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K. Vedaprakas Sara!a"a K. Vedaprakas Sara!a"a
A Guide Book for
Radio Telephony Restricted (Aeronautical)
K. Vedaprakash Saralaya
To all those who thirst for knowledge
persevere to reach higher
Aeronautical communication is one of the most important factors in making the aircraft
operations safe, secure and economic. Communication between aircraft and the Controller is the
vital link for maintaining the necessary information updated at both ends. Such communication
involves both voice and data. With the implementation of CPDC, the shift is towards data
communication and the usage of voice communications is e!pected to decline in the near future.
"owever, as long as the human pilot is flying the aircraft, voice communication # at least as a back$
up to datalink # seems to be indispensible to aeronautical communication. %or the sake of clarity
and keeping the communications concise, standard &' phraseology should be used. Standardisation
is necessary due to the fact that aviation is a worldwide activity. (CA) has provided a set of
standard &' phraseology for international usage through its Anne! *+, ,olume (( and Doc -./0
A12-03. (CA) also allows for the usage of supplementary and regional phraseology and, in
addition, usage of plain language in situations for which standard &' phraseology is not available.
Anyone who is seeking the (ndian &'&4A5 licence should understand the phraseology in a
local perspective. (n this book, ( have adapted the usage of standard (CA) &' phraseology which
makes it tailor$made for the (ndian reader. 'his way, assimilation and recall will be much easier
than trying to comprehend the e!amples with fictitious locales. Also, as far as possible, actual data
from the (ndian A'S such as fre6uencies, runway designations, S(Ds, S'A&s, levels, etc. have been
employed in this book. )ther salient features of this book are proper organisation of the content,
presentation of the &' procedures in the same pattern as in (CA) 7anual of &adiotelephony, clear
and easy$to$understand e!planations of technical topics and self test papers with answers.
(t gives me immense pleasure to present this book to those who are interested in obtaining a
licence in radio telephony. ( am highly thankful to my loving wife and parents for their unwavering
support8 my friends 7r. 9opinath &a:agopal and 7r. &ishi ;handelwal for their motivation and to
all the friends in aviation.
astly, while every attempt has been made to keep the information in this book accurate and
updated, errors may e!ist. ( re6uest the readers, and shall be very grateful, to bring such errors to
my notice on my email id<
;. ,edaprakash Saralaya
TABL! "F #"$T!$TS
%ART & ' !(A)'$AT'"$ *
#*A%T!R + & 'ntroduction to the !,a-ination /
*.* (ntroduction
*.0 >!amination Pattern
*./ Syllabus
*.. &eference for Study
#*A%T!R . & "r/anisations ?
0.* (ntroduction
0.0 Wireless Planning and Coordination Wing 4WPC5
0./ (nternational 'elecommunication @nion 4('@5
0.. (nternational Civil Aviation )rganisation 4(CA)5
0.3 Airports Authority of (ndia 4AA(5
0.? Director 9eneral of Civil Aviation 4D9CA5
0.A (ndian 7eteorological Department 4(7D5
#*A%T!R 0 & Aeronautical Ser1ices **
/.* (ntroduction
/.0 Aeronautical 'elecommunications, 1avigation and Surveillance # C1S
/./ Aeronautical (nformation services # A(S
/.. Air 'raffic Services # A'S
/.3 7eteorological Services
/.? Search And &escue Service
/.A 'ime System
/.B anguage
%ART & '' RA2'"T!L!%*"$3 %R"#!24R!S 0-
#*A%T!R + & Glossary /*
*.* Definitions of 'erms
*.0 Abbreviations
*./ Conte!t
#*A%T!R . & General "peratin/ %rocedures 3.
0.* (ntroduction
0.0 'ransmitting 'echni6ue
0./ 'ransmission of etters
0.. 'ransmission of 1umbers
0.3 'ransmission of 'ime
0.? Standard Words and Phrases
0.A Call Signs
0.B Communications
#*A%T!R 0 & General RT %hraseolo/y ?-
/.* (ntroduction
/.0 @sage of Phraseologies and Plain anguage in &'% Communications
/./ evel (nstructions
/.. Position &eporting
/.3 %iling %light Plans
#*A%T!R 5 & Aerodro-e #ontrol of Aircraft Traffic A/
..* (ntroduction
..0 Departure (nformation, A'C (nstructions and >ngine Start @p Procedures
../ Push$back Procedure
... 'a!i (nstructions
..3 'ake$off Procedures
..? Aerodrome 'raffic Circuit
..A %inal Approach and anding
..B 9o Around
..- anding
..*+ >ssential Aerodrome (nformation
#*A%T!R 6 & Aerodro-e #ontrol of Vehicular Traffic B?
3.* (ntroduction
3.0 7ovement (nstructions
3./ Crossing of &unways
3.. ,ehicles 'owing Aircraft
#*A%T!R 7 & General ATS Sur1eillance Ser1ice %hraseolo/y B-
?.* (ntroduction
?.0 (dentification and ,ectoring
?./ ,ectoring
?.. 'raffic (nformation and Avoiding Action
?.3 Secondary Surveillance &adar
?.? &adar Assistance to Aircraft with &adio Communications %ailure
?.A Alerting Phraseologies
#*A%T!R 8 & Approach #ontrol -3
A.* (ntroduction
A.0 (%& Departures
A./ ,%& Departures
A.. (%& Arrivals
A.3 ,%& Arrivals
A.? ,ectors to %inal Approach
A.A Surveillance &adar Approach
A.B Precision &adar Approach
#*A%T!R 9 & Area #ontrol *+B
B.* (ntroduction
B.0 Position (nformation
B./ evel (nformation
B.. %lights Coining Airways
B.3 %lights eaving Airways
B.? %lights Crossing Airways
B.A %lights "olding >n$route
B.B A'S Surveillance
B.- Automatic Dependent Surveillance 4ADS5
B.*+ )ceanic Control
#*A%T!R : & 2istress and 4r/ency %rocedures and #o--unications failure procedures **3
-.* (ntroduction
-.0 Distress 7essages
-./ @rgency 7essages
-.. >mergency Descent
-.3 Aircraft Communications %ailure
#*A%T!R +; & Trans-ission of )eteorolo/ical and other Aerodro-e 'nfor-ation *00
*+.* (ntroduction
*+.0 &unway ,isual &ange 4&,&5
*+./ &unway Surface Conditions
#*A%T!R ++ & )iscellaneous Fli/ht *andlin/ %hraseolo/y *0.
**.* %uel Dumping
**.0 Wake 'urbulence
**./ Wind Shear and 7icro Durst
**.. Direction %inding
**.3 ACAS 7anoeuvres
**.? Draking Action
**.A A(&>P 4Air reports5
**.B Weather Deviation
**.- A'(S2D$A'(S27>'A&
**.*+ (nterpilot Communications
**.** CPDC
**.*0 (nterception by 7ilitary Aircraft
**.*/ @nlawful (nterference and Aircraft Domb 'hreat
**.*. Air 'raffic (ncident &eport
**.*3 Carriage of Dangerous 9oods
**.*? )perations 1ormal &eport
**.*A >!amples of D&>A; and D&>A; D&>A;
#*A%T!R +. & *F #o--unications *.*
*0.* (ntroduction
*0.0 Definitions
*0./ Principles of 1etwork )peration
*0.. %re6uencies to be @sed
*0.3 >stablishment of Communications
*0.? 'ransfer of "% Communications
*0.A Communications %ailure
*0.B Selective Calling
#*A%T!R +0 & Visual Si/nals< Runay=Ta,iay )arkin/s=Li/htin/s *3+
*/.* (ntroduction
*/.0 Communications with A'C when 'ransmitter2&eceiver or both %ailure
*/./ ,isual Signals for ,ehicles
*/.. A'C 'ower ight Signals
*/.3 ,isual 9round Signals and Aids
*/.? &unway and 'a!iway 7arkings
*/.A &unway and 'a!iway ighting
#*A%T!R +5 & )iscellaneous *3A
*..* (ntroduction
*..0 Aeronautical Charts
*../ E Codes
*... 7orse Code
%ART & ''' RA2'" %R'$#'%L!S A$2 %RA#T'#! *?3
#*A%T!R + & !lectricity and )a/netis- *?A
*.* >lectricity
*.0 7agnetism
*./ )hmFs aw for AC Circuits
*.. &esonant %re6uency
*.3 'ransformers
*.? 7otors and 9enerators
*.A 7icrophones and Speakers
#*A%T!R . & Radio Theory *A?
0.* (ntroduction
0.0 >lectromagnetic Waves
0./ %re6uency, Wavelength and their &elationship
0.. Antenna
0.3 Polarisation
0.? Audio and &adio %re6uency Spectrum
0.A &adio Wave Propagation
0.B Dasic &adio Principles
0.- 'ypes of Communication
0.*+ >mission Designators
#*A%T!R 0 & Aircraft #o--unication and Voice Syste-s *-*
/.* (ntroduction
/.0 ,"% Communication System
/./ "% Communication System
/.. Selective Calling 4S>CA5 System
/.3 Satellite Communication 4SA'C)75
/.? >mergency ocator 'ransmitter 4>'5
/.A (ntercommunication System 4A(S5
/.B Passenger Address System 4PA5
/.- Cockpit ,oice &ecorder 4C,&5
/.*+ Controller Pilot Data ink Communication 4CPDC5
#*A%T!R 5 & Aircraft $a1i/ation Syste-s 0++
..* (ntroduction
..0 Automatic Direction %inder 4AD%5
../ ,"% )mnidirectional &ange 4,)&5
... (nstrument anding System 4(S5
..3 7icrowave anding System 47S5
..? Distance 7easuring >6uipment 4D7>5
..A )mega 1avigation System 4)1S5
..B Satellite Dased 1avigation Systems 491SS5
..- Secondary Surveillance &adar 4SS&5
..*+ Airborne Collision Avoidance System 4ACAS5
..** Weather &adar
..*0 &adio2&adar Altimeter
..*/ 9round Pro!imity Warning System 49PWS5
..*. Automatic Dependent Surveillance 4ADS5
%ART 'V %RA#T'#! T!ST %A%!RS 0*-
!(A)'$AT'"$ %ART & ' 00*
P&AC'(CA '>S' # &>9@A'()1S A1D P&)C>D@&>
!(A)'$AT'"$ %ART & '' 03+
)&A >GA7(1A'()1 # &AD() P&(1C(P>S A1D P&AC'(C>
4A5 &>9@A'()1S A1D P&)C>D@&>
4D5 &AD() P&(1C(P>S A1D P&AC'(C>
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
%ART '
#*A%T!R +
'$TR"24#T'"$ T" T*! !(A)'$AT'"$
+.+ 'ntroduction
&adio 'elephony &estricted 4Aeronautical5 licence e!amination is conducted by the
Wireless Planning and Coordination 4WPC5 Wing of Department of Communications 4D)'5,
7inistry of Communications and (nformation 'echnology, 9overnment of (ndia. (t is a Certificate
of Proficiency 4C)P5 e!amination and upon successfully passing the e!amination, a C)P and
icence will be issued by the WPC which confers the privilege of operating the radio navigation
e6uipment installed on an aircraft 4aeromobile station5.
+.+.+ !li/i?ility
>ligibility for admission to the e!amination is matriculation and while applying for the
e!amination, the candidate must be minimum eighteen years of age.
+.+.. !,a-ination 2ates and Venues
'he e!amination is conducted every even month of the year at select venues all over (ndia.
'he months and the list of venues are given below<
%ebruary < 7umbai
April < 1ew Delhi
Cune < Chennai
August < ;olkata
)ctober < 1ew Delhi
December < "yderabad
'he tentative dates of the e!aminations for each session are published in the website of
WPC every December.
+.. !,a-ination %attern
'he e!amination will consist of the following two parts<
%art>' # Practical test in &egulations and Procedure # *++ 7arks
A practical test will be conducted over a synthetic &2' circuit. Candidates will be re6uired
to use phonetic alphabets and general procedure for radio telephone working. Candidates will be
re6uired to carry out communications associated with mobile and2or base stations. 'ypical
e!amples of what the candidates are e!pected to carry out are< preparation of messages for
transmission, e!change of traffic, use of priorities re6uesting D2% assistance, obtaining
meteorological information, position reports, distress, urgency, safety and D2% procedure.
%art>'' # )ral e!amination in
4a5 &egulations and Procedure H
H $ *++ 7arks
4b5 &adio Principles and Practice H
Note 1:- The maximum marks in each Part I and II is 100 and minimum pass is 50 in individual
parts !andidates who do not "ualif# in Part I will $e considered failed in the %&T examination
+.0 Sylla?us
+.0.+ Re/ulations and %rocedure
4a5 (nternational 'elecommunication Convention I &adio &egulations
4b5 9eneral and Aeronautical JEF Code Signals and other abbreviations as contained in Anne!ure
*+ 4,ol.( I ((5 of (nternational Civil Aviation )rganisation.
4c5 9eneral &adio telephone Communication procedures and radio telephone communication
procedure for distress urgency and direction finding.
4d5 Procedures for distress communication in 7aritime 7obile Service.
4e5 Words and figures spelling used in radio telephone.
4f5 icensing re6uirements of installation and operation of radio apparatus used in aircraft.
4g5 7inimum re6uirement of radio e6uipment to be carried on aircraft as prescribed in Anne!ure ?
of the (nternational Civil Aviation )rganisation and Civil Aviation Authority in (ndia.
4h5 %light (nformation &egions in (ndia and main &adio Communication and 1avigation facilities
available together with principal fre6uencies to be used for communication and navigation
within (ndia.
