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Algorithms using Xilinx System Generator

Sami Hasan, Alex Yakovlev and Said Boussakta

School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering,

University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

{sami.hasan, alex.yakovlev, s.boussakta}@ncl.ac.uk

Abstract Currently, Field Programmable Gate Array

(FPGA) goes beyond the low-level line-by-line hardware

description language programming in implementing parallel

multidimensional image filtering algorithms. High-level

abstract hardware-oriented parallel programming method

can structurally bridge this gap. This paper proposes a first

step toward such a method to efficiently implement Parallel

2-D MRI image filtering algorithms using the Xilinx system

generator. The implementation method consists of five

simple steps that provide fast FPGA prototyping for high

performance computation to obtain excellent quality of

results. The results are obtained for nine 2-D image filtering

algorithms. Behaviourally, two Virtex-6 FPGA boards,

namely, xc6vlX240Tl-1lff1759 and xc6vlX130Tl-1lff1156 are

targeted to achieve; lower power consumption of (1.57 W)

and down to (0.97 W) respectively at maximum sampling

frequency of up to (230 MHZ). Then, one of the nine MRI

image filtering algorithms, has empirically improved to

generate an enhanced MRI image filtering with moderate

lower power consumption at higher maximum frequency.

I. INTRODUCTION

FPGAs are increasingly used in modern parallel

algorithm applications such as medical imaging [1], DSP

[2], image filtering [3], power consumption in portable

image processing [4], MPEG-4 motion estimation in

mobile applications [5], satellite data processing [6], new

Mersenne Number Transform [7][8], high speed wavelet-

based image compress [9] and even the global

communication link [10]. However, most of the above

FPGA-based solutions are typically programmed with

low-level hardware description languages (HDL) inherited

from ASIC design methodologies [11].

On the other hand, parallel multidimensional image

filtering algorithms[12], for aerospace, defence, digital

communications, multimedia, video and imaging

industries, demand insatiable computationally complex

operations [13] [14] at maximum sampling frequency.

Traditional DSP processor arrays, with fixed architectures

and relatively short life, can be costly programmed line-

by-line with thousands of codes lines [15] [16].

Alternatively, this paper presents a high-level abstract

implementation method to fill the present programming

gap between parallel algorithms coding and final FPGA

implementation.

The proposed FPGA implementation method is

architecturally based on the Xilinx system generator

development tool [17] within the ISE 11.3 development

suite. This tool is a system-level block diagram modeling

environment that facilitates FPGA hardware

implementation for the bit-accurate and cycle-true

performance efficient specifications of the parallel multi

dimensional filtering algorithms.

The new method is tested on the performance efficient

implementation of nine 2-D image digital filtering

algorithms: Edge, Sobel X, Sobel Y, Sobel X-Y, Blur,

Smooth, Sharpen, Gaussian and Identity[13] [14],

targeting two Virtex-6 FPGA [18] boards, namely,

xc6vlX240Tl-1lff1759 and xc6vlX130Tl-1lff1156.

II. PARALLEL 2-D IMAGE FILTERING ALGORITHMS

Parallel 2-D MRI filtering algorithms are 5x5

convolutional kernel mask-based image processing

algorithms. Generally, the parallel architecture of these

algorithms is constructed of two input matrices, 2-D

convolution array for processing and a parallel to series

reconstructed output matrix, as shown in Fig.1.

Figure 1. The parallel 2-D MRI image filtering algorithms architecture

SIP-6

978-1-86135-369-6/10/$25.00 2010 IEEE

765 CSNDSP 2010

Generally, let the original image, x (n

1

, n

2

), be of size

(N x N), and the kernel, (m

1

, m

2

) of size (M x M), then

the output image, y (n

1

, n

2

), can be expressed by the 2-D

convolution formula:

y(n

1

, n

2

) = x(m

1

, m

2

)[(n

1

-m

1

, n

2

-m

2

) (2)

N-1

m

2

=0

N-1

m

1

=0

Where, u n

1,

n

2

< N+H-1. Moreover, the 2-D image

is equally subdivided into small sub-sequences of size

((N/n) x (N/n)) which are independently convolved:

y(n

1

, n

2

) = x(m

1

, m

2

)[(n

1

-m

1

, n

2

-m

2

) (2)

(

N

n

)-1

m

2

=0

(

N

n

)-1

m

1

=0

Where, u n

1,

n

2

< (Nn) +H-1.

