1 5/8/13
C
HAPTER
9
V
ISCOUS
F
LOW
A
LONG
A W
ALL
9.1 T
HE
NO

SLIP
CONDITION
All liquids and gases are viscous and, as a consequence, a uid near a solid bound
ary sticks to the boundary. The tendency for a liquid or gas to stick to a wall arises
from momentum exchanged during molecular collisions with the wall. Viscous
friction profoundly changes the uid ow over a body compared to the ideal invis
cid approximation that is widely applied in aerodynamic theory. The gure below
illustrates the effect in the ow over a curved boundary. Later we will see how the
velocity at the wall from irrotational ow theory is used as the outer boundary
condition for the equations that govern the thin region of rotational ow near the
wall imposed by the noslip condition. This thin layer is called a boundary layer.
Figure 9.1 Slip versus noslip ow near a solid surface.
The presence of low speed ow near the surface of a wing can lead to ow sepa
ration or stall. Separation can produce large changes in the pressure eld
surrounding the body leading to a decrease in lift and an increase in pressure
related drag. The pressure drag due to stall may be much larger than the drag due
to skin friction. In a supersonic ow the noslip condition insures that there is
always a subsonic ow near the wall enabling pressure disturbances to propagate
upstream through the boundary layer. This may cause ow separation and shock
formation leading to increased wave drag.
In Appendix 1 we worked out the mean free path between collisions in a gas
U
e
U
e
U
e
The noslip condition
5/8/13 9.2 bjc
(9.1)
where is the number of molecules per unit volume and is the collision diam
eter of the molecule. On an atomic scale all solid materials are rough and adsorb
or retard gas molecules near the surface. When a gas molecule collides with a solid
surface a certain fraction of its momentum parallel to the surface is lost due to Van
der Walls forces and interpenetration of electron clouds with the molecules at the
solid surface. Collisions of a rebounding gas molecule with other gas molecules
within a few mean free paths of the surface will slow those molecules and cause
the original molecule to collide multiple times with the surface. Within a few col
lision times further loss of tangential momentum will drop the average molecular
velocity to zero. At equilibrium, the velocity of the gas within a small fraction of
a mean free path of the surface and the velocity of the surface must match.
The exception to this occurs in the ow of a raried gas where the distance a mol
ecule travels after a collision with the surface is so large that a return to the surface
may never occur and equilibrium is never established. In this case there is a slip
velocity that can be modeled as
(9.2)
where is a constant of order one. The slip velocity is negligible for typical val
ues of the mean free path in gases of ordinary density. In situations where the
velocity gradient is extremely large as in some gas lubrication ows there can be
signicant slip even at ordinary densities.
For similar reasons there can be a discontinuity in temperature between the wall
and gas in raried ows or very high shear rate ows.
In this Chapter we will discuss two fundamental problems involving viscous ow
along a wall at ordinary density and shear rate. The rst is plane Couette ow
between two parallel plates where the ow is perfectly parallel. This problem can
be solved exactly. The second is the plane boundary layer along a wall where the
ow is almost but not quite perfectly parallel. In this case an approximate solution
to the equations of motion can be determined.
1
2no
2
 =
n o
v
slip
C
oU
oy
 =
C
Equations of Motion
bjc 9.3 5/8/13
9.2 E
QUATIONS
OF
M
OTION
Recall the equations of motion in Cartesian coordinates from Chapter 1, in the
absence of body forces and internal sources of energy.
. . (9.3)
The rst simplication is to reduce the problem to steady ow in two space
dimensions.
Conservation of mass
op
ot

opU
ox

opV
oy

opW
oz
 + + + 0 =
Conservation of momentum
opU
ot

o pUU P
xx
+ ! "
ox

o pUV
xy
! "
oy

o pUW
xz
! "
oz
 + + + 0 =
opV
ot

o pVU
xy
! "
ox

o pVV P
yy
+ ! "
oy

o pVW
yz
! "
oz
 + + + 0 =
opW
ot

o pWU
xz
! "
ox

o pWV
yz
! "
oy

o pWW P
zz
+ ! "
oz
 + + + 0 =
Conservation of energy
ope
ot

o phU Q
x
+ ! "
ox

o phV Q
y
+ ! "
oy

o phW Q
z
+ ! "
oz
 + + +
U
oP
ox
 V
oP
oy
 W
oP
oz
 + +
\ )
[
xx
oU
ox

xy
oU
oy

xz
oU
oz
 + +
\ )
[
xy
oV
ox

yy
oV
oy

yz
oV
oz
 + +
\ )
[
xz
oW
ox

yz
oW
oy

zz
oW
oz
 + +
\ )
[
0 =
Plane, Compressible, Couette Flow
5/8/13 9.4 bjc
(9.4)
9.3 PLANE, COMPRESSIBLE, COUETTE FLOW
First lets study the twodimensional, compressible ow produced between two
parallel plates in relative motion shown below. This is the simplest possible com
pressible ow where viscous forces and heat conduction dominate the motion. We
studied the incompressible version of this ow in Chapter 1. There the gas tem
perature is constant and the velocity prole is a straight line. In the compressible
problem the temperature varies substantially, as does the gas viscosity, leading to
a more complex and more interesting problem.
Figure 9.2 Flow produced between two parallel plates in relative motion
opU
ox

opV
oy
 + 0 =
o pUU P
xx
+ ! "
ox

o pUV
xy
! "
oy
 + 0 =
o pVU
xy
! "
ox

o pVV P
yy
+ ! "
oy
 + 0 =
o phU Q
x
+ ! "
ox

o phV Q
y
+ ! "
oy
 U
oP
ox
 V
oP
oy
 +
\ )
[
+
xx
oU
ox

xy
oU
oy
 +
\ )
[
xy
oV
ox

yy
oV
oy
 +
\ )
[
0 =
U(y)
x
y
U
w
T
w
Q
w
d
Plane, Compressible, Couette Flow
bjc 9.5 5/8/13
The upper wall moves at a velocity doing work on the uid while the lower
wall is at rest. The temperature of the upper wall is . The ow is assumed to
be steady with no variation in the direction. The plates extend to plus and minus
innity in the direction.
All gradients in the direction are zero and the velocity in the direction is zero.
(9.5)
With these simplications the equations of motion simplify to
. (9.6)
The velocity component and temperature only depend on . The momentum
equation implies that the pressure is uniform throughout the ow (the pressure
does not depend on or ). The implication of the momentum balance is that
the shear stress also must be uniform throughout the ow just like the pres
sure. Assume the uid is Newtonian. With , the shear stress is
(9.7)
where is the shear stress at the lower wall. For gases the viscosity depends
only on temperature.
(9.8)
Since the pressure is constant the density also depends only on the temperature.
According to the perfect gas law
U
z
x
x y
V W 0 = =
o
ox
 ! "
o
oz
 ! " 0 = =
o
xy
oy
 0 =
oP
oy
 0 =
o Q
y
xy
U ! "
oy
 0 =
U y y
x y x
xy
V 0 =
xy
#
y d
dU
w
cons t tan = = =
w
# # T ! " =
Plane, Compressible, Couette Flow
5/8/13 9.6 bjc
. (9.9)
Using these equations, the solution for the velocity prole can be written as an
integral.
(9.10)
To determine the velocity prole we need to know how the viscosity depends on
temperature and the temperature distribution.
The temperature distribution across the channel can be determined from the
energy equation. Fouriers law for the heat ux is
. (9.11)
The coefcient of heat conductivity, like the viscosity is also only a function of
temperature.
(9.12)
The relative rates of diffusion of momentum and heat are characterized by the
Prandtl number.
(9.13)
In gases, heat and momentum are transported by the same mechanism of molec
ular collisions. For this reason the temperature dependencies of the viscosity and
heat conductivity approximately cancel in (9.13). The heat capacity is only
weakly dependent on temperature and so to a reasonable approximation the
Prandtl number for gases tends to be a constant close to one. For Air .
9.3.1 THE ENERGY INTEGRAL IN PLANE COUETTE FLOW
The energy equation expresses the balance between heat ux and work done on
the gas.
. (9.14)
p y ! "
P
RT y ! "
 =
U y ! "
w
dy
# T ! "

0
y
j
=
Q
y
k
dT
dy
 =
k k T ! " =
P
r
C
p
#
k
 =
P
r
0.71 =
d
dy
 Q
y
w
U + ! " 0 =
Plane, Compressible, Couette Flow
bjc 9.7 5/8/13
Integrate (9.14).
(9.15)
The constant of integration, , is the heat ux on the lower
wall. Now insert the expressions for the shear stress and heat ux into (9.15).
(9.16)
Integrate (9.16) from the lower wall.
(9.17)
is the temperature of the lower wall. The integral on the right of (9.17) can be
replaced by the velocity using (9.10). The result is the socalled energy integral.
(9.18)
At the upper wall, the temperature is and this can now be used to evaluate the
lower wall temperature.
(9.19)
9.3.2 THE ADIABATIC WALL RECOVERY TEMPERATURE
Suppose the lower wall is insulated so that . What temperature does the
lower wall reach? This is called the adiabatic wall recovery temperature .
(9.20)
Introduce the Mach number . Now
Q
y
w
U + Q
w
=
Q
w
k oT oy ! ! "
y 0 =
=
k
dT
dy
 #U
dU
dy
 + #
d
dy

1
Pr
C
p
T
1
2
U
2
+
\ )
[
Q
w
= =
C
p
T T
w
! "
1
2
P
r
U
2
+ Q
w
P
r
dy
# T ! "

0
y
j
=
T
w
C
p
T T
w
! "
1
2
P
r
U
2
+
Q
w
w
P
r
U =
T
C
p
T
w
C
p
T
P
r
U
2
2

Q
w
w
U
+
\ )
 j
[
+ =
Q
w
0 =
T
wa
T
wa
T
P
r
2C
p
U
2
+ =
M
! =
Plane, Compressible, Couette Flow
5/8/13 9.8 bjc
. (9.21)
Equation (9.21) indicates that the recovery temperature equals the stagnation tem
perature at the upper wall only for a Prandtl number of one. The stagnation
temperature at the upper wall is
. (9.22)
The recovery factor is dened as
. (9.23)
In Couette ow for a perfect gas with constant (9.21) tells us that the recovery
factor is the Prandtl number.
(9.24)
Equations (9.19) and (9.20) can be used to show that the heat transfer and shear
stress are related by
. (9.25)
Equation (9.25) can be rearranged to read
. (9.26)
The left side of (9.26) is the friction coefcient
. (9.27)
T
wa
T
 1 P
r
1
2

\ )
[
M
2
+ =
T
t
 1
1
2

\ )
[
M
2
+ =
T
wa
T
T
t
 r =
C
p
T
wa
T
T
t
 P
r
=
Q
w
w
U

C
p
T
w
T
wa
! "
P
r
U
2
 =
w
1
2
p
2
 2P
r
Q
w
p
C
p
T
w
T
wa
! "

\ )
 j
[
=
C
f
w
1
2
p
2
 =
Plane, Compressible, Couette Flow
bjc 9.9 5/8/13
On the right side of (9.26) there appears a dimensionless heat transfer coefcient
called the Stanton number.
(9.28)
In order to transfer heat into the uid the lower wall temperature must exceed the
recovery temperature. Equation (9.26) now becomes
. (9.29)
The coupling between heat transfer and viscous friction indicated in (9.29) is a
general property of all compressible ows near a wall. The numerical factor
may change and the dependence on Prandtl number may change depending on the
ow geometry and on whether the ow is laminar or turbulent, but the general
property that heat transfer affects the viscous friction is universal.
9.3.3 VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION IN COUETTE FLOW
Now that the relation between temperature and velocity is known we can integrate
the momentum relation for the stress. We use the energy integral written in terms
of
(9.30)
or
. (9.31)
Recall the momentum equation.
(9.32)
The temperature is a monotonic function of the velocity and so the viscosity can
be regarded as a function of . This enables the momentum equation to be
integrated.
S
t
Q
w
p
C
p
T
w
T
wa
! "
 =
C
f
2P
r
S
t
=
2
T
C
p
T T
! " P
r
Q
w
w
 U
U ! "
1
2
P
r
U
2
U
2
! " + =
T
T
 1 P
r
Q
w
U
w
 1 ! "M
2
1
U
U