4i5 7eteorological codes, pre$flight briefing services and their usages.
4:5 ;nowledge of notices to airmen issued by the Civil Aviation Authorities in (ndia as applicable to
the Aeronautical mobile and Air traffic Control Services.
+.0.. Radio %rinciples @ %ractice
;nowledge of >lectrical @nits such as ,olt, Ampere, )hm and Watt8 Wavelength,
fre6uency and their relationship8 >lementary knowledge of radio fre6uency propagation, and night
fre6uencies, skip distances, fading, ground shadow and its effect on communication, choice of
fre6uencies to attain ma!imum efficiency in handling air ground "% Communications.
9eneral knowledge of systems employed for air$ground communications including
S>CA operation, inter$communication and announcing systems of aircraft8 elementary
knowledge of &adio$navigation Aids, operation of microphones and headphones, S6uelch, A,C,
,olume control, tuning of transmitter, simple! and duple! operation8 advantages and disadvantages
of &adio telephone communication8 limitations of range due to fre6uency interference etc.
+.5 Reference for Study
&eference for study given below is limited to aeromobile service re6uirements and allied
regulatory matters only.
4a5 ('@ &adio &egulations.
4b5 (CA) Publications<$
4i5 Anne!ure $ *+ ,ol. ( I ((.
4ii5 D)C .... # Procedure of Air 1avigation Service 4PA1S5 and Air 'raffic
7anagement 4A'75
4iii5 D)C -./0 $ 7anual of &adio 'elephony.
4iv5 D)C B.++ $ Abbreviations and codes.
4c5 AA(2D9CA Publications<$
4i5 Aeronautical (nformation Publication 4A(P5.
4ii5 A>&AD().
4d5 Suitable book4s5 for &adio Communication Principles. 7any books are available on this sub:ect.
4i5 'he amateur &adio &elay league handbook
4ii5 Dasic &adio by 7arvin 'epper 4,olume ( # ,(5
4iii5 >lectronic Communication by &obert . Shrader
4iv5 &adio 'echnology by Ashok Sa!ena
Note ':- (P! recommends that the candidates in their own interest stud# the functioning of a
t#pical modern %&T installation on $oard a civil passenger aircraft) as well as at the ground station
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A%T!R .
+.+ 'ntroduction
Dasic knowledge of organisations involved in aeronautical telecommunications is re6uired
to understand the background of evolution and implementation of &' procedures. &elevant
information about such organisations is given in this chapter.
+.. Aireless %lannin/ and #oordination Ain/ (A%#)
Created in *-30, the WPC is an organisation within the Department of 'elecommunications,
7inistry of Communication and (nformation 'echnology, 9overnment of (ndia. (t not only
promotes the ob:ectives of (nternational 'elecommunication @nion 4('@5 in (ndia, WPC is the
1ational &adio &egulatory Authority for fre6uency spectrum management. (t caters to the needs of
all government and private wireless users. (t maintains the records of radio fre6uency allocation to
various agencies which include the commercial mobile communication, aeromobile service,
commercial and state broadcasting, amateur radio users etc.
'he WPC conducts the e!amination for award of &'&, 9lobal 7arine Distress and Safety
Service 497DSS5 and Amateur &adio C)P and licences. Also, it issues licences to establish,
maintain and operate wireless stations. WPC is divided into the following ma:or sections<
4a5 icensing and &egulation 4&5
4b5 1ew 'echnology 9roup 41'95
4c5 Standing Advisory Committee on &adio %re6uency Allocation 4SAC%A5.
'he WPC has its head 6uarters in 1ew Delhi and regional offices in Chennai, "yderabad,
;olkata and 7umbai. Postal address of WPC "E is A%# Ain/< #"% Section< 7
Floor< Sanchar
Bhaan< .; Ashoka Road< $e 2elhi< %'$B ++;;;+
'he WPC maintains a website through which information about the WPC and its activities
can be accessed. Also, registration process for the &'&4A5 e!amination is done through this
website. Website<
+.0 'nternational Teleco--unication 4nion ('T4)
With the motto JCommitted to connecting the worldF the 'nternational
Teleco--unication 4nion 4*nion internationale des t+l+communications, in %rench5 is the
specialiKed agency of the @nited 1ations )rganisation which is responsible for information and
communication technologies. ('@ coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum,
promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve
telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world and establishes worldwide standards.
('@ was founded in Paris in *B?3 as the (nternational 'elegraph @nion. (t took its present
name in *-/., and in *-.A became a specialiKed agency of the @nited 1ations. Although its first
area of e!pertise was the telegraph, the work of ('@ now covers the whole (C' sector, from digital
broadcasting to the (nternet, and from mobile technologies to /D ',. An organiKation of public$
private partnership since its inception, ('@ currently has a membership of *-/ countries and some
A++ private$sector entities. ('@ is head6uartered in 9eneva, SwitKerland, and has twelve regional
and area offices around the world. Website<
+.0.+ Radio Re/ulations (RR)
'he &adio &egulations incorporate the decisions of the World &adio Communication
Conferences, including all Appendices, &esolutions, &ecommendations and ('@$&
&ecommendations incorporated by reference. &adio &egulations form an integral part of
Administrative &egulations and are published under the &egulatory Publications of ('@$&.
'he latest version of && is the 0++B edition contained in ,olume * through . red books.
Contents of the && are<
4a5 ,olume * # Articles 4total 3- articles5. Articles related to aeronautical communications and
services are<
4i5 Article 0/ # Droadcasting services
4ii5 Article 0B # &adiodetermination services
4iii5 Article /3 through .3 # Aeronautical services
4b5 ,olume 0 # Appendices 4total .0 appendices5. Articles related to aeronautical communications
and services are<
4i5 Appendi! * # Classification of emissions and necessary bandwidths
4ii5 Appendi! */ # Distress and safety communication 41on 97DSS5
4c5 ,olume / # &esolutions and &ecommendations
4d5 ,olume . # ('@$& &ecommendations incorporated by reference.
+.5 'nternational #i1il A1iation "r/anisation ('#A")
Convention on (nternational Civil Aviation 4also known as Chicago Convention5, was
signed on A December *-.. by 30 States. Pending ratification of the Convention by 0? States, the
Provisional (nternational Civil Aviation )rganiKation 4P(CA)5 was established. (t functioned from
? Cune *-.3 until . April *-.A. Dy 3 7arch *-.A the 0?th ratification was received. (CA) came
into being on . April *-.A. (n )ctober of the same year, (nternational Civil Aviation )rganisation
became a specialiKed agency of the @nited 1ations linked to >conomic and Social Council
4>C)S)C5. (CA) was created to promote the safe and orderly development of international civil
aviation throughout the world. (t sets standards and regulations necessary for aviation safety,
security, efficiency and regularity, as well as for aviation environmental protection. 'he
)rganiKation serves as the forum for cooperation in all fields of civil aviation among its *-*
7ember States.
'he (CA) is the global forum for civil aviation. (CA) works to achieve its vision of safe,
secure and sustainable development of civil aviation through the cooperation of its 7ember States.
'he strategic ob:ectives of the (CA) are enhancement of global aviation safety and security
and, foster harmonised and economically viable development of international civil aviation that
does not unduly harm the environment.
'he )rganisation is made up of<
4a5 The Asse-?ly, composed of representatives from all Contracting States, is the sovereign body
of (CA). (t meets every three years, reviewing in detail the work of the )rganiKation and setting
policy for the coming years.
4b5 The #ouncil, the governing body which is elected by the Assembly for a three$year term, is
composed of /? States. 'he Council is headed by a President.
4c5 The Secretariat, headed by a Secretary 9eneral, is divided into five main divisions< the Air
1avigation Dureau, the Air 'ransport Dureau, the 'echnical Co$operation Dureau, the egal
Dureau, and the Dureau of Administration and Services.
@nder Article /A of the Convention, (nternational Standards and &ecommended Practices
4SA&P5 and Procedures for Aeronautical 'elecommunications were promulgated. Contracting
states are to comply with the Standards laid down in the Anne! or file their differences. Differences
from (CA) SA&P and Procedures in (ndia are published in A(P ,)@7> (, 9>1 *.A.
,arious sub:ects, covering different aspects of international civil aviation are promulgated
by the (CA) in eighteen Anne!es.
Anne! * Personnel licensing
Anne! 0 &ules of the air
Anne! / 7eteorological services for international air navigation
Anne! . Aeronautical charts
Anne! 3 @nits of measurements to be used in air and ground operations
Anne! ? )peration of aircraft
Part (< (nternational commercial air transport # aeroplanes
Part ((< (nternational general aviation # aeroplanes
Part (((< (nternational operations # helicopters
Anne! A Aircraft nationality and registration marks
Anne! B Airworthiness of aircraft
Anne! - %acilitation
Anne! *+ Aeronautical 'elecommunication
,olume (< &adio 1avigation aids
,olume ((< Communication procedures
,olume (((< Communication systems
,olume (,< Surveillance radars and collision avoidance systems
,olume ,< Aeronautical radio fre6uency spectrum utilisation
Anne! ** Air 'raffic Services
Anne! *0 Search and &escue
Anne! */ Aircraft accident investigations
Anne! *. Aerodromes
,olume (< Aerodrome Design and )perations
,olume ((< "eliports
Anne! *3 Aeronautical (nformation Services
Anne! *? Protection
,olume (< Aircraft 1oise
,olume ((< Aircraft engine emissions
Anne! *A Security # Safeguarding international civil aviation against acts of unlawful
Anne! *B 'he safe transport of dangerous goods by air
'he reader will notice that Anne!es *+ and *3 are of particular importance for &'&4A5
+.6 Airports Authority of 'ndia (AA')
'he Airports Authority of (ndia 4AA(5 is an organiKation working under the 7inistry of
Civil Aviation that manages most of the airports in (ndia. 'he AA( manages and operates *0?
airports and /0- airstrips including *? international airports, B- domestic airports and 0? civil
Airports Authority of (ndia 4AA(5 was constituted by an Act of Parliament and came into
being on * April *--3 by merging erstwhile 1ational Airports Authority and (nternational Airports
Authority of (ndia. 'he merger brought into e!istence a single )rganiKation entrusted with the
responsibility of creating, upgrading, maintaining and managing civil aviation infrastructure both on
the ground and air space in the country.
'he AA( is directly responsible for providing the following services<
4a5 Aeronautical (nformation Services 4A(S5
4b5 Aeronautical 'elecommunication, 1avigation and Surveillance 4C1S5
4c5 Air 'raffic Services 4A'S5
'he corporate head 6uarters 4C"E5 is at &a:iv 9andhi Dhawan, Safdar:ung Airport, 1ew
Delhi. AA( maintains a website through which it provides information about the
+.7 2irector General of #i1il A1iation (2G#A)
With the vision Lendeavour to promote safe and efficient air transportation through
regulation and proactive safety oversight systemM the D9CA is responsible for promulgating the
Civil Aviation &e6uirements 4CA&5. CA& stipulates the re6uirements which are obligatory for the
aircraft operators for maintaining the safety, security and efficient aircraft operations in (ndia.
D9CA ensures the airworthiness of aircraft operating in (ndia and is also responsible for the
licensing of flight and maintenance crew.
D9CA has its head6uarters opposite to Safdar:ung Airport, 1ew Delhi # **+++/. (t has
regional and subordinate offices all over (ndia. )fficial website of D9CA is
+.7.+ Licensin/
+.7.+.+ Fli/ht #re
Schedule (( of Aircraft &ules *-/A prescribes the re6uirements for issue of flight crew
licence. CP and A'P holders are re6uired to possess %light &adio 'elephone )peratorFs icence
4%&')5 for issue of pilot licences in the respective categories.
Dased on the &'& e!amination conducted by the WPC, Directorate of 'raining and
icensing of D9CA issues %&')$& to the applicants. %&')$& e!aminations are conducted by
%lying 'raining (nstitutes2Academies2Clubs authorised by the D9CA. An applicant of CP or
A'P is re6uired to produce %&') 4&estricted or 9eneral5 along with the re6uisite e!perience for
issuance of %&').
+.7.+.. Aircraft )aintenance !n/ineers
CA& Section 0, Series , Part ( re6uires that for issue of Aircraft 7aintenance >ngineerFs
licence in Category &, the applicant must possess &'& 4Aero5 icence issued by the 7inistry of
Communication at the time of oral cum practical test.
+.7.+.0 Aircraft
According to &ule 3A of Aircraft &ules *-/A, CA& Section 0, Series (, Part (( re6uires the
aircraft be fitted with e6uipment including radio apparatus. 'he detailed re6uirements of
communication and navigation e6uipment to be fitted on different categories of aircraft are given in
different Parts of CA& Section 0, Series ) and A(P ,olume (, Part *, 9>1*.3.
(n general, an aircraft is re6uired to be fitted with<
4i5 Communication e6uipment capable of providing two$way communication on prescribed
fre6uencies for aerodrome control purposes, receive meteorological information during any time of
the flight and conducting two$way communication with at least one aeronautical station on
prescribed fre6uencies, during any time of flight. Aircraft e6uipped with "% communication
systems shall be capable of operating on SSD mode. Also, communication e6uipment must be
capable of communications on international aeronautical emergency fre6uency of *0*.3 7"K.
4ii5 1avigation e6uipment which will enable the aircraft to proceed in accordance with the flight
plan, in accordance with prescribed &e6uired 1avigation Performance 4&1P5 types and in
accordance with the re6uirements of A'S.
4iii5 >6uipment which can provide continuous indications of adhering to or departing from the
prescribed flight track for flights in airspace where 7inimum 1avigation Performance
Specifications 471PS5 are prescribed.
