Sei sulla pagina 1di 39

omparative Forms of Adjectives

by Maeve Maddox
Adjectives have inflections. That is, adjectives change in spelling according to how they
are used in a sentence.
Adjectives have three forms:positive, comparative, andsuperlative.
The simplest form of the adjective is its positive form. When two objects or persons
are being compared, thecomparative form of the adjective is used. When three or
more things are being compared, we use the adjectives superlative form.
A few adjectives, like good and bad form their comparatives with different words:
That is a good book. This is a better book. Which of the three is the bestbook?
He made a bad choice. She made a worse choice. They made the worst choice of all.
The comparative forms of most adjectives, however, are formed by adding the suffixes
-er and -est, or by placing the words more and most in front of the positive form.
RULES FOR FORMING COMPARATIVES:
1. One syllable words form the comparative by adding -er and -est:
brave, braver, bravest
small, smaller, smallest
dark, darker, darkest.
2. Two-syllable words that end in -y, -le, and -er form the comparative by
adding -er and -est:
pretty, prettier, prettiest
happy, happier, happiest
noble, nobler, noblest
clever, cleverer, cleverest
3. Words of more than two syllables form the comparative
with more andmost:
beautiful, more beautiful, most beautiful.
resonant, more resonant, most resonant
4. Past participles used as adjectives form the comparative
with moreand most:
crooked, broken, damaged, defeated, etc.
5. Predicate adjectives (adjectives used to describe the subject of a sentence)
form the comparative with more and most:
afraid, mute, certain, alone, silent, etc.
Ex. She is afraid. He is more afraid. They are the most afraid of them all.
So far, so good, but when it comes to two-syllable words other than the ones covered
by Rule 2, the writer must consider custom and ease of pronunciation.
Usually, two syllable words that have the accent on the first syllable form the
comparative by adding -er and -est.
Ex. common, cruel, pleasant, quiet.
BUT tasteless, more tasteless, most tasteless.
Some two-syllable words that have the accent on the second syllable form the
comparative by adding -er and -est: polite, profound,
BUT: bizarre, more bizarre, most bizarre.
The rules given above should prevent abominations like more pretty or beautifuler.
When in doubt, look up the preferred inflected forms in the dictionary.


The Superlative Form en ingls
Definition:
The superlative is the form of an adjective or adverb that shows which thing has that quality above or below the
level of the others. It denotes the greatest degree regarding the quality of the adjective used.
(usingenglish.com)
To use the superlative form please review adjectives CLICK HERE.

Example:
Brian is the tallest student in the class -> RECUERDEN DE UTILIZAR THE ANTES DE LA
FORMA SUPERLATIVA
Paris is the most beautiful city in the world.
*Entonces, usamos The superlative form para comparar establecer la cualidad mxima del adjetivo en uno
con relacin al contexto. Es decir, es la forma del adjetivo o adverbio que espresa su mayor qualidad.
SINECESITAS ADJETIVOS(HACER CLICK).
Por ejemplo:
Mount Everest is the highest mountain quiere decir que el Monte Everest es la montaa mas alta. No hay
mas alta que el Everest y expresa su supremacia con respecto a las demas montaas en cuanto al adjetivo
high que es alto.
Reglas para formar la forma Superlativa en INGLES
Superlative Form en ingls
In this following table we can learn the rules TABLE #1
Adjective Rule Example
With one syllable
1. Ending in e
Large
2.Consonant Vowel
Consonant
Hot
3. All others
long
hard
|
the + (adjective + st)
|
the +(Double the
consonant and add -est)
|
the + (Adjective + est)
|
a) Jupiter is the largest planet
|
|
b) The hottest place on earth is
Ethiopia.
|
c) The Great Wall of China is
thelongest wall in the world.
d) Math is the hardest subject in
school.
Adjectives with two or more
syllables
1. Ending in y
Easy
2.All others
important
|
|
the +(Change the y to
i and add est)
the+[Use most (or least)
before the adjective]
|
|
e) The easiest subject for me is
geography.
|
f) The most important thing in life is
love
IRREGULAR FORMS
(TABLE 2)
good - (the) best
bad (the) worst
far -(the)furthest /farthest
Remember to use THE before the superlative form. Recuerden de usar the antes de la forma superlativa.

