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# Fluid Dynamics

Introduction
A fluid, in contrast to a solid, is a substance that can flow. Fluids conform to the boundaries of
any container in which we put them. They do so because a fluid cannot sustain a force that is
tangential to its surface i.e. a fluid is a substance that flows because it cannot withstand a
shearing stress. It can, however, exert a force in the direction perpendicular to its surface. Both
liquids and gases are fluids i.e. which can flow.

Fluid Pressure
A fluid cannot withstand shearing stress. It can, however, exert a force perpendicular to its
surface. That force is described in terms of pressure
P = limS0FS
where F is the force acting on a surface element of area S. The SI unit of pressure is Nm
-2
called
pascal and abbreviated as Pa.
The force resulting from fluid pressure at a particular point in a homogeneous and nonviscous
fluid has the same magnitude in all directions i.e. the pressure does not depend on the orientation
of S and hence we talk of pressure at a point.

Pressure Variation with Height
Let us consider two points A and B separated by a small vertical height dz. Imagine a horizontal
area S containing A and an identical area containing B. Consider the fluid enclosed between the
two surfaces and the vertical boundary joining them.
The vertical forces acting on this fluid are
(a) F1, vertically upwards by the fluid below it
(b) F2, vertically downwards by the fluid above it
(c) weight W, vertically downwards
Let the pressure at the surface A be P and that at B be P + dP. Then
F1 = PS
and F2 = (P + dP)S
The volume of the fluid enclosed = (S)(dz). Let the density of the fluid be . Thus, the weight
of the enclosed fluid, W = (S)(dz)g
For vertical equilibrium of the fluid, we have
F1 = F2 + W
or PS = (P + dP)S + (S)(dz)g
or dP = -g(dz)
Now consider two points at z = 0 and z = h. Let the pressure at z = 0 is P1 and that at z = h is P2.
Then, from the above equation, we have
P1P2dP = 0h-g dz
or P2 P1 = 0h-g dz
If the density is same everywhere,
P2 P1 = -gh
i.e. the pressure decreases by gh as we move up by a distance h.
Similarly, we can prove that the pressure is same at two points in the same horizontal level for
the fluid to remain in equilibrium as the pressure exerts the only forces in the horizontal direction
in a fluid at rest.

Pascals Principle
A change in the pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to every
portion of the fluid and to the walls of the containing vessel.

As an example, suppose a glass fitted with a piston is filled with a liquid. Let an external force F
be applied on the piston. If the cross-sectional area of the piston is A, the pressure just below the
piston is increased by F/A. Now, consider a point B at a distance z below A. The pressure at B
also increases by the same amount F/A for the fluid to remain in vertical equilibrium. If the
pressure at B does not change by the same amount, there would be a resultant pressure difference
at the two points (which will be different from gz) which will cause a resultant acceleration of
the fluid in the vertical direction but that cannot happen as there is no empty space to go to and
the fluid is incompressible.

Archimedes Principle
Archimedes Principle states that when a body is partially or fully dipped into a fluid at rest, the
fluid exerts an upward force of buoyancy equal to the weight of the displaced fluid.
This can be understood more clearly by considering the following situation. Suppose the body
dipped in the fluid is replaced by the same fluid of equal volume. As the entire fluid now
becomes homogeneous, all parts will remain in equilibrium. The part of the fluid substituting the
body also remains in equilibrium. Forces acting on this substituting fluid are:
(a) the weight mg of this part of the fluid
(b) the resultant B of the contact forces by the remaining fluid
As the substituting fluid is in equilibrium, these two should be equal and opposite. Thus, B = mg
and it acts in the vertically upward direction.
Now, the situation does not change much when the substituting fluid is replaced by the body.
The forces acting on the remaining fluid remain exactly the same as before and from Newtons
third law the forces acting on the body are equal and opposite to the forces acting on the
surrounding fluid. As those forces do no change whether there is a dipped body or its all the
same fluid, thus the forces acting on the dipped body are the same as the forces which would act
on the substituting fluid.

Floating
When a solid body is dipped into a fluid, the fluid exerts an upward force of buoyancy on the
solid. If the force of buoyancy equals the weight of the solid, the solid will remain in
equilibrium. This is called floatation. This can happen only when the overall density of the solid
is less than or equal to that of the fluid.

Flow of Ideal Fluids
An ideal fluid is incompressible and nonviscous. The first condition means that the density of
the liquid is independent of the variations in pressure and thus remains constant. The second
condition means that parts of the liquid in contact do not exert any tangential force on each other.
Thus, there is no friction between the adjacent layers of the liquid.

The flow of an ideal fluid is steady and irrotational.
Consider a liquid passing through a glass tube. Concentrate on a particular point A in the tube
and look at the particles arriving at A. If the velocity of all the particles arriving at A is same at
all time, such a flow of fluid is called steady flow or streamline flow. As a particle goes from A
to another point B its velocity may change, but all the particles reaching A will have the same
velocity and all these particles will have the same velocity at B.
On the other hand, in turbulent flow, the velocities of different particles passing through the
same point may be different and change erratically with time. For example, the motion of water
in a high fall.

The path followed by an individual fluid particle in a flowing fluid is called its line of flow or
streamline. A tube of flow is a bundle of streamlines. As the streamlines do not cross each other
fluid flowing through different tubes of flow cannot intermix, although there is no physical
partition between the tubes. When a liquid is passed slowly through a pipe, the pipe itself is one
tube of flow. The flow within any tube of flow obeys the equation of continuity:
Av = a constant
where Av is the volume flow rate, A is the cross-sectional area of the tube of flow at any point,
and v is the speed of the fluid at that point.
This equation expresses the law of conservation of mass in fluid dynamics, i.e. the total mass of
fluid going into a tube of flow through any cross section must be equal to the total mass coming
out of the same tube through any other cross section in the same time.