4iv5 >6uipment which can provide< indications of the flight level being flown, automatically
maintain a selected flight level, alert indications if the aircraft deviates from the selected flight level
in airspaces where aircraft have to maintain a ,ertical Separation 7inimum 4,S75 of *+++ ft
above %0-+.
%urther, CA& Section 0, Series &, Part ( re6uires that the radio e6uipment installed on an
aircraft registered in (ndia shall<
4i5 be of the type approved by the D9CA
4ii5 be installed and operated with a licence issued under the (ndian 'elegraph Act of *BB3 and the
rules made thereunder as amended from time to time and in a manner approved by the D9CA
4iii5 be operated only by a person who holds an approved valid licence issued by the
D9CA27inistry of Communication.
+.8 'ndian )eteorolo/ical 2epart-ent (')2)
A part of 7inistry of >arth Sciences, the (ndian 7eteorological Department was established
in *BA3. (t is the principal government agency in all matters relating to meteorology, seismology
and allied sub:ects.
(7D provides the meteorological services re6uired by the civil aviation. (7D has its
head6uarters at 7ausam Dhawan, odhi &oad, 1ew Delhi # **+++/ and maintains the website
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A%T!R 0
A!R"$A4T'#AL S!RV'#!S
0.+ 'ntroduction
Aeronautical services are necessary to achieve the ob:ectives of safety, regularity and
efficiency of international air navigation. (CA) has made provisions to achieve these ob:ectives by
laying down various Standards and &ecommended Practices 4SA&P5 and Procedures through the
(CA) Anne!es. (n (ndia, Airport Authority of (ndia 4AA(5 is responsible for promulgating and
implementing the provisions of the (CA) anne!es adapted for the (ndian environment. Different
aeronautical services in (ndia are as follows<
4a5 Aeronautical 'elecommunication, navigation and surveillance services 4C1S5
4b5 Aeronautical (nformation Service 4A(S5
4c5 Air 'raffic Services 4A'S5
Above services are the responsibilities of AA(. 'wo other services, which are not the direct
responsibilities of AA(, but e6ually important for achieving the aeronautical service ob:ectives are<
4d5 7eteorological Services
4e5 Search and &escue Service
'he scope and relevance of the above services are discussed in the following paragraphs.
0.. Aeronautical Teleco--unications< $a1i/ation and Sur1eillance & #$S
'he ob:ect of the international aeronautical telecommunication service is to ensure the
telecommunications and radio aids to air navigation which are necessary for the safety, regularity
and efficiency of international air navigation. Procedures for the (nternational Aeronautical
'elecommunication Service are set forth in the (CA) Anne! *+ ,olume 0 for worldwide use.
Supplementary Procedures may be re6uired in certain cases in order to meet particular re6uirements
of the (CA) &egions. Any Supplementary Procedure recommended for this purpose must be a
re6uirement peculiar to the region and must not be contained in, nor conflict with, any worldwide
Procedure of (CA). C1S services are provided in accordance with (CA) Anne! *+, Document
.... 4Procedure for Air 1avigation Services$Air 'raffic 7anagement5, Document B*?B 4Procedure
for Air 1avigation Services$Aircraft )perations5, Document A+/+ 4&egional Supplementary
Procedures5 and Document A-*+ 4ocation (ndicators5.
0...+ Responsi?le Ser1ice in 'ndia
AA( has the responsibility of overall provision, operation, maintenance and administration
of communication, navigation and surveillance 4C1S5 facilities for the entire (ndian %light
(nformation &egions 4%(&5.
%or the purpose of administrative provisions, the international telecommunication service is
divided into four parts<
4a5 Aeronautical fi!ed service
4b5 Aeronautical mobile service
4c5 Aeronautical radio navigation service
4d5 Aeronautical broadcasting service
0.... Aeronautical Fi,ed Ser1ice (AFS)< A telecommunication service between specified fi!ed
points provided primarily for the safety of air navigation and for the regular, efficient and
economical operation of air services.
'he aeronautical fi!ed service shall comprise the systems and applications that are used for
ground$ground 4i.e. point$to$point and2or point$to$multipoint5 communications in the international
aeronautical telecommunication service.
0...0 Aeronautical -o?ile ser1ice< A mobile service between aeronautical stations and aircraft
stations, or between aircraft stations, in which survival craft stations may participate8 emergency
position$indicating radio beacon stations may also participate in this service on designated distress
and emergency fre6uencies.
%or the purpose of prioritisation and handling, the aeronautical mobile service messages are
categorised and given as per priority below<
4a5 2istress calls< distress -essa/es and distress traffic 4&adio telephony designator )A32A35
4b5 4r/ency -essa/es includin/ -essa/es preceded ?y the -edical transports si/nal 4&adio
telephony designator %A$ %A$ or %A$ %A$ )!2'#AL5
Note 1:- ,oth the a$ove categories are discussed in detail in Part II !hapter -
4c5 Communications relating to direction finding
Note ':- .$ove categor# is discussed in paragraph /'0$elow and Part II !hapter 11) para 110
4d5 Fli/ht safety -essa/es shall comprise the following<
4i5 7ovement and control messages
4ii5 7essages originated by an aircraft operating agency or by an aircraft, of immediate concern to
an aircraft in flight
4iii5 7eteorological advice of immediate concern to an aircraft in flight or about to depart
4individually communicated or for broadcast5
4iv5 )ther messages concerning aircraft in flight or about to depart.
4e5 )eteorolo/ical -essa/es shall comprise meteorological information to or from aircraft, other
than those in 4d5 4iii5 above.
4f5 Fli/ht re/ularity -essa/es shall comprise the following<
4i5 7essages regarding the operation or maintenance of facilities essential for the safety or
regularity of aircraft operation
4ii5 7essages concerning the servicing of aircraft
4iii5 (nstructions to aircraft operating agency representatives concerning changes in re6uirements for
passengers and crew caused by unavoidable deviations from normal operating schedules.
(ndividual re6uirements of passengers or crew shall not be admissible in this type of message
4iv5 7essages concerning non$routine landings to be made by the aircraft
4v5 7essages concerning aircraft parts and materials urgently re6uired
4vi5 7essages concerning changes in aircraft operating schedules
0...5 Aeronautical Radio $a1i/ation Ser1ice A radio navigation service intended for the benefit
and for the safe operation of the aircraft.
&adio navigation service is responsible for providing the following services<
4a5 7edium %re6uency 47%5 1on$directional Deacon 41DD5
4b5 ,ery "igh %re6uency 4,"%5 )mni$directional &adio &anging 4,)&5
4c5 (nstrument anding System 4(S5
4d5 Distance 7easuring >6uipment 4D7>5
4e5 Surveillance radar systems
Note /:1 The following %adio %egulations are "uoted for purposes of reference and&or clarit# in
understanding of the a$ove definition of the aeronautical radio navigation service:
%% 21- &adiodetermination< The determination of the position) velocit# and&or other
characteristics of an o$3ect) or the o$taining of information relating to these parameters) $# means
of the propagation properties of radio waves
%% 2110 &adio navigation< %adiodetermination used for the purpose of navigation) including
o$struction warning
'he aeronautical radio navigation service shall comprise all types and systems of radio
navigation aids in the international aeronautical service. An aeronautical radio navigation aid which
is not in continuous operation shall, if practicable, be put into operation on receipt of a re6uest from
an aircraft, any controlling authority on the ground, or an authoriKed representative of an aircraft
operating agency.
&e6uests from aircraft should be made to the aeronautical station concerned on the air$
ground fre6uency normally in use.
Direction$finding stations work either singly or in groups of two or more stations under the
direction of a main direction$finding station.
A direction$finding station working alone can only determine the direction of an aircraft in
relation to itself. A direction$finding station working alone should give the following, as re6uested<
4a5 'rue bearing of the aircraft, using the appropriate phrase 4E'>5
4b5 'rue heading to be steered by the aircraft, with no wind, to head for the direction$finding station
using the appropriate phrase 4E@C5
4c5 7agnetic bearing of the aircraft, using the appropriate phrase 4ED&5
4d5 7agnetic heading to be steered by the aircraft with no wind to make for the station, using the
appropriate phrase. 4ED75
When direction$finding stations work as a network to determine the position of an aircraft,
the bearings taken by each station should be sent immediately to the station controlling the
direction$finding network to enable the position of the aircraft to be determined. 'he station
controlling the network should, on re6uest, give the aircraft its position in one of the following
4a5 Position in relation to a point of reference or in latitude and longitude, using the appropriate
phrase 4E'%5
4b5 'rue bearing of the aircraft in relation to the direction finding station or other specified point,
using the appropriate phrase 4E'>5, and its distance from the direction finding station or point,
using the appropriate phrase 4E9>5
4c5 7agnetic heading to steer with no wind, to make for the direction$finding station or other
specified point using the appropriate phrase 4ED75, and its distance from the direction$finding
station or point, using the appropriate phrase 4E9>5.
Note 0:- 4or %T procedure pertaining to direction finding) refer Part II !hapter 11) para 110
0...6 Aeronautical Broadcastin/ Ser1ice< A broadcasting service intended for the
transmission of information relating to air navigation. ,arious types of aeronautical
broadcasting service are<
0...6.+ Auto-atic Ter-inal 'nfor-ation Ser1ice (AT'S5 is the automatic provision of current,
routine information to arriving and departing aircraft throughout 0. hours or a specified portion
thereof. 'he A'(S message is intended to provide a pilot with a range of information to enable him
to make a definite decision about his approach and landing or take$off. (t reduces the
communication load on the A'S ,"% air$ground communication channels.
A'(S service is provided at ma:or airports in (ndia. 'he broadcast is about meteorological
conditions in and around the terminal aerodrome and is continuous and repetitive. 'he A'(S
broadcast message contains information meant for arriving and departing traffic in the order
indicated below<
4a5 1ame of the aerodrome
4b5 NNDesignator i.e. the word L(1%)&7A'()1M and identification letter from (CA) alphabet.
4c5 'ime of observation
4d5 'ype of approach to be e!pected
4e5 'he runway4s5 in use
4f5 'ransition level
4g5 )ther essential operational information
4h5 Surface wind direction and speed, including significant variations
4i5 N,isibility and when applicable &,&
4k5 NPresent weather
4l5 NCloud below 3+++ %t or below the highest minimum sector altitude whichever is greater,
4m5 N 'hese elements are replaced by term LCA,);M, whenever applicable.
4n5 Air temperature
4o5 Dew point temperature
4p5 Altimeter setting4s5
465 Any available information on significant meteorological phenomena in the approach and climb
out areas including wind shear and information on recent weather of operational significance
contained in the 7>' report.
4r5 'rend forecast, when applicable
4s5 'he word L(1%)&7A'()1M followed by LdesignatorM and the word L)@'M
Note 5: 5 (hen rapidl# changing meteorological conditions make it impractica$le to transmit an
up-to-date weather report) the .TI2 message will indicate that weather information will $e supplied
on initial contact with appropriate .T2 unit
Note 6:- 77 8esignators assigned to consecutive .TI2 messages shall $e in alpha$etical order
0...6.. 2atalink>Auto-atic Ter-inal 'nfor-ation Ser1ice (2>AT'S) is the provision of A'(S
via data link.
0...6.0 Aerodro-e Routine )eteorolo/ical Report ()!TAR) is the current weather
observation at an aerodrome. (t can be passed to an aircraft either by broadcast 4A'(S2DA'(S5 or by
an aeronautical station to an aircraft on re6uest. 7eteorological broadcast over navigational aids is
available in 7umbai 4**?.? 7"K # ,)&5, ;olkata 4**0.3 7"K # ,)& and /0/ ;"K $ 1DD5 and
Delhi 4**?.* 7"K # ,)& and 0A3 ;"K # 1DD5. 4Also see Part (((, Chapter ., paragraph ../...*5
0...6.5 V"L)!T Continuous or fre6uent broadcast to make available current aerodrome
reports and forecasts in areas where traffic congestion dictates. Dased on regional air navigation
agreements, ,)7>' broadcasts are done from )u-?ai and Kolkata at half hourly intervals
which contain Current Weather &eports and Aerodrome %orecasts of certain stations. 'hese stations
are notified in A(P (ndia 49eneral /..5. anguage used for these broadcasts is >nglish.
0...6.6 S'G)!T Significant 7eteorological (nformation 4S(97>'5 pertaining to the %(&. 'he
information is issued to the A'S units at %(C and ACC from the 7eteorological Watch )ffices
47W)5 in Chennai, Delhi, ;olkata and 7umbai for transmission to aircraft in flight. ,alidity of
the S(97>' is . hours.
Note 9:- 2I:;<T) =>?;<T and .TI2&8.TI2 are grouped as In-flight services
Ta?le 0.+ V"L)!T Broadcast
$a-e of
#all si/n
*ours of
#ontent of
&adio 4A/C5
0-?3 ;"K
0-?3 ;"K
??A? ;"K "0.
Note @:- ;et reports include ANB values
0...6.7 Radiotelephone Broadcast %rocedures
0...6.7.+ Broadcast TechniCue
'ransmissions by radiotelephone should be as natural, short, concise and clear. &ate of
speech on radiotelephone broadcasts should not e!ceed *++ words per minute.
0...6.7.. %rea-?le of the General #all
'he preamble of each radiotelephone broadcast shall consist of the general call, station
name, and optionally the time of broadcast 4@'C5.
