Sei sulla pagina 1di 12

By: ejboy

Diameter of Atom 10 to - 10 m
Diameter of Hydrogen 1.1 X 10 to -10 m
Predicting the atomic structure of materials Bohr model
Insulator to conductor ionizing
Valence band and conduction band in conductor 0 eV
No defined Crystal structure amorphous
Q, lack 5 electrons 8 X 10 to -19 coul
Movement of charge particles current
0.004/deg. C, T1 = 20 deg. C 0.0036/deg. C
14.5 X 10 to 18 power protons 14.5 X 10 to 18 Coul
5C, -6C and 7C 6 coul
Force of attraction/repulsion inv. to distance square Coulombs 2
nd
law
Force field between ions Electromotive
Density of electric charge Electric potential
Absolute permittivity 8.854 X 10 to -12
Effect of permittivity to electric field intensity decrease
Most materials permittivity 1-10
Sphere that encloses a net charge of 2 micro coul 0 (zero)
Cause a repulsion of 1/4 Uo Unit pole
Rel. bet. Force bet. two poles and permeability inversely
Mechanically stressed material to recognized rapid switching Wiegand effect
8 protons, 8 nucleus + 2 neutrons 18
Does not affect resistance mass
Mesh, algebraic sum of all voltages is zero Kirchhoffs 2
nd
law
Current entering equals Current leaving Kirchhoffs 1
st
law
Equivalent open resistance and open circuit voltage Thevenins
No node or elements are passed more than once mesh
Signal can circulate loop
Reference point node
Common connection junction
Considering the effect of supply voltage one at a time superposition
Delta to wye R1=60, R2=80, R3=100 opposite to R2 - 25.0 ohms
V=100sin120 t ,Ave. voltage 0V
PF of series LC 0
PF increased Active power increase
Connecting loads in parallel allows independent operations of load
Cause minimum Q on a single-tuned LC increased shunt resistor
Charged at the nucleus of silicon 14eC
Doped with donor and acceptor compensated semiconductor
Resistance of semiconductor bulk resistance

By: ejboy

Advantage of silicon over germanium low leakage current
Current flow in semicon. due to applied electric field drift current
Charge carrier even w/o electric potential diffusion current
Valence band and conduction band in conductor in doped semicon. 0.05 eV
Conduction of holes valence band
Donor level near the conduction band
Acceptor level near the valence band
Occurs in minute quantity germanium
Compound semiconductors inter-metallic semiconductors
Used in Emission or absorption of lights compound semiconductors
Used in Hi-speed IC gallium arsenide
Poor conductor to good conductor one parts per million
Perfect silicon crystal equilibrium concentration 1.5 X 10 to 10 per cubic cm.
Operation of semicon photoconductors EHP optical generation
Xerography selenium
Detect near infrared germanium
Good for high temperature silicon carbide
Highest mobility indium antimonide
Semiconducting glass amorphous semiconductor
Electroluminescent of green and red lights gallium phosphide
Low power or small signal less than 1 watt
Highest energy gap Zinc sulphide
Smallest energy gap InSb
Slowest electron mobility AlP
Formed n-typed + p-typed pn junction
Device formed n-typed + p-typed junction diode
Unidirectional conduction in two-electrodes diode action
Increase of 10 deg. Celsius in the operating temp. double
Resistance at steady state dc resistance
Resistance at small AC signal dynamic resistance
Resistance in large AC voltages average resistance
Capacitance in depletion region transition capacitance
Capacitance between terminals and electrodes diode capacitance
Significant capacitance in forward bias diffusion or storage capacitance
Reverse condition from forward conduction reverse recovery time
High speed switching circuit, important parameters reverse recovery time
From reverse to forward state forward recovery time
Power handling capability at higher temperature decrease
Diode specific quantum mechanical bond structure gunn diode
Three layer diode diac
Diode classical effects of phase shift Read, IMPATT, TRAPATT diode