Bernoullis Equation
Applying the principle of conservation of mechanical energy to the flow of an ideal fluid leads to
Bernoullis equation:
P + gh + v
2
= a constant
Consider the liquid contained between the cross sections A and B of the tube. This liquid
advances into the tube and after a time t is contained between the cross sections A and B.
The heights of A and B are h1 and h2 respectively from a reference level. Let the area of cross
section at A be A1 and that at B be B1. The speed of the fluid be v1 and v2 at A and B respectively
and the pressures be P1 and P2 respectively. Also let the density of the fluid be .
By the equation of continuity, we have
A1v1t = A2v2t
The mass of this volume of liquid is m = A1v1t
The forces acting on the liquid contained between cross sections A and B are
(a) P1A1, by the liquid on the left
(b) P2A2, by the liquid on the right
(c) mg, the weight of the liquid considered and
(d) N, contact forces by the walls of the tube
In time t, the point of application of P1A1 is displaced by AA = v1t. thus, the work done by
P1A1 in time t is
W1 = (P1A1 )( v1t) = P1m
Similarly, work done by P2A2 in time t is
W2 = -(P2A2 )( v2t) = -P2m
The work done by the weight is equal to the negative of the change in gravitational potential
energy.
The change in potential energy in time t is
P.E. of BB P.E. of AA = (m)gh2 (m)gh1
Thus, the work done by weight in time t is W3 = (m)gh1 (m)gh2
The contact force does no work on the liquid because it is perpendicular to the velocity.
Thus, the total work done on the liquid considered in the time interval t is
W = W1 + W2 + W3 = P1m - P2m + (m)gh1 (m)gh2 (1)
The change in kinetic energy of the same liquid in time t is K.E. of BB K.E. of AA because
the liquid in AB has the same kinetic energy at all times (steady flow).
Therefore, K = (m)v2
2
- (m)v1
2

Now, by the work-energy theorem, the total work done on the system is equal to the change in its
kinetic energy. Thus,
P1m - P2m + (m)gh1 (m)gh2 = (m)v2
2
- (m)v1
2

or P1 + gh1 + v1
2
= P2 + gh2 + v2
2

or P1 + gh1 + v1
2
= P2 + gh2 + v2
2

or P + gh + v
2
= constant

Torricellis Theorem
It states that the speed of liquid coming out through a hole at a depth h below the free surface is
the same as that of a particle fallen freely through the height h under gravity. The speed of the
liquid coming out is called the speed of efflux.
Consider a liquid of density filled in a tank of large cross-sectional area A1 which has a hole of
cross-sectional area A2, at the bottom such that A2 << A1and the liquid flows out of the tank
through the hole.
Let v1 and v2 be the speeds of the liquid at A1 and A2 respectively, the pressures there being equal
to the atmospheric pressure Patm. If the height of the free surface above the hole is h, Bernoullis
equation gives
Patm + gh + v1
2
= Patm + v2
2
(1)
By the equation of continuity,
A1v1 = A2v2
Putting v1 in terms of v2 in (1);
gh + A2A12v2
2
= v2
2

or, 1- A2A12v2
2
= 2gh
If A2 << A1, the above equation reduces to

v2
2
= 2gh
or, v2 = 2gh

Problems
Q:1 The base area of the three vessels shown in figure is same. Equal volumes of a liquid are
poured in the three vessels. Is the force on the base of the three vessels same? If not, which
vessel has maximum force on the base?

Solution: We know that P2 - P1 = gh = mgh/V
The pressure on the exposed surface of the liquid is same in all vessels equal to the atmospheric
pressure. The pressure on the base, P2 = Patm + gh
As same volume of the same liquid are poured in the three vessels, height of liquid will be
maximum in vessel (c). Therefore, the pressure and hence the force (because base area is same)
on the base of vessel (c) is maximum.
Q:2 In the given figure, what is the pressure difference between points A and B? The liquid
shown is water.
Solution: As both points A and B are exposed to the atmosphere, the pressure at both the
points is essentially the same i.e. Patm, the difference being zero.
Although the atmospheric pressure also changes with height due to a change in the density of air
but the change becomes considerable for much larger height differences.

Q:3 A wooden object floats in water kept in a beaker. The object is near a side of the beaker.
Let P1, P2 and P3 be the pressures at the three points A, B and C of the bottom as shown in figure.
What is the relation among the three pressures?
Solution: The three pressures are equal i.e. P1 = P2 = P3.
Because if there was a difference in pressures at the three points, the liquid would start flowing
towards the low pressure area but from our everyday experience we know that does not happen.

Q:4 A barometer kept in an elevator reads 76 cm when it is at rest. If the elevator goes up with
increasing speed, will the reading be greater than or less than 76 cm?

Solution: Pressure = F/A
When the elevator starts going up with increasing speed, we have to use a pseudo force on the
barometer acting downwards in the elevator frame. Therefore, the effective weight of the column
now becomes m(g + a) i.e. pressure at point C ((g + a)h) increases but the air pressure in the
elevator is still the same i.e. pressure at point B is still the same. So, in order for the pressure
exerted by the weight of the column to become equal to the atmospheric pressure i.e. pressure at
B, its height reduces. Thus, the barometer reads less than 76 cm.