\ )
[
P
r
1
2

\ )
[
M
2
1
U
2
U
2

\ )
 j
[
+ + =
# T ! "
y d
dU
w
=
U
Plane, Compressible, Couette Flow
5/8/13 9.10 bjc
(9.33)
In gases, the dependence of viscosity on temperature is reasonably well approxi
mated by Sutherlands law.
(9.34)
where is the Sutherland reference temperature which is for Air. An
approximation that is often used is the power law.
(9.35)
Using (9.31) and (9.35), the momentum equation becomes
(9.36)
For Air the exponent, , is approximately . The simplest case, and a reason
able approximation, corresponds to . In this case the integral can be
carried out explicitly. For an adiabatic wall, the wall stress and velocity
are related by
. (9.37)
The shear stress is determined by evaluating (9.37) at the upper wall.
(9.38)
The velocity prole is expressed implicitly as
# U ! " U d
0
U
j
w
y =
#
#

T
T

\ )
[
3 2 !
T
T
S
+
T T
S
+

\ )
 j
[
=
T
S
110.4K
#
#

T
T

\ )
[
c
= 0.5 c 1.0 $ $
1 P
r
Q
w
U
w
 1 ! "M
2
1
U
U

\ )
[
P
r
1
2

\ )
[
M
2
1
U
2
U
2

\ )
 j
[
+ +
\ )
 j
[
c
U d
0
U
j
w
#
 y =
c 0.76
c 1 =
Q
w
0 =
w
#
 y
U
U
 P
r
1
2

\ )
[
M
2 U
U

1
3

U
U

\ )
[
3
\ )
[
+ =
w
#
d 1 P
r
1
3

\ )
[
M
2
+ =
Plane, Compressible, Couette Flow
bjc 9.11 5/8/13
. (9.39)
At the prole reduces to the incompressible limit . At
high Mach number the prole is
. (9.40)
At high Mach number the prole is independent of the Prandtl number and Mach
number. The two limiting cases are shown below.
Figure 9.3 Velocity distribution in plane Couette ow for an adiabatic
lower wall and .
Using (9.38) the wall friction coefcient for an adiabatic lower wall is expressed
in terms of the Prandtl, Reynolds and Mach numbers.
(9.41)
where the Reynolds number is
y
d

U
U
 P
r
1
2

\ )
[
M
2 U
U

1
3

U
U

\ )
[
3
\ )
[
+
1 P
r
1
3

\ )
[
M
2
+
 =
M
0  U U
! y d ! =
y
d

\ )
[
M

lim
3
2

\ )
[
U
U

1
3

U
U

\ )
[
3
\ )
[
=
c 1 =
C
f
2
1 P
r
1
3

\ )
[
M
2
+
R
e

\ )
 j
 j
 j
[
=
The viscous boundary layer on a wall
5/8/13 9.12 bjc
(9.42)
The Reynolds number can be expressed as
. (9.43)
Here the interpretation of the Reynolds number as a ratio of convective to viscous
forces is nicely illustrated.
Notice that if the upper and lower walls are both adiabatic the work done by the
upper wall would lead to a continuous accumulation of energy between the two
plates and a continuous rise in temperature. In this case a steady state solution to
the problem would not exist. The upper wall has to be able to conduct heat into
or out of the ow for a steady state solution to be possible.
9.4 THE VISCOUS BOUNDARY LAYER ON A WALL
The Couette problem provides a useful insight into the nature of compressible
ow near a solid boundary. From a practical standpoint the more important prob
lem is that of a compressible boundary layer where the ow originates at the
leading edge of a solid body such as an airfoil. A key reference is the classic text
Boundary Layer Theory by Hermann Schlichting. Recent editions are authored
by Schlichting and Gersten.
To introduce the boundary layer concept we will begin by considering viscous,
compressible ow past a at plate of length shown in Figure 9.4. The question
of whether a boundary layer is present or not depends on the overall Reynolds
number of the ow.
(9.44)
Figure 9.4 depicts the case where the thickness of the viscous region, delineated,
schematically by the parabolic boundary, is a signicant fraction of the length of
the plate and the Reynolds number based on the plate length is quite low.
R
e
p
d
#
 =
R
e
p
d
#

1
2
p
2
1
2
#
d


dynamic pressure at the upper plate
characteristic shear stress
 = = =
L
R
eL
p
L
#
 =
The viscous boundary layer on a wall
bjc 9.13 5/8/13
In this case there is no boundary layer and the full equations of motion must be
solved to determine the ow.
Figure 9.4 Low Reynolds number ow about a thin at plate of length L.
is less than a hundred or so. The parabolic envelope which extends
upstream of the leading edge roughly delineates the region of rotational ow
produced as a consequence of the no slip condition on the plate.
If the Reynolds number based on plate length is large then the ow looks more
like that depicted in Figure 9.5.
Figure 9.5 High Reynolds number ow developing from the leading edge of
a at plate of length L. is several hundred or more.
U(y)
x
y
U
w
T
w
Q
w
o
P
L
R
eL
U(y)
x
y
U
w
T
w
Q
w o
U
e
(x),
P
L
T
e
(x), P
e
(x)
R
eL
The viscous boundary layer on a wall
5/8/13 9.14 bjc
At high Reynolds number the thickness of the viscous region is much less than
the length of the plate.
(9.45)
Moreover, there is a region of the ow away from the leading and trailing edges
of the plate where the guiding effect of the plate produces a ow that is nearly
parallel. In this region the transverse velocity component is much less than the
streamwise component.
(9.46)
The variation of the ow in the streamwise direction is much smaller than the vari
ation in the crossstream direction. Thus
. (9.47)
Moreover continuity tells us that
. (9.48)
The convective and viscous terms in the streamwise momentum equation are of
the same order suggesting the following estimate for .
(9.49)
With this estimate in mind lets examine the momentum equation.
(9.50)
Utilizing (9.46) and (9.47), equation (9.50) reduces to
. (9.51)
o
L
 1
V
U
 1
o ! "
ox

o ! "
oy
 U
o ! "
ox
 V
o ! "
oy
 ~
oU
ox

oV
oy
 ~
o L !
p
2
L
 #
U
o
2

o
L

1
R
eL
! "
1 2 !
  = 
y
o pVU
xy
! "
ox

o pVV P
yy
+ ! "
oy
 + 0 =
o P
yy
! "
oy
 0 =
The viscous boundary layer on a wall
bjc 9.15 5/8/13
Now integrate this equation at a xed position and evaluate the constant of inte
gration in the free stream.
(9.52)
The pressure (9.52) is inserted into the momentum equation in (9.4). The result
is the boundary layer approximation to the momentum equation.
(9.53)
Now consider the energy equation.
(9.54)
Using (9.46), (9.47) and (9.48) the energy equation simplies to
. (9.55)
In laminar ow the normal stresses and are very small and the normal
stress terms that appear in (9.53) and (9.55) can be neglected. In turbulent ow
the normal stresses are not particularly small, with uctuations of velocity near
the wall that can be percent of the velocity at the edge of the boundary
layer. Nevertheless a couple of features of the turbulent boundary layer (com
pressible or incompressible) allow these normal stress terms in the boundary layer
equations to be neglected.
x
P x y % ! "
yy
x y % ! " P
e
x ! " + =
x
x
pU
oU
ox
 pV
oU
oy
 +
dP
e
dx

o
ox

xx
yy
! "
o
xy
oy
 + + =
o phU Q
x
+ ! "
ox

o phV Q
y
+ ! "
oy
 +
U
oP
ox
 V
oP
oy
 +
\ )
[
xx
oU
ox

xy
oU
oy
 +
\ )
[
xy
oV
ox

yy
oV
oy
 +
\ )
[
0 =
pU
oh
ox
 pV
oh
oy

oQ
y
oy
 U
dP
e
dx
 U
o
ox

xx
yy
! " + + +
o V
yy
! "
oy

o U
xx
! "
ox

xy
oU
oy
 0 =
xx
yy
10 20
The viscous boundary layer on a wall
5/8/13 9.16 bjc
1) and tend to be comparable in magnitude so that is small and
the streamwise derivative is generally quite small.
2) has its maximum value in the lower part of the boundary layer where is
very small so the product is small.
3) also has its maximum value relatively near the wall where is relatively
small and the streamwise derivative of is small.
Using these assumptions to remove the normal stress terms, the compressible
boundary layer equations become
. (9.56)
The only stress component that plays a role in this approximation is the shearing
stress . In a turbulent boundary layer both the laminar and turbulent shearing
stresses are important.
(9.57)
In the outer part of the layer where the velocity gradient is relatively small the
turbulent stresses dominate, but near the wall where the velocity uctuations are
damped and the velocity gradient is large, the viscous stress dominates.
The ow picture appropriate to the boundary layer approximation is shown below.
xx
yy
xx
yy
o
xx
yy
! " ox !
yy
V
V
yy
xx
U
U
xx
opU
ox

opV
oy
 + 0 =
pU
oU
ox
 pV
oU
oy
 +
dP
e
dx

o
xy
oy
 + =
pU
oh
ox
 pV
oh
oy

oQ
y
oy
 U
dP
e
dx

xy
oU
oy
 + + 0 =
xy
xy
xy
laminar
xy
turbulent
+ #
oU
oy

xy
turbulent
+ = =
The viscous boundary layer on a wall
bjc 9.17 5/8/13
Figure 9.6 High Reynolds number ow developing from the leading edge
of a semiinnite at plate.
The boundary layer is assumed to originate from a virtual origin near the plate
leading edge and the wake is innitely far off to the right. The velocity, tempera
ture and pressure at the boundary layer edge are assumed to be known functions.
The appropriate measure of the Reynolds number in this ow is based on the dis
tance from the leading edge.
(9.58)
One would expect a thin at plate to produce very little disturbance to the ow.
So it is a bit hard at this point to see the origin of the variation in free stream veloc
ity indicated in Figure 9.6 . We will return to this question at the end of the chapter.
For now we simply accept that the free stream pressure and velocity can vary with
even along a thin at plate. By the way, an experimental method for generating
a pressure gradient is to put the plate into a wind tunnel with variable walls that
can be set at an angle to accelerate or decelerate the ow.
For Newtonian laminar ow the stress is
U(y)
x
y
U
w
T
w
Q
w o
U
e
(x),
P
T
e
(x), P
e
(x)
R
ex
p
x
#
 =
x
The viscous boundary layer on a wall
5/8/13 9.18 bjc
. (9.59)
The diffusion of heat is governed by Fouriers law introduced earlier.
(9.60)
For laminar ow the compressible boundary layer equations are
. (9.61)
9.4.1 MEASURES OF BOUNDARY LAYER THICKNESS
The thickness of the boundary layer depicted in Figure 9.6 is denoted by . There
are several ways to dene the thickness. The simplest is to identify the point where
the velocity is some percentage of the free stream value, say or . More
rigorous and in some ways more useful denitions are the following.
Displacement thickness
(9.62)
This is a measure of the distance by which streamlines are shifted away from the
plate by the blocking effect of the boundary layer. This outward displacement of
the ow comes from the reduced mass ux in the boundary layer compared to the
mass ux that would occur if the ow were inviscid. Generally is a fraction of
. The integral (9.62) is terminated at the edge of the boundary layer where
ij
2#S
ij
2
3
# #
v
\ )
[
o
ij
S
kk
=
xy
#
oU
oy

oV
ox
 +
\ )
[
#
oU
oy
 =
Q
y
k
oT
oy
 =
opU
ox

opV
oy
 + 0 =
pU
oU
ox
 pV
oU
oy
 +
dP
e
dx

o
oy
 #
oU
oy

\ )
[
+ =
pUC
p
oT
ox
 pVC
p
oT
oy
 + U
dP
e
dx

o
oy
 k
oT
oy

\ )
[
#
oU
oy

\ )
[
2
+ + =
o
o
0.95
o
0.99
o
*
1
pU
p
e
U
e

\ )
[
y d
0
o
j
=
o
*
o
0.99
The Von Karman integral momentum equation
bjc 9.19 5/8/13
the velocity equals the free stream value . This is important in a situation
involving a pressure gradient where the velocity prole might look something like
that depicted in Figure 9.1. The free stream velocity used as the outer boundary
condition for the boundary layer calculation comes from the potential ow solu
tion for the irrotational ow about the body evaluated at the wall. If the integral
(9.62) is taken beyond this point it will begin to diverge.
Momentum thickness
(9.63)
This is a measure of the decit in momentum ux within the boundary layer com
pared to the free stream value and is smaller than the displacement thickness. The
evolution of the momentum thickness along the wall is directly related to the skin
friction coefcient.
9.5 THE VON KARMAN INTEGRAL MOMENTUM EQUATION
Often the detailed structure of the boundary layer velocity prole is not the pri
mary object of interest. The most important properties of the boundary layer are
the skin friction and displacement effect. Boundary layer models often focus pri
marily on these variables.
Figure 9.7 Boundary layer velocity and density proles.
The steady compressible boundary layer equations (9.53) and (9.55) together with
the continuity equation are repeated her for convenience.
U
e
0
pU
p
e
U
e
 1
U
U
e

