get a 2n-gon.

P becomes the midpoint of arc

AB, and both X and Y the midpoints of

sides AP and BP in the triangle ABP.

Therefore, XY=

.

XY is the side of the regular 2n-

gon with the perimeter 2, and the center

M.

Finally, that proves that

<P=MA=r

n

, MX=MT=r

2n

, and MQ=h

2n

.

Since Q is the midpoint of segment PH, we have h

2n

=

.

In right triangle MPX it follows that MX

2

= This may be written as r

2n

2

=r

n

*h

2n

,

which leads to: r

2n

=

To generate some of the rest of the n-gons, you can use the following formulas:

h

4

=

; r

4

=

since:

.

When you increase the number of sides of the polygon, you can see a great connection

between these numbers, and even when you get to 32768-gon, one has achieved seven decimal

places of pi. This is one of many vast options to approximating pi to its limits!

And there you got it! has been around for centuries, and every second we are getting

closer to its true value. Hundreds of years ago, when they began to discover the significance of pi

and began to unravel its value, not only did they discover the digits of , but its value on other

subtopics. These are some of the many thousand methods of an approximation of the 18

th

letter

in the Greek alphabet, . Someone once said, somewhere in that infinite string of digits is the

name of every person you will ever love, the date, time, and manner of your death, and the

answers to all the great questions of the universe. All the information that ever existed or will

ever exist, the DNA of every being in the universe. Everything: all in the ratio of a circumference

and a diameter.

Work Cited

Web:

" Pi and the Fibonacci Numbers ." Mathematics - University of Surrey - Guildford. N.p.,

n.d. Web. 18 May 2013. <http://www.maths.surrey.ac.uk/hosted-

sites/R.Knott/Fibonacci/fibpi.html>.

Beckmann, Petr. A history of [pi] (pi). 2d ed. Boulder, Colo.: Golem Press, 1971. Print.

"Euler's Approximation of pi. - Mathematics Stack Exchange." Mathematics Stack

Exchange. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2013.

<http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/98046/eulers-approximation-of-pi>.

"How to compute arctan(1) ." Physics Help and Math Help - Physics Forums. N.p., n.d.

Web. 1 June 2013. <http://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=146908>.

"Math Forum - Ask Dr. Math." The Math Forum @ Drexel University. N.p., n.d. Web.

20 May 2013. <http://mathforum.org/library/drmath/view/52543.html>.

"ScienceDirect.com - Historia Mathematica - Quadrature of the circle in ancient Egypt."

ScienceDirect.com | Search through over 11 million science, health, medical journal full

text articles and books.. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 June 2013.

<http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0315086077901045>.

Graphics, abandoning the, and the rational. "Archimedes Estimate of Pi." DelphiForFun

Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 May 2013.

<http://www.delphiforfun.org/programs/Math_Topics/Archimedes_PI.htm>.

Books:

Beckmann, Petr. A history of [pi] (pi). 2d ed. Boulder, Colo.: Golem Press, 1971.

Print.

Posamentier, Alfred S., and Ingmar Lehmann. [Pi]: a biography of the world's most

mysterious number. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 2004. Print.

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