Q:5 If water is used to construct a barometer, what would be the height of water column at
standard atmospheric pressure (76 cm of mercury) ?
Solution: Let h be the height of the water column, then
wgh = mg(0.76)
h = 13.6 (0.76) = 10.336 m = 1033.6 cm

Q:6 A metal piece of mass 200 g lies in equilibrium inside a glass of water. The piece is in the
touch with the bottom of the glass through a small number of points. If the density of the metal is
5000 kgm
-3
, find the normal force exerted by the bottom of the glass on the metal piece. Take g =
10 ms
-2
.
Solution: Normal force + buoyant force = mg
or N + w(m/metal)g = mg
or N + 1000 X 0.2/5000 X 10 = 0.2 X 10
or N = 2 0.4 = 1.6 N

Q:7 A cube of ice floats partly in water and partly in kerosene oil. Find the ratio of the volume
of ice immersed in water to that in kerosene oil. Specific gravity of kerosene oil is 0.8 and that of
ice is 0.9.
Solution: Total volume of ice = Volume in oil + Volume in water
Also, mg = buoyant force by oil + buoyant force by water
or Vice X ice X g = Voil X oil X g + Vwater X water X g
or Vice X 0.9 = Voil X 0.8 + Vwater X 1
or (Voil + Vwater) X 0.9 = Voil X 0.8 + Vwater X 110 =
or Voil = Vwater
i.e. Volume of ice in oil = volume of ice in water.

Q:8 A cylindrical object of diameter 12 cm, height 24 cm and density 7500 kgm
-3
is supported
by a vertical spring and is half dipped in water as shown in figure. (a) Find the elongation of the
spring in equilibrium condition. (b) If the object is slightly depressed and released, find the time
period of resulting oscillations of the object. The spring constant is 450 N/m. Take g = 10 ms
-2
.

Solution: (a) At equilibrium, mg = Buoyant force + Spring force
or (0.06)
2
(0.24) X 7500 X 10 = (0.06)
2
(0.12) X water X 10 + 450x
or 203.6 = 190 + 450x
or x = 0.42 m or 42 cm
(b) Let the spring be further extended by h.
Therefore, F = kh + Vwaterg
or ma = kh + r
2
h waterg
or
2
h = (k +
r2
waterg )m h
or = (k +
r2
waterg )m
We know that T = 2/ = 2 m(k +
r2
waterg ) = 1.2 s

Q:9 A U-tube containing a liquid is accelerated horizontally with a constant acceleration a0. If
the separation between the vertical limbs is l , find the difference in the heights of the liquid in
the two arms.
Solution: The acceleration of the liquid in the horizontal part of the tube is caused by the
pressure difference in the two arms as the tube cannot exert a force parallel to its surface.
Therefore, PatmA + hgA = PatmA + l a0A
where h is difference in height in the two arms.
h = l a0/g

Q:10 Water flows through the tube shown in figure. The areas of cross-section of the wide and
the narrow portions of the tube are 6 cm
2
and 2.5 cm
2
respectively. The rate of flow of water
through the tube is 450 cm
3
s
-1
. Find the difference of mercury (specific gravity = 13.6) levels in
the U-tube. Take g = 10 ms
-2
.
Solution: Using the continuity equation, we get
AAvA = ABvB
or vAvB = ABAA = 62.5
or vA = 2.4vB (1)
Now, using Bernoullis equation,
PA + ghA + vA
2
= PB + ghB + vB
2

But there is no change in the elevation of the tube at the two points, so we get
PB - PA = (vA
2
- vB
2
) (2)
Rate of flow = ABvB = 450 cm
3
s
-1
= 450 X 10
-6
m
3
/s
which gives vB = (450 X 10
-6
)/(6 X 10
-4
) = 75 X 10
-2
m/s (3)
Putting (1) and (3) in (2);
PB - PA = X 1000 ((2.4)
2
- 1)(75 X 10
-2
)
2
= 1338.75 Pa
Now, PB - PA = hmercuryg
or h = (PB - PA )/mercuryg = 1338.75/(13600 X 10) = 0.98 cm 1 cm

Q:11 A garden hose with an internal diameter of 2 cm is connected to a (stationary) lawn
sprinkler that consists merely of a container with 25 holes, each 0.12 cm in diameter. If the water
in the hose has a speed of 0.9 m/s, at what speed does it leave the sprinkler holes?
Solution: We use the equation of continuity. Let v1 be the speed of water in the hose and v2 be
its speed as it leaves one of the holes.
v1A1 = v2(NA2)
0.9 x (0.01)
2
= v2(25 X (0.0006)
2
)
or v2 = 10 m/s

Q:12 What is the acceleration of a rising hot-air balloon if the ratio of the air density outside the
balloon to that inside is 1.42? Neglect the mass of the balloon fabric and the basket. Take g =
10ms
-2
.
Solution: The forces acting on the balloon are
(a) Weight, mg downwards
(b) Buoyant force, outVg, upwards
Let the acceleration of the balloon be a upwards. Applying Newtons second law,
inVa = outVg -inVg
or a = outing g = 4.2 ms
-2
.

Q:13 Figure shows a modified U-tube: the right arm is shorter than the left arm. The open end
of the right arm is height 12 cm above the laboratory bench. The radius throughout the tube is 1.6
cm. Water is gradually poured into the open end of the left arm until the water begins to flow out
the open end of the right arm. Then a liquid of density 0.82 g/cm
3
arm until its height in that arm is 7.5 cm (it does not mix with the water). How much water flows
out of the right arm?
Solution: When the water is poured initially, it will start flowing out of the right end when it
has filled upto the brim i.e. 12 cm. The water in the left end is also at the same height.
Total volume of water in the tube = r
2
(24 cm)
After the other liquid is poured, if we examine both sides of the U-tube at the level where the
low-density liquid (with = 0.82 g/cm
3
= 820 kg/m
3
) meets the water (with w = 1000 kg/m
3
), the
pressures at that level on either side of the tube must be equal,
gh = wgd
or d = h/w
which gives d = 6.15 cm
The right arm still contains all the water but the left arm now contains the other liquid (in 6.15
cm) where initially water was present.
Therefore, volume of water that flows out of the right arm
= r
2
(6.15 X 10
-2
m) = 49.46 cm
3
= 4.95 x 10
-6
m
3