4general call5 A S'A'()1S
4the words '"(S (S5 '"(S (S
4station name5 7@7DA( &AD()
4time of broadcast5 '(7>, Q>&) Q>&) %)@& %(,>
0.0 Aeronautical 'nfor-ation Ser1ices & A'S
(CA) Anne! *3 defines the re6uirements of Aeronautical (nformation Services, one of the
least known and most vital roles in support of international civil aviation. (n (ndia, AA( publishes
the 7anual of Aeronautical (nformation Services and 7anual of Air 'raffic Services in accordance
with the stipulations of (CA).
'he ob:ect of the aeronautical information service is to ensure the flow of information
necessary for the safety, regularity and efficiency of international air navigation. Anne! *3 defines
how an aeronautical information service shall receive and2or originate, collate or assemble, edit,
format, publish2store and distribute specified aeronautical information2data. 'he goal is to satisfy
the need for uniformity and consistency in the provision of aeronautical information2data that is
re6uired for the operational use by international civil aviation.
0.0.+ Responsi?le Ser1ice in 'ndia
'he Aeronautical (nformation Service which forms part of Airports Authority of (ndia
ensures the flow of information necessary for the safety, regularity and efficiency of international
and national air navigation within the areas of its responsibility. 'he A(S is responsible for the
collection and dissemination of information for the entire territory of the (ndia and ad:oining oceanic
airspace over Day of Dengal, (ndian )cean and Arabian Sea allocated to (ndia by (CA) for the provision of
Air 'raffic Services. (t consists of<
4a5 A(S "ead6uarters at Airports Authority of (ndia, &a:iv 9andhi Dhavan, Safdar:ung, 1ew Delhi
4b5 (nternational 1)'A7 )ffices 41)%5 at Chennai, ;olkata, 7umbai and 1ew Delhi
4c5 A(S units established at certain aerodromes.
0.0.. Aeronautical %u?lications
'he Aeronautical (nformation is provided in the form of the integrated Aeronautical
(nformation Package consisting of the following elements<
4a5 Aeronautical (nformation Publication 4A(P5
4b5 Amendment service to the A(P 4A(P A7D'5
4c5 Supplement to the A(P 4A(P S@P5
4d5 1)'A7 and Pre$%light information bulletins 4P(D5
4e5 Aeronautical (nformation Circulars 4A(C5
4f5 Check$lists and summaries
4g5 A>&AD() 4not a part of A(P5
0.0...+ Aeronautical 'nfor-ation %u?lication (A'%)
(ssued by the AA(, the A(P is the basic aviation document intended primarily to satisfy
international re6uirements for the e!change of permanent aeronautical information and long
duration temporary changes essential for air navigation. 'he A(P is published in >nglish for use in
(nternational and Domestic operations. 'he A(P is published in loose leaf form.
A(P (ndia is published in two volumes, ,olume ( and ,olume ((. 'he contents of both
volumes are as given below<
0.0...+.+ Volu-e ' contains of Part * 49eneral5 and Part 0 4>n$route5.
0.0...+.+.+ %art +>Geneal (G!$) consists of five sections. Content topics of the sections are
mentioned below<
G!$ ;<$ 9>1 +.* Preface, 9>1 +.0 &ecord of A(P amendments, 9>1 +./ &ecord of A(P
supplements, 9>1 +.. Checklist of A(P pages, 9>1 +.3 ist of hand amendments to the A(P,
9>1 +.? 'able of contents to Part *.
G!$ +<$ 9>1 *.* Designated authorities, 9>1 *.0 >ntry, transit and departure of aircraft, 9>1 *./
>ntry, transit and departure of passengers and crew, 9>1 *.. >ntry, transit and departure of cargo,
9>1 *.3 Aircraft instruments, e6uipment and flight documents, 9>1 *.? Summary of national
regulations and international agreements2 conventions, 9>1 *.A Differences from (CA) Standards,
&ecommended Practices and Procedures.
G!$ . Ta?les and codes<$ 9>1 0.* 7easuring system, aircraft markings, holidays, 9>1 0.0
Abbreviations used in A(S publications, 0./ Chart symbols, 9>1 0.. ocation (ndicators, 9>1 0.3
ist of radio navigation aids, 9>1 0.? Conversion tables, 9>1 0.A Sunrise2sunset tables.
G!$ 0 Ser1ices<$ 9>1 /.* Aeronautical information Services, 9>1 /.0 Aeronautical charts,
9>1 /./ Air traffic services, 9>1 /.. Communication Services, 9>1 /.3 7eteorological services,
9>1 /.? Search and rescue.
G!$ 5 #har/es for aerodro-es and air na1i/ation ser1ices<$ 9>1 ..* Aerodrome charges,
9>1 ..0 Air 1avigation services charges.
0.0...+.+.. %art .> !n>route (!$R) consists of seven sections. Content topics of the sections are
mentioned below<
!$R ;<$ >1& +.* to >1& +.3 not applicable, >1& +.? 'able of contents to Part 0.
!$R + General rules and proceduresB> >1& *.* 9eneral rules, >1& *.0 ,isual flight rules,
>1& *./ (nstrument flight rules, >1& *.. A'S airspace classification, >1& *.3 "olding, approach
and departure procedures, >1& *.? &adar services and procedures, >1& *.A Altimeter setting
procedures, >1& *.B &egional supplementary procedures, >1& *.- Air traffic flow management,
>1& *.*+ %light planning, >1& *.** Addressing of flight plan messages, >1& *.*0 (nterception of
civil aircraft, >1& *.*/ @nlawful interference, >1& *.*. Air traffic incidents.
!$R . Air traffic ser1ices Airspace<$ >1& 0.* %light (nformation &egion 4%(&5 and 'erminal Control
Area 4'7A5, >1& 0.0 )ther regulated airspace.
!$R 0 ATS routes<$ >1& /.*, /.0 and /./ A'S routes established in (ndia, both for international
and domestic flights, lower and upper limits of A'S &outes and Area 1avigation &outes 4&1A,5,
>1& /.. "elicopter routes, >1& /.3 )ther routes, >1& /.? >n$route holding.
!$R 5 Radio na1i/ation aids=syste-s<$ >1& ..* &adio navigation aids en$route and stations,
>1& ..0 Special navigation systems, >1& ../ 9lobal navigation satellite system 491SS5, >1& ...
1ame$code designators for significant points, >1& ..3 Aeronautical ground lights en$route.
!$R 6 $a1i/ation arnin/s<$ >1& 3.* Prohibited, restricted and danger areas, >1& 3.0 7ilitary
e!ercise and training areas and air defence identification Kone 4AD(Q5, >1& 3./ )ther activities of
dangerous nature and other potential haKards, >1& 3.. Air navigation obstacles, >1& 3.3 Aerial
sporting and recreational activities, >1& 3.? Dird migration areas with sensitive fauna
!$R 7 !n>route charts<$ >n$chart is prepared for the entire (ndian %(& which includes data of all
aerodromes, prohibited, restricted I dangerous areas and Air 'raffic Services system in detail.
0.0...+.. Volu-e '' contains of Part / 4Aerodromes5.
0.0...+...+ %art 0 Aerodro-es (A2) consists of three sections. Content topics of the section are
mentioned below<
A2 ;<$ AD +.* to AD +.3 same as 9>1 +.* to 9>1 +.3, AD +.? 'able of contents to Part /
A2 + Aerodro-es=*eliports introduction<$ AD *.* Aerodrome2"eliport availability, AD *.0
&escue and fire fighting services, AD *./ (nde! to aerodromes, AD *.. 9rouping of aerodromes
A2 . Aerodro-es<$ AD 0.* Aerodrome location indicator and name, AD 0.0 Aerodrome
geographical and administrative data, AD 0./ )perational hours, AD 0.. "andling services and
facilities, AD 0.3 Passenger facilities, AD 0.? &escue and firefighting services, 0.A Seasonal
availability # clearing, AD 0.B Aprons, ta!iways and check locations2positions data, AD 0.- Surface
movement guidance and control system and markings, AD 0.*+ Aerodrome obstacles, AD 0.**
7eteorological information provided, AD 0.*0 &unway physical characteristics, AD 0.*/ Declared
distances, AD 0.*. Approach and runway lighting, AD 0.*3 )ther lighting, secondary power
supply, AD 0.*? "elicopter landing area, AD 0.*A Air traffic services airspace, AD 0.*B Air traffic
services communication facilities, AD 0.*- &adio navigation and landing aids, AD 0.0+ ocal
traffic regulations, AD 0.0* 1oise abatement, AD 0.0/ Additional information, AD 0.0. Charts
related to an aerodrome.
0.0.... A-end-ent Ser1ice to the A'% (A'% A)2T)
(ssued by the AA(, Amendment to the A(P is made once in the year in the month of April.
Amendments are in the form of replacement sheets which should replace the appropriate page in the
A(P. A(P amendments are published as &egular A(P A7D's and A(&AC A(P A7D's.
A(P amendments 4regular and A(&AC5 are allocated separate serial numbers which are
consecutive and based on the calendar year. 'he year, indicated by two digits, is a part of the Serial
number of the amendment e.g. A(P A7D' *2**8 A(&AC A(P A7D' *2**.
0.0...0 Supple-ent to the A'% (A'% S4%)
(ssued by the AA(, changes of temporary nature, lasting three months and longer duration
and information of short duration which consists of e!tensive te!t and2or graphics, supplementing
the permanent information contained in the A(P, are published as A(P Supplements 4A(P S@P5.
Supplements are issued in yello sheets to distinguish them from the rest of the A(P. A(P
S@P are issued according to the sub:ect e.g. 9>1, >1&, AD. S@Ps are placed at the beginning of
the A(P. >ach A(P S@P 4regular or A(&AC5 is given a serial number which is consecutive and
based on the calendar year, i.e. A(P S@P *2**8 A(&AC A(P S@P *2**.
0.0...5 $"TA) and %re>Fli/ht 'nfor-ation Bulletins (%'B)
0.0...5.+ $"TA)
A notice distributed by means of telecommunication containing information concerning the
establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or haKard, the
timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations. 1)'A7 are
published by the AA(.
1)'A7 are originated by the (nternational 1)'A7 )ffice 41)%5 Chennai, Delhi, ;olkata
and 7umbai and are distributed in five series identified by the letters A, D, C, D and 9 as follows<
4a5 Series A $ Contain information in respect of changes2unserviceability etc of aeronautical
facilities, likely to last for more than 0 hours, in respect of locations of direct importance to
(nternational aircraft operations, re6uiring general international distribution.
4b5 Series B $ Contain information in respect of changes2unserviceability etc, of aeronautical
facilities, likely to last for more than /+ minutes but less than two hours in respect of locations of
direct importance to international aircraft operations, re6uiring limited distribution to ad:acent
stations only.
4c5 Series # $ Contain information in respect of changes2unserviceability, etc, of aeronautical
facilities in respect, of locations utiliKed by domestic flights only and for which no separate AR
series international distribution is given.
4d5 Series 2 $ Contain information in respect of changes2unserviceability etc, of aeronautical
facilities in respect of locations of military controlled airfields utiliKed by domestic flights the
information of which is issued by A"E through a ,,) broadcast.
4e5 Series G $ Contain information of general and lasting character affecting aircraft operations in
general. 'he series is operated only by the (nternational 1)'A7 )ffice, Delhi and issued under the
authority of the Aeronautical (nformation Service 4C"E5 and given wide (ndia.
'he 1)'A7 of each series are allocated a serial number by the respective 1)'A7 offices,
commencing with 1o.+++* preceded by the designated letter of series A, D, C, D I 9 as the case
may be at ++++@'C on *st Canuary every year.
A checklist of all 1)'A7 current on the *st of each month is originated by the respective
1)'A7 office and transmitted over the A%'1 to all the addresses on the distribution list of their
1)'A7. (n addition a monthly checklist and summary of 1)'A7 in force at the end of the month
is compiled and posted to those addresses. 'he complete summary is prepared once a year on
*st Canuary, but the summary for the subse6uent months shall contain the te!t of only those
1)'A7, which have been promulgated during the month of issue, and remain current on the date
of compilation.
S$"ATA) A special series 1)'A7 notifying the presence or removal of haKardous
conditions due to snow, ice, slush or standing water associated with snow, slush and ice on the
movement area, by means of a specific format.
AS*TA) A special series 1)'A7 notifying by a specific format, change in activity of a
volcano, a volcanic eruption and2or volcanic ash cloud that is of significance to aircraft operations.
$"TA) #"2! # A five letter code, the first letter is always the letter E 4Eualifier5. 'he
second and third letters identify the sub:ect 4facility5, and the fourth and fifth letters denote the
status of the sub:ect reported upon.
>!ample of 1)'A7 code< E$2#T< E # compulsory letter, 1 # navigation
4sub:ect2facility5, D # Distance 7easuring >6uipment, C' # on test, do not use 4C # changes5
$"TA) -essa/e identifiers are inserted to indicate<
4a5 1)'A71 # 1)'A7 containing new information
4b5 1)'A7& # 1)'A7 replacing a previous 1)'A7 e.g. A+*0?2** 1)'A7& A+**+2**
4c5 1)'A7C # 1)'A7 cancelling a previous 1)'A7 e.g. A+*0?2** 1)'A7C A+**+2**
0.0...5.. %re>fli/ht and %ost Fli/ht 'nfor-ation
Pilots report to the A'S office before commencing their flight for filing of flight plans and
pre$flight briefing by the A'S officers. Pre$flight information to the pilots includes the relevant
(ntegrated Aeronautical (nformation Package and maps and charts. 'he flight crew are briefed by<
4a5 7>' )fficer about the en$route weather conditions.