Comparative Adjectives
Overview
In general, there are three ways to compare nouns: the comparison of equality (as___|__as), the
comparison of inequality (more/less than), and the superlative (the most/least). This reference
describes the first two forms of comparisons, how to form them, and when to use them.
Comparison of Equality
To say that two nouns are equal, the following formula is used:
Equality Formula
tan + adjective + como (as...as) The adjective must match the first noun as it is the subject of the
comparison.
Sara es tan alta como tu hermano. (Sara is as tall as your brother.)
Tu coche es tan rpido como su coche. (Your car is as fast as his car.)
Comparison of Inequality
To compare two nouns as being different from one another, the following formulas are used:
Inequality Formula
ms + adjective + que (more. . .than) OR
menos + adjective + que (less. . .than) The adjective must match the first noun as it is the subject
of the comparison.
Samuel es ms artstico que ella. (Samuel is more artistic than her.)
Ella es menos artstica que Samuel. (She is less artistic than Samuel.)
Una casa es ms cara que un coche. (A house is more expensive than a car.)
Un coche es menos caro que una casa. (A car is less expensive than a house.)
2 Correct Answers!
Size Touch Shape Time Quantity Sound
Notice that you can state each comparison two ways
1. A is more ___|__ than B.
2. B is less ___|__ than A.
You can also compare the inequality of two nouns by negating the comparison of equality:
Negation Formula
no + verb + tan + adjective + como (not as ... as)
Pedro no es tan alto como su hermano. (Pedro is not as tall as your brother.)
Tu coche no es tan rpido como su coche. (Your car is not as fast as his car.)
Exceptions
There are a few adjectives that can compare nouns without the use of the formulas above. With
these adjectives, you do NOT need to use ms or menos. The adjective itself is a comparison word
and only needs que afterwards to mean "than."
One Word Comparisons
mejor better
peor worse
mayor larger
mayor older
menor younger
Soy mayor que mi hermana. (I am older than my sister.)
Esta pizza es mejor que esa pizza. (This pizza is better than that pizza.)
La segunda pelcula es peor que la primera. (The second movie is worse than the first.)


Related Events
THE MORE, THE
We use a reduced clause in each part of a The more, the expression. The correlative comparative is a paired
construction. Each part is syntactically alike. A comma separates the two clauses.
The more the building shook, the more we held on.
The more the wave rose, the faster we ran.
The more we saw, the less we could believe.
The more we looked, the fewer things we found to retrieve.

AS MORE, THEN
The meaning varies from cause-effect actions to simply same-time occurrences. Not every As more, then sentence can be
restated as a The more, the expression.
As/Because the shaking of the building grew stronger, we held on more.
As/Because the wave rose higher, we ran faster.
As we saw more (destruction), it was harder to believe (what we saw).
As we looked, we found fewer things to retrieve (from the debris).


Modals deduction (present)


Modals deduction (present)
We use modal verbs to say how sure we are about something.

1 must

We use must when we feel sure that something is true because theres very strong evidence.
He must live near here because he comes to work on foot. We dont know where he lives but were sure its not
far away.
Come inside and get warm you must be freezing out there.
Youre a zookeeper? That must be very interesting.
Notice that must is followed by an infinitive without to.

2 might, may, could

We use might, may or could to say that we think something is possible but were not sure.
Did you hear that? I think there might be a burglar downstairs. Shes not sure theres a burglar but she thinks
its possible.
Well try to get there early but we may arrive late if theres a lot of traffic.
Dont put it up there. It could fall off and hit someone.
Might, may and could are also followed by an infinitive without to.

3 cant

We use cant when we feel sure something is not true.
It cant be a burglar. All the doors and windows are locked. He doesnt know its not a burglar but he feels sure
its not.
It cant be far away now. Weve been driving for hours. Wheres the map?
Really? He has to work on Christmas Day? He cant feel very happy about that.
Like the other verbs, cant is followed by an infinitive without to.

Remember that all of these modal verbs must, might, may, could and cant have other uses. These are
covered in another section.


Past modals
come in two forms. The first type is the easiest and usually requires only a simple word
change:
I can drive.
I could drive when I was 16.
I have to go to California.
I had to go to California.
Lenny will pay tomorrow.
Lenny said he would pay tomorrow.

(present ability)
(past ability)
(present obligation)
(past obligation)
(future intention)
(future reported from the past)
Past modals with have
Some past modals can be formed by using have + the past participle of the main verb immediately after the
modal. (should have, could have, would have, etc.)
However, since modals express possibility, intention, obligation, etc., they do not always indicate a definite
tense. Therefore, when using past modals with have, special meanings need to be considered.
I should go to the funeral.
I should have gone to the funeral.
Lex might take Karen to the airport.
Lex might have taken Karen to the airport.
Lex could have taken Karen to the airport.
Lex would have taken Karen to the airport.
Otis didn't come to work yesterday.
He had to take care of his children.
His children must have been sick.

(I feel an obligation to go--later.)
(I didn't go. Now I regret it.)
(It's a future possibility.)
(He may be on his way there now.)
(Most likely he didn't.)
(He didn't. He had an excuse.)
(past fact)
(past obligation)
(conjecture about the past)
See also :
Grammar : Common Modal Usage
Textbook Recommendation : Touchy Situations, Chapter 19
If you have questions or comments about this page, please contact us. Be sure to include the title of this page
in the Subject line of your e-mail.