\ )
[
y d
0
o
j
=
x
y
w
U
e
(x)
p
e
x ! "
U y ! "
p y ! "
o x ! "
The Von Karman integral momentum equation
5/8/13 9.20 bjc
(9.64)
Integrate the continuity and momentum equations over the thickness of the
boundary layer.
(9.65)
Upon integration the momentum equation becomes
(9.66)
The partial derivatives with respect to in (9.64) can be taken outside the integral
using Liebniz rule.
(9.67)
Use the second equation in (9.67) in (9.66).
(9.68)
where and is positive. We will make use of the follow
ing relation.
opU
ox

opV
oy
 + 0 =
opU
2
ox

opUV
oy
 +
dP
e
dx

o
xy
oy
 + =
opU
ox

\ )
[
y d
0
o x ! "
j
opV
oy

\ )
[
y d
0
o x ! "
j
+ 0 =
opU
2
ox

\ )
[
y d
0
o x ! "
j
opUV
oy

\ )
[
y d
0
o x ! "
j
+
dP
e
dx

\ )
[
y d
0
o x ! "
j
o
xy
oy

\ )
[
y d
0
o x ! "
j
+ =
opU
2
ox

\ )
[
y d
0
o x ! "
j
p
e
U
e
V
e
+
dP
e
dx

\ )
[
o x ! "
xy
y 0 =
+ =
x
d
dx
 pU y d
0
o x ! "
j
opU
ox

\ )
[
y d
0
o x ! "
j
p
e
U
e
do
dx
 + =
d
dx
 pU
2
y d
0
o x ! "
j
opU
2
ox

\ )
[
y d
0
o x ! "
j
p
e
U
e
2do
dx
 + =
d
dx
 pU
2
y d
0
o x ! "
j
p
e
U
e
2do
dx
 p
e
U
e
V
e
dP
e
dx

\ )
[
o x ! " + +
w
=
w
x ! "
xy
x 0 % ! " =
w
The Von Karman integral momentum equation
bjc 9.21 5/8/13
(9.69)
Multiply the continuity equation in (9.65) by and integrate with respect to .
(9.70)
Insert (9.70) in the last relation in (9.69).
(9.71)
Subtract(9.71) from (9.68).
(9.72)
and subtract the identity
(9.73)
from (9.72). Now the integral momentum equation takes the form
(9.74)
Recall the denitions of displacement thickness (9.62) and momentum thickness
(9.63).
d
dx
 pUU
e
y d
0
o x ! "
j
opUU
e
ox

\ )
[
y d
0
o x ! "
j
p
e
U
e
2do
dx
 + = =
U
e
opU
ox
 pU
dU
e
dx
 +
\ )
[
y d
0
o x ! "
j
p
e
U
e
2do
dx
 + =
U
e
opU
ox

\ )
[
y d
0
o x ! "
j
dU
e
dx
 pU y d
0
o x ! "
j
p
e
U
e
2do
dx
 + +
U
e
y
U
e
opU
ox

\ )
[
y d
0
o x ! "
j
p
e
U
e
V
e
+ 0 =
d
dx
 pUU
e
y d
0
o x ! "
j
p
e
U
e
V
e
dU
e
dx
 pU y d
0
o x ! "
j
p
e
U
e
2do
dx
 + 0 =
d
dx
 pU
2
pUU
e
! " y d
0
o x ! "
j
dU
e
dx
 pU y d
0
o x ! "
j
dP
e
dx

\ )
[
o x ! " + +
w
=
dU
e
dx
 p
e
U
e
y d
0
o x ! "
j
p
e
U
e
dU
e
dx
o x ! " 0 =
d
dx
 pU
2
pUU
e
! " y d
0
o x ! "
j
dU
e
dx
 pU p
e
U
e
! " y d
0
o x ! "
j
+ +
dP
e
dx
 p
e
U
e
dU
e
dx
 +
\ )
[
o x ! "
w
=
The Von Karman integral momentum equation
5/8/13 9.22 bjc
(9.75)
Substitute (9.75) into (9.74). The result is
(9.76)
At the edge of the boundary layer both and go to zero and the 
boundary layer momentum equation reduces to the Euler equation.
(9.77)
Using (9.77), the integral equation (9.76) reduces to
(9.78)
The signicance of this last step is that (9.78) does not depend explicitly on the
percieved boundary layer thickness but only on the more precisely dened
momentum and displacement thicknesses. It is customary to write (9.78) in a
slightly different form. Introduce the wall friction coefcient and carry out the dif
ferentiation of the rst term in (9.78).
(9.79)
The Von Karman integral momentum equation is
(9.80)
Another common form of (9.80) is generated by introducing the shape factor
(9.81)
o
*
x ! " 1
pU
p
e
U
e

\ )
[
y d
0
o x ! "
j
=
0 x ! "
pU
p
e
U
e
 1
U
U
e

\ )
[
y d
0
o x ! "
j
=
d
dx
 p
e
U
e
2
0 ! " p
e
U
e
o
*
dU
e
dx

dP
e
dx
 p
e
U
e
dU
e
dx
 +
\ )
[
o x ! " + +
w
=
oU oy !
xy
x
dP
e
p
e
U
e
dU
e
+ 0 =
d
dx
 p
e
U
e
2
0 ! " p
e
U
e
o
*
dU
e
dx
 +
w
=
o x ! "
C
f
w
1
2
p
e
U
e
2
 =
d0
dx
 20 o
*
+ ! "
1
U
e

dU
e
dx
 +
C
f
2
 =
H
o
*
0
 =
The laminar boundary layer in the limit
bjc 9.23 5/8/13
and (9.80) becomes
(9.82)
Equation (9.82) is valid for laminar, turbulent, compressible and incompressible
ow.
9.6 THE LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER IN THE LIMIT
At very low Mach number the density, is constant, temperature variations
throughout the ow are very small and the boundary layer equations (9.61) reduce
to their incompressible form.
(9.83)
where the kinematic viscosity has been introduced. The boundary con
ditions are
. (9.84)
The pressure at the edge of the boundary layer is determined using the
Bernoulli relation
. (9.85)
The stagnation pressure is constant in the irrotational ow outside the boundary
layer. The pressure at the boundary layer edge, , is assumed to be a given
function determined from a potential ow solution for the ow outside the bound
ary layer.
The continuity equation is satised identically by introducing a stream function.
d0
dx
 2 H + ! "
0
U
e

dU
e
dx
 +
C
f
2
 =
M
2
0 
p
oU
ox

oV
oy
 + 0 =
U
oU
ox
 V
oU
oy
 +
1
p

dP
e
dx
 v
o
2
U
oy
2

\ )
 j
[
+ =
v # p ! =
U 0 ! " V 0 ! " 0 = = U o ! " U
e
=
y o =
P
t
P
e
x ! "
1
2
pU
e
x ! "
2 1
p

dP
e
dx
 U
e
dU
e
dx
 = = + =
P
e
x ! "
The laminar boundary layer in the limit
5/8/13 9.24 bjc
(9.86)
In terms of the stream function, the governing momentum equation becomes a
thirdorder partial differential equation.
(9.87)
9.6.1 THE ZERO PRESSURE GRADIENT, INCOMPRESSIBLE BOUNDARY LAYER
For the governing equation reduces to
. (9.88)
with boundary conditions
(9.89)
We can solve this problem using a symmetry arguement. Transform (9.88) using
the following three parameter dilation Lie group.
(9.90)
Equation (9.88) transforms as follows.
(9.91)
Equation (9.88) is invariant under the group (9.90) if and only if . The
boundaries of the problem at the wall and at innity are clearly invariant under
(9.90).
(9.92)
The free stream boundary condition requires some care.
(9.93)
U
oq
oy
 = V
oq
ox
 =
q
y
q
xy
q
x
q
yy
U
e
dU
e
dx
 vq
yyy
+ =
dU
e
dx ! 0 =
q
y
q
xy
q
x
q
yy
vq
yyy
=
q x 0 % ! " q
y
x 0 % ! " 0 = = q
y
x % ! " U
e
=
x
e
a
x = y
e
b
y = q e
c
q =
q
vq
e
2c a 2b
q
y
q
xy
q
x
q
yy
! " e
c 3b
vq
! " 0 = =
c a b =
y
e
b
y 0 y = 0 = = =
q
0 % ! " e
c
q e
a
x 0 % ! " 0 q x 0 % ! " = 0 = = =
q
y
0 % ! " e
c b
q
y
e
a
x 0 % ! " 0 q
y
x 0 % ! " = 0 = = =
q
% ! " e
c b
q
y
e
a
x % ! " U
e
= =
The laminar boundary layer in the limit
bjc 9.25 5/8/13
Invariance of the free stream boundary condition only holds if . So the
problem as a whole, equation and boundary conditions, is invariant under the one
parameter group
(9.94)
This process of showing that the problem is invariant under a Lie group is essen
tially a proof of the existence of a similarity solution to the problem. We can
expect that the solution of the problem will also be invariant under the same group
(9.94). That is we can expect a solution of the form
(9.95)
The problem can be further simplied by using the parameters of the problem to
nondimensionalize the similarity variables. Introduce
(9.96)
In terms of these variables the velocities are
. (9.97)
The Reynolds number in this ow is based on the distance from the leading edge,
(9.58).
(9.98)
As the distance from the leading edge increases, the Reynolds number increases,
decreases, and the boundary layer approximation becomes more and more
accurate. The vorticity in the boundary layer is
. (9.99)
The remaining derivatives that appear in (9.88) are
c b =
x
e
2b
x = y
e
b
y = q e
b
q =
q
x
 F
y
x

\ )
[
=
q 2vU
x ! "
1 2 !
F o ! " = o y
U
2vx

\ )
[
1 2 !
=
U
U
 F
o
=
V
U

v
2U
x

\ )
[
1 2 !
oF
o
F ! " =
R
ex
U
x
v
 =
V U !
c
oV
ox

oU
oy
 U
2vx

\ )
[
1 2 !
F
oo
=
The laminar boundary layer in the limit
5/8/13 9.26 bjc
. (9.100)
Substitute (9.97) and (9.100) into (9.88).
(9.101)
Canceling terms in (9.101) leads to the Blasius equation
(9.102)
subject to the boundary conditions
. (9.103)
The numerical solution of the Blasius equation is shown below.
Figure 9.8 Solution of the Blasius equation (9.102) for the streamfunction,
velocity and stress (or vorticity) prole in a zero pressure gradient laminar
boundary layer.
The friction coefcient derived from evaluating the velocity gradient at the wall is
q
xy
U
2x
 oF
oo
=
q
yy
U
2vx