4b5 A'C )fficer, who briefs the flight crew about the route of the flight, issues %(C and Air Defence
Clearance 4ADC5 numbers.
4c5 Communication )fficer, who will allot the primary and secondary fre6uencies for en$route
communication, and brief the flight crew about the communication and navigation facilities
available en$route. 'he )fficer will also issue printed pre$flight bulletins and current 1)'A7.
Pre$flight information is available at Chennai, Delhi, ;olkata and 7umbai aerodromes.
%re>fli/ht Bulletins (%'B) contain resubmission of current 1)'A7 and other information
of urgent character for the operator2flight crew. P(D shall contain a heading 4identity of origination,
area covered and for whom prepared5, en$route information, aerodrome information and navigation
Auto-atic Self Briefin/ Syste- (ASBS) is an automatic system of receiving, storing and
retrieving the data, essentially re6uired for pilotFs pre$flight briefing. (t can provide general
information, visual aids, A9A information, communication facilities, navigational facilities and
1)'A7S pertaining to the stations and routes.
%ost fli/ht 'nfor-ation is the briefing given by the pilot of an aircraft after completion of a
flight. 'he contents of such information are the malfunctioning2unserviceablity of visual and non$
visual aids or facilities essential for safe flight operations and presence of bird haKard in and around
aerodromes. (n most of the cases, such information is passed to the A'C on radio, but if a pilot
wishes, he can pass on the information also in writing to the A'S reporting )ffice 4A&)5.
0.0...6 Aeronautical 'nfor-ation #ircular (A'#)
A notice containing information that does not 6ualify for the origination of a 1)'A7 or for
inclusion in the A(P, but which relates to flight safety, air navigation, technical, administrative or
legislative matters. A(C is published by the 2G#A.
A(C contains information of long$term forecast of any ma:or change in legislation,
regulations, procedures or facilities8 information of a purely e!planatory or advisory nature liable to
affect flight safety8 information or notification of an e!planatory or advisory nature concerning
technical, legislative or purely administrative matters.
A(C are numbered consecutively on a calendar basis e.g. A(C +A20++. Permission of
photography inside an aircraft in flight.
A(C are issued in hard copies as well as published on the D9CA website.
0.0...7 #hecklists and Su--aries
A complete checklist of A(P pages is published in A(P ,olume (, Part *, 9>1 +... 'his
contains page number2chart title and publication or effective date 4day, month by name and year5 of
the information. Whenever an A(P A7D' is issued, this checklist is amended2updated.
'he checklist of the A(P Supplements currently in force is issued in the month of Canuary of
each year.
)n the *st of each month a checklist of all current 1)'A7 is originated by the respective
1)'A7 office. 'his checklist is transmitted over the A%'1 to all the addresses on the distribution
list of their 1)'A7. Also, at the end of each month a checklist and summary of 1)'A7 in force
at the end of the month is compiled and posted to those addresses. )n the *
of Canuary every year,
the complete summary is prepared, but the summary for the subse6uent months shall contain the
te!t of only those 1)'A7, which have been promulgated during the month of issue, and remain
current on the date of compilation.
A checklist of A(C currently in force is issued as an A(C once a year.
0.0...8 A!RA2'"
A>&AD() is a document published by the Communication 1avigation and Surveillance
4C1S5 department of the AA(. Preparation, publication and updating of Aeradio is the function of
C1S. (nformation about the location indicators, communication, navigation and surveillance
facilities at the airports2aeronautical communications stations are included in the Aeradio. )ther
information available in the Aeradio are the list of All (ndia &adio stations, their fre6uencies and
the broadcasting of timing signals, schedules and fre6uencies of all meteorological broadcast
stations 4such as A'(S5. ocation indicators are also published in A(P ,olume (, Part *, 9>10...
(nformation of radio navigation aids is also published in A(P ,olume (, Part *, 9>10.3 and Part 0,
>1&..*. (nformation of communication, navigation and surveillance facilities at (ndian aerodromes
is also published in A(P ,olume ((, Part /, AD0.*.
Aeradio is available to the airline operators and AA( staff. Pilots are supposed to report any
deviations in the status of radio communication and navigation facilities published in this document.
'he report is usually made during pilot debriefing. 4see 0./.0...0 above5.
Any change in the information published in Aeradio such as operating hours will be
published in 1)'A7.
0.5 Air Traffic Ser1ices & ATS
A'S are provided in accordance with the provisions contained in the (CA) Anne! 0, Anne!
**, Document ...., Document B*?B and Document A+/+. A'S provides the services namely Air
'raffic Control service, Air 'raffic Advisory service, %light (nformation Service and Alerting
Service and &adar service.
0.5.+ 2efinitions
Area #ontrol #entre An air traffic control unit established to provide an area control service to
aircraft flying within a notified flight information region which are not receiving an aerodrome
control service or an approach control service 4A1)5.
Fli/ht infor-ation centre. A unit established to provide flight information service and alerting
Fli/ht infor-ation re/ion (F'R) An airspace of defined dimensions within which flight
information service and alerting service are provided.
Fli/ht infor-ation ser1ice. A service provided for the purpose of giving advice and information
useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flights.
Location indicator A four$letter code group formulated in accordance with rules prescribed by
(CA) and assigned to the location of an aeronautical fi!ed station.
0.5.. Responsi?le Ser1ice in 'ndia
AA( is the authority responsible for providing air traffic services in the entire (ndian
territory including territorial waters including air space over high seas contained within Chennai,
;olkata and 7umbai flight information regions, with the e!ception of certain military areas, state,
military and private aerodromes.
0.5.0 Fli/ht 'nfor-ation Re/ions & F'R
(ndia is divided into four %(&s viK. #hennai, 2elhi, Kolkata, )u-?ai and one Sub$%(&
i.e. Guahati. 'he details of these %(&s are given in A(P >1& 0.* which include the lateral
boundaries of the %(&s, the unit providing A'S, aeronautical station serving the unit and its call
sign, language and fre6uencies. 9uwahati sub$%(& is within the ;olkata %(& and is responsible for
flights up to %0?3 and below. %lights above %0?3 are the responsibility of ;olkata %(&.
0.5.5 #ontrol Areas & T)A
While the (ndian air space is divided into five %(&s, each %(& is divided into control areas
which have defined boundaries. 'he boundaries are detailed in A(P >1& 0.*. (ndian A'S provides
area control services with Area Control Centres 4ACC5 and Approach Control services at the
following locations<
0.5.5.+ Area #ontrol #entres
Area Control Centres which provide area control services are available at ** civil and * (A%
controlled areas in the (ndian air space. All the ACC use ,"% and some of the ACC are e6uipped
with &CA9. 'he ACCs are listed below<
*. Ahmedabad
0. Chennai
/. Delhi
.. 9uwahati
3. "yderabad
?. ;olkata
A. 7angalore
B. 7umbai
-. 1agpur
*+. 'hiruvananthapuram
**. ,aranasi
*0. @dhampur 4(A%5
0.5.5.. Approach #ontrol Ser1ice
Approach control services are available at the following aerodromes in (ndia<
*. Ahmedabad
0. Aurangabad
/. Dangalore 4Dengaluru5
.. Dhubaneswar
3. Chennai
?. Delhi
A. 9uwahati
B. "yderabad
-. ;olkata
*+. ucknow
**. 7angalore
*0. 7umbai
*/. 1agpur
*.. Patna
*3. 'hiruvananthapuram
*?. ,aranasi
*A. "ashimara 4(A%5
0.5.6 Air 2efense 'dentification Fones
Air Defense (dentification Qone 4AD(Q # pronounced as .C-8ID5 have been established in
the (ndian airspace and no aircraft whether civil, military, (ndian or foreign are permitted to
penetrate these AD(Q without Air Defense Clearance 4ADC5. ADC should be obtained from the
respective %(C and if there is no such facility in the aerodrome of departure, it must be obtained
from the nearest (A% A'C unit. AD(Q in (ndian airspace are<
4a5 AD(Q 7umbai
4b5 AD(Q West
4c5 AD(Q 1orth
4d5 AD(Q Delhi
4e5 AD(Q Central (ndia
4f5 AD(Q ;olkata
4g5 AD(Q >ast
4h5 AD(Q South
0.5.7 #lassification of Airspace
Airspace is classified according to the type of traffic and the type of control service provided
in that particular airspace. (n (ndia, the airspace is classified as follows<
#lass 2< (%& and ,%& flights are permitted. All traffic is provided with air traffic control service.
Separation between (%& flights is provided by the A'S. (%& flights are provided air traffic
information about ,%& traffic. ,%& traffic are provided traffic information about all other traffic.
'erminal areas, control areas, control Kones and aerodrome traffic Kones are designated as Class D
#lass !< Doth (%& and ,%& flights are permitted. (%& flights are provided separation from other
(%& flights and provided with air traffic control service. (%& flights are provided with traffic
information about ,%& traffic. ,%& traffic are provided with traffic information about all other
traffic as far as practicable. Control Kones are not classified as > airspace. Airspaces in designated
A'S routes outside control areas, terminal areas and control Kones where air traffic control service
is provided, are classified as Class > airspaces.
#lass F< Doth (%& and ,%& flights are permitted. (%& traffic receive air traffic advisory services.
All flights receive flight information service on re6uest. Airspaces in designated A'S route
segments outside control areas, terminal areas and control Kones where air traffic advisory service is
provided, are classified as Class % airspaces.
#lass G< Doth ,%& and (%& traffic permitted. All traffic receive flight information service on
re6uest. Airspaces not classified as classes D, > and % are designated as class 9.
0.5.8 Location 'ndicators
(CA) Doc A-*+ contains the list of location indicators. >ach aerodrome has a four letter
location indicator the first two letters of which are common to a particular %(&. ocation indicators
of (ndian aerodromes are given in A(P 9>1 0... ocation indicators of some important aerodromes
of (ndia are given below. 1ote that 9uwahati %(& locations have the indicators same as ;olkata
Ta?le 0.. Location 'ndicators
Location 'ndicator Location 'ndicator
#hennai F'R & V" 2elhi F'R & V'
Dangalore ,)D9 Agra 4(A%5 ,(A9
Dangalore (ntl Airport ,)D Allahabad 4(A%5 ,(A
Didar ,)D& Amritsar ,(A&
Calicut ,)C Dhuntar 4;ulu5 ,(D&
Chennai ,)77 Chandigarh ,(C9
Chennai 4%(C5 ,)7% Delhi2Safdar:ung ,(DD
Cochin (ntl ,)C( Delhi 4%(C5 ,(D%
Coimbatore ,)CD Delhi (9( ,(DP
"yderabad ,)"P 9walior 4(A%5 ,(9&
"yderabad (ntl Airport ,)" Caipur ,(CP
;avarati ,);, Cammu 4(A%5 ,(C@
7angalore ,)7 Codhpur 4(A%5 ,(C)
Port Dlair ,)PD ;anpur ,(;A
'an:ore ,('C eh ,("
'iruchchirappalli ,)'& ucknow ,(;
'irupati ,)'P Saharanpur2Sarasawa 4(A%5 ,(SP
'hiruvananthapuram ,)', Shimla ,(S7
,i:ayawada ,)DQ Srinagar 4(A%5 ,(S&
Warangal ,)WA ,aranasi ,(D1
Kolkata F'R )u-?ai F'R
Agartala ,>A' Ahmedabad ,AA"
AiKwal ,>AQ Aurangabad ,AA@
Dagdogra 4(A%5 ,>DD Delgaum ,AD7
Dhubaneshwar ,>DS Dhopal ,ADP
9aya ,>9P 9oa 41avy5 ,A9)
9uwahati ,>9' "ubli ,)"D
(mphal ,>(7 (ndore ,)(D
Camshedpur ,>9S 7umbai ,)DD
;olkata ,>CC 7umbai 4%(C5 ,)D%
;olkata %(C ,>C% 7umbai 4Cuhu5 ,)CC
Patna ,>P' 1agpur ,)1P
Silchar ,>;@ Pune 4(A%5 ,)P)
,ishakhapatnam 4,aiKag5 ,>,Q Surat ,)S@
Qero ,>Q) ,adodara ,)D)
0.5.9 '#A" Three Letter 2esi/nators
When messages are transmitted over the A%'1, a message shall contain Address (ndicator
which consists of eight letter se6uence<
4a5 (CA) four letter location indicator 4discussed in 0.?./5
4b5 (CA) three$letter designator identifying the aeronautical authority, service or aircraft operating
agency addressed. (n cases where no designator has been assigned, one of the following is used<
S LPGPM in the case where the addressee is a military service2organiKation,
S LQQQM in the case where the addressee is an aircraft in flight,
S LPPPM in all other cases
Some more e!amples<
S LPDPM # Aerodrome authority
S LP1PM # 1)'A7 office
S LP'PM # 'elecommunication authority
S LP7PM # 7eteorological )ffice
S LQ'QM # Aerodrome Control 'ower
S LQPQM # A'S reporting office
S LQEQM # message relevant to (%& flight
S LQ%QM # message relevant to ,%& flight
4c5 the letter G, or the one$letter designator identifying the department or division of the
organiKation addressed.
A list of (CA) three$letter designators is contained in Doc B3B3 S Designators for Aircraft
)perating Agencies, Aeronautical Authorities and Services.
>!amples< ,(DDPGAG # Aeronautical (nformation Services "ead6uarters, 1ew Delhi
,)77P1PG # (nternational 1)'A7 )ffice 41)%5, Chennai 4G is for padding5
,(DDPAP9 # Director 9eneral of Civil Aviation
,>CCPCPG # ;olkata &escue Coordination Centre
0.5.: Air Routes & 2o-estic and 'nternational
A'S routes with designated significant points are published in the A(P ,) * >1& /.*.