Modals - English Grammar
1) can
Use Examples
ability to do sth. in the present (substitute form:
to be able to)
I can speak English.
permission to do sth. in the present (substitute
form: to be allowed to)
Can I go to the cinema?
request Can you wait a moment, please?
offer I can lend you my car till tomorrow.
suggestion Can we visit Grandma at the weekend?
possibility It can get very hot in Arizona.
2) could
Use Examples
ability to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to
be able to)
I could speak English.
permission to do sth. in the past (substitute form:
to be allowed to)
I could go to the cinema.
polite question * Could I go to the cinema, please?
polite request * Could you wait a moment, please?
polite offer * I could lend you my car till tomorrow.
polite suggestion * Could we visit Grandma at the weekend?
possibility * It could get very hot in Montana.
3) may
Use Examples
possibility It may rain today.
permission to do sth. in the present (substitute
form: to be allowed to)
May I go to the cinema?
polite suggestion May I help you?
4) might
Use Examples
possibility (less possible than may) * It might rain today.
hesitant offer * Might I help you?
5) must
Use Examples
force, necessity I must go to the supermarket today.
possibility You must be tired.
advice, recommendation You must see the new film with Brad Pitt.
6) must not/may not
Use Examples
prohibition
You mustn't work on dad's computer.
You may not work on dad's computer.
7) need not
Use Examples
not necessary
I needn't go to the supermarket, we're going to
the restaurant tonight.
8) ought to
Use Examples
advice You ought to drive carefully in bad weather.
obligation
You ought to switch off the light when you
leave the room.
9) shall
instead of will in the 1st person
Use Examples
suggestion Shall I carry your bag?
10) should
Use Examples
advice You should drive carefully in bad weather.
obligation
You should switch off the light when you leave
the room.
11) will
Use Examples
wish, request, demand, order (less polite than
would)
Will you please shut the door?
prediction, assumption I think it will rain on Friday.
promise I will stop smoking.
spontaneous decision Can somebody drive me to the station? - I will.
habits She's strange, she'll sit for hours without talking.
12) would
Use Examples
wish, request (more polite than will) Would you shut the door, please?
habits in the past Sometimes he would bring me some flowers.
* no past forms - future forms


Present Perfect
FORM
[has/have + past participle]
Examples:
You have seen that movie many times.
Have you seen that movie many times?
You have not seen that movie many times.
Complete List of Present Perfect Forms
USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now

We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time
before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect
with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I
was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN
use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once,
many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.
Examples:
I have seen that movie twenty times.
I think I have met him once before.
There have been many earthquakes in California.
People have traveled to the Moon.
People have not traveled to Mars.
Have you read the book yet?
Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.
How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?
The concept of "unspecified time" can be very confusing to English learners. It is
best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:
TOPIC 1 Experience
You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I
have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never
had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific
event.
Examples:
I have been to France.
THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE HAD THE EXPERIENCE OF BEING IN FRANCE.
MAYBE YOU HAVE BEEN THERE ONCE, OR SEVERAL TIMES.
I have been to France three times.
YOU CAN ADD THE NUMBER OF TIMES AT THE END OF THE SENTENCE.
I have never been to France.
THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE NOT HAD THE EXPERIENCE OF GOING TO FRANCE.
I think I have seen that movie before.
He has never traveled by train.
Joan has studied two foreign languages.
A: Have you ever met him?
B: No, I have not met him.
TOPIC 2 Change Over Time
We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a
period of time.
Examples:
You have grown since the last time I saw you.
The government has become more interested in arts education.
Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university
since the Asian studies program was established.
My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.
TOPIC 3 Accomplishments
We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and
humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.
Examples:
Man has walked on the Moon.
Our son has learned how to read.
Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
Scientists have split the atom.
TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting
We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not
happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the
action to happen.
Examples:
James has not finished his homework yet.
Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
Bill has still not arrived.
The rain hasn't stopped.
TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different Times
We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have
occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not
complete and more actions are possible.
Examples:
The army has attacked that city five times.
I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
We have had many major problems while working on this project.
She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows
why she is sick.
Time Expressions with Present Perfect
When we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some
point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not
important.

Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can
do this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this
month, so far, up to now, etc.

Examples:
Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
I have seen that movie six times in the last month.
They have had three tests in the last week.
She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has
worked for three different companies so far.
My car has broken down three times this week.
NOTICE
"Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year" means
the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple
Past. "In the last year" means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a
specific time, so it requires Present Perfect.
Examples:
I went to Mexico last year.
I WENT TO MEXICO IN THE CALENDAR YEAR BEFORE THIS ONE.
I have been to Mexico in the last year.
I HAVE BEEN TO MEXICO AT LEAST ONCE AT SOME POINT BETWEEN 365 DAYS AGO AND
NOW.
USE 2 Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

With Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the
Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up
until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations
which can be used with the Present Perfect.
Examples:
I have had a cold for two weeks.
She has been in England for six months.
Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.
Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous
Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach,"
and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-
Continuous Verbs.


