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A Project Report

Submitted BY
Under the Guidance Of
For the partial fulfllment of
D!G%! %!LL"& PUNE'())*)+
,*)- ',*)(
Under of Pune
Thi/ i/ to certif0 that
!. ROSHAN K$MAR (T8!!"11%#
ha.e /ucce//full0 /u1mitted the report on 2 DENSITY
academic 0ear ,*)-',*)( in the partial fulfllment of Third
0ear in Electronic/ # Telecommunication under of
He,d () De-,'tme.t
P'(/e0t Guide

6efore 4ettin4 into the thic7 of the thin4/& 8e 8ould li7e
to e9pre// our deep 4ratitude to the people 8ho helped u/
durin4 the cour/e of thi/ project5 :e are 4rateful to our
project 4uide P'(). *I+AY KARRA for hi/ 4uidance
throu4hout thi/ project re/earch and 8or75
:e al/o 8i/h to than7 all the facult0 mem1er/ of
Electronic/ # Telecommunication and our re/pecta1le %ead
of Department P'(). B P PATIL for their con/tant help and
e;cient teachin4 procedure/5

N,me2 () 2tude.t23

Abstract 5
Introduction 6
Aim 7
Methodology 8
Literature review 1
!loc" diagram 11
#ardware com$onents 12
Arduino 1%
I& 'ensors 1(
7 segment dis$lay 22
L)*+s 27
,uture sco$e 2(
-onclusion 31
!ibliogra$hy 32
=ehicular tra;c at inter/ectin4 /treet/ i/ t0picall0
controlled 10 tra;c control li4ht/5 The function of tra;c
li4ht/ re>uire/ /ophi/ticated control and coordination to
en/ure that tra;c mo.e/ a/ /moothl0 and /afel0 a/ po//i1le5
!n recent da0/ electro'mechanical controller/ are replaced
10 electronic circuit/5 The accurac0 # fault tolerant dri.e
to8ard/ electronic circuit/5
Thi/ project i/ de.eloped to meet the re>uirement/ of
/olid /tate tra;c li4ht controller 10 adoptin4 microcontroller
a/ the main controllin4 element& and led?/ a/ the indication
of li4ht5 A micro controller i/ interfaced to led?/ pro.ide for
centrali@ed control of the tra;c /i4nal/5 Microcontroller i/
pro4rammed in /uch a 8a0 to adju/t their timin4 and
pha/in4 to meet chan4in4 tra;c condition/5 The circuit
1e/ide/ 1ein4 relia1le and compact i/ al/o co/t eAecti.e5

Tra;c con4e/tion i/ a /e.ere pro1lem in man0 modern citie/
around the 8orld5 Tra;c con4e/tion ha/ 1een cau/in4 man0
critical pro1lem/ and challen4e/ in the major and mo/t
populated citie/5 To tra.el to diAerent place/ 8ithin the cit0
i/ 1ecomin4 more di;cult for the tra.eler/ in tra;c5 Due to
the/e con4e/tion pro1lem/& people lo/e time& MAN$ T!ME"
T%E!R L!=E" TOO mi// opportunitie/& and 4et fru/trated5
Tra;c con4e/tion directl0 impact/ the companie/5 Due to
tra;c con4e/tion/ there i/ a lo// in producti.it0 from
8or7er/& trade opportunitie/ are lo/t& deli.er0 4et/ dela0ed&
and there10 the co/t/ 4oe/ on increa/in45
The heart of our project i/ the microcontroller 8hich 8ill
pro.ide the controllin4 of the tra;c dependin4 upon the
den/it0 in each junction5 !n thi/ project 8e u/e !R
communication to anal0@e tra;c den/it05 The !R ra0/ are
continuou/l0 tran/mitted and recei.ed 10 the !R tran/mitter
and !R re/pecti.el05
6 di/continuit0 occur/ in thi/ proce//& the
microcontroller /en/e/ the re/ult& compare/ it 8ith all the
four junction/ and /ho8/ the 4reen /i4nal for lon4er time
period B8here the tra;c den/it0 i/ hea.0C 8hile the red
/i4nal i/ /ho8n to the other three road/5
The main aim of the project i/ to reduce and in
fact eliminate the tra;c den/it0 pro1lem/
e/peciall0 in metropolitan citie/ durin4 1u/0
The pre/ent da0 /i4nalin4 proce// i/ a timed