Nine 5x5 convolutional kernels are utilized for the

parallel 2-D MRI image filtering algorithms. One of the

nine algorithms, namely, the Edge algorithms is

empirically modified by a new Edge enhancement

orthogonal kernels matrix to enhance fine detail in images,

New Edge=

l

l

l

l

l

u u - u.12S u u

u u - u.12S u u

- u.12S u.12S 2.uu - u.12S u.12S

u u - u.12S u u

u u - u.12S u u

1

1

1

1

1

(3)

The Edge algorithm is selected after the first round of

the algorithm performance results of table I, which shows

a noticeable performance wide span.

III. THE PARALLEL 2-D ALGORITHMS CAPTURE

These parallel 2-D MRI image filtering algorithms can

be behaviorally captured as a stream model-based

synchronous dataflow system using system generator

libraries. The clock and its corresponding enable logic do

not appear in the system generator block diagram but are

internally generated when the FPGA implementation is

behaviorally compiled within Xilinx/Simulink

environment.

The 2-D convolution operation, in (1), can be

functionally implemented as an n-tap MAC FIR filter [13]

[14] [17]. Consequently, the parallel 2-D image filtering

algorithms can be efficiently realized using n-tap MAC

FIR filters with nine programmable coefficient sets.

Further high abstracted implementation can be achieved

using a 5x5 filter image block, as in Fig. 2.

The implementation diagram consists of three stages:

MRI input, processing and output. In the first stage, the

TABLE I.

PERFORMANCE INDICES USING TWO VIRTEX-6 BOARDS

2-D image

Filtering

algorithms

Power

Consumption

(Watt)

Maximum

Frequency

(MHz)

X240T X130T X240T X130T

Edge 1.57 0.97 194 230

SobelX 1.57 0.97 222 228

SobelY 1.57 0.97 202 230

SobelXY 1.56 0.97 223 230

Blur 1.57 0.97 227 226

Smooth 1.57 0.97 230 207

Sharpen 1.57 0.97 214 230

Gaussian 1.57 0.97 230 230

Identity 1.57 0.97 230 230

Figure 2. Xilinx System Generator Captures of the Parallel Nine 2-D

Image filtering algorithms.

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pixels are sequentially

sub-streamed into 5 virtex line buffers via a pipelined

gateway block. Each line is delayed by 64 samples and

line 5 is a copy of the MRI scan. The second stage

consists of parallel five n-tap MAC FIR filters and four

adder blocks structure which can be abstractly provided

by the 5x5 filter block, as shown in Fig. 2, to filter the

64x64 grayscale MRI scan.

Nine different 2-D FIR filters can be applied via the

5x5 filter block. The nine filters are Edge, SobelX,

SobelY, SobelXY, Blur, Smooth, Sharpen, Gaussian and

Identity. This 2-D FIR filter offers compile time mask

parameters. Then the nine 2-D filters types can be either

selected by changing the mask parameter on the 5x5 Filter

block or modified. The 2-D filter coefficients are stored in

a block RAM. Thus, the stored coefficients can be

modified by changing the mask of the 5x5 FIR filter. Each

n-tap MAC FIR filter is clocked 5 times faster than the

input rate and the 5x5 filter operates at 213 MHz [17].

Therefore the throughput of the design is 213 MHz / 5 =

42.6 million pixels/second. For the 64x64 MRI image,

this is 42.6x10^6/ (64x64) = 10,400 frames/sec.

The third stage is pipelined by inserting delay block

between the 5x5 filter and the gateway boundary block to

be displayed via a simulink block, Fig. 2, that pop up the

original MRI image together with the filtered result, as

shown in Fig. 3, Fig.4 and Fig.5.