'hese A'S routes are allotted with a designating letter and a number. A'S routes with JWF
designator are available e!clusively for domestic aircraft operations.
>ach route has designated minimum and ma!imum flight levels and the heading to be flown
in both directions.
Some e!amples of the A'S routes along with route designators and significant points are
given below. %ive letter codes in capital represent the significant points over which position is
reported by the pilots. @nderlined significant points are %(& 4boundary5 reporting points.
A+; G$orth BoundH > )u-?ai>2elhi
7umbai ,)& 4DDD5 # D)'(P # APA1) # D)DA& # (ndore ,)& 4((D5 # Dhopal ,)& 4DP5 #
D(A1 # 9walior ,)& 49WA5 # P)S(9 # >'P@ # Delhi ,)& 4DP15
A+; GSouth BoundH & 2elhi>)u-?ai
Delhi ,)& 4DP15 # ('DA1 # 9@&'( # Agra ,)& 4A995 # 9walior ,)& 49WA5 # D(A1 #
Dhopal ,)& 4DP5 # (ndore ,)& 4((D5 # Songarh 1DD 4S95 # A;'(, # 7umbai ,)& 4DDD5
A+0 G$orth BoundH & )u-?ai>2elhi
7umbai ,)& 4DDD5 # APA1) # Ahmedabad ,)& 4AA>5 # @daipur ,)& 4@@D5 # D(PAS #
Chillerki ,)& 4C"(5 # Delhi ,)& 4DP15
A+0 GSouth BoundH 2elhi>)u-?ai
Delhi ,)& 4DP15 # &>D)1 # (;ADA # Caipur ,)& 4CCP5 # 9@D@7 # 1(;)' # @daipur ,)&
4@@D5 # Ahmedabad ,)& 4AA>5 # Dhavnagar ,)& 4D,&5 # D)%(1 # 7umbai ,)& 4DDD5
A+6 GSouth BoundH )u-?ai>Thiru1ananthapura-
7umbai ,)& 4DDD5 # 7AD'A # @D@) # 9oa ,)& 499)5 # 9@P) # AD(1 # 7angalore
,)& 4775 # Calicut ,)& 4CC5 # Cochin (nternational ,)& 4C(A5 # 'hiruvananthapuram
,)& 4',75
A+6 G$orth BoundH Thiru1ananthapura->)u-?ai
'hiruvananthapuram ,)& 4',75 # Cochin (nternational ,)& 4C(A5 # Calicut ,)& 4CC5 #
7angalore ,)& 4775 # AD(1 # 9@P) # 9oa ,)& 499)5 # );(A # ;ADS) # 7umbai
,)& 4DDD5
A.; G$orth BoundH #hennai>2elhi
Chennai ,)& 477,5 # D)D> # "yderabad ,)& 4"(A5 # D@SD) # 'A7(D # @P'A& #
D(9( # Dhopal ,)& 4DP5 # P@;>S # D@;) # DA,)G # )S&A7 # SAP) # Delhi ,)&
A.; GSouth BoundH 2elhi>#hennai
Delhi ,)& 4DP15 # A;>A # (1'( # ;A1A # (DA1( # Dhopal ,)& 4DP5 # D(9( #
@P'A& # 'A7(D # D@SD) # "yderabad ,)& 4"(A5 # D)D> # Chennai ,)& 477,5
G56; Kolkata>)o/adisehu
Kolkata ,)& 4C>A5 # Camshedpur ,)& 4CCS5 # A9&)7 # ;(1;( # )'ADA # 1(PAD #
)P)1( # D)SA' # D(,'A # 1agpur ,)& 411P5 # 'A7(D # 1(1A' # D@D)G # Aurangabad
,)& 4AA@5 # )PA;A # )u-?ai ,)& 4DDD5 # DA&7( # 7>PA' # 7>SA1 # 7>'(P #
D)1SA # @1&(, # )&(D 4%(& 7@7DA(2%(& SA1AA5
A+;+ G!ast BoundH Goa>Ban/alore
9oa ,)& 499)5 # (DS(D # @1SA # Dangalore ,)& 4D(A5
A+;+ GAest BoundH Ban/alore>Goa
Dangalore ,)& 4D(A5 # 9@1(7 # 9oa ,)& 499)5
L87; GR$%+;H A/ra>2elhi
Agra ,)& 4A995 # P)S(9 # >'P@ # Delhi ,)& 4DP15
B.++ )u-?ai>#hennai
7umbai ,)& 4DDD5 # 7AD'A # >P;)S # (97A& # Dellary ,)& 4DD(5 # A1(&) # Chennai
,)& 477,5
%87+ GR$%+;H #hennai>%ort Blair
Chennai ,)& 477,5 # (DAS) # SADAP # DAS)P # Port Dlair ,)& 4PPD5
R0.6 Kath-andu>Kolkata
Canakpur 1DD 4C;P5 # 1(&AD # 'AG)P # SA)& # 7>7(& # D@7;A # ;olkata ,)& 4C>A5
R57; 2elhi>Kolkata
Delhi ,)& 4DP15 # Aligarh ,)& 4A(5 # ;ADAS # ucknow ,)& 4;5 # ,aranasi ,)&
4DD15 # 9aya ,)& 499C5 # '>PA # ;olkata ,)& 4C>A5
4L5.6 Thiru1ananthapura->*ai-a
'hiruvananthapuram ,)& 4',75 # A1)DA # )D)( # AP@1A # D)1SA # 7A1D@ #
ASP@G 4%(& 7umbai2%(& Sanaa5
A576 Kolkata>#olo-?o
Kolkata ,)& 4C>A5 # >9)S # ;A;(D # PA;) # >7(S # (S7)1 # A&(; # 1(;(& #
,ishakhapatnam ,)& 4,,Q5 # G)P)G # D);>' # 9@&AS # #hennai ,)& 477,5 # A;7(
# DADA& 4%(& Chennai2%(& Colombo5
0.6 )eteorolo/ical Ser1ices
(nformation about the weather, be it prevailing or anticipated, is very important for the
safety and regularity of the aircraft operations. 'he flight crew are briefed, about the weather at
origin, en$route and destination, during their pre$flight briefing by an officer from meteorological
Standards and recommended practices and procedures contained in (CA) Anne! /, Doc
A+/+, Doc B.++ 4PA1S$(CA) Abbreviations and Codes5, Doc BA++ 4Air 1avigation Plan # 7ild #
Asia &egion5 and &)D>G "andbook are applicable to meteorological practices in (ndia.
0.6.+ Responsi?le Ser1ice in 'ndia
(ndian 7eteorological Department of 7inistry of >arth Sciences is responsible for
providing the meteorological services in the Chennai, Delhi, ;olkata and 7umbai %(&s.
0.6.. Types of Ser1ice
,arious types of meteorological services provided by the (7D for civil aviation departments
4i5 Area forecast
4ii5 &oute and aerodrome forecast
4iii5 Aerodrome warning2wind shear warning
Driefing and displays are available at the Aerodrome 7eteorological )ffices for the
information of the flight crew.
0.6.0 Aircraft Reports
Certain 7et reporting points are designated on both the domestic and international air routes
within the (ndian A'S air space. 'hese are the points at which the aircraft have to compulsorily
report the weather at those points. 'hese reports are called A(&>P.
'he aircraft can report adverse weather at any point during their flight, which are called
Special A(&>P.
A(&>P and the associated &' procedure are discussed in detail in Part (( Chapter **,
paragraph **.A.
0.7 Search and Rescue Ser1ice
(CA) Anne! *0 # Search and &escue and (CA) Doc -A/* # (nternational Aeronautical and
7aritime Search and &escue 4(A7SA&5 lay down the standards and recommended practices for
search and rescue services internationally.
(n (ndia, SA& service is organiKed by the AA( in collaboration with the 7inistry of
Defence. 7)D is responsible for providing the necessary facilities for SA&. (ndian SA& service is
responsible for entire (ndian territory including the territorial waters and airspace over the high seas
contained within the Chennai, ;olkata and 7umbai %(&s. Details of SA& service in (ndia is
described in A(P 9>1 /.?.
0.7.+ Satellite Aided Search and Rescue
(ndia has adopted a Satellite Aided Search and &escue Programme participation in the
NC)SPAS2SA&SA' system. 'he programme operates on the following fre6uencies<
4a5 *0*.3 7"K # accuracy within 0+ ;7
4b5 0./ 7"K # accuracy within 0+ ;7
4c5 .+? 7"K # accuracy within +3 ;7
Aircraft are re6uired to be e6uipped with >mergency ocator 'ransmitters which can be
activated either due to e!cessive impact, as in a crash, or manually activated. 'hen the >'
transmits the above fre6uencies and the transmission is detected by the SA&SA'2C)SPAS system.
Coverage of the system is the entire (ndia Search and &escue &egion 4S&&5 and also S&& of
Dangladesh, 7yanmar, Dhutan, (ndonesia, ;enya, 7alaysia, 7aldives, 7auritius, 1epal,
Seychelles, Singapore, Somalia, Sri anka, 'hailand and 'anKania.
ocal @ser 'erminals 4@'5 have been set up at Dangalore and ucknow under this
programme. (ndian 7ission Control Centre 4(17CC5 at Dangalore coordinates with &escue
Coordination Centres 4&CC5 and other (nternational 7ission Control Centres. Dangalore (17CC is
connected to &CCs at Chennai, Delhi, ;olkata and 7umbai through A%S network. (f any distress
signal is received by the satellite system from any &CC area, the data is immediately transmitted to
the concerned &CC for launching a search and rescue mission.
When re6uired, SA& service also involves assistance from various State and Central
9overnment bodies such as &ailways, Post I 'elegraph, All (ndia &adio, Police, District
Collectors27agistrates, 7unicipal and ocal bodies, Armed %orces, Coast 9uard, Port trust,
7ercantile maritime, etc.
N#"S%AS # Cosmicheskaya Sistyema Poiska Avariynich Sudov # &ussian for LSpace System for
the Search of ,essels in DistressM
SARSAT # Search And &escue Satellite Aided 'racking
0.7.. 2istress FreCuencies
9eneral conditions for distress and safety communications for all mobile communications is
provided in ('@ &adio &egulations article S/+. Appendi! S*/ provides the fre6uencies to be used
during such situations.
0*B0 k"K is the international distress fre6uency for radiotelephony to be used for that
purpose by ship, aircraft and survival craft stations.
.*03 k"K is also authoriKed by the ('@ to enable communications between stations in the
maritime mobile service and aircraft stations in distress.
'he aeronautical mobile 4&5 service fre6uencies /+0/ k"K and 3?B+ k"K may be employed
for coordinated search and rescue operations with the maritime mobile service under && S3.**3.
3++ k"K 4&& S3.B/5 is the international distress fre6uency for 7orse radiotelegraphy to be
used for that purpose by ship, aircraft and survival craft stations.
With respect to survival craft stations, the &adio &egulations provide for the use of the
fre6uency4ies5 3++ k"K, B/?. k"K, 0 *B0 k"K, *0*.3 7"K and 0./ 7"K.
0.8 Ti-e Syste-
'ime system used by all aeronautical telecommunication service stations is @niversal
Coordinated 'ime 4@'C5. 7idnight is designated as 0.++ for the end of the day and ++++ for the
beginning of the day. A date$time group shall consist of si! figures, the first two figures $
representing the date of the month and the last four figures the hours and minutes in @'C.
Note :- In India I2T is ahead of *T! $# 05/0 hours. !onversion of Time 2#stem with respect to
I2T&*T! is illustrated in the examples $elow:

4i5 0*/+ (S' T 0*/+ minus +3/+ T *?++ @'C
4ii5 +*/+ (S' T +*/+ minus +3/+ T 0+++ @'C of previous day
4iii5 +A++ @'C T +A++ plus +3/+ T *0/+ (S'
4iv5 ++/+ @'C T ++/+ plus +3/+ T +?++ (S'
4v5 **4yy5+*4mm5+*4dd5+.4hr5/+4minute5 (S' T **+*+*+./+ minus +3/+ T *+*0/*0/++ @'C of
previous year, previous month and previous day also.
0.9 Lan/ua/e
>ntire (ntegrated Aeronautical (nformation Package is published by the AA( in >nglish
language. Also, the place names are in >nglish.
> > > > > > > > > > > > > >
%ART ''
RA2'" T!L!%*"$3 %R"#!24R!S
#*A%T!R +
+.+ 2efinitions of Ter-s
Definitions given in this chapter are not e!haustive and definitions pertaining to certain
topics are given in the respective chapters dealing with such topics.
A?solute )ini-a A theoretical value, calculated according to the instrument approach and
facilities available at the aerodrome, which will be e6ual to or less than the specified operating &,&
for a category A aircraft carrying out that instrument approach.
Ad1isory Area A designated area where air traffic advisory service is available.
Ad1isory Route A designated route along which air traffic advisory service is available
Aerodro-e Any area of land or water designed, e6uipped, set apart or commonly used for
affording facilities for the landing and departure of aircraft and includes any area or space, whether
on the ground, on the roof of a building or elsewhere, which is designed, e6uipped or set apart for
affording facilities for the landing and departure of aircraft capable of descending or climbing
vertically, but shall not include any area the use of which for affording facilities for the landing and
departure of aircraft has been abandoned and has not been resumed 4A1)5.
Aerodro-e #ontrol Ser1ice Air traffic control service for aerodrome traffic. Commission
&egulation 4>C5 3.-20++..