By: ejboy

Variation of tunnel diode backward diode
Zener diodes connected back to back thyrector
Read diode n-type as its drift region IMPATT diode
Containing more than one diode diode pack
Combination of I, C, R of diode diode impedance
N-type gallium arsenide Gunn effect
Load line slope when load resistance decreases it will increase
Cut a portion of the input clipper
Used to shift the dc-level of input signal clamper
Half wave rectifier series clamper
Must a capacitor clamper
Voltage at quadrupler third stage capacitor 2 Vmax
Diode in a single housing diode array
A chopper diode chopper
Transistor acts as an inverting amplifier DTL
Having diode in two arms and resistor in other two half-bridge
Zener diode and SCR over voltage protection crowbar
Base is diffused and emitter is alloyed alloy-diffused transistor
Junction are created by alloying alloy transistor
Alloying a suitable material such as Indium alloy junction
Predecessor of the junction transistor point-contact transistor
Transistor outer layer heavily doped semiconductor
Minority current of transistor leakage current
Can severely affect the stability of the system Ico
Alpha common base, short circuit, amplification factor
Beta common-emitter forward-current amplification factor
Direct link bet. current input levels of the input and output beta
Area below Ic=Iceo cut-off region
Handles most current emitter
Indicates degree of change due to temperature variation in dc stability factor
Saturated, Vce 0 V
Most correct technical term of the reverse leakage current reverse saturation current
Icbo of ideal transistor zero mA
Maximum voltage that can be applied in C-E terminal V(br)ceo
Hybrid parameters that usually neglected hr and ho
Transistor input equivalent resistor and voltage source
The graph of the product of Vce and Ic maximum power curve
Channel of a JFET as current flows skews
Causes drain current to equal zero pinch -off voltage
Insulator in MOSFET SiO2
Early versiom of FET fieldistor

By: ejboy

Foundation in MOSFET substrate
Originally no channel enhancement type
Originally thick depletion
Voltage for current flow in E-MOSFET threshold voltage
Base material of the MOSFET substrate (SS)
JFET cut-off frequency dependent 1/L raised to 2
To increase MOSFET power wide and short
Has wide and short effective channel V- MOSFET
Vertical direction rather than horizontal V-MOSFET
More useful in IC chips FETs
Monolithic semiconductor amplifying device FET
For pulse operation Class D
Amplify either AM or FM Class S
Highest efficiency Class D
Efficiency of Class A coupled with transformer 50%
Transistorized Class C 33%
Class D efficiency for pulse-amplification reaches over 90%
Push-pull amplifier that uses npn and pnp transistor complementary-symmetry amplifier
Looks like complementary-symmetry quasi-complementary push-pull amplifier
Directly coupled and amplified by second transistor, very high gain darlington configuration
Output of collector is input to the emitter of the second stage cascode configuration
Used in cascode amplifier common-emitter and common-base
Have super-beta darlington
Threshold voltage of darlington 1.6 V
Operates like darlington, combination of pnp and npn feedback pair
Used to perform analog-computer functions op-amp
Very high gain differential amplifier op-amp
Op-amp usable terminals at least 5 terminals
Input of op-amp differential amplifier
Output of op-amp complementary amplifier
Follows differential amplifier high gain amplifier
Configuration used by complementary stage of op-amp common collector
Stage followed by output complementary in op-amps level shifter
Maximum output voltage swing - +VSAT to VSAT
uA741 op-amp 6.324
Input of an op-amp to operate it normally input bias current
Change in input offset current due to temperature input offset current drift
Feedback resistor 100k, input resistor 10k op-amp input voltage 2.0mV 22mV
Bias-current compensating resistor equal to parallel combination of the input and feedback resistor
Battery representing the input offset voltage in op-amp between the non-inverting and ground
terminal