Q:14 An object hangs from a spring balance. The balance registers 40 N in air, 25 N when this
object is immersed in water, and 30 N when the object is immersed in another liquid of unknown
density. What is the density of that other liquid?
Solution: Neglecting the buoyant force caused by air, 40 N is the actual weight of the object.
Therefore, buoyant force when immersed in water = 15 N
i.e. 1000Vg = 15
or Vg = 0.015 (1)
Buoyant force when immersed in the unknown liquid = 10 N. Let the density of this liquid be
.
Therefore, Vg = 10
or = 10/0.015 (Using (1))
or = 666.67 kg/m
3

Q:15 The L-shaped tank shown in figure is filled with water and is open at the top. If d = 6 m,
what is the force due to the water (a) on face A and (b) on face B? Take g = 10ms
-2
.

Solution: (a) The force on face A of area AA due to water pressure,
FA = PAAA = wghAAA = 1000 X 10 X 12 X (6)
2
= 4.32 X 10
6
N
Adding the contribution from atmospheric pressure,
Fatm = (1 X 10
5
Pa)(6)
2
= 3.6 X 10
6
N
Therefore, total force on face A = 4.32 X 10
6
N + 3.6 X 10
6
N = 7.92 X 10
6
N

(b) The force on face B of area BB due to water pressure,
FB = Pavg,BAB = wg(5d/2)AB = 1000 X 10 X 30 X (6)
2
= 10.8 X 10
6
N
Adding the contribution from atmospheric pressure,
Fatm = (1 X 10
5
Pa)(6)
2
= 3.6 X 10
6
N
Therefore, total force on face B = 10.8 X 10
6
N + 3.6 X 10
6
N = 14.4 X 10
6
N

Q:16 In figure, a spring of spring constant 3.5 X 10
4
N/m is between a rigid beam and the
output piston of a hydraulic lever. An empty container with negligible mass sits on the input
piston. The input piston has area Ai, and the output piston has area 18Ai. Initially the spring is at
its rest length. How many kilograms of sand must be (slowly) poured into the container to
compress the spring by 4 cm? Take g = 10ms
-2
.
Solution: Force required to compress the spring by 4 cm,
F = kx = 3.5 X 10
4
N/m X 4 X 10
-2
m = 1400 N
Let the weight of sand to be put is W = mg.
Using Pascals principle,
mg/Ai = 1400/18Ai
or m = 7.78 kg

Q:17 In the given figure, a cube of edge length L = 0.6 m and mass 450 kg is suspended by a
rope in an open tank of liquid of density 1050 kg/m
3
. Find (a) the magnitude of the total
downward force on the top of the cube from the liquid and the atmosphere, assuming
atmospheric pressure is 1 atm, (b) the magnitude of the total upward force on the bottom of the
cube, and (c) the tension in the rope. (d) Calculate the magnitude of the buoyant force on the
cube using Archimedes principle. What relation exists among all these quantities? Take g =
10ms
-2
.
Solution: (a) The pressure on the top of the cube including the contribution of atmosphere
= Patm + gh = 1.01 X 10
5
Pa + 1050 X 10 X 0.3 = 1.04 X 10
5
Pa
The force on the top = PA = 1.04 X 10
5
X (0.6)
2
= 3.75 X 10
4
N
(b) The pressure at the depth of 3L/2 = Patm + gh = 1.01 X 10
5
Pa + 1050 X 10 X 0.9
= 1.1 X 10
5
Pa
The force on the bottom surface = 1.1 X 10
5
X (0.6)
2
= 3.98 X 10
4
N
(c) Let the tension in the rope be T.
Applying Newtons second law, we have
T + (3.98 X 10
4
N) = mg + (3.75 X 10
4
N)
or T = 450 X 10 (0.23 X 10
4
N)
or T = 2.2 10
3
N
(d) The buoyant force on the block = force on the bottom force on the top
= 3.98 X 10
4
N - 3.75 X 10
4
N = 0.23 X 10
4
N

Q:18 An iron casting containing a number of cavities weighs 6500 N in air and 4500 N in
water. What is the total volume of all the cavities in the casting? The density of iron (that is, a
sample with no cavities) is 7.85 g/cm
3
.
Solution: Volume of cavities = Volume of casting Volume of iron contained
Volume of iron = W/giron = 0.083 m
3

Weight of casting in water = W gwaterVcast
Therefore, Vcast = (6500 - 4500)/(10 X 1000) = 0.2 m
3

Hence, volume of cavities = 0.117 m
3

Q:19 Suppose that you release a small ball from rest at a depth of 0.5 m below the surface in a
pool of water. If the density of the ball is 0.25 that of water and if the drag force on the ball from
the water is negligible, how high above the water surface will the ball shoot as it emerges from
the water? (Neglect any transfer of energy to the splashing and waves produced by the emerging
ball.) Take g = 10 ms
-2
.
Solution: Due to the buoyant force, the ball accelerates upwards (while in water) at a rate a
given by Newtons second law;
waterVg - ballVg = ballVa
With ball = 0.25water, we get
a = 30 ms
-2

The speed of ball when it emerges from the water, v = 2as = 5.48 ms
-1

As the ball comes out of water it starts decelerating due to g.
The height reached by the ball before its velocity becomes zero,
0 = v
2
2gs
s = v
2
/2g = 30/20 = 1.5 m

Q:20 Figure shows an iron ball (density 7.9 g/cm
3
) suspended by thread of negligible mass from
an upright cylinder that floats partially submerged in water. The cylinder has a height of 7 cm, a
face area of 14 cm
2
on the top and bottom, and a density of 0.35 g/cm
3
, and 2.5 cm of its height is
above the water surface. What is the radius of the iron ball? Take g = 10 ms
-2
.
Solution: Let the radius of the iron ball be r.
Let be the density of the cylinder and iron be the density of the iron. The volume of the cylinder
is, Vc = 14 X 7 cm
3
= 98 X 10
-6
m
3