proce// i5e5 the /i4nalin4 of the junction/ i/ for
/ame amount of time in all the four junction/
irre/pecti.e of tra;c den/it05 :ith thi/& the
junction ha.in4 more tra;c i/ 4i.en 4reen
/i4nal for the /ame time 8hich i/ 1ein4 4i.en
to the junction ha.in4 le// tra;c or no tra;c5
Thu/ the den/it0 in one junction 7eep/ on
increa/in4 8hile the other junction i/ clear 8ith
no .ehicle/5
!n our project& 8e ha.e u/ed !R /en/or/ on each /ide of road5
8e ha.e placed - !R /en/or/ on each /ide of the road Beach
/en/or i/ place +m appro9imatel0 from each otherC5No8
dependin4 on the output of /en/or/ microcontroller /en/e/
the hea.0 den/it0 and ma7e/ the 4reen li4ht B/i4nalin4
hea.0 den/it0C 4lo8 for more amount of time and red li4ht
on other three road/ thu/ reducin4 hea.0 tra;c den/it0
pro1lem at the junction5 !n our project 8e ha.e /ho8n thi/
tra;c li4ht control /0/tem for , 8a0/ and there i/ a
pede/trian cro//in4 in 1et8een5
"en/or/ are 4oin4 to detect the den/it0 of .ehicle/ on the
road a/ follo8/ D
let /)&/,&/- are for one /ide of road and /(&/+&/E are for
/econd /ide of road& then if
/(F/+F) # /EF*
then it mean/ that tra;c i/ hi4h one /ide and tra;c i/
medium on other /ide of the road5 no8 accordin4l0 arduino
1oard i/ 4oin4 to 4i.e 4reen li4ht for more period of time to
the road 8hich i/ ha.in4 la4 den/it0B)+ /econd/C a/
compared to the road ha.in4 medium den/it0 B)*
/econd/C5"imilarl0 there are lar4e num1er of condition/ for
controllin4 the tra;c li4ht accordin4 to the /en/or output5
:e ha.e a//umedD
8a0) 8a0, 4reen) # red, 0ello8) # 0ello8, red) #
lo8 lo8 + ,
lo8 med + ,
lo8 hi4h + ,
med lo8 )* ,
med med )* ,
med hi4h )* ,
hi4h lo8 )+ ,
hi4h med )+ ,
hi4h hi4h )+ ,
:hen no .ehicle i/ detected Bdurin4 the late ni4ht hour/C&
then 0ello8 li4ht 8ill 1lin7 on 1oth 8a0/5
"imilarl0 there can 1e man0 more condition/ for 8hich the
codin4 i/ done 5

The pa/t tra;c controllin4 /0/tem i/ a human 1a/ed /0/tem
8herein the tra;c at the junction/ i/ monitored and
controlled 10 tra;c police 8hich al8a0/ re/ult/ in a1normal
tra;c condition/ due to man0 rea/on/ and /ometime/ ma0
1e 1ecau/e of the ine;cienc0 of the tra;c police in
controllin4 the tra;c5 8ith the de.elopment in technolo40 the pa/t tra;c
controllin4 /0/tem i/ replaced no8 8ith a timed /i4nalin4
/0/tem 8herein the tra;c police i/ replaced 8ith the
automatic /i4nalin4 /0/tem5 The onl0 di/ad.anta4e 8ith thi/
i/ it 4i.e/ /i4nalin4 for con/tant f9ed amount of time in all
junction/ irre/pecti.e of tra;c in that particular junction and
8ith thi/ the hea.0 tra;c on one road 4oe/ on increa/in4
and e.en thou4h there i/ no tra;c on the other /ide the
4reen li4ht i/ /ho8n for the /ame amount of time a/ that on
the hea.0 road5
:e o.ercome thi/ pro1lem throu4h our project 8here the
/i4nalin4 depend/ on the den/it0 on the road i5e5 the road
ha.in4 hea.0 tra;c i/ 4i.en 4reen li4ht for more amount of
time 8hen compared to remainin4 road/& thu/ reducin4 the

The main o1jecti.e of thi/ project i/ to control the tra;c
dependin4 upon the den/it05 A/ there i/ much time 8a/ta4e
8ith the tra;c li4ht/ 8hich in.ol.e/ the time& 8e are
de/i4nin4 the ne8 /0/tem 8hich control/ the tra;c
dependin4 upon the den/it05
%ere 8e place !R /en/or/ at 1oth end/ of the road/5 the .ehicle/ pa// in'1et8een them the continuit0
8ill 1e lo/t5 %ence the microcontroller /en/e/ the den/it0 i/