\ )
[
1 2 !
F
oo
=
q
yyy
U
2
2vx
F
ooo
=
U
F
o
U
2x
 oF
oo
\ )
[
U
v
2U
x

\ )
[
1 2 !
oF
o
F ! "
\ )
[
U
2vx

\ )
[
1 2 !
F
oo
v
U
2
2vx
F
ooo
=
F
o
oF
oo
! " oF
o
F ! "F
oo
+ F
ooo
=
o F
o
F
oo
FF
oo
oF
o
F
oo
F
ooo
+ 0 =
F
ooo
FF
oo
+ 0 =
F 0 ! " 0 = F
o
0 ! " 0 = F
o
! " 1 =
The laminar boundary layer in the limit
bjc 9.27 5/8/13
. (9.104)
The transverse velocity component at the edge of the layer is
. (9.105)
Notice that at a xed value of this velocity does not diminish with vertical dis
tance from the plate which may seem a little suprising given our notion that the
region of ow disturbed by a body should be nite and the disturbance should die
away. But remember that in the boundary layer approximation, the body is semi
innite. In the real ow over a nite length plate where the boundary layer solu
tion only applies over a limited region, the disturbance produced by the plate does
die off at innity.
The various thickness measures of the Blasius boundary layer are
. (9.106)
In terms of the similarity variable, the edge of the boundary layer at is at
.
We can use (9.102) to get some insight into the legitimacy of the boundary layer
idea whereby the ow is separated into a viscous region where the vorticity is non
zero and an inviscid region where the vorticity is zero as depicted in Figure 9.29.
The dimensionless vorticity (or shear stress) is given in (9.99). Let .
The Blasius equation (9.102) can be espressed as follows.
(9.107)
Integrate (9.107).
C
f
w
1 2 ! ! "pU
2

0.664
R
ex
 = =
V
e
U

0.8604
R
ex
 =
x
o
0.99
x

4.906
R
ex
 =
o
*
x

1.7208
R
ex
 =
0
x

0.664
R
ex
 =
o
0.99
o
e
4.906 2 ! 3.469 = =
F
oo
=
d
 Fdo =
The FalknerSkan boundary layers
5/8/13 9.28 bjc
(9.108)
The dimensionless stream function, the left panel in Figure 9.8, can be represented
by
. (9.109)
The limiting behavior of is where is a positive constant
related to the displacement thickness of the boundary layer. If we substitute
(9.109) into (9.108) and integrate beyond the edge of the boundary layer the result
is
. (9.110)
Equation (9.110) indicates that the shearing stress and vorticity decay exponen
tially at the edge of the layer. This rapid dropoff is a key point because it supports
the fundamental idea of the boundary layer concept of separating the ow into
two distinct zones.
9.7 THE FALKNERSKAN BOUNDARY LAYERS
Finally, we address the question of free stream velocity distributions that lead to
other similarity solutions beside the Blasius solution. We again analyze the stream
function equation
. (9.111)
Let
(9.112)
where has units
w
 e
Fdo
0
o
j
=
F o ! " o G o ! " =
G G o ! "
o 
lim C
1
= C
1
w

o o
e
&
e
o G o ! " ! "do
0
o
j
C
2
e
C
1
o
o
2
2

= =
q
y
q
xy
q
x
q
yy
U
e
dU
e
dx
 vq
yyy
0 =
U
e
Mx
=
M
The FalknerSkan boundary layers
bjc 9.29 5/8/13
. (9.113)
Similarity solutions of (9.111) exist for the class of power law freestream velocity
distributions given by (9.112). This is the wellknown FalknerSkan family of
boundary layers and the exponent is the FalknerSkan pressure gradient
parameter.
The form of the similarity solution can be determined using a symmetry argue
ment similar to that used to solve the zero pressure gradient case. Insert (9.113)
into (9.111). The governing equation becomes
(9.114)
Now transform (9.114) using a three parameter dilation Lie group.
(9.115)
Equation (9.114) transforms as
. (9.116)
Equation (9.116) is invariant under the group (9.115) if and only if
. (9.117)
The boundaries of the problem at the wall and at innity are invariant under
(9.115).
(9.118)
As in the case of the Blasius problem, the free stream boundary condition requires
some care.
(9.119)
M
L
1
T ! =
q
y
q
xy
q
x
q
yy
M
2
x
2 1 ! "
vq
yyy
0 =
x
e
a
x = y
e
b
y = q
e
c
q =
q
M
2
x
2 1
v q
=
e
2c a 2b
q
y
q
xy
q
x
q
yy
! " e
2 1 ! "a
M
2
x
2 1
! " e
c 3b
vq
! " 0 =
2c a 2b c 3b 2 1 ! "a = =
y
e
b
y 0 y = 0 = = =
q
0 % ! " e
c
q e
a
x 0 % ! " 0 q x 0 % ! " = 0 = = =
q
y
0 % ! " e
c b
q
y
e
a
x 0 % ! " 0 q
y
x 0 % ! " = 0 = = =
q
% ! " e
c b
q
y
e
a
x % ! " e
a
Mx
= =
The FalknerSkan boundary layers
5/8/13 9.30 bjc
The boundary condition at the outer edge of the boundary layer is invariant if and
only if
(9.120)
Solving (9.117) and (9.120) for and in terms of leads to the group
(9.121)
We can expect that the solution of the problem will be invariant under the group
(9.121). That is we can expect a solution of the form
(9.122)
As in the Blasius problem we use and to nondimensionalize the problem.
The similarity variables are,
. (9.123)
Upon substitution of (9.123) and (9.112), the streamfunction equation, (9.111)
becomes,
(9.124)
Cancelling terms produces the FalknerSkan equation,
(9.125)
c b a =
a c b
x
e
2
1
b
x = y
e
b
y = q
e
1 +
1
b
q =
q
x
1 +
2

\ )
[
 F
y
x
1
2

\ )
[

\ )
 j
 j
 j
 j
[
=
M v
o
M
2v

\ )
[
1
2

y
x x
0
+ ! "
1 ! " 2 !
 =
F
q
x x
0
+ ! "
1 + ! " 2 !
2vM ! "
1 2 !
 =








x x
0
+ ! "
2 1
F
o
1 + ! "F 1 ! "oF
o
! "
o
!
F
oo
1 + ! "F 1 ! "oF
o
! " 2 F
ooo
" 0 =
F
ooo
1 + ! "FF
oo
2 F
o
! "
2
2 + + 0 =
The FalknerSkan boundary layers
bjc 9.31 5/8/13
with boundary conditions,
(9.126)
Note that reduces (9.125) to the Blasius equation. It is fairly easy to
reduce the order by one. The new variables are
(9.127)
Differentiate
(9.128)
and
(9.129)
where the FalknerSkan equation (9.125) has been used to replace the third deriv
ative. Equation (9.129) can be rearranged to read
. (9.130)
with the boundary conditions
. (9.131)
F 0 ' ( 0 ; F
o
0 ' ( 0 ; F
o
' ( 1 = = =
0 =
F ; G F
o
= =
DG
Do

D
Do


dG
d

oG
oo
do
oG
oF
dF
oG
oF
o
dF
o
+ +
o
oo
do
o
oF
dF +

F
oo
F
o
 = = =
d
2
G
d
2

F
o
F
ooo
F
oo
2
F
o
2

\ )
 j
 j
[
1
F
o
 = =
F
o
1 + ! "FF
oo
2 F
o
! "
2
2 + ! " F
oo
2
F
o
3

GG
1 + ! "G
! "
2
2
1
G
 G
\ )
[
+ + + 0 =
G 0 ' ( 0 ; G ' ( 1 = =
The FalknerSkan boundary layers
5/8/13 9.32 bjc
Several velocity proles are shown in Figure 9.9.
Figure 9.9 FalknerSkan velocity proles
The various measures of boundary layer thickness including shape factor (9.81),
and wall stress are shown below.
Figure 9.10 Falkner Skan boundary layer parameters versus .
1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
F
o
o
0 =
0.5 =
0.1 =
0.07 =
0.0904 =
(zero shear stress)



M
L
2
T ! =
M v !
1 =
F
ooo
2 F
o
! "
2
2 ! " ) 0 =
M
M
G
2
G
GG
2
2 G
2
1 ! " ) + 0 =
F ; G F
o
= =
G ; H G
= =
The FalknerSkan boundary layers
5/8/13 9.34 bjc
Differentiate the new variables in (9.137) with respect to and divide.
. (9.138)
Equation (9.135) nally reduces to,
. (9.139)
9.7.2 FALKNERSKAN SINK FLOW
At this point we will restrict ourselves to the case of a sink ow (choose the minus
sign in (9.135) and the plus sign in (9.139)). The ow we are considering is
sketched below.
Figure 9.11 FalknerSkan sink ow for .
The negative sign in front of the in (9.133) insures that the velocity derived from
the stream function is directed in the negative direction. The rst order ODE,
(9.139) (with the minus sign selected) can be broken into the autonomous pair,
(9.140)
dH
d

H
H
G
dG
d
 H
G
dG
d
 + +
G
dG
d
 +

G

G
! "
2
G

2
G
2
 2 +
G
 = = =
dH
d

H
2
2 2
2
! " )
2
H
 =
x
y
1 =
F
x
dH
ds
 H
2
2 2
2
+ =
d
ds

2
H =




The FalknerSkan boundary layers
bjc 9.35 5/8/13
with critical points at . The phase portrait of (9.140) is shown
below.
Figure 9.12 Phase portrait of the Falkner Skan case .
Equation (9.139) is rearranged to read,
(9.141)
which, by the cross derivative test can be shown to be a perfect differential with
the integral,
. (9.142)
Recall that,
. (9.143)
At the edge of the boundary layer,
H % ! " 0 1 ) % ! " =
2 1 1 2
2
1
1
2
H
1 =
H
2
2 2
2
+ ! "d
2
H ! "dH + 0 =
C 2
2
3

3
1
2

2
H
2
+ =
G F
o
= =
H G
F
oo
F
o
 = =




The FalknerSkan boundary layers
5/8/13 9.36 bjc
. (9.144)
This allows us to evaluate in (9.142). The result is,
. (9.145)
Solve (9.142) for ,
(9.146)
where the positive root is recognized to be the physical solution. The solution
(9.146) is shown as the thicker weight trajectory in Figure 9.12. Equation (9.146)
can be written as,
(9.147)
In terms of the original variables
(9.148)
and
(9.149)
The latter result can be solved for the negative of the velocity, .
(9.150)
F
o
o 
lim 1 =
F
oo
o 
lim 0 =