Past Perfect
FORM
[had + past participle]
Examples:
You had studied English before you moved to New York.
Had you studied English before you moved to New York?
You had not studied English before you moved to New York.
Complete List of Past Perfect Forms
USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past

The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another
action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time
in the past.
Examples:
I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
She only understood the movie because she had read the book.
Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in
advance.
A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.
USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)

With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we
use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up
until another action in the past.
Examples:
We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.
By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight
years.
They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more
than forty years.
Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous
Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach,"
and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-
Continuous Verbs.
IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect

Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases
with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary.
Example:
She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in
with them in 1996.
MOREOVER
If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used
instead of the Past Perfect when "before" or "after" is used in the sentence. The
words "before" and "after" actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect
is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.
Examples:
She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in
with them in 1996.
She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with
them in 1996.
HOWEVER

If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not
optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of
experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past
cannot be used.
Examples:
She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct
She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct


Perfect Progressive Tense
The perfect progressive tense describes actions that repeated over a period of time
in the past, are continuing in the present, and/or will continue in the future.

The present perfect progressive tense tells you about a continuous action that was
initiated in the past and finished at some point in the past; however, the action
has some relation to the present time. Use have/has + been + ing.


It has been raining, and the street is still wet.
I have been running, and I am still tired.
She has been practicing the piano, and she is much better now.
The past perfect progressive tense illustrates a continuous action in the past that
was completed before another past action. Use had + been + ing.


It had been raining, and the street was still wet.
I had been running, and I was still tired.
She had been practicing the piano, and she had gotten much better.
The future perfect progressive tense indicates a continuous action that will be
completed in the future. Use will + have + been + ing.


By tonight, it will have been raining several hours, and the street will be very
wet.
By next summer, I will have been running for almost a year, and I will be fit and
healthy.
By the time of the concert, she will have been practicing the piano for several
months, and she will be much better.


PROGRESSIVE TENSES

A. Present progressive = am + (base form + -ing) : I am working. OR is + (base form + -ing) :
She is eating. OR are + (base form + -ing) : We are studying.
1. A planned activity.
Sofia is starting school at CEC tomorrow
2. An activity that is occurring right now.
Jan is watching TV right now.
3. An activity that is in progress, although not actually occurring at the time of speaking.
Sara is learning English at CEC.

B. Past progressive = was + (base form + -ing) : I was working. OR were + (base form + -ing) :
They were eating.
1. A past activity in progress while another activity occurred.
At 6:00 yesterday I was eating dinner.
The phone rang while I was eating.
2. Two past activities in progress at the same time.
While I was answering the phone, my wife was cooking dinner.

C. Future progressive = will be + (base form + -ing): I will be working. He will be eating.
An activity that will be in progress.
Tomorrow Sam will be studying for the test on Unit 1.

D. Present perfect progressive = have + (base form + -ing): I have been working. OR has +
(base form + -ing): She has been eating.

1. This tense emphasizes the duration of an activity that began in the past and continues
into the present. It often uses time words or phrases. It may be used to refer to continuing
activity that is recent.
He has been painting houses all summer.
Ive been studying English for 2 years.
2. It may be used to refer to continuing activity that is recent.
He has been going to school at CEC.

E. Past perfect progressive = had + (base form + -ing) : I had been working. He had been eating.

When the teacher arrived, I had been waiting almost 10 minutes.
He was out of breath because he had been running to catch the bus.

F. Future perfect progressive = will have + (base form + -ing): I will have been working. She will
have been eating.
This tense emphasizes the duration of a continuing activity in the future that ends before
another activity or time in the future.

By 2003 Janet will have been studying English at CEC for 3 years.
By 9:45 tonight I will have been sitting in class for 2 hours and 45 minutes.



Future Perfect
Future Perfect has two different forms: "will have done" and "be going to have
done." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect forms are usually
interchangeable.
FORM Future Perfect with "Will"
[will have + past participle]
Examples:
You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the
U.S.
Will you have perfected your English by the time you come back from the
U.S.?
You will not have perfected your English by the time you come back from
the U.S.
FORM Future Perfect with "Be Going To"
[am/is/are + going to have + past participle]
Examples:
You are going to have perfected your English by the time you come back
from the U.S.
Are you going to have perfected your English by the time you come back
from the U.S.?
You are not going to have perfected your English by the time you come
back from the U.S.
NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Perfect
with little or no difference in meaning.
Complete List of Future Perfect Forms
USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Future

The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another
action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific
time in the future.
Examples:
By next November, I will have received my promotion.
By the time he gets home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house.
I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o'clock.
Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before
she moves to Beijing?
Sam is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time
he leaves this afternoon.
By the time I finish this course, I will have taken ten tests.
How many countries are you going to have visited by the time
you turn 50?
Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in italics) are
in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are
in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.
USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-Continuous Verbs)

With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we
use the Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action
in the future.
Examples:
I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.
By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.
Although the above use of Future Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous
Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach,"
and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-
Continuous Verbs.
REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses
Like all future forms, the Future Perfect cannot be used in clauses beginning with
time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if,
unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect,Present Perfect is used.
Examples:
I am going to see a movie when I will have finished my homework. Not
Correct
I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework. Correct