Then the microcontroller 8ill 1e ma7in4 the li4ht B4reenC to
1e 4lo8 much time at the junction 8here the tra;c i/ hi4h5
The /ame procedure 8ill 1e follo8ed in all the four junction/5
The /i4nalin4 from the four junction/ 8ill 1e ta7en into
con/ideration and dependin4 upon the den/it0
microcontroller 8ill ma7e the deci/ion5
"imilarl0 the count i/ di/pla0ed on G /e4ment di/pla0
8hich in turn i/ deri.ed 10 the arduino duomalino.e5
H,'d5,'e C(m-(.e.t2 3
HArduino 6road
H!R "en/or
HG "e4ment Di/pla0
HP6 6oard
S()t5,'e T((62 3
HArduino !DE
The Arduino Duemilano.e BI,**JIC i/ a microcontroller 1oard
1a/ed on the ATme4a)EK or ATme4a-,K 5 !t ha/ )( di4ital
inputLoutput pin/ Bof 8hich E can 1e u/ed a/ P:M output/C&
E analo4 input/& a )E M%@ cr0/tal o/cillator& a U"6
connection& a po8er jac7& an !"P header& and a re/et
1utton5 !t contain/ e.er0thin4 needed to /upport the
microcontrollerM /impl0 connect it to a computer 8ith a U"6
ca1le or po8er it 8ith a A'to'D adapter or 1atter0 to 4et
IDuemilano.eI mean/ ,**J in !talian and i/ named after the
0ear of it/ relea/e5 The Duemilano.e i/ the late/t in a /erie/
of U"6 Arduino 1oard/5
Operatin4 =olta4e
!nput =olta4e BrecommendedC
!nput =olta4e Blimit/C
Di4ital !LO Pin/ )( Bof 8hich E pro.ide
P:M outputC
Analo4 !nput Pin/
D urrent per !LO Pin
(* mA
D urrent for -5-= Pin
+* mA
Fla/h Memor0 )E <6 BATme4a)EKC or -, <6 BATme4a-,KC of
8hich , <6 u/ed 10 1ootloader
"RAM ) <6 BATme4a)EKC
or , <6 BATme4a-,KC
EEPROM +), 10te/ BATme4a)EKC or ) <6
loc7 "peed
)E M%@
The ATme4a-,K i/ a /in4le chip micro'controller created 10
Atmel and 1elon4/ to the me4aA=R /erie/5
The hi4h'performance Atmel K'1it A=R R!"'1a/ed
microcontroller com1ine/ -, <6 !"P Na/h memor0 8ith read'
8hile'8rite capa1ilitie/& ) <6 EEPROM& , <6 "RAM& ,-
4eneral purpo/e !LO line/& -, 4eneral purpo/e 8or7in4
re4i/ter/& three Ne9i1le timerLcounter/ 8ith compare mode/&
internal and e9ternal interrupt/& /erial pro4ramma1le U"ART&
a 10te'oriented ,'8ire /erial interface& "P! /erial port& E'
channel )*'1it ALD con.erter BK'channel/ in TOFP and
OFNLMLF pac7a4e/C& pro4ramma1le 8atchdo4 timer 8ith
internal o/cillator& and f.e /oft8are /electa1le po8er /a.in4
mode/5 The operate/ 1et8een )5K'+5+ .olt/5 60
e9ecutin4 po8erful in/truction/ in a /in4le cloc7 c0cle& the achie.e/ throu4hput/ approachin4 ) M!P" per M%@&
1alancin4 po8er con/umption and proce//in4 /peed5
The Arduino can 1e po8ered .ia the U"6 connection or 8ith
an e9ternal po8er /uppl05 The po8er /ource i/ /elected
E9ternal Bnon'U"6C po8er can come either from an A'to'D
adapter B8all'8artC or 1atter05 The adapter can 1e connected
10 plu44in4 a ,5)mm center'po/iti.e plu4 into the 1oardP/
po8er jac75 Lead/ from a 1atter0 can 1e in/erted in the Gnd
and =in pin header/ of the PO:ER connector5
The 1oard can operate on an e9ternal /uppl0 of E to ,* .olt/5
!f /upplied 8ith le// than G=& the += pin ma0
/uppl0 le// than f.e .olt/ and the 1oard ma0 1e un/ta1le5 !f
u/in4 more than ),=& the .olta4e re4ulator ma0 o.erheat
and dama4e the 1oard5 The recommended ran4e i/ G to ),
The po8er pin/ are a/ follo8/D
8 *IN.
The input .olta4e to the Arduino 1oard 8hen itP/ u/in4 an
e9ternal po8er /ource Ba/ oppo/ed to + .olt/ from the U"6
connection or other re4ulated po8er /ourceC5 $ou can /uppl0
.olta4e throu4h thi/ pin& or& if /uppl0in4 .olta4e .ia the
po8er jac7& acce// it throu4h thi/ pin5
8 9*.