By: ejboy

Minimize effect of input offset voltage and current feedback resistance small
Input 1k, feedback 100k, offset voltage 101 mV 1.0mV
Minimizing the output offset voltage of an op-amp by properly using and adjusting the offset-null
terminals
Op-amp parameter important in large signal slew rate
Least effect in op-amps large signal drift
AC op-amps affect its performance slew rate and frequency response
Frequency 0.707 times open loop gain break frequency
0.3 usec transient response time 1.167 Mhz
0.5V/usec, 5V 16 KHz
10V and 100,000 rad/sec 1.0V/usec
Used as comparator +VSAT V + >V-
Two comparator, whether a voltage is above or below a certain reference window comparator
Significant op-amp used as comparator open-loop gain
Op-amp zero crossing detector w/o hysteresis has no feedback
Nose gain of op-amps 1 + Rf/Ri
In op-amps, feedback resistor is shunted with very small capacitance to minimize high frequency
noise
External frequency-compensation capacitor the lower its value, the wider its bandwidth
Typical value of external frequency-compensation capacitor 3.0 30uf
Low-input offset voltage op-amp 0.2mV
TO-99 metal can
DIL TO-116
High density IC packaging SMT
Determines pulse time in monostable multivibrator resistor and capacitor combination
Ecless/Jordan circuit bistable multivibrator
Flip-flop bistable multivibrator
Sparks in centimetre long Van de graff
3413 BTU 1KWH
Abvolts in 1 volts 10^8 volts
Manganin Cu,Mn,Ni
2 cm diameter, 100 times Rinitial 10 m
Tesla coil high frequency resosnant transformer
Bandgap of diamond 2.5 eV
Bandgap of Ge 0.67 eV
Bandgap of Si 1.1 eV
Superconductivity, 1911 Onnes
Norton equivalent circuit short circuit current
Permanent magnet alnico alloy
Unvarying temperature breakdown, product of gas pressure and distance Paschens Law
Continuous adjustments linear-taper potentiometer

By: ejboy

Depends on the product of Capacitance and Resistance CR law
Paramagnetic material inversely proportional to absolute temperature Bridgemand effect
Wirewound Manganin
Line of force near the edges edge effect
Neon glow lamp 80V
Balancing residual magnetism hysteresis loss
Diffusion current density gradient
Wire double back Bifilar
Hot resistance of Incandescent Lamp greater than cold resistance 10
Mica hard and brittle - lipidolite
21 to 40 mA AC, 80 to 160 mA DC muscular inhibition
Degrees of inversion between gate and drain 180
Magnetoencephalograph Super conducting quantum interference (squid)
Commonly used type of linear IC Op-Amp
Range of gm fo JFETS 1000 usiemens 5000 usiemens
Typical Q of crystal 20,000
First Japanese engineer mention of robot generation Eiji Nakano
False synchronization stick-off voltage
Defined track or course embedded path
Object is oriented stepper motor
All possible direction dexterious
Synchro provide external connections terminal board
Work load for electric 3 to 80 kgs
Workload for pneumatic 3 to 4.5 kgs
Workload hydraulic 22.7 to 56.7 kgs
Moving coil rectifier even scale measuring AC
One fed to tweeter, other fed to woofer cross over network
Diode model analysis of electronic system practical
Intel i486 32-bit 1 million
Parasitic oscillation transistor inter-electrode capacitance
Arrow on symbol angle of rotor
Complement, simulate by thyristor latch
Strongest-six industrial robot kr 1000 Titan
Tunnel diode in microwave amplifier
UJT conducts, base 1, base 2 emitter-emitter
Four arm AC Bridge Owen Bridge
Uses water coupled plate, detachable demountable tubes
SONAR sonic navigation and ranging
Computing functions Op-amps
Uses latent heat of vaporization, measure relative humidity psychrometer
Precise measurement of Inductance over wide range Anderson bridge

By: ejboy

In choosing a motor speed and torque
IC variable negative voltage output 337
Helix of a display of oscilloscope 12KV
Simple series regulator circuit transistor
Torque of force applied, electromechanical device such as robot back pressure sensor
Irradiation of light joshi effect
FPGA Field programmable Gate Array
Can be read in fingertips optacon
Permanent magnet dynamic microphone
Enumerate inputs, output and flip flop states state table
Insensitive to small signal overdamped
Equiripple amplitude response chebyshev response
11000110 in gray code 10100101
Controlling torque in PMMC spring action
Sudden heavy loads for short duration cumulatively compounded
dc-dc convertet, switched switched mode power supply
Self adjusts its parameters before paralleling jogging
High speed memory that stores most recent used instructions cache memory
Ammeter insertion
Lead-acid battery UPS
Air gaps at the transformer core increases magnetic current
In its own frame epipolar navigation
Average dc voltage exist in capacitor filter
Used of flood gun storage oscilloscope
Invalid state for RS S=1 and R=1
Speed is increases as load is increases differentially compounded
Two complete electron guns dual beam oscilloscope
Many to one, input/output ULM
Coating of phosphor material CRT
Modulus actual number of states in sequence
2 KHz to 8 KHz 2 flip-flops
Chop mode much higher frequency
Terminal count of modulus 13 1100
Clean-up or shape-up power conditioners
Asynchronous counters ripple counters
Measuring total loop resistance Varley loop test
V/div - +-3%
ART Absorption, Reaction, Transmission
Harmonically related signals - Lissajous
Secondary cell, nickel hydroxide,Vo= 1.2 Edison Cell
Primary cell, carbon and zinc Leclance cell