H 1 ' ( = 0 =
C
C
4
3
 =
H
H
4
3

4

8
3
2
 +
\ )
[
1 2 !
; 0 1 $ $ ! " =
H
4
3
 1 ! "
2
2 + ! " ! "
1 2 !
=
F
oo
4
3
 F
o
1 ! "
2
F
o
2 + ! " ! "
1 2 !
=
o Tanh
1
F
o
2 +
3
 Tanh
1
2 3 ! ' ( =
F
o
F
o
3Tanh
2
o Tanh
1
2 3 ! + ' ( 2 =
Thwaites method for approximate calculation of boundary layer characteristics
bjc 9.37 5/8/13
This is shown plotted below.
Figure 9.13 FalknerSkan sink ow velocity prole .
The FalknerSkan sink ow represents one of the few known exact solutions of
the boundary layer equations. However the fact that an exact solution exists for
the case is no accident. Neither is the fact that this case corresponds to
an independent variable of the form where both coordinate directions
are in some sense equivalent. Remember the essence of the boundary layer
approximation was that the streamwise direction was in a sense convective
while the transverse direction was regarded as diffusive producing a ow that
is progressively more slender in the direction as increases. In the case of the
FalknerSkan sink ow the aspect ratio of the ow is constant.
9.8 THWAITES METHOD FOR APPROXIMATE CALCULATION OF
BOUNDARY LAYER CHARACTERISTICS
At the wall the momentum equation reduces to
(9.151)
Rewrite (9.82) as
1 2 3 4 5
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
F
o
o
1 =
1 =
o y x ! 
y x
o
2
U
oy
2

y 0 =
U
e
v

dU
e
dx
 =
Thwaites method for approximate calculation of boundary layer characteristics
5/8/13 9.38 bjc
(9.152)
Choose and as length and velocity scales to nondimensionalize the left
sides of (9.151) and (9.152).
(9.153)
In a landmark paper in 1948 Bryan Thwaites argued that the normalized deriva
tives on the left of (9.153) should depend only on the shape of the velocity prole
and not explicitly on the free stream velocity or thickness. Morover he argued that
there should be a universal function relating the two. He dened
. (9.154)
In terms of the Von Karman equation is
(9.155)
where (9.151) has been used. Thwaites proceeded to examine a variety of known
exact and approximate solutions of the boundary layer equations with a pressure
gradient. The main results are shown below.
oU
oy

y 0 =
2 H + ! "0
U
e
v

dU
e
dx

U
e
2
v

d0
dx
 + =
0 U
e
0
2
U
e

\ )
 j
[
o
2
U
oy
2

y 0 =
0
2
v

dU
e
dx
 =
0
U
e

\ )
[
oU
oy

y 0 =
2 H + ! "
0
2
v

dU
e
dx

U
e
2v

d0
2
dx
 + =
m
0
2
U
e

\ )
 j
[
o
2
U
oy
2

y 0 =
= l m ! "
0
U
e

\ )
[
oU
oy

y 0 =
=
m
U
e
v

d0
2
dx
 2 2 H + ! "m l m ! " + ! " L m ! " = =
Thwaites method for approximate calculation of boundary layer characteristics
bjc 9.39 5/8/13
Figure 9.14 Data collected by Thwaites on skin friction, , shape factor
and for a variety of boundary layer solutions.
l m ! "
H m ! " L m ! "
Thwaites method for approximate calculation of boundary layer characteristics
5/8/13 9.40 bjc
The correlation of the data was remarkably good, especially the near straight line
behavior of . Thwaites proposed the linear approximation
(9.156)
One of the classes of solutions included in Thwaites data is the FalknerSkan
boundary layers discussed earlier. For these solutions the Thwaites functions can
be calculated explicitly.
(9.157)
The various measures of the FalknerSkan solutions shown in Figure 9.10 can be
related to instead of using the rst equation in (9.157). The relation between
and is shown below.
Figure 9.15 The variable dened in (9.154) versus the free stream velocity
exponent for FalknerSkan boundary layers.
L m ! "
L m ! " 0.45 6m + =
m F
ooo
0 ! " F
o
1 F
o
! " o d
0
o
j
\ )
 j
[
2
2 F
o
1 F
o
! " o d
0
o
j
\ )
 j
[
2
= =
l m ! " F
oo
0 ! " F
o
1 F
o
! " o d
0
o
j
=
H m ! "
1 F
o
! " o d
0
o
j
F
o
1 F
o
! " o d
0
o
j
 =
m
m
m
 2Sin
x
R

\ )
[
=
Thwaites method for approximate calculation of boundary layer characteristics
5/8/13 9.44 bjc
Figure 9.19 Example for Thwaites method.
According to (9.160)
(9.164)
where
(9.165)
Near the forward stagnation point
(9.166)
Interestingly the method gives a nite momentum thickness at the stagnation
point. This is useful to know when we apply the method to an airfoil where the
radius of the leading adge at the forward stagnation point will dene the initial
thickness for the boundary layer calculation. Next the relationship between and
is determined using (9.161).
(9.167)
0
R

\ )
[
2
R
e
0.441
Sin
6
! "
 Sin
5
' ! " ' d
0
j
=
R
e
U
2R
v
 =
0
R

\ )
[
2
R
e
0 
lim
0.441
6

5
' d
0
j
0.441
6
 = =
m
m
0
2
v

dU
e
dx

1
2

0
R

\ )
[
2
R
e
d
d

U
e
U

\ )
 j
[
0.441Cos ! "
Sin
6
! "
 Sin
5
' ! " ' d
0
j
= = =
Thwaites method for approximate calculation of boundary layer characteristics
bjc 9.45 5/8/13
Once is known, is determined from the data in Figure 9.18.
Figure 9.20 Thwaites functions for the freestream distribution (9.163).
The friction coefcient determined using (9.162) is shown below.
Figure 9.21 Friction coefcient for the freestream distribution (9.163).
According to this method the boundary layer on the cylinder would separate at
. The boundary layer parameters, momentum thickness, displace
ment thickness and shape factor, are shown below.
m ! " l m ! " ! "
103.28* =
Compressible laminar boundary layers
5/8/13 9.46 bjc
Figure 9.22 Boundary layer thicknesses and shape factor for the freestream
distribution (9.163).
Notice the role of the Reynolds number. The momentum thickness and displace
ment thickness as well as the friction coefcient are all proportional to .
We saw this same behavior in the Blasius solution, (9.104) and (9.106).
9.9 COMPRESSIBLE LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYERS
The equations of motion for laminar ow are
. (9.168)
Using the same approach as in the Couette ow problem, let the temperature in
the boundary layer layer be expressed as a function of the local velocity,
. Substitute this functional form into the energy equation.
1 R
e
!
opU
ox

opV
oy
 + 0 =
pU
oU
ox
 pV
oU
oy
 +
dP
e
dx

o
oy
 #
oU
oy

\ )
[
+ =
pUC
p
oT
ox
 pVC
p
oT
oy
 + U
dP
e
dx

o
oy
 k
oT
oy

\ )
[
#
oU
oy

\ )
[
2
+ + =
T T U ! " =
Compressible laminar boundary layers
bjc 9.47 5/8/13
(9.169)
Use the momentum equation to replace the factor in parentheses on the left hand
side of (9.169).
(9.170)
which we can write as
. (9.171)
Introduce the Prandtl number (9.13) which can be assumed to be constant inde
pendent of position in the boundary layer. The energy equation becomes
. (9.172)
There are several important cases to consider.
9.9.1 ENERGY INTEGRAL FOR A COMPRESSIBLE BOUNDARY LAYER WITH AN ADIABATIC
WALL AND
In this case (9.172) reduces to
. (9.173)
The ow at the wall satises
. (9.174)
pU
oU
ox
 pV
oU
oy
 +
\ )
[
C
p
dT
dU
 U
dP
dx

o
oy
 k
dT
dU

oU
oy

\ )
[
#
oU
oy

\ )
[
2
+ + =
dP
dx

o
oy
 #
oU
oy

\ )
[
+
\ )
[
C
p
dT
dU
 U
oP
ox

dT
dU

o
oy
 k
oU
oy

\ )
[
k
d
2
T
dU
2

oU
oy

\ )
[
2
#
oU
oy

\ )
[
2
+ + + =
dP
dx
 C
p
dT
dU
 U +
\ )
[
C
p
dT
dU

o
oy
 #
k
C
p

\ )
[
oU
oy

\ )
[
k
d
2
T
dU
2
 # +
\ )
 j
[
oU
oy

\ )
[
2
+ + 0 =
dP
dx
 C
p
dT
dU
 U +
\ )
[
dT
dU

P
r
1
P
r

\ )
 j
[
o
oy
 #
oU
oy

\ )
[
k
d
2
T
dU
2
 # +
\ )
 j
[
oU
oy

\ )
[
2
+ + 0 =
P
r
1 =
dP
dx
 C
p
dT
dU
 U +
\ )
[
k
d
2
T
dU
2
 # +
\ )
 j
[
oU
oy

\ )
[
2
+ 0 =
U
y 0 =
0 =
dT
dy

y 0 =
dT
dU

oU
oy

\ )
[
y 0 =
0 = =
Compressible laminar boundary layers
5/8/13 9.48 bjc
The velocity gradient at the wall is nite as is the wall shear stress
so the second condition in (9.174) implies that
. The pressure gradient along the wall is not necessarily zero
so ow conditions at the edge of the boundary layer can vary with the streamwise
coordinate. The temperature must satisfy
(9.175)
and
. (9.176)
Both (9.175) and (9.176) are consistent with the denition of the Prandtl number
and the assumption and integrate to
(9.177)
where is the adiabatic wall temperature dened in (9.20). This temperature
can be expressed in terms of the temperature and velocity at the edge of the bound
ary layer.
(9.178)
Introduce the Mach number at the boundary layer edge . Now
. (9.179)
For a Prandtl number of one the stagnation temperature is constant through the
boundary layer at the value at the boundary layer edge.
oU oy ! ! "
y 0 =
0 =
dT dU ! ! "
y 0 =
0 =
d
2
T
dU
2

#
k
 =
dT
dU

U
C
p
 =
P
r
1 =
T
wa
T
1
2C
p
U
2
=
T
wa
T
wa
T
e
1
2C
p
U
e
2
+ =
M
e
U
e
a
e
! =
T
wa
T
e
 1
1
2

\ )
[
M
e
2
+
T
te
T
e
 = =
Compressible laminar boundary layers
bjc 9.49 5/8/13
9.9.2 NONADIABATIC WALL WITH , AND
Again, although for different reasons than in the previous section, the temperature
is governed by
. (9.180)
In this case, the temperature prole across the boundary layer is
. (9.181)
where is the temperature at the noslip wall. The heat transfer rate at the wall is
. (9.182)
Thus
. (9.183)
The temperature prole with heat transfer is
(9.184)
which is identical to the temperature prole (9.18) derived for the Couette ow
case for . Evaluate (9.184) at the edge of the boundary layer where the
velocity and temperature and are the same as the free stream values
and . The result is
. (9.185)
The Stanton number was dened in the previous section on Couette ow
dP dx ! 0 = P
r
1 =
d
2
T
dU
2

#
k
 =
C
p
T T
w
! "
1
2
U
2
+ C
p
dT
dU

\ )
[
y 0 =
U =
T
w
Q
w
k
oT
oy

\ )
[
y 0 =
k
dT
dU

oU
oy

\ )
[
y 0 =
k
#
 #
oU
oy

\ )
[
y 0 =
dT
dU

\ )
[
y 0 =
= = =
C
p
dT
dU

\ )
[
y 0 =
C
p
#
k

\ )
[
Q
w
w
 =
C
p
T T
w
! "
1
2
U
2
+
Q
w
w
U =
P
r
1 =
U
e
T
e
U
T
w
T
1
2C
p
U
2
Q
w
w
C
p
U
+ + =
Mapping a compressible to an incompressible boundary layer
5/8/13 9.50 bjc
. (9.186)
The adiabatic wall temperature is the free stream stagnation temperature. Using
(9.185) in (9.186) gives the friction coefcient in terms of the Stanton number.
(9.187)
which can be compared with the Couette ow result (9.29).
Using (9.184) and (9.185) the temperature prole can be expressed in terms of the
free stream and wall temperatures as follows.
(9.188)
9.10 MAPPING A COMPRESSIBLE TO AN INCOMPRESSIBLE
BOUNDARY LAYER
In the late 1940s L. Howarth (Proc. R. Soc. London A 194, 1642, 1948) and K.
Stewartson (Proc. R. Soc. London A 200, 84100, 1949) introduced a remarkable
transformation that can be used to map the compressible boundary layer equations
to the incompressible form including the effects of free stream velocity variation.
The basic idea is to dene a stream function for a virtual incompressible ow that
carries the same mass ow, integrated to the wall, as the real compressible ow.
Figure 9.23 illustrates the idea. To satisfy the mass balance requirement, the con
stant density of the virtual ow is taken to be the stagnation density of the real
ow at the edge of the boundary layer.
(9.189)
The ow at the edge of the boundary layer is assumed to be isentropic
(9.190)
S
t
Q
w
p
C
p
T
w
T
wa
! "
 =
C
f
2S
t
=
T T
w
 1
T
w
T