Zero Conditional:
certainty
We use the so-called zero conditional when the result of
the condition is always true, like a scientific fact.
Take some ice. Put it in a saucepan. Heat the saucepan.
What happens? The ice melts (it becomes water). You
would be surprised if it did not.
IF condition result
present simple present simple
If you heat ice it melts.
Notice that we are thinking about a result that is always
true for this condition. The result of the condition is an
absolute certainty. We are not thinking about the future
or the past, or even the present. We are thinking about a
simple fact. We use the present simple tense to talk
about the condition. We also use the present simple tense
to talk about the result. The important thing about the
zero conditional is that the condition always has the
same result.
We can also use when instead of if, for
example: When I get up late I miss my bus.
Look at some more examples in the tables below:
IF condition result
present simple present simple
If I miss the 8 o'clock bus I am late for work.
If I am late for work my boss gets angry.
If people don't eat they get hungry.
If you heat ice does it melt?

result IF condition
present simple present simple
I am late for work if I miss the 8 o'clock bus.
My boss gets angry if I am late for work.
People get hungry if they don't eat.
Does ice melt if you heat it?
First Conditional: real
possibility
We are talking about the future. We are thinking about a
particular condition or situation in the future, and the
result of this condition. There is a real possibility that this
condition will happen. For example, it is morning. You are
at home. You plan to play tennis this afternoon. But there
are some clouds in the sky. Imagine that it rains. What
will you do?
IF condition result
present simple WILL + base verb
If it rains I will stay at home.
Notice that we are thinking about a future condition. It is
not raining yet. But the sky is cloudy and you think that it
could rain. We use the present simple tense to talk about
the possible future condition. We use WILL + base verb to
talk about the possible future result. The important thing
about the first conditional is that there is a real
possibility that the condition will happen. Here are
some more examples (do you remember the two basic
structures: [IF condition result] and [result IF
condition]?):
IF condition result
present simple WILL + base verb
If I see Mary I will tell her.
If Tara is free tomorrow he will invite her.
If they do not pass their exam their teacher will be sad.
If it rains tomorrow will you stay at home?
If it rains tomorrow what will you do?

result IF condition
WILL + base verb present simple
I will tell Mary if I see her.
He will invite Tara if she is free tomorrow.
Their teacher will be
sad
if they do not pass their
exam.
Will you stay at home if it rains tomorrow?
What will you do if it rains tomorrow?

Second Conditional:
unreal possibility or
dream
The second conditional is like the first conditional. We
are still thinking about the future. We are thinking about
a particular condition in the future, and the result of this
condition. But there is not a real possibility that this
condition will happen. For example, you do not have a
lottery ticket. Is it possible to win? No! No lottery ticket,
no win! But maybe you will buy a lottery ticket in the
future. So you can think about winning in the future, like
a dream. It's not very real, but it's still possible.
IF condition result
past simple WOULD + base verb
If I won the lottery I would buy a car.
Notice that we are thinking about a future condition. We
use the past simple tense to talk about the future
condition. We use WOULD + base verb to talk about the
future result. The important thing about the second
conditional is that there is an unreal possibility that
the condition will happen.
Here are some more examples:
IF condition result
past simple WOULD + base verb
If I married Mary I would be happy.
If Ram became rich she would marry him.
If it snowed next July would you be surprised?
If it snowed next July what would you do?

result IF condition
WOULD + base verb past simple
I would be happy if I married Mary.
She would marry Ram if he became rich.
Would you be surprised if it snowed next July?
What would you do if it snowed next July?


Third Conditional: no
possibility
The first conditional and second conditionals talk about
the future. With the third conditional we talk about
the past. We talk about a condition in the past that
did not happen. That is why there is no possibility for this
condition. The third conditional is also like a dream, but
with no possibility of the dream coming true.
Last week you bought a lottery ticket. But you did not
win. :-(
condition result
Past Perfect WOULD HAVE + Past
Participle
If I had won the
lottery
I would have bought a car.
Notice that we are thinking about an impossible past
condition. You did not win the lottery. So the condition
was not true, and that particular condition can never be
true because it is finished. We use the past perfect tense
to talk about the impossible past condition. We use
WOULD HAVE + past participle to talk about the
impossible past result. The important thing about the
third conditional is that both the condition and result
areimpossible now.
Sometimes, we use should have, could have, might
have instead ofwould have, for example: If you had
bought a lottery ticket, you might have won.
Look at some more examples in the tables below:
IF condition result
past perfect WOULD HAVE + past
participle
If I had seen Mary I would have told her.
If Tara had been free
yesterday
I would have invited her.
If they had not passed
their exam
their teacher would have
been sad.
If it had rained yesterday would you have stayed at
home?
If it had rained yesterday what would you have
done?

result IF condition
WOULD HAVE + past
participle
past perfect
I would have told Mary if I had seen her.
I would have invited Tara if she had been free
yesterday.
Their teacher would have
been sad
if they had not passed their
exam.
Would you have stayed at
home
if it had rained yesterday?
What would you have done if it had rained yesterday?