By: ejboy

Maximum current, through 0.01 ohm load flash current
Silver Cadmium open-circuit voltage 1.05V
Automotive battery with six lead-acid cells in series 12V
Junction bet. two conductors that exhibits electrical char. under changing temp. thermoelectric
junction
Electrical machine, converts ac to dc voltage or vice versa rotary converter
Dc generators rotating armature
Ac generators rotating field
Field winding lower resistance series field winding
Made of fine wires shunt field winding
Choosing a dc-generator voltage vs. load
Alternators in parallel, to change frequency changing the rpm of the prime movers
Alternators in parallel, to change voltage changing the field excitation
Having variable speed, must be used Constant speed drive (CSD)
Low-speed alternators hydraulic
High-speed alternators steam turbines
Less chance to hunt alternators steam turbines
Incoming generator connected first before removing existing generator No Break Power Transfer
(NBPT)
Break power transfer the present on-line generator will be disconnected first before connecting the
incoming generator.
Highest expenses in generating/distribution company distribution of powers to the customer
Insulator in electrical power distribution porcelain
Maximum mechanical power from a dc motor Eb=1/2 V
Shaft torque is less than the developed armature torque of a dc motor friction loss
Iron losses in dc motor flux and speed
Cumulatively compounded motor, does not run widely at light loads shunt winding
Least starting torque dc shunt
Winding loses in dc motors speed
Power loss is greatly contributed by copper loss
Motor vibrations worn bearings
Armature opens in dc motor intermittent sparking
In dc motors, the speed will decrease with an increase in field strength
Signal most used to trigger device square-wave
Transformer considered efficient device static device
Open-circuit test with transformer low voltage
Short-circuit test with transformer low voltage
Cooling system for transformer less than 5KVA natural air cooling
Power transformer operated at very high frequency very high core loss
Single-phase transformer, core flux alternating
Leakage flux causes voltage drop in the windings

By: ejboy

Core-type transformer shorter magnetic path
Copper loss in transformer, practically 85%
Best suited for heavy-load application polyphase motors
DC shunt motor speed controlled electronically thyristor (SCR)
Most inefficient regulator shunt
Control element of most voltage regulator BJT
12 VDC 7805 IC, 0.2 amps current 7V
Three-terminal fixed positive regulators 78XX series
Regulated output voltage of 7924 - -24V
Three-terminal variable positive voltage regulator 317
Three-terminal variable negative voltage regulator 337
317, band-gap voltage 1.25V
Ripple rejection of most three-terminal voltage regulators 0.1%
Way of protecting reverse-polarity / reverse-current by a reverse-biased diode
Measuring high frequency currents thermocouple
Measures temperature beyond the range of mercury thermometers pyrometer
Measures intensity of radiation pyranometer
Measures the output power of a motor dynamometer
Movable coil rotate between two stationary coils, usually used as wattmeter electrodynamometer
Damping method in dynamometer air friction
Dynamometer to measure high currents must used current transformer
To prevent damage of the multirange ammeter ayrton shunt
Purpose of the rheostat in ohmmeter compensate aging battery of the meter
Scale of a hot wire instrument squared
Moving iron instruments have a scale function squared
Increase the measuring capability of moving-iron ac ammeter different number of turns of operating
coil
Electrical instrument most sensitive PMMC
Damping method used in induction type ammeters eddy current damping
Kelvin electrostatic voltmeter method of damping fluid friction
Moving coil ammeter, compensate temperature variations swamping resistor
Instrument, reaction between magnetic flux, electromagnetic induction induction instrument
Movable iron vane, permanent magnet PMMC
Instrument movable magnetized iron vanes, pivoted shaped piece of iron vane-type instrument
Electrostatic voltmeter, figure-8-shaped metal plates Kelvin voltmeter
Test point to a fault in telephone or telegraph line or cable Varley loop
Measuring inductance against a standard capacitance Maxwell Bridge
Wheatstone bridge, ratio arms are replaced by a 100 cm Manganin slide-wire bridge
Visual indication of voltage excursions oscilloscope
Displaying by means of a fluorescence in a CRT oscilloscope
Retain display for a longer period of time storage oscilloscope