The re4ulated po8er /uppl0 u/ed to po8er the
microcontroller and other component/ on the 1oard5 Thi/ can
come either from =!N .ia an on'1oard re4ulator& or 1e
/upplied 10 U"6 or another re4ulated += /uppl05
A -5- .olt /uppl0 4enerated 10 the on'1oard re4ulator5
Ma9imum current dra8 i/ +* mA5
Ground pin/
The Atme4a-,K ha/ -, <6 of Na/h memor0 for /torin4 code
Bof 8hich *&+ <6 i/ u/ed for the 1ootloaderCM !t ha/ al/o , <6
of "RAM and ) <6 of EEPROM B8hich can 1e read and 8ritten
8ith the EEPROM li1rar0C input and output5
Each of the )( di4ital pin/ on the duomalino.e can 1e u/ed
a/ an input or output& u/in4 pinModeBC& di4ital:riteBC& and
di4italReadBC function/5 The0 operate at + .olt/5 Each pin can
pro.ide or recei.e a ma9imum of (* mA and ha/ an internal
pull'up re/i/tor Bdi/connected 10 defaultC of ,*'+* 7Ohm/5
!n addition& /ome pin/ ha.e /peciali@ed function/D
8 Se'i,63 (R4# ,.d 1 (T4#.
U/ed to recei.e BRQC and tran/mit BTQC TTL /erial data5
TThe/e pin/ are connected to the corre/pondin4 pin/ of the
ATme4aKU, U"6'to'TTL "erial chip 5
8 E:te'.,6 I.te''u-t23 ! ,.d ".
The/e pin/ can 1e conf4ured to tri44er an interrupt on a lo8
.alue& a ri/in4 or fallin4 ed4e& or a chan4e in .alue5
8 P1M3 "; 9; <; =; 1; ,.d 11.
Pro.ide K'1it P:M output 8ith the analo4:riteBC function5
8 SPI3 1 (SS#; 11 (MOSI#; 1! (MISO#; 1" (SCK#.
The/e pin/ /upport "P! communication& 8hich& althou4h
pro.ided 10 the underl0in4 hard8are& i/ not currentl0
included in the Arduino lan4ua4e5
8 LED3 1".There i/ a 1uilt'in LED connected to di4ital pin )-5
:hen the pin i/ %!G% .alue& the LED i/ on& 8hen the pin i/
LO:& itP/ oA5 The duomalino.e ha/ E analo4 input/& each of
8hich pro.ide )* 1it/ of re/olution Bi5e5 )*,( diAerent
.alue/C5 60 default the0 mea/ure from 4round to + .olt/&
thou4h i/ it po//i1le to chan4e the upper end of their ran4e
u/in4 the AREF pin and the analo4 ReferenceBC function5
Additi(.,66>; 2(me -i.2 ?,@e 2-e0i,6iAed )u.0ti(.,6it>3
8 I!C3 & (SDA# ,.d 9 (SCL#.
"upport !, BT:!C communication u/in4 the :ire li1rar05
T?e'e ,'e , 0(u-6e () (t?e' -i.2 (. t?e b(,'d3
Reference .olta4e for the analo4 input/5 U/ed 8ith analo4
6rin4 thi/ line LO: to re/et the microcontroller5 T0picall0
u/ed to add a re/et 1utton to /hield/ 8hich 1loc7 the one on
the 1oard5 The Arduino duomalino.e ha/ a num1er of
facilitie/ for communicatin4 8ith a computer& another
Arduino& or other microcontroller/5 The ATme4a-,K pro.ide/
UART TTL B+=C /erial communication& 8hich i/ a.aila1le on
di4ital pin/ * BRQC and ) BTQC5 An ATme4aKU, on the 1oard
channel/ thi/ /erial communication U"6 and appear/ a/