The part of the cylinder that is submerged under water has volume = 14 X 4.5 = 63 X 10
-6
m
3

As the system is in equilibrium,
Total buoyant force = total weight
(4r
3
/3)waterg + (63 X 10
-6
X waterg) = (98 X 10
-6
X g) + ((4r
3
/3)irong)
or ((4r
3
/3) X 1000) + (63 X 10
-6
X 1000) = (98 X 10
-6
X 350) + ((4r
3
/3)

X 7900)
or (6900) (4r
3
/3)

= 28700 X 10
-6

or r
3
= 0.993 X 10
-6

which gives r = 0.997 X 10
-2
m 1 cm

Q:21 A cubical block of wood of edge 2.5 cm floats in water. The lower surface of the cube just
touches the free end of a vertical spring fixed at the bottom of the pot. Find the maximum weight
that can be put on the block without wetting it. Density of wood = 800 kgm
-3
and spring constant
of the spring = 60 Nm
-1
. Take g = 10 ms
-2
.
Solution: The specific gravity of the block = 0.8
Hence the height inside water, h = 2.5 X 0.8 = 2 cm
The height outside water = 0.5 cm
Suppose the maximum weight that can be put without wetting it is W. The block in this
situation is totally immersed in the water.
The volume of the displaced water = volume of block = 15.625 X 10
-6
m
-3
.
Hence, buoyant force = (15.625 X 10
-6
) X 1000 X 10 0.156 N
The spring is compressed by 0.5 cm, therefore, upward force exerted by the spring = 60 X 0.005
= 0.3 N
The spring force and the buoyant force taken together balance the weight of the block + the
weight W put on the block.
The weight of the block = 15.625 X 10
-6
X 800 X 10 = 0.125 N
Therefore, 0.125 + W = 0.3 + 0.156
or W = 0.331 N 0.33 N
Q:22 A wooden plank of length 1 m and uniform cross section is hinged at one end to the
bottom of a tank as shown in figure. The tank is filled with water up to a height of 0.6 m. The
specific gravity of the plank is 0.5. Find the angle that the plank makes with the vertical in the
equilibrium position. (Exclude the case = 0.)
Solution: The forces acting on the plank are shown in figure. The height of the water level is l
= 0.6 m. The length of the plank is h = 1 m. The weight of the plank acts through the centre B of
the plank. We have OB = h/2 = 0.5 m. the buoyant force acts through the point A, which is the
middle point of the dipped part OC of the plank.
We have OA = OC/2 = l2cos
Let the mass per unit length of the plank be . Its weight mg = hg
The mass of the part OC of the plank = lcos
The mass of the water displaced = 10.5 lcos = 2lcos
The buoyant force, F = 2lcosg
Now, for equilibrium, the torque of mg about O should balance the torque of F about O.
So, mg(OB)sin = F(OA)sin
or mgh/2 = 2lcosg X l2cos

or cos
2
= 0.72
or cos = 0.848
or = 31.95
o
32
o

Q:23 A cylindrical block of wood of mass M is floating in water with its axis vertical. It is
depressed a little and then released. Show that the motion of the block is simple harmonic and
find its frequency.
Solution: Suppose a height h of the block is dipped in the water in equilibrium position. If r be
the radius of the cylindrical block, the volume of the water displaced = r
2
h. For floating in
equilibrium, r
2
hg = W (1)
where is the density of the water and W is the weight of the block.
Now, suppose during vertical motion, the block is further dipped by a distance x at some
instant. The volume of the displaced water is r
2
(h+x)g vertically upward.
Net force on the block at displacement x from the equilibrium position is
F = W - r
2
(h+x)g
= W - r
2
hg - r
2
xg
Now, using (1);
F = - r
2
xg = -kx where k = r
2
g
Thus, the block executes SHM with frequency
= 12km = 12
r2
gm

Q:24 The area of cross section of a large tank is 0.6 m
2
. It has an opening near the bottom
having area of cross section 1 cm
2
. A load of 25 kg is applied on the water at the top. Find the
velocity of the water coming out of the opening at the time when the height of water level is 40
cm above the bottom. Take g = 10 ms
-2
.

Solution: As the area of cross section of the tank is large as compared to the opening, the
speed of water in the tank will be very small as compared to the speed at the opening. Thus, we
assume the speed of water in the tank to be zero i.e. vA = 0. The pressure at the surface of water
in the tank is that due to atmosphere plus due to the load.
PA = P0 + (25 kg) (10 ms-2)0.6 m2 = P0 + 416.7 Nm
-2

At the opening the pressure is that due to the atmosphere i.e PB = P0
Using Bernoulli equation,
PA + gh + vA
2
= PB + vB
2

or P0 + 416.7 + (1000 X 10 X 0.4) + 0 = P0 + (1000)vB
2

or vB = 2.97 ms
-2
3 ms
-2

Q:25 Water level is maintained in a cylindrical vessel upto a fixed height H. The vessel is
kept on a horizontal plane. At what height above the bottom should a hole be made in the vessel
so that the water stream coming out of the hole strikes the horizontal plane at the greatest
distance from the vessel?
Solution: Let the hole be made at a height h above the bottom.
Velocity of the water stream coming out of the hole = 2g(H-h)
Time taken for the water to hit the bottom = 2hg
Horizontal distance covered, x = vXt = 2g(H-h) X 2hg = 2h(H-h)
x will be maximum when its derivative w.r.t. h is zero,
or the derivative of x
2
is zero, as when x is maximum, its square will also be maximum.
i.e. d(h(H-h))dh = 0
or H 2h = 0
or h = H/2