\ )
 j
[
U
U

U
2
2C
p
T

\ )
 j
[
U
U
 1
U
U

\ )
[
+ =
p
t
p
e
1
1
2

\ )
[
M
e
2
+
\ )
[
1 1 ! " !
=
P
t
P
e

T
t
T
e

\ )
 j
[
1 ! " !
a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
2 ! " 1 ! " !
= =
Mapping a compressible to an incompressible boundary layer
bjc 9.51 5/8/13
The pressure through the boundary layer is constant, and .
Figure 9.23 Mapping of a compressible ow to an incompressible ow.
Sutherlands law is referred to the stagnation temperature of the compressible
ow at the edge of the boundary layer.
(9.191)
The viscosity of the virtual ow, , is the viscosity of the gas evaluated at .
The key assumption needed to make the mapping work is that the viscosity of the
gas is linearly proportional to temperature.
(9.192)
where the constant is chosen to provide the best approximation of (9.191).
(9.193)
P P
e
= P
e
=
U(y)
x
y
w
o
U
e
(x), T
e
(x), P
e
(x)
p(y)
y
w
U
! "
U
e
x
! " % P
e
x
! "
#
t
p
t
Real compressible flow
Virtual incompressible flow
# T ~
pU y d
0
y
j
p
t
U
d
0
y
j
=
T
t
#
#
t

T
T
t

\ )
[
3 2 !
T
t
T
S
+
T T
S
+

\ )
 j
[
=
#
t
T
t
#
#
t
 o
T
T
t
 =
o
o
T
w
T
t

\ )
 j
[
1 2 !
T
t
T
S
+
T
w
T
S
+

\ )
 j
[
=
Mapping a compressible to an incompressible boundary layer
5/8/13 9.52 bjc
If then . The continuity and momentum equations governing the
compressible ow are
(9.194)
where it is understood that refers to the turbulent shearing stress.
The coordinates of the virtual ow are dened as
. (9.195)
Note that is a function of and since the density depends on both spatial
variables. The variables and are dummy variables of integration. From the
fundamental theorem of calculus the derivatives of the coodinates are
. (9.196)
Each of the derivatives is known explicitly except . However, as we will
see in the analysis to follow, terms that involve this derivative will cancel.
P
r
1 = o 1 =
opU
ox

opV
oy
 + 0 =
U
oU
ox
 V
oU
oy
 +
1
p

dP
e
dx

1
p

o
oy
 #
oU
oy

\ )
[
1
p

o
xy
oy
 + + =
xy
x
o
P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
\ )
 j
[
x' d
0
x
j
f x ! " = =
y
a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
p x y' % ! "
p
t

\ )
[
y' d
0
y
j
g x y % ! " = =
y
x y
x' y'
ox
ox
 f
x
o
P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
\ )
 j
[
= =
ox
oy
 f
y
0 = =
oy
ox
 g
x
=
oy
oy
 g
y
a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
p
p
t

\ )
[
= =
oy
ox !
Mapping a compressible to an incompressible boundary layer
bjc 9.53 5/8/13
The continuity equation is satised identically through the introduction of a com
pressible stream function. Let
(9.197)
The stream function of the virtual incompressible ow is a function of and
and has the same value as its counterpart in the real compressible ow
since there is the same mass ow between the streamline and the wall in the two
ows.
(9.198)
The mapping we are about to carry out is a bit complicated. In the discussion
below I have tried to retain as much detail as possible to help the reader get
through the derivation without requiring a lot of side work to see how one relation
follows from another. Maybe there is more detail than needed but I decided to err
on the side of more rather than less to try to give maximum help to the reader.
According to the chain the partial derivatives of in (9.197) are
(9.199)
The velocities can be expressed in terms of the new coodinates as.
(9.200)
The streamwise velocity in the virtual ow is . The mass ow
between the streamline and the wall in the two ows is depicted in Figure 9.23.
(9.201)
pU p
t
oq
oy
 = pV p
t
oq
ox
 =
x
x ! "
y
x y % ! "
q x y % ! " q
x ! " y
x y % ! " % ! " =
q
oq
ox

oq
ox

ox
ox

oq
oy

oy
ox
 +
oq
ox

dx
dx

oq
oy

oy
ox
 + = =
oq
oy

oq
ox

ox
oy

oq
oy

oy
oy
 +
oq
oy

oy
oy
 = =
U
p
t
p

oq
oy

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
oq
oy

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
U
= = =
V
p
t
p

oq
ox
 o
p
t
p

P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
oq
ox

p
t
p

oq
oy

oy
ox
 = =
U
oq
oy
! =
pU y d
0
y
j
p
t
U
d
0
y
j
=
Mapping a compressible to an incompressible boundary layer
5/8/13 9.54 bjc
Differentiate (9.201) at a xed and use (9.200). The result is
(9.202)
which is consistent with the partial derivative in (9.196). Equation (9.202)
conrms that the denition of dened in (9.195) insures that the streamline val
ues in the two ows are the same, that (9.198) holds.
Use the chain rule to determine the rst derivatives of that appear in (9.194).
(9.203)
Now we can form the convective terms in (9.194).
(9.204)
Note the terms involving cancel in (9.204). Thus
x
dy
dy

pU
p
t
U

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
p
p
t
 = =
oy
oy !
y
U
oU
ox

o
ox

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
oq
oy

\ )
 j
[
dx
dx

o
oy

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
oq
oy

\ )
 j
[
oy
ox
 + = =
o
P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
2
\ )
 j
[
1
a
e

\ )
[
oa
e
ox

oq
oy

o
2
q
ox
oy
 +
\ )
 j
[
a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
o
2
q
oy
2

oy
ox
 +
oU
oy

o
ox

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
oq
oy

\ )
 j
[
ox
oy

o
oy

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
oq
oy

\ )
 j
[
oy
oy
 +
a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
2
p
p
t

\ )
[
o
2
q
oy
2

\ )
 j
[
= =
U
oU
ox
 V
oU
oy
 + =
o
P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
3
\ )
 j
[
1
a
e

\ )
[
oa
e
ox

oq
oy

\ )
[
2
oq
oy

o
2
q
ox
oy
 +
\ )
 j
[
a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
2
oq
oy

o
2
q
oy
2

oy
ox

\ )
 j
[
+
o ! "
P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
2
o
2
q
oy
2

\ )
 j
[
oq
ox

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
2
o
2
q
oy
2

\ )
 j
[
oq
oy

oy
ox
 +
\ )
 j
[
oy
ox !
Mapping a compressible to an incompressible boundary layer
bjc 9.55 5/8/13
(9.205)
Now consider the pressure gradient term. Assume the ow at the edge of the
boundary layer is isentropic.
(9.206)
The pressure gradient term can be expressed in terms of the speed of sound at the
boundary layer edge.
(9.207)
Now
. (9.208)
Note that, from (9.200)
U
oU
ox
 V
oU
oy
 + =
o
P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
3
\ )
 j
[
1
a
e

\ )
[
oa
e
ox

oq
oy

\ )
[
2
oq
oy

o
2
q
ox
oy

o
2
q
oy
2

\ )
 j
[
oq
ox
 +
\ )
 j
[
P
e
P
t

\ )
 j
[
a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
2
1 ! "

=
dP
e
dx

2 P
t
1 ! "

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
1 +
1

1
a
t

da
e
dx

dx
dx
 o
P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
\ )
 j
[
2 P
t
1 ! "

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
1 +
1

1
a
t

da
e
dx
 = =
dP
e
dx
 o
P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
2
\ )
 j
[
2 P
t
1 ! "

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
1 +
1

1
a
e

da
e
dx

\ )
 j
 j
 j
[
=
U
oU
ox
 V
oU
oy

1
p

dP
e
dx
 + + =
o
P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
3
\ )
 j
[
oq
oy

o
2
q
ox
oy

o
2
q
oy
2

\ )
 j
[
oq
ox

\ )
 j
[
+
o
P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
3
\ )
 j
[
oq
oy

\ )
[
2
1
p

2 P
t
1 ! "

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
2
1

+
\ )
 j
 j
 j
[
1
a
e

\ )
[
da
e
dx

\ )
 j
[
Mapping a compressible to an incompressible boundary layer
5/8/13 9.56 bjc
. (9.209)
So far
. (9.210)
The ow at the edge of the boundary layer is adiabatic.
(9.211)
and
(9.212)
Now
. (9.213)
oq
oy

\ )
[
2
U
2
a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
2
=
U
oU
ox
 V
oU
oy

1
p

dP
e
dx
 + + =
o
P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
3
\ )
 j
[
oq
oy

o
2
q
ox
oy

o
2
q
oy
2

\ )
 j
[
oq
ox

\ )
 j
[
+
o
P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
3
\ )
 j
[
U
2
a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
2
1
p

2 P
t
1 ! "

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
2
1

+
\ )
 j
 j
 j
[
1
a
e

\ )
[
da
e
dx

\ )
 j
[
a
t
2
a
e
2 1
2

\ )
[
U
e
2
+ =
1
a
e

da
e
dx

1
2a
e
2

\ )
 j
[
U
e
dU
e
dx
 =
U
oU
ox
 V
oU
oy

1
p

dP
e
dx
 + + =
o
P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
3
\ )
 j
[
oq
oy

o
2
q
ox
oy

o
2
q
oy
2

\ )
 j
[
oq
ox

\ )
 j
[
o
P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
3
\ )
 j
[
U
2 1 ! "
2a
e
2

a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
2
1
p

P
t
a
e
2

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
2
1

+
\ )
 j
 j
 j
[
U
e
dU
e
dx

\ )
[
Mapping a compressible to an incompressible boundary layer
bjc 9.57 5/8/13
Note that
(9.214)
where we have used the isentropic relation and
. Now work out the viscous term using
.
(9.215)
Recall and . The viscous stress term in
the boundary layer equation is
. (9.216)
The turbulent stress term transforms as
. (9.217)
U
2 1 ! "
2a
e
2

a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
2
1
p

P
t
a
e
2

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
2
1

+ =
U
2 1 ! "
2a
e
2

a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
2
p
e
p

P
e
p
e

1
a
e
2

a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
2
1

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
2
1

+ =
a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
4 a
2 1 ! "
2
U
2
+
a
t
2

\ )
 j
 j
[
P
t
P
e
! a
t
a
e
! ! "
2 1 ! " !
=
P
e
p ! P ! " p ! a
2
= =
pT P R ! P
e
R ! = =
xy
l ami nar
#
oU
oy
 o#
t
T
T
t

\ )
[
o
oy

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
oq
oy

\ )
 j
[
o#
t
T
T
t

\ )
[
a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
o
oy

oq
oy

\ )
[
= = = =
o#
t
a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
2
T
T
t

\ )
[
p
p
t

\ )
[
o
oy

oq
oy

\ )
[
o
a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
2
pT
p
t
T
t

\ )
[
#
t
oU
oy

\ )
[
o
a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
2
P
e
P
t

\ )
 j
[
l ami nar
= =
U
oq
oy
! =
laminar
#
t
oU
oy
! =
1
p

o
oy
 #
oU
oy

\ )
[
o
#
t
p
t

P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
3
o
3
q
oy
3

\ )
 j
[
=
xy
turbulent
1
o

a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
2
P
t
P
e

\ )
 j
[
xy
turbulent
=
Mapping a compressible to an incompressible boundary layer
5/8/13 9.58 bjc
which can be expressed as
. (9.218)
Now the boundary layer momentum equation (9.194)becomes
. (9.219)
Drop the common factor multiplying each term on the right of (9.219). The trans
formed equation is nearly in incompressible form.
(9.220)
The real and virtual free stream velocities are related by
. (9.221)
which comes from the expression for in (9.200). Differentiate (9.221)
1
p

o
oy

xy
turbulent
\ )
[
o
1
p
t

P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
3
o
oy

xy
turbulent
\ )
[
=
U
oU
ox
 V
oU
oy

1
p

dP
e
dx

1
p

o
oy
 #
oU
oy

\ )
[
1
p

o
xy
oy
 + + =
o
P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
3
\ )
 j
[
oq
oy

o
2
q
ox
oy

o
2
q
oy
2

\ )
 j
[
oq
ox

\ )
 j
[
o
P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
3
\ )
 j
[
a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
4 a
2 1 ! "
2
U
2
+
a
t
2

\ )
 j
 j
[
\ )
 j
 j
[
U
e
dU
e
dx

\ )
[
o
#
t
p
t

P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
3
o
3
q
oy
3

\ )
 j
[
o
1
p
t

P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
3
o
oy

xy
turbulent
\ )
[
0 =
oq
oy

o
2
q
ox
oy

o
2
q
oy
2

\ )
 j
[
oq
ox

\ )
 j
[
a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
4 a
2 1 ! "
2
U
2
+
a
t
2