The single system generator diagram in Fig. 2 is

behaviorally equivalent to a 7140 lines of VHDL program

Figure 3. The 2-D MRI images filtered, via Virtex-6 X240T, using 2-D

filter types; A. Edge, B. SobelX, C. SobelY, D. SobelXY, E. Blur, F.

Smooth, G. Sharpen, H. Gaussian, I. Identity.

A

E F

G

B C

D

H I

SIP-6 766 CSNDSP 2010

Figure 4. The 2-D MRI images filtered, via Virtex-6 X130T, using 2-D

filter types; a. Edge, b. SobelX, c. SobelY, d. SobelXY, e. Blur, f.

Smooth, g. Sharpen, h. Gaussian, i. Identity.

code and a 8423 lines of Verilog program code. Those

thousands of code lines must be manually verified, refined

and re-entered line-by-line. This can be a waste of

valuable time. Consequently, this paper proposes, after

development, an FPGA implementation method.

IV. AN FPGA IMPLEMENTATION METHOD

The developed method is a high-level FPGA

implementation method for any DSP algorithms to avoid

all the drawbacks of the traditional HDL programming.

The method has only five simple steps, namely:

1. State the DSP algorithm.

2. Structure the DSP algorithm architecture.

3. Algorithm captures using system generator

from Xilinx.

4. Quality of results is verified, refined and

improved.

5. FPGA bit stream generation.

V. RESULTS

The goal of this paper is a new FPGA implementation

method that provides fast FPGA prototyping for high

performance computation of parallel 2-D MRI image

filtering algorithms. A time analysis compilation tool is

needed to evaluate the speed/power consumption

performance indices. Thus the Xilinx Timing Analyzer is

utilized to generate time statistics, total power analysis

and histogram charts of FPGA implementation paths

delay. This provides guides to clarify the bottleneck in the

design and focus on the optimization of the slow paths

outliers.

The performance efficient implementation results can

be behaviorally achieved by low power consumption at

maximum frequency for the parallel 2-D MRI image

filtering algorithms. Consequently, comparative results of

two Virtex-6 FPGA boards, xc6vlX240Tl-1lff1759 and

xc6vlX130Tl-1lff1156 are compiled for the nine 2-D

filters by two sets of 5x5 coefficient mask. The first set is

the stored mask within the 5x5 filter block, and the second

set is obtained by empirically modifying the 5x5 Edge

coefficients to a new 5x5 Edge Enhancement Orthogonal

Kernels as in (2).The results presented into three forms:

performance index table, grayscale MRI filtered images

and Histogram Charts of path delay distribution.

Behaviorally, the results from the first set show that the

parallel 2-D MRI image filtering algorithms have better

Figure 5. The 2-D MRI images filtered using the new 2-D MRI Edge

filter for both FPGA boards.

performance when implemented via the X130T board

compared to X240T board.

Furthermore, the results from the second set reveals an

observable MRI filtering improvement compared to that

of the first set.

Noticeably, the performance indices within table I

outperform efficiently the X130T FPGA implementation

compared to X240T FPGA by its minimum total power

consumption (around 0.97 Watt) and maximum

frequency (mostly around 230 MHz). This high

performance efficient FPGA implementation is

observably apparent for the 2-D MRI Edge filter

algorithm. Thus, the modification is empirically

conducted on the 5x5 convolutional Edge operators.

The filtered 2-d MRI images of Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 are

generated from the nine parallel filtering algorithms

implementation using Virtex-6 X240T and X130T

FPGAs respectively. By inspection, the two figures show

slight improvement of the 2-D MRI images filtered via

X130T FPGA compared to X240T.

The histogram time charts, in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 depict

the slow paths distributions of the 2-D MRI Edge filter

captured behaviourally via X240T and X130T FPGA

board respectively. Each histogram chart is a useful

metric to analyze the FPGA implementation. Where are

the slowest paths concentrated? How many slow paths

are in each bin? How efficient is the implementation to

meet timing? Accordingly, the FPGA implementation can

be adjusted.

Those histograms are grouped into regions of roughly

formed normal distribution paths groups. The numbers at

the top of the bins show the number of paths in each bin.