Aerodro-e Fli/ht 'nfor-ation Ser1ice (AF'S) A flight information service provided to
aerodrome traffic.
Aerodro-e "peratin/ )ini-a (n relation to the operation of an aircraft at an aerodrome means
the cloud ceiling and runway visual range for take$off, and the decision height or minimum descent
height, runway visual range and visual reference for landing, which are the minimum for the
operation of that aircraft at that aerodrome.
Aerodro-e Traffic All traffic on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome and all aircraft operating
in the vicinity of an aerodrome.
Note 1:- .n aircraft is in the vicinit# of an aerodrome when it is in) entering or leaving an
aerodrome traffic circuit
Aerodro-e Traffic #ircuit 'he specified path to be flown by aircraft operating in the vicinity of
an aerodrome.
Aerodro-e Traffic Fone "as the meaning assigned to it by Article *3?, A1) 0++3.
Aeronautical fi,ed teleco--unication netork (AFT$) A worldwide system of aeronautical
fi!ed circuits provided, as part of the aeronautical fi!ed service, for the e!change of messages
and2or digital data between aeronautical fi!ed stations having the same or compatible
communications characteristics.
Aeronautical Station A land station in the aeronautical mobile service. (n certain instances,
an aeronautical station may be located, for e!ample, on board ship or on a platform at sea 4(CA)5.
Air?orne #ollision A1oidance Syste- (A#AS) An aircraft system based on SS& transponder
signals which operates independently of ground based e6uipment to provide advice to the pilot on
potential conflicting aircraft that are e6uipped with SS& transponders.
Aircraft Station A mobile station in the aeronautical mobile service on board an aircraft.
Air>/round #o--unications 'wo$way communication between aircraft and stations or
locations on the surface of the earth.
Air=Ground #o--unication Ser1ice A service provided from an aerodrome to give
information to pilots of aircraft flying in the vicinity of the aerodrome by means of radio signals and
Jair2ground communications service unitF shall be construed accordingly 4A1)5.
A'R%R"( A situation in which, in the opinion of a pilot or controller, the distance between
aircraft as well as their relative positions and speed have been such that the safety of the aircraft
involved was or may have been compromised.
Air Traffic All aircraft in flight or operating on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome.
Air Traffic #ontrol #learance Authorisation for an aircraft to proceed under conditions
specified by an air traffic control unit 4(CA)5.
Note ':- 4or convenience) the term Eair traffic control clearanceF is fre"uentl# a$$reviated to
clearance when used in appropriate contexts
Note /:- The a$$reviated term EclearanceF ma# $e prefixed $# the words EtaxiF) Etake-offF)
EdepartureF) Een-routeF) EapproachF or ElandingF to indicate the particular portion of flight to
which the air traffic control clearance relates
Air Traffic Ser1ice (ATS) A generic term meaning variously< flight information service, alerting
service, air traffic advisory service, air traffic control service, 4area control service, approach
control service or aerodrome control service5 4(CA)5.
Air Traffic Ser1ices 4nit A generic term meaning variously, air traffic control unit, flight
information centre or air traffic services reporting office.
Airay A control area or portion thereof established in the form of a corridor 4(CA)5.
Altitude 'he vertical distance of a level, a point or an ob:ect considered as a point, measured
from mean sea level 4(CA)5.
Approach #ontrol Ser1ice Air traffic control service for arriving or departing controlled flights.
Apron A defined area, on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of
loading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo, fuelling, parking or maintenance.
ATS Sur1eillance Ser1ice A service provided directly by means of an A'S Surveillance system
Auto-atic Ter-inal 'nfor-ation Ser1ice (AT'S) 'he automatic provision of current, routine
information to arriving and departing aircraft throughout 0. hours or a specified portion thereof<
2ata link>auto-atic ter-inal infor-ation ser1ice (2>AT'S). 'he provision of A'(S via data
Voice>auto-atic ter-inal infor-ation ser1ice (Voice>AT'S). 'he provision of A'(S by means
of continuous and repetitive voice broadcasts.
Base Turn A turn e!ecuted by the aircraft during the initial approach between the end of the
outbound track and the beginning of the intermediate or final approach track. 'he tracks are not
reciprocal 4(CA)5.
Basic Ser1ice A Dasic Service is an A'S provided for the purpose of giving advice and
information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flights. 'his may include weather
information, changes of serviceability of facilities, conditions at aerodromes, general airspace
activity information and any other information likely to affect safety. 'he avoidance of other traffic
is solely the pilotFs responsibility.
Blind Trans-ission A transmission from one station to another station in circumstances
where two$way communication cannot be established but where it is believed that the called station
is able to receive the transmission 4(CA)5.
Broadcast A transmission of information relating to air navigation that is not addressed to a
specific station or stations 4(CA)5.
#learance Li-it 'he point to which an aircraft is granted an air traffic control clearance. A
clearance limit shall be described by specifying the name of the appropriate significant point, or
aerodrome or controlled airspace boundary 4(CA)5.
#ontrol Area Controlled airspace which has been further notified as a control area and
which e!tends upwards from a notified altitude or flight level 4A1)5.
#ontrolled Airspace Airspace which has been notified as Class A, Class D, Class C, Class
D or Class > airspace 4A1)5.
Note 0:- !ontrolled airspace is a generic term which covers .T2 airspace !lasses .) ,) !) 8 and <
as descri$ed in .nnex 11
#ontrol Fone A controlled airspace e!tending upwards from the surface of the earth to a
specified upper limit.
#ruisin/ Le1el A level maintained during a significant portion of a flight 4(CA)5.
2ecision Altitude=*ei/ht (n relation to the operation of an aircraft at an aerodrome means a
specified altitude2height in a precision approach at which a missed approach must be initiated if the
re6uired visual reference to continue the approach to land has not been established 4A1)5.
!le1ation 'he vertical distance of a point or level on, or affi!ed to, the surface of the earth
measured from mean sea level 4(CA)5.
!sti-ated Ti-e of Arri1al %or (%& flights, the time at which it is estimated that the aircraft will
arrive over that designated point, defined by reference to navigation aids, from which it is intended
that an instrument approach procedure will be commenced, or, if no navigation aid is associated
with the aerodrome, the time at which the aircraft will arrive over the aerodrome. %or ,%& flights,
the time at which it is estimated that the aircraft will arrive over the aerodrome 4(CA)5.
!,pected Approach Ti-e 'he time at which A'C e!pects that an arriving aircraft, following a
delay, will leave the holding fi! to complete its approach for a landing.
Note 5:- The actual time of leaving the holding fix will depend upon the approach clearance
Fli/ht 'nfor-ation #entre A unit established to provide flight information service and alerting
Fli/ht 'nfor-ation Ser1ice "fficer (F'S")A %light (nformation Service )fficer at any aerodrome
or area control centre.
Fli/ht Le1el )ne of a series of levels of e6ual atmospheric pressure, separated by notified
intervals and each e!pressed as the number of hundreds of feet which would be indicated at that
level on a pressure altimeter calibrated in accordance with the (nternational Standard Atmosphere
and set to *+*/.0 millibars 4A1)5 or hector pascals 4(CA)5.
Fli/ht %lan Specified information provided to air traffic services units, relative to an intended
flight or portion of a flight of an aircraft 4(CA)5.
Note 6:- 2pecifications for flight plans are contained in .nnex ' . ;odel 4light Plan 4orm is
contained in .ppendix ' to the P.N2-.T;
General Air Traffic %lights operating in accordance with civil air traffic procedures.
*eadin/ 'he direction in which the longitudinal a!is of an aircraft is pointed, usually
e!pressed in degrees from 1orth 4true, magnetic, compass or grid5 4(CA)5.
*ei/ht 'he vertical distance of a level, a point, or an ob:ect considered as a point measured
from a specified datum 4(CA)5.
*oldin/ Fi, A geographical location that serves as a reference for a holding procedure.
*oldin/ %oint A speech abbreviation used in radiotelephony phraseology having the same
meaning as 'a!iway "olding Position or &unway "olding Position.
*oldin/ %rocedure A predetermined manoeuvre which keeps an aircraft within a specified
airspace while awaiting further clearance.
'dentification 'he situation which e!ists when the position indication of a particular aircraft
is seen on a situation display and positively identified 4(CA)5.
'FR Fli/ht A flight conducted in accordance with the (nstrument %light &ules.
'nstru-ent )eteorolo/ical #onditions (')#) 7eteorological conditions e!pressed in terms of
visibility, distance from cloud and ceiling, less than the minima specified for visual meteorological
Knon Traffic 'raffic, the current flight details and intentions of which are known to the
controller concerned through direct communication or co$ordination.
Le1el A generic term relating to the vertical position of an aircraft in flight and meaning
variously< height, altitude or flight level 4(CA)5.
Le1el Bust Any deviation from assigned altitude, height or flight level in e!cess of /++ feet.
)anoeu1rin/ Area 'hat part of an aerodrome to be used for take$off, landing and ta!iing of
aircraft, e!cluding aprons.
)icroa1e Approach An approach e!ecuted by an aircraft, utilising a 7icrowave anding
System 47S5 for guidance.
)ini-u- 2escent Altitude=*ei/ht (n relation to the operation of an aircraft at an aerodrome
means the altitude2height in a non$precision approach below which descent may not be made
without the re6uired visual reference 4A1)5.
)issed Approach %oint ()A%t) 'he point in an instrument approach procedure at or before
which the prescribed missed approach procedure must be initiated in order to ensure that the
minimum obstacle clearance is not infringed.
)issed Approach %rocedure 'he procedure to be followed if the approach cannot be
continued 4(CA)5.
)o1e-ent Area 'hat part of an aerodrome to be used for take$off, landing and ta!iing of
aircraft, consisting of the manoeuvring area and the apron4s5.
%rocedure Turn A manoeuvre in which a turn is made away from a designated track followed
by a turn in the opposite direction to permit the aircraft to intercept and proceed along the
reciprocal of the designated track 4(CA)5.
Radar Approach An approach in which the final approach phase is e!ecuted under the
direction of a controller using radar 4(CA)5.
Radar #ontact 'he situation which e!ists when the radar position of a particular aircraft is
seen and identified on a situation display 4(CA)5.
Radar 'dentification 'he situation which e!ists when the radar position of a particular
aircraft is seen on radar display and positively identified by the air traffic controller.
Reportin/ %oint A specified geographical location in relation to which the position of an
aircraft can be reported 4(CA)5.
Runay A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take$off
of aircraft 4(CA)5.
Runay Visual Ran/e (RVR) 'he range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centre
line of a runway can e!pect to see the runway surface markings, or the lights delineating the
runway or identifying its centre line 4(CA)5.
Si/nificant %oint A specified geographical location used in defining an A'S route or the flight
path of an aircraft and for other navigational and A'S purposes 4(CA)5.
Ter-inal #ontrol Area A control area normally established at the confluence of airways in
the vicinity of one or more ma:or aerodromes 4(CA)5.
Threshold 'he beginning of that portion of the runway useable for landing 4(CA)5.
Touchdon 'he point where the nominal glide path intercepts the runway.
Note 9:- ETouchdownF as defined a$ove is onl# a datum and is not necessaril# the actual point at
which the aircraft will touch the runwa#
Traffic Alert and #ollision A1oidance Syste- (T#AS) See Airborne Collision Avoidance
System 4ACAS5.
Track 'he pro:ection on the earthFs surface of the path of an aircraft, the direction of which
path at any point is usually e!pressed in degrees from 1orth 4true, magnetic or grid5.
Vectorin/ Provision of navigational guidance to aircraft in the form of specific headings, based
on the use of radar.
VFR Fli/ht A flight conducted in accordance with the visual flight rules.
Visual Approach An approach by an (%& flight when either part or all of an instrument
approach procedure is not completed and the approach is e!ecuted in visual reference to terrain.
Note @:- The specified minima are contained in .nnex '
+.. A??re1iations
Abbreviations are given in the decode format below. Abbreviations are pronounced as each
letter using the corresponding phonetics. Any deviations to this rule are given either against the
abbreviation or as note in the end of the list.
A Amber
A2A Air to Air
AAD Assigned altitude deviation
AA Above Aerodrome evel
AD7 Abeam
AD' About
AD, Above
ACASN Airborne Collision Avoidance System 4pronounced AP$;AS5 4see 'CAS5
ACCNN Area Control Centre or Area Control
ACC(D 1otification of an aircraft accident
AC%' Aircraft
AC; Acknowledge
AC Altimeter Check ocation
ACP' Accept or accepted
AC' Active or Activated or Activity
AD Aerodrome
ADA Advisory Area
ADD1 Addition or Additional
AD%NN Automatic Direction$%inding >6uipment
AD(Q Air Defence (dentification Qone 4pronounced .C-8ID5
ADC Ad:acent
AD& Advisory &oute
ADS$DNN Automatic Dependent Surveillance$Droadcast
ADS$CNN Automatic Dependent Surveillance$Contract
AD,S Advisory Service
ADQ Advice
A>S Aircraft >arth Station
A%( %light plan filed in the air
A%(S Aerodrome %light (nformation Service
A%'1NN Aeronautical %i!ed 'elecommunication 1etwork
A%S Aeronautical %i!ed Service
A%' After 4time or place5
A29 Air to 9round
A9A Aerodrome, air routes and ground aids
A9CS Air 9round Communication Service
A9 Above 9round evel
A91 Again
A(C Aeronautical (nformation Circular
A(P Aeronautical (nformation Publication
A(&AC Aeronautical (nformation &egulation and Control
A(&>PN Air &eport
A(&7>'N (nformation concerning en$route weather phenomena which may affect the safety of
low$level aircraft operations
A(S Aeronautical (nformation Service
A(&P&)GN Code word used in air traffic incident to designate aircraft pro!imity.