\ )
 j
 j
[
U
e
dU
e
dx

#
t
p
t

o
3
q
oy
3

\ )
 j
[
1
p
t

o
oy

xy
turbulent
! " 0 =
U
e
a
t
a
e
U
e
=
U
Mapping a compressible to an incompressible boundary layer
bjc 9.59 5/8/13
(9.222)
and substitute (9.222) into (9.220).
. (9.223)
The velocities in the virtual ow are
. (9.224)
The transformed boundary layer momentum equation nally becomes
. (9.225)
For an adiabatic wall and the factor in brackets is equal to one. In this
case the momentum equation maps exactly to the incompressible form.
(9.226)
with boundary conditions
U
e
dU
e
dx

a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
2
1
a
e
2

\ )
 j
[
a
e
2 1
2

\ )
[
U
e
2
+
\ )
[
U
e
dU
e
dx
 = =
a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
4
U
e
dU
e
dx

oq
oy

o
2
q
ox
oy

o
2
q
oy
2

\ )
 j
[
oq
ox

\ )
 j
[
a
2 1 ! "
2
U
2
+
a
t
2

\ )
 j
 j
[
U
e
dU
e
dx

#
t
p
t

o
3
q
oy
3

\ )
 j
[
1
p
t

o
oy

xy
turbulent
\ )
[
0 =
U
oq
oy
 = V
oq
ox
 =
U
oU
ox

oU
oy

\ )
[
V
+
\ )
[
a
2 1 ! "
2
U
2
+
a
e
2 1 ! "
2
U
e
2
+

\ )
 j
 j
 j
[
U
e
dU
e
dx

v
t
o
2
U
oy
2

\ )
 j
[
1
p
t

o
oy

xy
turbulent
\ )
[
P
r
1 =
U
oU
ox

oU
oy

\ )
[
V
+
\ )
[
U
e
dU
e
dx
 v
t
o
2
U
oy
2

\ )
 j
[
1
p
t

o
oy

xy
turbulent
\ )
[
0 =
Mapping a compressible to an incompressible boundary layer
5/8/13 9.60 bjc
(9.227)
The implication of (9.226) and (9.227) is that the effects of compressibility on the
boundary layer can be almost completely accounted for by the scaling of coordi
nates presented in (9.195) which is driven in the direction by the decrease in
density near the wall due to heating and in the direction by the isentropic
changes in free stream temperature and boundary layer pressure due to ow accel
eration or deceleration imposed by the surrounding potential ow.
Lets use this transformation to relate the skin friction in the compressible case to
the incompressible skin friction. The denition of the friction coefcient is
(9.228)
Recall that for the constant . In terms of the Mach number, the
ratio of friction coefcients in the real compressible ow and the virtual incom
pressible ow is
. (9.229)
The physical velocity proles in the compressible ow cannot be determined
without solving for the temperature in the boundary layer. Here we will restrict
our attention to the laminar, zero pressure gradient, Blasius case, ,
. The temperature equation was integrated earlier to give
. (9.230)
Equation (9.230) can be expressed as
U
0 ! " 0 = V
0 ! " 0 = U
! " U
e
=
y
x
C
w
1 2 ! ! "p
t
U
e
2

1
o

a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
2
P
t
P
e

\ )
 j
[
w
1 2 ! ! "
p
t
p
e

\ )
 j
[
p
e
a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
2
U
e
2

1
o

p
e
P
t
p
t
P
e

w
1 2 ! ! "p
e
U
e
2

\ )
 j
[
1
o

T
t
T
e
C
f
= = = =
P
r
1 = o 1 =
C
f
C
f

1
1
1
2

\ )
[
M
e
2
+
 =
dU
e
dx ! 0 =
xy
turbulent
0 =
T T
t
1
2C
p
U
2
=
Mapping a compressible to an incompressible boundary layer
bjc 9.61 5/8/13
. (9.231)
Using the rst relation in (9.18) , and the equality ,
equation (9.231) becomes
. (9.232)
Our goal is to relate the wall normal coordinate in compressible and incompress
ible ows. From (9.196)
(9.233)
The spatial similarity variable in the virtual ow is
(9.234)
Now (9.233) becomes
(9.235)
and
(9.236)
Rearrange the coefcient on the right hand side of (9.236) using (9.195) and
(9.200).
T
T
e
 1
1
2

\ )
[
M
e
2
1
U
U
e

\ )
[
2
\ )
[
+ =
U U
e
! U
e
! = pT p
e
T
e
=
T
T
e
 1
1
2

\ )
[
M
e
2
1
U
e

\ )
 j
[
2
\ )
 j
[
+
p
e
p
 = =
dy
a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
p
t
p
e

\ )
 j
[
p
e
p

\ )
[
dy
a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
p
t
p
e

\ )
 j
[
1
1
2

\ )
[
M
e
2
1
U
e

\ )
 j
[
2
\ )
 j
[
+
\ )
 j
[
dy
= =
o
e
2v
t
x

\ )
 j
[
1 2 !
=
dy
a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
p
t
p
e

\ )
 j
[
2v
t
x
e

\ )
 j
[
1 2 !
1
1
2

\ )
[
M
e
2
1
U
e

\ )
 j
[
2
\ )
 j
[
+
\ )
 j
[
d y
e
2v
t
x

\ )
 j
[
1 2 !
\ )
 j
[
=
d y
U
e
2v
e
x

\ )
 j
[
1 2 !
\ )
 j
[
=
a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
p
t
p
e

\ )
 j
[
2v
t
x
e

\ )
 j
[
1 2 !
U
e
2v
e
x

\ )
 j
[
1 2 !
1
1
2

\ )
[
M
e
2
1
U
e

\ )
 j
[
2
\ )
 j
[
+
\ )
 j
[
d y
e
2v
t
x

\ )
 j
[
1 2 !
\ )
 j
[
Mapping a compressible to an incompressible boundary layer
5/8/13 9.62 bjc
(9.237)
Finally.
(9.238)
Integrate (9.238). The similarity variables in the real and virtual ows are related
by
(9.239)
The velocity ratio, is a known function from the Blasius solution.
The outer edge of the incompressible boundary layer is at
. The integral of the velocity term in (9.239) is
. (9.240)
This allows us to determine how the thickness of the compressible layer depends
on Mach number. The outer edge of the compressible boundary layer is at
. (9.241)
The thickness of the compressible layer grows rapidly with Mach number. Know
ing enables the temperature and density of the compressible layer to be
determined.
a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
p
t
p
e

\ )
 j
[
2v
t
x
e

U
e
2v
e
x

\ )
 j
[
1 2 !
a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
p
t
p
e

\ )
 j
[
#
t
#
e

p
e
p
t

U
e
U
e

x
x

\ )
 j
[
1 2 !
= =
a
t
a
e

\ )
 j
[
p
t
p
e

\ )
 j
[
T
t
T
e

p
e
p
t

a
e
a
t

P
e
P
t

a
e
a
t

\ )
 j
[
1 2 !
p
t
p
e

\ )
 j
[
T
t
T
e

p
e
p
t

p
e
T
e
p
t
T
t

\ )
 j
[
1 2 !
1 = =
do 1
1
2

\ )
[
M
e
2
1
U
e

\ )
 j
[
2
\ )
 j
[
+
\ )
 j
[
do
=
o o
! " o
1
2

\ )
[
M
e
2
1
U
e

\ )
 j
[
2
\ )
 j
[
do'
0
o
j
+ =
U
e
! F
o
! "
o
e
4.906 2 ! 3.469 = =
1
U
e

\ )
 j
[
2
\ )
 j
[
o
d
0
o
e
j
1.67912 =
o
e
o
e
1
2

\ )
[
M
e
2
1
U
e

\ )
 j
[
2
\ )
 j
[
o
d
0
o
e
j
+ = =
o
e
3.469 1.67912
1
2

\ )
[
M
e
2
+ =
o o
! "
Turbulent boundary layers
bjc 9.63 5/8/13
(9.242)
Numerically determined solutions for the velocity prole at several Mach num
bers are shown below.
Figure 9.24 Compressible boundary layer proles on an adiabatic plate for
, viscosity exponent , and .
The compressible layer is considerably thicker than the incompressible layer due
to the high temperature and low density near the wall caused by the deceleration
of the ow.
9.11 TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS
As the Reynolds number increases along the plate a point is reached where the
laminar boundary layer begins to be unstable to small disturbances. A complex
series of events occurs by which the ow becomes turbulent characterized by very
rapid mixing of momentum in the transverse direction. As a result the velocity
prole becomes much fuller and the velocity gradient near the wall becomes much
steeper compared to the velocity gradient that would have occurred if the layer
had remained laminar. The friction at the wall is also correspondingly much larger
and the growth rate of the boundary layer is much faster as suggested schemati
cally in Figure 9.25 below.
T o o
! " ! "
T
e

p
e
p o o
! " ! "
 1
1
2

\ )
[
M
e
2
1
U
! "
U
e

\ )
 j
[
2
\ )
 j
[
+ = =
P
r
1 = c 1 = 1.4 =
Turbulent boundary layers
5/8/13 9.64 bjc
Figure 9.25 Sketch of boundary layer growth in the laminar and turbulent
regions.
There is no ab initio theory for the Reynolds shearing stress in a turbulent bound
ary layer and so there is no fundamental theory for the velocity prole, boundary
layer thickness or skin friction. A reasonable and commonly used impirical for
mula for the thickness of an incompressible turbulent boundary layer is
. (9.243)
There is no theoretical reason to assume that the thickness of a turbulent boundary
layer grows according to a power law as there is in the laminar case. A relation
that applies over a wider range of Reynolds number than (9.243) is Hansens
formula
(9.244)
U(y)
x
y
U
U(y)
o
laminar
o
turbulent
transition
o
x

0.37
R
ex
1 5 !
 =
o
x

0.14
ln R
ex
! "
G Ln R
ex
! " ! " =
Turbulent boundary layers
bjc 9.65 5/8/13
Where is a very slowly changing function of the Reynolds number with an
asymptotic value of one at . In the Reynolds number range
, .
Figure 9.26 Friction coefcient for incompressible ow on a at plate.
The critical Reynolds number for transition is generally taken to be
although in reality transition is affected by a wide variety of ow phenomena
including such things as plate roughness, free stream turbulence, compressibility
and the presence of acoustic noise in the free stream. Figure 9.26 is intended to
illustrate this idea with the theoretical laminar and impirical turbulent skin friction
lines connected by a several curves reecting the disturbance environment of a
particular ow. In the transition zone the physical wall shear stress can actually
increase in the direction due to the rapid lling out of the velocity prole as the
turbulence develops.
9.11.1 THE INCOMPRESSIBLE TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER VELOCITY PROFILE
A commonly used impirical form of the velocity prole for a turbulent boundary
layer is the socalled power law.
G
Ln R
ex
! "  ! "
10
5
R
e
10
6
$ $ G 1.5 =
5 10
5
+
x
1 7th !
Turbulent boundary layers
5/8/13 9.66 bjc
(9.245)
This prole can be useful in a limited range of Reynolds numbers but it fails to
capture one of the most important features of the turbulent boundary layer which
is that the actual shape of the velocity prole depends on the Reynolds number.
In contrast, the Blasius prole shape is completely independent of Reynolds num
ber. Only the thickness changes with Reynolds number.
While there is no good theory for the velocity prole in a turbulent boundary, there
is a very good correlation that accurately reects certain fundamental ow prop
erties and can be used to analyze and compare ows at different Reynolds
numbers.
The rst thing to know is that the ow near the wall, when properly normalized,
has a universal shape that is independent of the parameters that govern the outer
ow. The idea is to normalize the velocity near the wall by the socalled friction
velocity
(9.246)
This leads to the denition of dimensionless wall variables.
(9.247)
The thickness of the boundary layer in wall units is
(9.248)
If we use the impirical formulas for thickness and skin friction described above
then
(9.249)
and
U
U
e

y
o

\ )
[
1 7 !
=
u*=
w
p

w
#
oU
oy

y 0 =
=
y
+ yu*
v
 = U
+ U
u*
 =
o
+ ou*
v
 =
u*
U
e

w
pU
e
2

\ )
 j
[
1 2 !
C
f
2

\ )
[
1 2 !
0.0592
2R
ex
1 5 !