Fig. 6 shows 308 paths that are roughly forming five

groups. These groups are probably from different

portions of the system generator architecture, as in Fig. 2,

or from different timing clock region constraints. This

shows that most of the slow paths are concentrated

around (2.81 ns). The slowest path is about (6.15 ns).

There are an outlier group of slow paths in the time range

6.13ns-6.30ns with empty bins to the right of it. That is

because the FPGA implementation frequency, from table

I, is the slowest (194 MHz) for this 2-D MRI Edge filter.

However, there are no red/ pink bins or portions that do

not meet the timing constrains.

Fig. 7 shows a shorter histogram chart of 308 paths that

forming totally different distributed histogram with

a

c

b

d

e

f

g

h i

X240T

X130T

SIP-6 767 CSNDSP 2010

Figure 6. Histogram Chart depicts the total path delay distribution of the

2-D MRI Edge filter captured behaviourally via (X240T) FPGA board.

roughly only three normally distributed paths groups

between (2.2 ns) and (4.36 ns). That is because the FPGA

implementation frequency, from table I, is the highest

(230 MHz) for the same 2-D MRI Edge filter.

The slow paths are concentrated between (2.2 ns) and

(2.8 ns). The slowest path is about (4.2 ns). Moreover, the

greater number of only one path per bin, distributed

throughout the nanosecond domain demonstrate the

highly outperformance efficient implementation of (230

MHz) maximum frequency. Consequently, there are no

red/pink bins or portions that do not meet the timing

constrains.

The second result set is generated by targeting the

same two Virtex-6 FPGA boards after modifying the

Xilinx stored Edge coefficients matrix up to a new

empirical Edge Enhancement Orthogonal Kernel of (2).

Fig. 5, Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 are depicted those results.

The new Edge filtering algorithm is noticeably

revealing the MRI image filtering improvement, as

depicted in Fig. 5, compared to that MRI Edge filtered

image in Fig. 3.A and Fig. 4.a.

Figure 7. Histogram Chart depicts the total path delay distribution of the

2-D MRI Edge filter captured behaviourally via (X130T) FPGA board.

Figure 8. Histogram Chart depicts the total path delay distribution of the

new 2-D MIR Edge filter captured behaviourally via (X240T) FPGA b .

Furthermore, the X240T FPGA based implementation

frequency increased from (194 MHz) to (229 MHz) with

relatively the same total power consumption of (1.56

Watt). On the other hand, the X130T FPGA Power

consumption is comparatively lowered to (0.96 W) at

maximum frequency of (228 MHz).

The histogram charts, in Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 are

displaying the reflections of the new maximum sampling

frequencies over the slow paths concentration for the new

Edge filter FPGA implementation of X240T and X130T

respectively.

Fig. 8 chart shows a shorted histogram compared to

that of Fig. 6, because of the new maximum frequency

(229 MHz). This chart depicts 308 paths grouped

roughly into four bell curve regions. Most of the slow

paths are concentrated around (2.4 ns). The slowest

path is about (4 ns). Consequently, the outlier group of

the slowest paths are shifted to the time range of 3.88ns-

4.20ns with empty bins to the right of it. There are no

red/ pink bins or portions that do not meet the timing

constrains.

Figure 9. Histogram Chart depicts the path delays distribution of the

new 2-D MRI Edge filter captured behaviourally via (X130T) FPGA .

SIP-6 768 CSNDSP 2010

Fig. 9 histogram is distributed 308 slow paths to

roughly form three bell shape distribution between (2 ns)

and (4.2 ns). The slowest path is about (4.09 ns). There

are less one path bins compared to those of Fig. 7.

Consequently, there are no red/pink bins or portions that

do not meet the timing constrains.

VI. CONCLUSION

This paper developed new FPGA implementation

methods that provide fast FPGA prototyping for high

performance computation. This methodology is of high-

level abstract hardware-oriented parallel programming, to

outperform the low-level line-by-line HDL programming,

with excellent quality of performance results for nine

parallel 2-D MRI image filtering algorithms of power

consumption down to (0.96) at maximum frequency of up

to (230 MHz).