The Adj ect i ve
Cl ause
Recognize an adjective clause when you see one.
An adjective clausealso called an adjectival or relative clausewill
meet three requirements:
First, it will contain a subject and verb.
Next, it will begin with a relative
pronoun [who, whom, whose, that, or which] or a relative
adverb [when,where, or why].
Finally, it will function as an adjective, answering the
questions What kind? How many? or Which one?
The adjective clause will follow one of these two patterns:
R E L AT I V E P R O N OU N O R AD V E R B + S U B J E C T + V E R B
R E L AT I V E P R O N OU N AS S U B J E C T + V E R B
Here are some examples:
Whose big, brown eyes pleaded for another cookie
Whose = relative pronoun; eyes = subject; pleaded = verb.
Why Fred cannot stand sitting across from his sister Melanie
Why = relative adverb; Fred = subject; can stand = verb [not,
an adverb, is not officially part of the verb].
That bounced across the kitchen floor
That = relative pronoun functioning as subject; bounced = verb.
Who hiccupped for seven hours afterward
Who = relative pronoun functioning as subject; hiccupped = verb.
Avoid writing a sentence fragment.
An adjective clause does not express a complete thought, so it cannot
stand alone as a sentence. To avoid writing afragment, you must
connect each adjective clause to a main clause. Read the examples
below. Notice that the adjective clause follows the word that it
describes.
Diane felt manipulated by her beagle Santana, whose big,
brown eyes pleaded for another cookie.
Chewing with her mouth open is one reason why Fred cannot
stand sitting across from his sister Melanie.
Growling ferociously, Oreo and Skeeter, Madison's two dogs,
competed for the hardboiled eggthat bounced across the
kitchen floor.
Laughter erupted from Annamarie, who hiccupped for seven
hours afterward.
Punctuate an adjective clause correctly.
Punctuating adjective clauses can be tricky. For each sentence, you
will have to decide if the adjective clause is essential or nonessential
and then use commas accordingly.
Essential clauses do not require commas. An adjective clause is
essential when you need the information it provides. Look at this
example:
The vegetables that people leave uneaten are often the most
nutritious.
Vegetables is nonspecific. To know which ones we are talking about,
we must have the information in the adjective clause. Thus, the
adjective clause is essential and requires no commas.
If, however, we eliminate vegetables and choose a more specific noun
instead, the adjective clause becomesnonessential and does require
commas to separate it from the rest of the sentence. Read this
revision:
Broccoli, which people often leave uneaten, is very
nutritious.
Tag Questions
You speak English, don't you?
A tag question is a special construction in English. It is a
statement followed by a mini-question. The whole
sentence is a "tag question", and the mini-question at the
end is called a "question tag".
A "tag" is something small that we add to something
larger. For example, the little piece of cloth added to a
shirt showing size or washing instructions is a tag.
We use tag questions at the end of statements to ask for
confirmation. They mean something like: "Am I right?" or
"Do you agree?" They are very common in English.
The basic structure is:
statement question tag
+
Positive statement,
-
negative tag?
Snow is white, isn't it?
-
Negative statement,
+
positive tag?
You don't like me, do you?
Notice that the question tag repeats the auxiliary verb (or
main verb whenbe) from the statement and changes it to
negative or positive.
A question tag is the "mini-question" at the end. A tag
question is the whole sentence.
We will now look at positive statement tag questions.

We use reported speech when we are saying what other people say,
think or believe.
He says he wants it.
We think you are right.
I believe he loves her.
Yesterday you said you didn't like it but now you do!
She told me he had asked her to marry him.
I told you she was ill.
We thought he was in Australia.
When we are reporting things in the present, future or present perfect
we don't change the tense.
He thinks he loves her.
I'll tell her you are coming.
He has said he'll do it.
When we tell people what someone has said in the past, we generally
make the tense 'more in the past'.
You look very nice. = I told him he looked very nice.
He's working in Siberia now. = She told me he was working in Siberia
now.
Polly has bought a new car. = She said Polly had bought a new car.
Jo can't come for the weekend. = She said Jo couldn't come for the
weekend.
Paul called and left a message. = He told me Paul had called and had
left me a message.
I'll give you a hand. = He said he would give me a hand.
However, when we are reporting something that was said in the past
but is still true, it is not obligatory to make the tense 'more in the past'.
The choice is up to the speaker. For example:
"The train doesn't stop here."
He said the train doesn't stop here.
He said the train didn't stop here.
"I like Sarah."
She said she likes Sarah.
She said she liked Sarah.
When we are reporting what was said, we sometimes have to change
other words in the sentence.
We have to change the pronoun if we are reporting what someone else
said. Compare these two sentences. In each case the person actually
said "I don't want to go."
I said I didn't want to go.
Bill said he didn't want to go.
We have to change words referring to 'here and now' if we are reporting
what was said in a different place or time.
Compare these two sentences. In each case the person actually said "I'll
be there at ten tomorrow."
(If it is later the same day) He said he would be there at ten tomorrow.
(If it is the next day) He said he would be there at ten today.
Now compare these two sentences.
(If we are in a different place) He said he would be there tomorrow at
ten.
(If we are in the place he is coming to) He said he would be here at ten
tomorrow.