\ )
 j
[
1 2 !
0.172
R
ex
1 10 !
 = = = =
Turbulent boundary layers
bjc 9.67 5/8/13
(9.250)
In other words, once is known most of the important properties of the bound
ary layer are known. A typical velocity prole is shown below. I have chosen a
relatively low Reynolds number so that the ow near the wall can be seen at a
reasonable scale.
Figure 9.27 Turbulent boundary layer velocity prole in linear and loglin
ear coordinates. The Reynolds number is
The boundary layer is generally thought of as comprising several layers and these
are indicated in Figure 9.27. Usually they are delineated in terms of wall variables.
Viscous sublayer  Wall to A, . In this region closest to the wall the vel
city prole is linear.
(9.251)
Buffer layer  A to B, . Several alternative formulations are used to
approximate the velocity in this region. An implicit relation that works reasonably
well all the way to the wall is
(9.252)
o
+ o
x

u*
U
e

U
e
x
v

0.37
R
ex
1 5 !

\ )
 j
[
0.172
R
ex
1 10 !

\ )
 j
[
R
ex
0.0636R
ex
7 10 !
= = =
R
ex
R
ex
10
6
=
0 y
+
7 $ s
U
+
y
+
=
7 y
+
30 $ s
y
+
U
+
e
kC
e
kU
+
1 kU
+
1
2
 kU
+
! "
2
1
6
 kU
+
! "
3
1
24
 kU
+
! "
4
\ )
[
+ =
Turbulent boundary layers
5/8/13 9.68 bjc
Logarithmic and outer layer  B to C to D . An impirical formula
that works well and includes the effect of pressure gradient is
(9.253)
The slope of the prole in the logarithmic region is inversely proportional to the
Karman constant which is generally taken to be and is viewed as a
universal constant of turbulent ows. However modelers of meteorological ows
such as the atmospheric boundary layer have deduced values of as low as
while recent experiments in very high Reynolds number pipe ow at Princeton
have suggested values as high as .
The constant depends on the wall roughness. If is a measure of the height
of roughness elements at the wall one can dene as a roughness
Reynolds number. The wall is considered hydraulically smooth if and
hydraulically rough if . For a hydraulically smooth wall in
(9.253) and increases with increasing . The function is determined by
the pressure gradient and layer Reynolds number. For , .
The logarithmic term in (9.253) is remakably robust in the presence of pressure
gradients and roughness. The constant hardly changes at all with roughness.
The term in (9.253) is called the wake function because of the vaguely wake
like shape of the outer velocity prole. Something to notice is that the velocity
prole (9.253) is not valid beyond and the velocity prole has a small
but nite slope at because of the logarithmic term.
Figure 9.28 compares turbulent boundary layer proles at various Reynolds num
bers. The effect of Reynolds number on the ow expressed in wall variables is felt
through the value of in the wake function term in (9.253). In Figure 9.28 there
is a slight mismatch between (9.252) and (9.253) at the outer edge of the buffer
30 y
+
o
+
$ s
U
+ 1
k
 y
+
! " C 2
H x ! "
k
Sin
2
2

y
+
o
+

\ )
 j
[
+ + ln =
k k 0.4 =
k 0.35
0.436
C k
s
R
es
u
*
k
s
v ! =
R
es
3 $
R
es
100 & C 5.1 =
R
es
H x ! "
dP
e
dx ! 0 = H 0.62 =
k
Sin
2
y
+
o
+
=
y
+
o
+
=
o
+
Turbulent boundary layers
bjc 9.69 5/8/13
layer at a Reynolds number of . This is because a turbulent boundary layer
can hardly exist at such a low Reynolds number and the functions (9.252) and
(9.253) which have been developed from boundary layer data were not designed
to t this case.
Figure 9.28 Incompressible turbulent boundary layer velocity proles at sev
eral Reynolds numbers compared to the Blasius solution for a laminar
boundary layer.
The most remarkable feature of the turbulent boundary layer is the logarithmic
region B to C governed by the socalled universal law of the wall. In this region
the wake function is negligible and the velocity prole has the same shape regard
less of the Reynolds number. The shape remains the same even in the presence of
a pressure gradient which is remarkable in view of the sensitivity of the shape of
the laminar velocity prole to pressure gradient. If the plate is rough the main
effect is to increase the value of the constant while preserving the logarithmic
shape and the slope .
According to (9.250) increases fairly rapidly with Reynolds number and this
leads to an increasingly full velocity prole. At high Reynolds numbers the vis
cous sublayer becomes extremely thin. At high Reynolds number it is very
difcult to make direct measurements of the linear part of the velocity prole to
10
5
C
1 k !
o
+
Transformation between flat plate and curved wall boundary layers
5/8/13 9.70 bjc
determine skin friction. Fortunately the skin friction can be determined using
measurements in the much more accessible logarithmic region by utilizing the law
of the wall.
(9.254)
Measurements of versus in region BC can be used to determine and
hence . The friction coefcient in the compressible case can be estimated using
(9.229).
9.12 TRANSFORMATION BETWEEN FLAT PLATE AND CURVED
WALL BOUNDARY LAYERS
One of the consequences of the boundary layer approximation is that the solution
for the ow on a at plate with a variable free stream velocity can be transformed
directly to the solution on a curved wall with the same free stream velocity func
tion. Once again the boundary layer equations are
(9.255)
where includes both laminar and turbulent components of shearing stress and
includes laminar and turbulent componenst of heat ux. The transformation
of variables between the at plate and curved wall is.
U
U
*

1
k

yU
*
v

\ )
[
C + ln =
U y U
*
C
f
opU
ox

opV
oy
 + 0 =
pU
oU
ox
 pV
oU
oy

dP
e
dx

o
xy
oy
 + + 0 =
pUC
p
oT
ox
 pVC
p
oT
oy
 U
dP
e
dx

oQ
y
oy
 +
xy
oU
oy
 + 0 =
xy
Q
y
Transformation between flat plate and curved wall boundary layers
bjc 9.71 5/8/13
(9.256)
The transformation (9.256) generates the transformation of derivatives using the
chain rule.
(9.257)
The transformation (9.257) and its extension to derivatives (9.257) maps (9.255)
to itself.
(9.258)
x
x =
y
y g x ! " + =
U
% ! " U x y % ! " =
V
% ! " p x y % ! " =
xy
x
% ! "
xy
x y % ! " =
Q
y
% ! " Q
y
x y % ! " =
P
e
x
! " P
e
x ! " =
oU
ox

oU
ox

dg
dx

oU
oy
 =
oU
oy

oU
oy
 =
o
2
U
oy
2

o
2
U
oy
2
 =
oV
oy

oV
oy

dg
dx

oU
oy
 + =
op
ox

op
ox

dg
dx

op
oy
 =
op
oy

op
oy
 =
oT
ox

oT
ox

dg
dx

oT
oy
 =
oT
oy

oT
oy
 =
oQ
y
oy

oQ
y
oy
 =
o
xy
x
% ! "
oy

o
xy
x y % ! "
oy
 =
op
ox

op
oy
 +
opU
ox

opV
oy
 + 0 = =
p
oU
ox
 p
oU
oy

dP
e
dx

o
xy
oy
 + + pU
oU
ox
 pV
oU
oy

dP
e
dx

o
xy
oy
 + + = 0 =
p
C
p
oT
ox
 p
C
p
oT
oy
 U
dP
e
dx

oQ
y
oy
 +
xy
oU
oy
 + =
pUC
p
oT
ox
 pVC
p
oT
oy
 U
dP
e
dx

oQ
y
oy
 +
xy
oU
oy
 + 0 =
Transformation between flat plate and curved wall boundary layers
5/8/13 9.72 bjc
In principle the function added to the coordinate is arbitrary, but in prac
tice is restricted to be smooth and slowly varying so as not to violate the
boundary layer approximation.
It is the absence of the derivative from (9.255) that enables the transfor
mation (9.256) and (9.257) to reproduce the same equations in the new
coordinates. The gure below illustrates the idea.
Figure 9.29 Mapping of the boundary layer developing over an airfoil to the
boundary layer on a at plate with a pressure gradient.
The function denes the surface of the airfoil in the Cartesian coordinates
. The ow at a given distance from the leading edge and a distance
above the surface of the airfoil is mapped to the same position in the
boundary layer on a at plate with the same free stream ow velocity
g x ! " y
g x ! "
oV ox !
g x
! "
x
% ! " x
g x
! "
Problems
bjc 9.73 5/8/13
. The main restriction on is that it vary slowly enough so
that the boundary layer does not approach separation and so that the approxima
tion remains valid.
The exponential decay of the vorticity at the edge of the boundary layer described
earlier, together with this simple invariance of the boundary layer equations
enables boundary layer theory to be applied to a wide variety of slender body
shapes creating one of the most powerful tools in uid mechanics.
An iterative algorithm can be used to determine the viscous ow over a complex
shape such as the airfoil shown in Figure 9.29. The procedure is
1) Solve for the potential ow over the airfoil.
2) Use the potential ow velocity at the airfoil surface as the for a bound
ary layer calculation beginning at the leading edge.
3) Determine the displacement thickness of the boundary layer and use the data
to dene a new airfoil shape. Repeat the potential ow calculation using the new
airfoil shape to determine a new .
4) Using the new repeat the boundary layer calculation.
A few iterations of this viscousinviscid interaction procedure will converge to an
accurate solution for the viscous, compressible ow over the airfoil.
9.13 PROBLEMS
Problem 1  The gure below depicts Couette ow of an ideal gas between
two innite parallel. The lower wall is adiabatic.
Determine the entropy difference between the lower and upper walls.
U
e
x
! " U
e
x ! " = g x
! "
x
x
U
e
x ! "
U
e
x ! "
U
e
x ! "
T
y
Problems
5/8/13 9.74 bjc
Problem 2  The gure below depicts Couette ow of helium gas between two
innite parallel walls spaced 1 cm apart. The lower wall is adiabatic and the
speed of the upper wall is 400 meters/sec. The temperature of the upper wall
is 300K.
Assume the viscosity depends linearly on temperature.
. (9.259)
Set up and solve the compressible ow equations for this simple ow. Note
that the ow is assumed to be steady and all ow variables depend only on the
coordinate normal to the wall.
1) Determine the speed of sound at the upper wall.
2) Determine the temperature of the lower wall.
3) Determine the shear stress.
4) Is there work done on the ow? How much?
5) Determine the heat ux through the upper wall.
6) Sketch the distribution of stagnation temperature across the channel.
7) Sketch the distribution of entropy across the channel.
U
T
# #
! T T
! =
Problems
bjc 9.75 5/8/13
Problem 3  The gure below depicts Couette ow of a gas between two in
nite parallel walls spaced a distance apart. The lower wall is adiabatic. The
reference Mach number is . The viscosity is assumed to
depend linearly on temperature and the reference Reynolds
number is .
Sketch how the friction coefcient depends on . At what Mach number
is the friction coefcient an extremum? Is it a maximum or a minimum?
Express your answer in terms of and the Prandtl number. What are the val
ues for helium and air?
Problem 4  The gure below shows the unsteady ow produced by a at plate
set into motion impulsively at velocity .
The plate extends to innity in both directions and the ow is perfectly parallel.
Simplify the compressible ow equations. Solve for the velocity and vorticity in
the incompressible case.
Problem 5  In the discussion of boundary layers we dened several deni
tions of the thickness. How would you dene a thickness based on the vorticity
distribution? What might be the advantage of such a denition?
d
M
RT
! =
# #
! T T
! =
R
e
p
d #
! =
T
C
f
U
x
y
Problems
5/8/13 9.76 bjc
Problem 6  Use the HowarthStewartson transformation to generate the
velocity and temperature proles in a laminar, compressible, zero pressure
gradient boundary layer at a free stream Mach number . M
8 =