a .irtual com port to /oft8are on the computer5 The PKU,
frm8are u/e/ the /tandard U"6 OM and no
e9ternal i/ needed5 on :indo8/& an R5inf fle
i/ re>uired5
The Arduino /oft8are include/ a /erial monitor 8hich allo8/
/imple te9tual data to 1e /ent to and from the Arduino
1oard5 The RQ and TQ LED/ on the 1oard 8ill Na/h 8hen data
i/ 1ein4 tran/mitted .ia the U"6'to'/erial chip and U"6
connection to the computer B1ut not for /erial
communication on pin/ * and )C5
A "oft8are "erial li1rar0 allo8/ for /erial communication on
an0 of the duomalino.eP/ di4ital pin/5 The ATme4a-,K al/o
/upport !, BT:!C and "P! communication5
An infrared /en/or i/ an electronic in/trument that i/ u/ed to
/en/e certain characteri/tic/ of it/ /urroundin4/ 10 either
emittin4 andLor detectin4 infrared radiation5 !t i/ al/o
capa1le of mea/urin4 heat of an o1ject and detectin4
motion5 !nfrared 8a.e/ are not .i/i1le to the human e0e5
!n the electroma4netic /pectrum& infrared radiation i/ the
re4ion ha.in4 8a.elen4th/ lon4er than .i/i1le li4ht
8a.elen4th/& 1ut /horter than micro8a.e/5 The infrared
re4ion i/ appro9imatel0 demarcated from *5G+ to )***Sm5
The 8a.elen4th re4ion from *5G+ to -Sm i/ termed a/ near
infrared& the re4ion from - to ESm i/ termed mid'infrared&
and the re4ion hi4her than ESm i/ termed a/ far infrared5
!nfrared technolo40 i/ found in man0 of our e.er0da0
product/5 For e9ample& T= ha/ an !R detector for interpretin4
the /i4nal from the remote control5 <e0 1eneft/ of infrared
/en/or/ include lo8 po8er re>uirement/& /imple circuitr0&
and their porta1le feature5

1('Bi.C P'i.0i-6e 3
A t0pical /0/tem for detectin4 infrared radiation u/in4
infrared /en/or/ include/ the infrared /ource /uch a/
1lac71od0 radiator/& tun4/ten lamp/& and /ilicon car1ide5 !n
ca/e of acti.e !R /en/or/& the /ource/ are infrared la/er/ and
LED/ of /pecifc !R 8a.elen4th/5 Ne9t i/ the tran/mi//ion
medium u/ed for infrared tran/mi//ion& 8hich include/
.acuum& the atmo/phere& and optical f1er/5
Thirdl0& optical component/ /uch a/ optical len/e/ made
from >uart@& aF,& Ge and "i& pol0eth0lene Fre/nel len/e/&
and Al or Au mirror/& are u/ed to con.er4e or focu/ infrared
radiation5 Li7e8i/e& to limit /pectral re/pon/e& 1and'pa//
flter/ are ideal5
Finall0& the infrared detector complete/ the /0/tem for
detectin4 infrared radiation5 The output from the detector i/
u/uall0 .er0 /mall& and hence pre'amplifer/ coupled 8ith
circuitr0 are added to further proce// the recei.ed /i4nal/5
A--6i0,ti(.2 () IR 2e.2(' 3
The follo8in4 are the 7e0 application area/ of infrared
Trac7in4 and art hi/tor0
limatolo40& meteorolo40& and a/tronom0
Thermo4raph0& communication/& and alcohol te/tin4