Q:26 A venturi meter is used to measure the flow speed of a fluid in a pipe. The meter is
connected between two sections of the pipe; the cross-sectional area A of the entrance and exit of
the meter matches the pipes cross-sectional area. Between the entrance and exit, the fluid flows
from the pipe with speed V and then through a narrow throat of cross-sectional area a with
speed v. A manometer connects the wider portion of the meter to the narrower portion. The
change in the fluids speed is accompanied by a change P in the fluids pressure, which causes
a height difference h of the liquid in the two arms of the manometer. (Here P means pressure
in the throat minus pressure in the pipe.) (a) By applying Bernoullis equation and the equation
of continuity to points 1 and 2 in figure, show that,
V=2a2P(a2-A2)
where is the density of the fluid. (b) Suppose that the fluid is fresh water, that the cross-
sectional areas are 64 cm
2
in the pipe and 32 cm
2
in the throat, and that the pressure is 55 kPa in
the pipe and 41 kPa in the throat. What is the rate of water flow in cubic meters per second?

Solution: (a) Applying the continuity equation at points 1 and 2 in the figure, we get
AV = av (1)
Now applying Bernoullis equation, we get
V
2
= P + v
2
(2)
where P = P2 = P1 with P2 equal to the pressure in the throat and P1 the pressure in the pipe.
Substituting the expression for v from equation (1) in equation (2);
V
2
= P + (AV/a)
2

or (1 - A2a2)V
2
= 2P/
or V=2a2P(a2-A2)
(b) The flow rate = AV = A2a2P(a2-A2) = (64 X 10
-4
)232241-55X1031000(322-642) = 1.96 X
10
-2
m
3
/s
Q:27 In the given figure, water stands at depth D = 38 m behind the vertical upstream face of a
dam of width W = 315 m. Find (a) the net horizontal force on the dam from the gauge pressure
of the water and (b) the net torque due to that force about a horizontal line through O parallel to
the (long) width of the dam. This torque tends to rotate the dam around that line, which would
cause the dam to fail. (c) Find the moment arm of the torque. Take g = 10 ms
-2
.

Solution: (a) At depth y, the gauge pressure due to water = watergy. To find the total force
exerted by the water on the dam, we consider a horizontal strip of width W at a depth y with
vertical thickness dy. The area of the element considered = W dy. The force exerted by this
element on the dam, dF = PdA = watergy X W dy
Integrating from y = 0 to y = D,
F = 0DwatergyW dy = watergW0Dydy = watergWD
2
/2 = 1000 X 10 X 315 X (38)
2
/2
= 2.27 X 10
9
N
(b) Again we consider the strip of water at depth y. Its moment arm for the torque it exerts about
O is (D - y) so the torque it exerts is
d = dF(D y) = watergyW(D y)dy
and the total torque of the water is
= 0DwatergyW(D-y)dy = watergW0DDy- y2dy = watergW (D
3
/2 D
3
/3) = watergWD
3
/6
= 2.9 X 10
10
Nm
(c) We can write = Fr where r is the effective moment arm. Then,
r = /F = (watergWD
3
/6)/( watergWD
2
/2 ) = D/3 = 38/3 = 12.67 m

Q:28 The given figure shows a siphon, which is a device for removing liquid from a container.
Tube ABC must initially be filled, but once this has been done, liquid will flow through the tube
until the liquid surface in the container is level with the tube opening at A. The liquid has density
1000 kg/m
3
and negligible viscosity. The distances shown are h1 = 30 cm, d = 15 cm, and h2 = 45
cm. (a) With what speed does the liquid emerge from the tube at C? (b) If the atmospheric
pressure is 1.01 X 10
5
Pa, what is the pressure in the liquid at the topmost point B? (c)
Theoretically, what is the greatest possible height h1 that a siphon can lift water? Take g = 10 ms
-
2
.
Solution: (a) We consider a point D on the surface of the liquid in the container, in the same
tube of flow with points A, B, and C. Applying Bernoullis equation to points D and C, we
obtain
PD + ghD + vD
2
= PC + ghC + vC
2

which gives vC = 2PD- PC +2ghD- hC+ vD2 2g(d+ h2)
because PD = PC = Pair and vD/vC 0
Putting in the values, we get,
vC = 3.46 m/s
(b) Applying Bernoullis equation to points B and C,
PB + ghB + vB
2
= PC + ghC + vC
2

Since vB = vC by equation of continuity, and PC = Pair, the equation becomes
PB = PC + g(hC hB) = Pair g(h1 + h2 + d) = 1.01 X 10
5
Pa 9000 Pa = 92 X 10
3
Pa
(c) PB must be greater than or equal to zero,
Therefore, Pair g(h1 + h2 + d) >= 0
which gives h1 <= h1,max = Pairg d h2 <= Pairg = 10.1 m

Q:29 In the given figure, the fresh water behind a reservoir dam has depth D = 18 m. A
horizontal pipe 3.5 cm in diameter passes through the dam at depth d = 6.5 m. A plug secures the
pipe opening. (a) Find the magnitude of the frictional force between plug and pipe wall. (b) The
plug is removed. What water volume exits the pipe in 4 h? Take g = 10 ms
-2
.