By: ejboy

Photometer used to measure reflection reflectometer
Dip meter employing a vacuum tube oscillator grid-dip meter
Common method of controlling electrical power with reactance using saturable reactor
Saturable reactor with regenerative feedback magnetic amplifier
Thyratrons in IE gas-filled triode
Highest single-device current capacity ignitrons
Highest single-device current rating SCR
Thyratrons in semiconductor thyristor
Greatly generates RFI or EMI phase control
Highest holding voltage bidirectional-trigger diac
Cooling in SCRs used for largest power dissipating device water cooling
Two SCRs in series to equalize voltage by using a blocking equalizing resistor
Circuit used for equalization during ON-OFF switching action of SCRs in series snubber circuit
Period of the cycle before the device switches to conduction firing delay angle
Behaves roughly like SCR conduct current in either direction SBS
Very similar to SCR, very temperature stable SUS
Forward breakover voltage (+VBO) is not alterable Shockley diode
UJT applications timers, oscillators, signal generators, triggering control for SCRs and triacs
Selecting thyristors generally desirable thyristors with high breakback-voltage
First interval, material to be welded are held together squeeze interval
Interval electrode pressure is maintained on the metal surfaces hold interval
Closed loop system used to maintain physical position servo system
Error signal, the system cannot correct anymore offset
Controller reacts to an error mode of control
Two operating state, bang-bang control On-off
Controller has a continuous range of possible position proportional
Proportional mode of control considering time proportional plus integral
Proportional mode of control considering rate of change proportional plus derivative
Most common mechanical configuration articulated and cylindrical
Actuator type used in industrial robots hydraulic and pneumatic
Robot software or program produces only two-position positive-stop program
Robot program move w/in the range but w/o specific path point-to-point program
Robot program move w/in the range but with specific path continuous path program
Robot moves on several axes at the same time compound motion
SCARA Selective Compliant Articulated/Assembly Robot Arm
SCARA axis of motion 4
SCARA application Assembling
Why SCARA in industry because it is relatively cheaper
First electronic computer in 1946 ENIAC
Simpilifying Boolean espression deals with more than six variables Quine-McCluskey tabular method
To cause a three-state buffer to output 0-1 levels the signal OE must be logic 1

By: ejboy

Rapidly flashing logic probe tip has rapidly changing logic activity
Single bit comparator Exclusive NOR
Analogous to single pole mechanical selector switch multipilexer
Logic circuit rejects an unwanted signal noise margin
Multi-wire connection between digital circuits Bus
Converting multiple analog input signals to digital output time division multiplexing
Odd number of 1s at the input XOR gate
Even number of 1s at the input XNOR gate
Fan out logic gate is not enough must used buffer
XOR controlled inverter
Same family connected to the input w/o degrading the circuit performance fan in
Same family driven by a single output - fan-out
Bipolar logic uses resistor as its input RTL
Logic family uses diode and transistor more resistant to noise DTL
Logic circuit, w/ supply voltage 25V HLDTL
TTL, base and collector junctios are clamped with a schottky diode STTL
Bipolar logic is the fastest ECL
MOS logic family is the fastest CMOS
Intended for busing tri-state output
Holds fixed set of data ROM
Basic memory element flip-flop
Changes state every time input is triggered T flip-flop
Other receives its input from the output of the first master/slave flip-flop
Triggered at the same time clocked flip-flop
Sequential access digital memory shift register
Can program PROMs Blowing fuse
Refresh operation in a typical dynamic RAM 2 ms
Static RAM (SRAM) flip-flop
Selecting output from multiple input universal logic module (ULM)
Minimum change code Gray code
Op-code of computer instruction mnemonic
Clear the interrupt mask CLI
Represented by mnemonic assembly language
Multi-network IBM token ring star








By: ejboy