%eatin4& h0per /pectral ima4in4& and ni4ht .i/ion
6iolo4ical /0/tem/ and plant health
Ga/ detector/L4a/ lea7 detection
:ater and /teel anal0/i/& Name detection
Ane/the/iolo40 te/tin4 and /pectro/cop0
Petroleum e9ploration and under4round /olution
Rail /afet05
% SeCme.t di2-6,>3
A /e.en'/e4ment di/pla0 B""DC& or /e.en'/e4ment indicator&
i/ a form of electronic di/pla0 for di/pla0in4 decimal
numeral/ that i/ an alternati.e to the more comple9 dot
matri9 di/pla0/5
"e.en'/e4ment di/pla0/ are 8idel0 u/ed in di4ital cloc7/&
electronic meter/& and other electronic for di/pla0in4
numerical information5!n a /imple LED pac7a4e& t0picall0 all
of the cathode/ Bne4ati.e terminal/C or all of the anode/
Bpo/iti.e terminal/C of the /e4ment LED/ are connected and
1rou4ht out to a common pinM thi/ i/ referred to a/ a
Icommon cathodeI or Icommon anodeI de.ice5 %ence a G
/e4ment plu/ decimal point pac7a4e 8ill onl0 re>uire nine
pin/ Bthou4h commercial product/ t0picall0 contain more
pin/& andLor /pace/ 8here pin/ 8ould 4o& in order to match
/tandard ! /oc7et/5 !nte4rated di/pla0/ al/o e9i/t& 8ith
/in4le or multiple di4it/5
!n common cathode t0pe di/pla0 all the cathode/ of the
/e4ment/ are tied to4ether and connected to 4round5 The
/uppl0 8ill 1e 4i.en to the re>uired /e4ment from the
decoder or dri.er5
!n common anode t0pe di/pla0 the anode/ of all the
/e4ment/ are tied to4ether and connected to /uppl0 and the
re>uired /e4ment/ 8ill 1e connected to 4round from the
decoder or dri.er5
H(5 t( de'i@e % 2eCme.t di2-6,> u2i.C
H,'d5,'e 'eDui'ed3
Arduino duomalino.e
A to 6 U"6 ca1le
)* Tumper 8ire/
6read 1oard
) /in4le G /e4ment
S()t5,'e 'eDui'ed3
Arduino !DE /oft8are
!n/ert the /in4le di4it G /e4ment into the 1read1oard B1e
/ure to allo8 room for 0our jumper 8ire/C5 "elect an0 di4ital
pin on 0our Arduino duomalino.e B8e choo/e di4ital pin , on
the 1oardC& and a//i4n it to P!N) BLetter EC on the /e4ment5
ontinue until all pin/ on the G /e4ment& are connected to
their re/pected pin/5 "ince 8e /tarted 8ith pin , on the
Arduino duo& 8e felt it 8ould 1e ea/0 to continue 8ith pin/ -
throu4h J re/pecti.el05
Remem1er pin/ - # K are 4round5 The re/t are control
/i4nal/ B+. /ince 8e ha.e a common cathode /e4mentC5
onnect the Arduino duomalino.e to the computer& u/in4 the
A to 6 U"6 ca1le and open the Arduino !DE /oft8are5
Go to Tool/ U "erial Port and ma7e /ure 0ou ha.e /elected
the proper /erial port5
Go to Tool/ U 6oard and ma7e /ure 0ou ha.e /elected the
After thi/ the codin4 i/ done accordin4 to the num1er to 1e
LED De20'i-ti(. 3
!t i/ a /emiconductor diode ha.in4 radioacti.e