Reflexive Pronouns
reflexive (adj.) [grammar]: reflecting back on the
subject, like a mirror
We use a reflexive pronoun when we want to refer back
to the subject of the sentence or clause. Reflexive
pronouns end in "-self" (singular) or "-selves" (plural).
There are eight reflexive pronouns:
reflexive pronoun
singular myself
yourself
himself, herself, itself
plural ourselves
yourselves
themselves
Look at these examples:
reflexive pronouns
the underlined words are
NOT the same
person/thing
the underlined words are the
SAME person/thing
John saw me. I saw myself in the mirror.
Why does he blame you? Why do you blame yourself?
David sent him a copy. John sent himself a copy.
David sent her a copy. Mary sent herself a copy.
My dog hurt the cat. My dog hurt itself.
We blame you. We blame ourselves.
Can you help my
children?
Can you help yourselves?
They cannot look
after the babies.
They cannot look
afterthemselves.
Intensive pronouns
Notice that all the above reflexive pronouns can also act
as intensive pronouns, but the function and usage are
different. An intensive pronoun emphasizes its
antecedent. Look at these examples:
I made it myself. OR I myself made it.
Have you yourself seen it? OR Have you seen
it yourself?
The President himself promised to stop the war.
She spoke to me herself. OR She herself spoke to
me.
The exam itself wasn't difficult, but exam room was
horrible.
Never mind. We'll do it ourselves.
You yourselves asked us to do it.
They recommend this book even though
they themselves have never read it. OR They
recommend this book even though they have never
read it themselves.
Used To
FORM
[used to + VERB]
Example:
I used to go to the beach every day.
It is better not to use "used to" in questions or negative forms; however, this is
sometimes done in informal spoken English. It is better to ask questions and create
negative sentences using Simple Past.
USE 1 Habit in the Past

"Used to" expresses the idea that something was an old habit that stopped in the
past. It indicates that something was often repeated in the past, but it is not usually
done now.
Examples:
Jerry used to study English.
Sam and Mary used to go to Mexico in the summer.
I used to start work at 9 o'clock.
Christine used to eat meat, but now she is a vegetarian.
USE 2 Past Facts and Generalizations

"Used to" can also be used to talk about past facts or generalizations which are no
longer true.
Examples:
I used to live in Paris.
Sarah used to be fat, but now she is thin.
George used to be the best student in class, but now Lena is the best.
Oranges used to cost very little in Florida, but now they are quite
expensive.
"Used to" vs. Simple Past
Both Simple Past and "Used to" can be used to describe past habits, past facts
and past generalizations; however, "used to" is preferred when emphasizing these
forms of past repetition in positive sentences. On the other hand, when asking
questions or making negative sentences, Simple Past is preferred.
Examples:
You used to play the piano.
Did you play the piano when you were young?
You did not play the piano when you were young.

What are Indirect Questions?

Direct questions are the normal questions that we can ask to friends, family
members, and people who we know well. You can form direct questions using the
QUASM modelthat we learned last lesson.
Example of a direct question:
Wheres the bathroom?
Indirect questions are a little more formal and polite. We use them when talking to a
person we dont know very well, or in professional situations, and their form is a little
different.
Example of an indirect question:
Could you tell me where the bathroom is?
Phrases for Indirect Questions
Could you tell me
Do you know
I was wondering
Do you have any idea
Id like to know
Would it be possible
Is there any chance
Direct and Indirect Questions in English: Examples
Direct: Where is Market Street?
Indirect: Could you tell me where Market Street is?
In indirect questions with is/are, the verb (is) comes after the subject (Market Street).

Direct What time does the bank open?
Indirect: Do you know what time the bank opens?
In indirect questions, we dont use the auxiliary verbs do/does/did. Also, you can see
that the verb is open in the direct question, and opens in the indirect question.

Direct: Why did you move to Europe?
Indirect: I was wondering why you moved to Europe.
Again, there is no auxiliary verb did in the indirect question. In fact, this indirect
question isnt even a question its more of a statement that invites the other person to
give more information.

Direct: How has he managed to get in shape so quickly?
Indirect: Do you have any idea how hes managed to get in shape so quickly?
The auxiliary verbs have and has can be used in both the direct and indirect questions
but in the direct question, has comes before the subject (he), and in the indirect
question, has comes after the subject.

Direct: How much does this motorcycle cost?
Indirect: Id like to know how much this motorcycle costs.
To form the indirect question, remove does and change cost to costs.

Direct: Can you finish the project by tomorrow?
Indirect: Would it be possible for you to finish the project by tomorrow?
For direct questions with can, we can use the phrase would it be possible to make
it indirect.