Solution: (a) The force of friction must be equal to or slightly larger than the force exerted by
water pressure. Thus,
f = PA = watergdA = 1000 X 10 X 6.5 X (0.0175)
2
= 62.54 N
(b) As it is a dam, the water level will not change much in 4 hours, so we assume the speed of
water to be constant for that time period.
The speed of water flowing out of the hole, v = 2gd
Thus, the volume of water flowing out of the pipe in t = 4 h is
V = Avt = (0.0175)
2
X (2 X10 X 6.5) X 4 X 60 X 60 = 1.58 X 10
2
m
3

Q:30 Fresh water flows horizontally from pipe section 1 of cross-sectional area A1 into pipe
section 2 of cross-sectional area A2. The figure gives a plot of the pressure difference p2 - p1
versus the inverse area squared A1
-2
that would be expected for a volume flow rate of a certain
value if the water flow were laminar under all circumstances. The scale on the vertical axis is set
by ps = 300 kN/m
2
. For the conditions of the figure, what are the values of (a) A2 and (b) the
volume flow rate?
Solution: (a) We see from the graph that the pressures are equal when A1
-2
is equal to 16.
i.e. A1 = 1/16 = 0.25 m
2

Thus, A2 = 0.25 m
2
as the pressures will be equal when the area of cross section is equal of both
parts.
(b) Writing an equation for the pressure difference as shown in figure, we have
P = mx + b, where x = A1
-2
and b is the intercept i.e. -300 kN/m
2
and m is the slope being equal
to 5.33 X 10
-5
N
-1
m
-2

Now, using Bernoullis equation, if the height of liquid does not change
p1 + v1
2
= p2 + v2
2

or (p2 p1) = v1
2
- v2
2

Comparing the two equations, when A1
-2
= 0 i.e. A1 is infinitely large, we will have v1 0.
Therefore, P = b = - v2
2

or v2 = 24.5 m/s
Now, volume flow rate = A2v2 = 6.12 m/s

Introduction
A fluid, in contrast to a solid, is a substance that can flow. Fluids conform to the boundaries of
any container in which we put them. They do so because a fluid cannot sustain a force that is
tangential to its surface i.e. a fluid is a substance that flows because it cannot withstand a
shearing stress. It can, however, exert a force in the direction perpendicular to its surface. Both
liquids and gases are fluids i.e. which can flow.

Here are the topics covered in this tutorial
Fluid Pressure :
A fluid cannot withstand shearing stress. It can, however, exert a force perpendicular to its
surface. That force is described in terms of pressure
P = limS0FS where F is the force acting on a surface element of area S. The SI unit of
pressure is Nm
-2
called pascal and abbreviated as Pa.
Pressure Variation with Height :
P2 P1 = -gh
Pascals Principle :
A change in the pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to every
portion of the fluid and to the walls of the containing vessel. As an example, suppose a glass
fitted with a piston is filled with a liquid. Let an external force F be applied on the piston. If the
cross-sectional area of the piston is A, the pressure just below the piston is increased by F/A.
Now, consider a point B at a distance z below A. The pressure at B also increases by the same
amount F/A for the fluid to remain in vertical equilibrium. If the pressure at B does not change
by the same amount, there would be a resultant pressure difference at the two points (which will
be different from gz) which will cause a resultant acceleration of the fluid in the vertical
direction but that cannot happen as there is no empty space to go to and the fluid is
incompressible.
Archimedes Principle:
Archimedes Principle states that when a body is partially or fully dipped into a fluid at rest, the
fluid exerts an upward force of buoyancy equal to the weight of the displaced fluid. This can be
understood more clearly by considering the following situation. Suppose the body dipped in the
fluid is replaced by the same fluid of equal volume. As the entire fluid now becomes
homogeneous, all parts will remain in equilibrium. The part of the fluid substituting the body
also remains in equilibrium. Forces acting on this substituting fluid are:
(a) the weight mg of this part of the fluid
(b) the resultant B of the contact forces by the remaining fluid
As the substituting fluid is in equilibrium, these two should be equal and opposite. Thus, B = mg
and it acts in the vertically upward direction. Now, the situation does not change much when the
substituting fluid is replaced by the body. The forces acting on the remaining fluid remain
exactly the same as before and from Newtons third law the forces acting on the body are equal
and opposite to the forces acting on the surrounding fluid. As those forces do no change whether
there is a dipped body or its all the same fluid, thus the forces acting on the dipped body are the
same as the forces which would act on the substituting fluid.
Floating
When a solid body is dipped into a fluid, the fluid exerts an upward force of buoyancy on the
solid. If the force of buoyancy equals the weight of the solid, the solid will remain in
equilibrium. This is called floatation. This can happen only when the overall density of the solid
is less than or equal to that of the fluid.
Flow of Ideal Fluids
An ideal fluid is incompressible and nonviscous. The first condition means that the density of
the liquid is independent of the variations in pressure and thus remains constant. The second
condition means that parts of the liquid in contact do not exert any tangential force on each other.
Thus, there is no friction between the adjacent layers of the liquid.

The flow of an ideal fluid is steady and irrotational.
Consider a liquid passing through a glass tube. Concentrate on a particular point A in the tube
and look at the particles arriving at A. If the velocity of all the particles arriving at A is same at
all time, such a flow of fluid is called steady flow or streamline flow. As a particle goes from A
to another point B its velocity may change, but all the particles reaching A will have the same
velocity and all these particles will have the same velocity at B.
On the other hand, in turbulent flow, the velocities of different particles passing through the
same point may be different and change erratically with time. For example, the motion of water
in a high fall.

The path followed by an individual fluid particle in a flowing fluid is called its line of flow or
streamline. A tube of flow is a bundle of streamlines. As the streamlines do not cross each other
fluid flowing through different tubes of flow cannot intermix, although there is no physical
partition between the tubes. When a liquid is passed slowly through a pipe, the pipe itself is one
tube of flow. The flow within any tube of flow obeys the equation of continuity:
Av = a constant
where Av is the volume flow rate, A is the cross-sectional area of the tube of flow at any point,
and v is the speed of the fluid at that point.
This equation expresses the law of conservation of mass in fluid dynamics, i.e. the total mass of
fluid going into a tube of flow through any cross section must be equal to the total mass coming
out of the same tube through any other cross section in the same time.
Bernoullis Equation :
Applying the principle of conservation of mechanical energy to the flow of an ideal fluid leads
to Bernoullis equation: P + gh + v
2
= a constant

Torricellis Theorem :
The speed of liquid coming out through a hole at a depth h below the free surface is the same as
that of a particle fallen freely through the height h under gravity. The speed of the liquid coming
out is called the speed of efflux.