recom1ination5 !t re>uire/ a defnite amount of ener40 to
4enerate an electron'hole pair5 The /ame ener40 i/ relea/ed
8hen an electron recom1ine/ 8ith a hole5 Thi/ relea/ed
ener40 ma0 re/ult in the emi//ion of photon and /uch a
recom1ination5 %ere the amount of ener40 relea/ed 8hen
the electro re.ert/ from the conduction 1and to the .alence
1and appear/ in the form of radiation5 Alternati.el0 the
relea/ed ener40 ma0 re/ult in a /erie/ of phonon/ cau/in4
lattice .i1ration5
Finall0 the relea/ed ener40 ma0 1e tran/ferred to another
electron5 There com1ination radiation ma0 lie in the infra'red
and .i/i1le li4ht /pectrum5 !n for8ard it i/ pea7ed around the
1and 4ap ener40 and the phenomenon i/ called injection
lumine/cence5 !n a junction 1ia/ed& in the a.alanche
1rea7do8n re4ion& there re/ult/ a /pectrum of photon/
carr0in4 much hi4her ener4ie/& almo/t 8hite li4ht 4et/
emitted from micro'pla/ma 1rea7do8n re4ion in /ilicon
junction5 Diode/ ha.in4 radioacti.e recom1ination are
termed a/ Li4ht Emittin4 Diode& a11re.iated a/ LED5

Li4ht Emittin4 Diode

ircuit "0m1ol of LED
LED/ are u/uall0 1uilt on an n't0pe /u1/trate& 8ith an
electrode attached to the p't0pe la0er depo/ited on it/
/urface5 P't0pe /u1/trate/& 8hile le// common& occur a/ 8ell5
Man0 commercial LED/& e/peciall0 GaNL!nGaN& al/o u/e
/apphire /u1/trate5 Mo/t material/ u/ed for LED production
ha.e .er0 hi4h refracti.e indice/5 Li4ht e9traction in LED/ i/
an important a/pect of LED production5
T0pical LED u/e/ a for8ard .olta4e of a1out ,= and current
of + ' )*mA5GaA/ LED produce/ infra'red li4ht 8hile red&
4reen and oran4e li4ht/ are produced 10 4allium ar/enide
pho/phide BGaA/PC and 4allium pho/phide BGaPC5
!n thi/ paper 8e ha.e /tudied the optimi@ation of tra;c li4ht
controller in a it0 u/in4 !R /en/or/ and ARDU!NO 6OARD5 60
u/in4 thi/ /0/tem conf4uration 8e trie/ to reduce the
po//i1ilitie/ of tra;c jam/& cau/ed 10 tra;c li4ht/& to an
e9tent and 8e ha.e /ucce//full0 4et/ the re/ult/5 No5 of
pa//in4 .ehicle in the f9ed time /lot on the road decide the
den/it0 ran4e of tra;c/ and on the 1a/i/ of .ehicle count
microcontroller decide the tra;c li4ht dela0/ for ne9t
recordin4 5
!n future thi/ /0/tem can 1e u/ed to inform people a1out
diAerent place/ tra;c condition5 data tran/fer 1et8een the
microcontroller and computer can al/o 1e done throu4h
telephone net8or7 & data call acti.ated "!M Thi/ techni>ue
allo8/ the operator to 4ather the recorded data from a far
end to hi/ home computer 8ithout 4oin4 there5 Tra;c li4ht/
can 1e increa/ed to N num1er and tra;c li4ht control can 1e
done for 8hole cit0 10 /ittin4 on a /in4le place5