Direct: Can we change the meeting to Thursday?
Indirect: Is there any chance we could change the meeting to Thursday?
Is there any chance is another option for forming indirect questions with can.

Yes/No Direct Questions > If in Indirect Questions
If the direct question is a yes or no question (it has no question word such as what,
who, when, where, why, or how), then the indirect question will have if.
Direct: Does Tom like Italian food?
Indirect: Do you know if Tom likes Italian food?
Direct: Are your parents joining us for dinner?
Indirect: Could you tell me if your parents are joining us for dinner?
Direct: Do they speak English?
Indirect: I was wondering if they speak English.
Direct: Has Barbara ever studied abroad?
Indirect: Do you have any idea if Barbaras ever studied abroad?
Direct: Do you plan on traveling this summer?
Indirect: Id like to know if you plan on traveling this summer.
- See more at: http://www.espressoenglish.net/direct-and-indirect-questions-in-
english/#sthash.qFetHn0C.dpuf

Los idioms en ingles: Estrategia de estudios
En aos recientes se ha visto la importancia de adquirir y aprender ingles como segunda lengua debido en
gran parte a la globalizacin. En consenso, se ha visto que el aprendizaje de vocabulario es mucho mas que
el aprendizaje de palabras individuales. En el diccionario mental del hablante existe un rango amplio de
unidades de multipalabras tales como los phrasal verbs (look after), social routines (take care), and idioms
(over my head)
Una de las razones por las cuales es importante enfocarse en unidades de multipalabras es que una gran
pocin del leguaje quizs tanto como un 50%- esta compuesta por dichas secuencias (cf. Erman and
Warren, 2000). Muchos contienen elementos figurativos que hacen que la frase no sea predecible en cuanto a
su significado. Vamos a considerer los siguientes ejemplos:
1. I like him because hes so down to earth.
2. We all have to be on the same page.
3. Whos going to foot the bill for that?
4. Dont beat around the bush.
Los hablantes nativos usan estas expresiones tan frecuentemente en situaciones diarias que no se dan
cuenta de la naturaleza figurativa de las expresiones.
Los idioms son palabras unidas que tienen por lo menos un elemento con un sentido
o significado figurativo. Es decir, lo que se entiende no es literalmente.
Por ejemplo, being on the same page en el ejemplo (2) no se refiere a leer literalmente un libro. Este idiom
quiere decir que un grupo de personas estn de acuerdo en algo.
Grant and Bauer (2004) nos hacen recordar que muchas veces las el significado de las expresiones pueden
ser sacadas por contexto y por algunos elementos que componen el idiom. Sin embargo, hay muchos idioms
que no tienen ninguna forma de ser comprendida a travs de las palabras que forman dichos idioms. Esto es
lo que los hacen mas difciles de entender y por la cual el alumno se confunde.
Tambin tengan cuidado con pensar que los idioms son simplemente expresiones coloquiales que no tienen
lugar dentro de formalismos. Es muy comn usar y encontrar idioms in contextos informales pero hay cientos
de idioms que son usades en situaciones academicas o de negocios. Por ejemplo, Simpson and Mendis
(2003) condujo un estudio en donde encontr muchos idioms en situaciones acadmicas tales como on the
right track, come into play, and down the line. Por estas y otras razones es importante incluir a los idioms
dentro de nuestro plan de estudio pero se debe de hacer sistemticamente.
A continuacin veremos algunos consejos de cmo aprender los idioms
PUNTO 1: Similitud a la lengua maternal del hablante
No todos los idioms tienen la misma dificultad. Hay muchos idioms que son iguales o parecidos a la lengua
natural del estudiante y por ende hace mas fcil su comprensin. Cabe resaltar que igualmente hay idioms
que no tienen su equivalente en el idioma natal del hablante.
PUNTO 2: Usar el contexto para inferir el significado
Las pistas contextuales son muy tiles para ayudar a que los estudiantes comprendan idioms que no conocen.
Cooper (1999) investigo las estrategias de comprensin usadas por los estudiantes de la segunda lengua.
Concluyo que las estrategias mas comunes eran las que uno adivinaba el significado por contexto analizando
el idiom y por el significado literal. La estrategia de adivinar el significado a travs del contexto llevo a una
correcta interpretacin del 57% de los casos.
PUNTO 3: Origin de las palabraso frases que componen el idiom
Ensear y aprender idioms basados en sus orgenes literales o temticos es una estrategia muy efectiva.
Boers et al. (2004) sugiere que una metodologa educativa es hacer que los estudiantes sepan del origen
figurativo del idiom y que de all saquen sus conclusiones. Por ejemplo, el idiom to be waiting in the wings
viene del contexto literal en la cual los actores estn esperando en las alas del teatro antes de aparecer en
escena.
En conclusin, es importante enfatizar que los idioms se tienen que aprender sistematicaente y no deben de
ser memorizados sino como hemos expuesto antes.