The FPGA implementation is behaviourally targeted

two Virtex-6 FPGA boards, namely, xc6vlX240Tl-

1lff1759 and xc6vlX130Tl-1lff1156 using the updated

Xilinx system generator within the ISE 11.3 development

suite.

The X130T board outperforms the X240T board in

parallel MRI filtering by consuming the lowest power at

maximum sampling frequency.

One of the nine parallel filtering algorithms, the Edge

algorithm, is empirically improved by a new enhanced

orthogonal 5x5 kernel which generates excellent MRI

filtering results, compared to the previous filtering run

with moderate lower power consumption at higher

maximum sampling frequency.

The future work will be focused on the high

performance efficient FPGA implementation for the

parallel 3-D image filtering algorithms of the next

generation advanced DSP applications within aerospace,

defence, digital communications, multimedia, video and

imaging industries.

REFERENCES

[1] S. Coric, M. Leeser, E. Miller, M. Trepanier, " Parallel-Beam

Back projection: an FPGA implementation optimized for

medical imaging," Journal of VLSI signal Processing systems for

signal, image, and video technology 39 (3), 2005, pp.: 295-311.

[2] O. Maslennikow, A. Sergiyenko, Mapping DSP Algorithms into

FPGA, Parallel Computing in Electrical Engineering, PAR

ELEC 2006, and International Symposium on 13-17 Sept. 2006,

pp. 208 - 213.

[3] M. Kiran, K. M. War, L. M. Kuan, L. K. Meng and L.W. Kin,

Implementing image processing algorithms using Hardware in

the loop approach for Xilinx FPGA, Electronic Design, ICED

2008, International Conference, Dec. 2008, PP.:1 6.

[4] W. Atabany and P. Degenaar, "Parallelism to reduce power

consumption on FPGA Spatiotemporal image processing," Proc.

IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, ISCAS

2008, pp. 14761479.

[5] R. Gao, D. Xu and J.P. Bentley, Reconfigurable Hardware

Implementation of an Improved Parallel Architecture for MPEG-

4 Motion Estimation in Mobile Applications," IEEE Transactions

on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 49, 2003, pp.: 1383- 1390.

[6] K. R. Nataraj, S. Ramachandran and B. S. Nagabushan,

Development of Algorithm, Architecture and FPGA

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[7] O. Nibouche, S. Boussakta and M. Darnell,"Pipeline

architectures for radix-2 new Mersenne number transform ,"

IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers 56

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[8] O. Nibouche, S. Boussakta and M. Darnell, " A new architecture

for radix-2 new Mersenne number transform," IEEE International

Conference on Communications 2006, pp. 3219- 3222.

[9] A. Masoudnia, H. Sarbazi-Azad and S. Boussakta, "Design and

performance of a pixel - level pipelined - parallel architecture for

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Electrical Engineering 31 (8), 2005, pp. 572-588.

[10] T. Mak, et al, Implementation of wave-pipelined interconnects in

FPGAs," Proceedings - Second IEEE International Symposium

on NOCS 2008, , pp. 213-214.

[11] C. Chang, Design and application of a reconfigurable computing

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[12] S. Boussakta, "A novel method for parallel image Processing

applications," Journal of Systems, 45 (10), 1999, pp. 825-839

[13] Clive Maxfield, FPGAs: World Class Design 2009, Elsevier Ins.

[14] R. Woods, J. McAllister, G. Lightbody and Y. Yi, FPGA-based

Implementation of Signal Processing Systems 2008, John Wiley

&Sons, Ltd.

[15] M. Aziz, "Parallel Digital Filtering Algorithms for Multiprocessor

DSP systems, a PhD thesis, 2004, University Of Leeds.

[16] O. Alshibami, S. Boussakta and M. Aziz, " Fast algorithm for the

2-D new Mersenne number transform," Signal Processing 81 (8),

2001,pp.:1725-1735.

[17] System Generator for DSP user guides, 2010, downloadable from;

http://www.xilinx.com/support/sw_manuals/sysgen_bklist.pdf

[18] Virtex-6 FPGA Xilinx documentation 2010, downloadable from;

http://www.xilinx.com/support/documentation/virtex-6.htm

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