Thi/ project can 1e enhanced in /uch a8a0 a/ to control
automaticall0 the /i4nal/ dependin4 on the tra;c den/it0 on
the road/ u/in4 /en/or/ li7e !R module
e9tended 8ith automatic turn oA 8hen no .ehicle/ are
runnin4 on an0 /ide of the road 8hich help/ in po8er
con/umption /a.in45
Thi/ pro9imit0 detector u/in4 an infrared detector can
1e u/ed in .ariou/ e>uipment li7e automatic door opener/
and 1ur4lar alarm/5 The circuit primaril0 con/i/t/ of an
infrared tran/mitter and an infrared recei.er5 The tran/mitter
/ection con/i/t/ of a +++ timer ! functionin4 in a /ta1le
mode5 The output from a /ta1le i/ fed to an infrared LED .ia
re/i/tor R(& 8hich limit/ it/ operatin4 current5 Thi/ circuit
pro.ide/ a fre>uenc0 output of -K 7%@ at +* per cent dut0
c0cle& 8hich i/ re>uired for the infrared
The /ection compri/e/ an infrared module&
a +++ mono/ta1le multi.i1rator& and an LED indicator5 Upon
reception of infrared /i4nal/& +++ timer BmonoC turn/ on and
remain/ on a/ lon4 a/ infrared /i4nal/ are recei.ed5 :hen
the /i4nal/ are interrupted& the mono 4oe/ oA after a fe8
/econd/ BperiodF)5) RG9EC dependin4 upon the .alue of
RG'E com1ination5 Thu/ if RGF(G* 7ilo'ohm/ and
EF(5GVF& the mono period 8ill 1e around ,5+ /econd/5
6oth the tran/mitter and the part/ can 1e
mounted on a /in4le 1read1oard or P65 The infrared mu/t 1e placed 1ehind the infrared LED to a.oid
fal/e indication due to infrared lea7a4e5 An o1ject mo.in4
near10 actuall0 reNect/ the infrared ra0/ emitted 10 the
infrared LED5 The infrared ha/ /en/iti.it0 an4le
Blo1eC of *'E* de4ree/& hence 8hen the reNected !R ra0 i/
/en/ed& the mono in the part i/ tri44ered5 The
output from the mono ma0 1e u/ed in an0 de/ired fa/hion5
For e9ample& it can 1e u/ed to turn on a li4ht 8hen a per/on
come/ near10 10 ener4i@in4 a rela05 The li4ht 8ould
automaticall0 turn oA after /ome time a/ the per/on mo.e/
a8a0 and the mono pul/e period i/ o.er5 The /en/iti.it0 of
the detector depend/ on current'limitin4 re/i/tor R( in /erie/
8ith the infrared LED5 Ran4e i/ appro9imatel0 (* cm5 For ,*'
ohm .alue of R( the o1ject at ,+ cm can 1e /en/ed& 8hile for
-*'ohm .alue of R( the /en/in4 ran4e reduce/ 10 ,,5+ cm5
CONTROL SYSTEM E ha/ 1een /ucce//full0 de/i4ned
and te/ted5 !nte4ratin4 feature/ of all the hard8are
component/ u/ed ha.e de.eloped it5 Pre/ence of e.er0
modul e ha/ 1een rea/oned out and pl aced
careful l 0 thu/ contri 1uti n4 to the 1e/t 8or7i n4 of
the uni t5 "econdl 0& u/i n4 hi 4hl 0 ad.anced ! / and
8i th the hel p of 4ro8in4 technolo40 the project ha/ 1een
/ucce//full0 implemented5

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