Here are some of the problems which will be covered and solved in this
tutorial :

Q: A barometer kept in an elevator reads 76 cm when it is at rest. If the elevator goes up with
increasing speed, will the reading be greater than or less than 76 cm?
Q: If water is used to construct a barometer, what would be the height of water column at
standard atmospheric pressure (76 cm of mercury) ?
Q: A metal piece of mass 200 g lies in equilibrium inside a glass of water. The piece is in the
touch with the bottom of the glass through a small number of points. If the density of the metal is
5000 kgm
-3
, find the normal force exerted by the bottom of the glass on the metal piece. Take g =
10 ms
-2
.
Q: A cube of ice floats partly in water and partly in kerosene oil. Find the ratio of the volume of
ice immersed in water to that in kerosene oil. Specific gravity of kerosene oil is 0.8 and that of
ice is 0.9.
Q: A cylindrical object of diameter 12 cm, height 24 cm and density 7500 kgm
-3
is supported by
a vertical spring and is half dipped in water as shown in figure. (a) Find the elongation of the
spring in equilibrium condition. (b) If the object is slightly depressed and released, find the time
period of resulting oscillations of the object. The spring constant is 450 N/m. Take g = 10 ms
-2
.
Q: A U-tube containing a liquid is accelerated horizontally with a constant acceleration a0. If the
separation between the vertical limbs is l , find the difference in the heights of the liquid in the
two arms.
Q: A garden hose with an internal diameter of 2 cm is connected to a (stationary) lawn sprinkler
that consists merely of a container with 25 holes, each 0.12 cm in diameter. If the water in the
hose has a speed of 0.9 m/s, at what speed does it leave the sprinkler holes?
Solution: We use the equation of continuity. Let v1 be the speed of water in the hose and v2 be
its speed as it leaves one of the holes.
v1A1 = v2(NA2)
0.9 x (0.01)
2
= v2(25 X (0.0006)
2
)
or v2 = 10 m/s

Q: What is the acceleration of a rising hot-air balloon if the ratio of the air density outside the
balloon to that inside is 1.42? Neglect the mass of the balloon fabric and the basket. Take g =
10ms
-2
.
Q: An object hangs from a spring balance. The balance registers 40 N in air, 25 N when this
object is immersed in water, and 30 N when the object is immersed in another liquid of unknown
density. What is the density of that other liquid?
Q: An iron casting containing a number of cavities weighs 6500 N in air and 4500 N in water.
What is the total volume of all the cavities in the casting? The density of iron (that is, a sample
with no cavities) is 7.85 g/cm
3
.
Q: Suppose that you release a small ball from rest at a depth of 0.5 m below the surface in a
pool of water. If the density of the ball is 0.25 that of water and if the drag force on the ball from
the water is negligible, how high above the water surface will the ball shoot as it emerges from
the water? (Neglect any transfer of energy to the splashing and waves produced by the emerging
ball.) Take g = 10 ms
-2
.
Q: A cubical block of wood of edge 2.5 cm floats in water. The lower surface of the cube just
touches the free end of a vertical spring fixed at the bottom of the pot. Find the maximum weight
that can be put on the block without wetting it. Density of wood = 800 kgm
-3
and spring constant
of the spring = 60 Nm
-1
. Take g = 10 ms
-2
.
Q: A wooden plank of length 1 m and uniform cross section is hinged at one end to the bottom
of a tank as shown in figure. The tank is filled with water up to a height of 0.6 m. The specific
gravity of the plank is 0.5. Find the angle that the plank makes with the vertical in the
equilibrium position. (Exclude the case = 0.)
Q: A cylindrical block of wood of mass M is floating in water with its axis vertical. It is
depressed a little and then released. Show that the motion of the block is simple harmonic and
find its frequency.
Q: The area of cross section of a large tank is 0.6 m
2
. It has an opening near the bottom having
area of cross section 1 cm
2
. A load of 25 kg is applied on the water at the top. Find the velocity of
the water coming out of the opening at the time when the height of water level is 40 cm above
the bottom. Take g = 10 ms
-2
.
Q: Water level is maintained in a cylindrical vessel upto a fixed height H. The vessel is kept
on a horizontal plane. At what height above the bottom should a hole be made in the vessel so
that the water stream coming out of the hole strikes the horizontal plane at the greatest distance
from the vessel?
Q: A venturi meter is used to measure the flow speed of a fluid in a pipe. The meter is
connected between two sections of the pipe; the cross-sectional area A of the entrance and exit of
the meter matches the pipes cross-sectional area. Between the entrance and exit, the fluid flows
from the pipe with speed V and then through a narrow throat of cross-sectional area a with
speed v. A manometer connects the wider portion of the meter to the narrower portion. The
change in the fluids speed is accompanied by a change P in the fluids pressure, which causes
a height difference h of the liquid in the two arms of the manometer. (Here P means pressure
in the throat minus pressure in the pipe.) (a) By applying Bernoullis equation and the equation
of continuity to points 1 and 2 in figure, show that, V=2a2P(a2-A2)
where is the density of the fluid. (b) Suppose that the fluid is fresh water, that the cross-
sectional areas are 64 cm
2
in the pipe and 32 cm
2
in the throat, and that the pressure is 55 kPa in
the pipe and 41 kPa in the throat. What is the rate of water flow in cubic meters per second?