AA Alighting area
A>&%AN Alert phase
A& Alerting service
AS Approach lighting system
A' Altitude
A'1 Alternate or alternating 4light alternates in colour or alternate aerodrome5
A7A Area 7inimum Altitude
A7D Amend or Amended
A7D' Amendment
A7S Aeronautical 7obile Service
A7S Above 7ean Sea evel
A7SS Aeronautical 7obile Satellite Service
A1) Air 1avigation )rder
A)C Aerodrome )bstacle Chart
AP Airport
APAP( N Abbreviated Precision Approach Path (ndicator 4pronounced .C-P.PI5
APC" Approach
AP1 Apron
APP Approach control office or approach control or approach control services
AP& April
AP&G Appro!imate or Appro!imately
AP, Approve or Approved or Approval
A&%)& Area forecast
A&19 Arrange
A&) Air traffic services reporting office
A&P Air &eport 4message type designator5
AS Altostratus
ASC Ascend or ascending to
ASDA Accelerated stop distance available
ASP" Asphalt
A'ANN Actual 'ime of Arrival
A'CNN Air 'raffic Control 4in general5
A'C)N Air 'raffic Control )fficer 475
A'DNN Actual 'ime of Departure
A'%7 Air traffic flow management
A'(SN Automatic 'erminal (nformation Service
A'7 Air traffic management
A'1 Aeronautical telecommunication network
A'S Air 'raffic Service
A'S@ Air 'raffic Service @nit
A'S)CAS Air 'raffic Services outside Controlled Airspace
A''1 Attention
A'$,AS(SN Abbreviated ' ,isual Approach Slope (ndicator System 4pronounced AP$ '>>$
A'Q Aerodrome 'raffic Qone
A@9 August
A@W All up weight
A@'" Authorised or Authorisation
A@G Au!illiary
A,AS(S Abbreviated visual approach slope indicator system
A,D Available
A,9 Average
A,9ASN Aviation gasoline
AWP Airway
AQ7 AKimuth
D Dlue
DA Draking action
DAS>N Cloud base
DC%9 %og patches
DC1 Deacon
DCS' Droadcast
DD&P Doundary
D>C79 Decoming
D%& Defore
D;1 Droken
DD9 Duilding
D) Delow clouds
DS1 Dlowing snow
DW Delow
D&9 Dearing
D&;9 Dreaking
D'1 Detween
C Degree Celsius 4Centigrade5
CA' Category or clear air temperature
CA,);N ,isibility, cloud and present weather better than prescribed values or conditions
4CA,); is pronounced as G.=->B-G.C5
CDNN Cumulonimbus 4pronounced as C>>$D>>5
CC Cirrocumulus
CD1 Coordination 4message type designator5
C%7N Confirm or ( confirm
C"9 Change or changed
C(D(1 Common (CA) data interchange network
C Centre line
CD& Calibration
CD Cloud
C& Clear4s5 or cleared to or clearance
CSD Close or closed or closing
C7 Centimetre
C7D Climb to or climbing to
C7P Completion or complete
C1 Cancel or cancelled or flight plan cancellation 4message type designator5
C1S Communication navigation and surveillance
C)7 Communication
C)1D Condition
C)1& Continue4s5 or Continued
C))& Coordinate or Coordination
C))&DS Coordinates
C)P Change over point
C)& Correct or correction or corrected 4message type designator5
CPDCNN Controller Pilot Data ink Communication 4pronounced See Pee Dee >ll See5 $ A
means of communication between a controller and aircrew using data link in
con:uction with or instead of voice, for A'C.
CS Cirrostratus
C2S Call sign
C'A Control area
C'A7 Climb to and maintain
C'C Contact
C'1 Caution
C'& Control Kone
C@ Cumulus
CW Continuous wave
CWP Clearway
D Danger area 4followed by identification5
DA Decision altitude
D$A'(SN Data link automatic terminal information service 4pronounced D>>$A'(S5
DCD Double channel duple!
DC;9 Docking
DCS Double channel simple!
DC' Direct 4in relation to flight plan clearance and type of approach5
D> %rom 4used to precede the call sign of a calling station5
D>P Depart or departure
D>S Descend to or descending to
D>S' Destination
D>'&>S%AN Distress phase
D>, Deviation
D%'( Distance from touch down indicator
D9CA Director 9eneral of Civil Aviation
D% Direction %inding
D" Decision height
D(SP Displaced
D(S' Distance
D(, Divert or diverting
DA Delay or delayed 4message type designator5
DP Daily
D7>NN Distance measuring e6uipment
D19 Danger or dangerous
D)C Document4s5
DP Dew point temperature
DP' Depth
D& Dead &eckoning
DSD Double side band
D'A7 Descend to and maintain
D'&' Deteriorate or deteriorating
D@& Duration
DW Dual wheels
D,)& Doppler ,)&
DQ DriKKle
>A' >!pected Approach 'ime
>D >ast bound
>>' >stimated elapsed time
>%(SN >lectronic %light (nstrument System 4pronounced as >>$%(S5
>DAN >mergency location beacon aircraft
>>, >levation
>& >!tra long range
>7 >mission
>7>&9 >mergency
>1 >nglish
>1D Stop$end 4related to &,&5
>1> >ast north east
>1&' >n$route
>)D' >stimated off block time
>EP' >6uipment
>&C >n$route chart
>S> >ast south east
>S' >stimate or estimated 4message type designator5
>'A >stimated 'ime of Arrival
>'C >tcetera
>'D >stimated 'ime of Departure
>') >stimated time over significant point
>, >very
>GC >!cept
>G>& >!ercises or e!ercising or to e!ercise
>GP >!pect or e!pected or e!pecting
>G'D >!tend or e!tending
% %i!ed
%AC %acilities
%A% %inal Approach %i!
%A %acilitation of international air transport
%AP %inal approach point
%A') %inal approach and take off area
%AG %ascimile transmission
%CS' %orecast
%C' %riction coefficient
%9 %og
%(C %light (nformation Centre
%(&NN %light (nformation &egion
%(S %light (nformation Service
%(SA Automated flight information service
%(S)N %light (nformation Service )fficer
% %light evel
%9 %lashing
%& %lares
%' %light
%'C; %light check
%@C %luctuating or fluctuated or fluctuation
%W %ollow4s5 or following
%P %ly or flying
%7 %rom
%7@ %low management unit
%1A %inal approach
%)D %oreign )b:ect Damage
%P %iled flight plan 4message type designator5
%P7 %eet per minute
%&>E %re6uency
%&19 %iring
%&E %re6uent
%S %ull stop landing
%SS %light service station
%S' %irst
%t %oot 4feet5
%'@ %lying 'raining @nit 475
%@ Smoke
%Q %reeKing
9 9reen
92A 9round to Air
92A29 9round to Air and Air to 9round
9A9A1N 9PS and geostationary earth augmented navigation
9A' 9eneral Air 'raffic
9DASN 9round$based augmentation system 4pronounced 9>>$DAS5
9CANN 9round Control Approach system or 9round Control Approach
9>1 9eneral
9>) 9eographic
9>S 9round >arth Station
9D 9lider
9)1ASSN 9lobal )rbiting 1avigation Satellite System 4pronounced 9lo$1AS5
91D 9round
91DC; 9round check
9S 9liding School 475
97C 9round 7ovement Control
91SSNN 9lobal 1avigation Satellite System
9P 9lide Path
9PSNN 9lobal Positioning System
9PWSNN 9round Pro!imity Warning System
9&ASN 9round$based regional augmentation system 4pronounced 9&ASS5
9S 9round speed
"O "ours plusUminutes past the hour
"0. Continuous day and night service 4"0. pronounced Aitch 'wenty %ower5
"D1 "aKard beacon
"D% "igh fre6uency direction finding station
"D9 "eading
"> "elicopter
">$" "eavy helicopter 4radius of action in e!cess of *++ nm and capacity for evacuating
more than 3 persons5
">$ ight helicopter 4radius of action in e!cess of 3+ nm and capacity for evacuating
more than one person5
">7$ 7edium helicopter 4radius of action in e!cess of 3+$*++ nm and capacity for
evacuating more than 0$3 persons5
"%NN "igh %re6uency 4/$/+ 7"K5
"9' "eight or height above
"C Sunrise to Sunset
"D9 "olding
"1 Sunset to Sunrise
") Service available to meet operational re6uirements
") "oliday
")SP "ospital aircraft
"PA "ectopascal
"E "ead6uarters
"& "ours
"S Service available during hours of scheduled operations
"G 1o specific working hours
"Q Dust haKe
"K "ertK
(AC (nstrument Approach Chart
(A% (nitial Approach %i!
(A& (ntersection of air routes
(AS (ndicated Air Speed
(D1 (dentification beacon
(CA)N (nternational Civil Aviation )rganisation
(D (dentifier or (dentify
(D>1'N (dentification
(% (ntermediate approach fi!
(%&NN (nstrument %light &ules
(9A (nternational 9eneral Aviation
(SNN (nstrument anding System
(7 (nner 7arker
(7CNN (nstrument 7eteorological Conditions
(79 (mmigration
(7P& (mprove or (mproving
(7' (mmediate or immediately
(1A (nitial Approach
(1DD (nbound
(1C>&%AN @ncertainty phase
(1%)N (nformation
(1)P (noperative
(1P (f not possible
(1P& (n progress
(1S (nertial 1avigation System
(1S' (nstall or installed or installation
(1S'& (nstrument
(1' (ntersection
(1' (nternational
(1'&9 (nterrogator
(1'&P (nterrupt or interruption or interrupted
(1'S% (ntensify or intensifying
(1'S' (ntensity
(&,& (nstrumented &unway ,isual &ange
(SA (nternational standard atmosphere
(SD (ndependent side band
(S) (solated
CA1 Canuary
C@ Culy
C@1 Cune
;g ;ilogramme4s5
;"K ;ilohertK
;m ;ilometre4s5
;7" ;ilometers per hour
;' ;not4s5
;W ;ilowatt
eft 4runway identification5
ocator 4see 7, )5
A' atitude
DA anding distance available
D9 anding
D( anding direction indicator
>1 ength
% ow fre6uency 4/+$/++ ;"K5
9' ight
9'D ighted
(" ight intensity high
( ight intensity low
(7 ight intensity medium
Q ocaliKer
7 ocator 7iddle
1A,N ateral navigation 4pronounced as >$1A,5
19 ong 4used to indicate the type of approach desired or re6uired5
) ocater )uter
)C ocal or locally or location or located
)19 ongitude
)&A1N ong range navigation system
&9 ong range
SE ine s6uall
'D imited
'' andline teletypewriter
, ight and variable 4relative to wind5
, evel
P& ayer or layered
7 7ach number 4followed by figures5 or 7eters 4preceded by figures5
7A9 7agnetic
7A(1' 7aintenance
7AP Aeronautical maps or charts
7APt 7issed Approach Point
7A& 7arch
7A'QN 7ilitary Aerodrome 'raffic Qone
7AG 7a!imum
7AP 7ay
7b 7illibars
7CA 7inimum crossing altitude
7CW 7odulated Continuous Wave
7DA 7inimum descent altitude
7D" 7inimum descent height
7>A 7inimum enroute altitude
7>DAN 7ilitary >mergency Diversion Aerodrome
7>"' 7inimum eye height threshold 4for ,AS( system5
7>'N 7eteorological or 7eteorology
7>'A&N &outine aviation aerodrome weather report
7"K 7egahertK
7(%9 Shallow %og
7( 7ilitary
7(1N 7inutes
7;& 7arker radio beacon
7SNN 7icrowave anding System
77 7iddle 7arker
717 7inimum
71PS 7inimum navigation performance specification
71' 7onitor or monitoring or monitor
71'1 7aintain
7)A 7ilitary operating area
7)C 7inimum obstacle clearance 4re6uired5
7)D 7oderate 4used to indicate the intensity of weather phenomena, interference or static
reports e.g. 7)D&A$7oderate rain5
7)1 7onday
7)& 7andatory )ccurrence &eport
7), 7ove or moving or movement
7PS 7eters per second
7&A 7inimum reception altitude
7&9 7edium range
7&P A'S27>' reporting point
7S 7inus
7SA 7inimum sector altitude
7S9 7essage
7S 7ean sea level
7'@ 7etric units
7W) 7eteorological watch office
1 1orth or northern latitude
1A, 1avigation
1C 1o change
1DDNN 1on$Directional &adio Deacon
1> 1orth >ast
19' 1ight
1(NN 1one or ( have nothing to send to you
17 1autical mile
17 1ormal
11> 1orth 1orth >ast
11W 1orth 1orth West
1)% (nternational 1)'A7 )ffice
1)S(9NN 1o significant change 4used in trend type landing forecasts5
1)'A7 A notice containing information concerning the establishment, condition or change
in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or haKard, the timely knowledge of
which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations.
1), 1ovember
1& 1umber
1S 1imbostratus
1W 1orth West
1G' 1e!t
)AC )ceanic Area Control @nit
)AS )bstacle assessment surface
)DS )bserve or observed or observation
)DS' )bstacle
)DS'&N )bstruction
)CA )ceanic Control Area
)CA )bstacle Clearance Altitude
)CC )cculting light
)C" )bstacle Clearance "eight
)C1 )ccasional or occasionally
)CS )bstacle clearance surface
)C' )ctober
)C@ )perational Conversion @nit 475
)7 )uter 7arker
)PC )perational Control Communications
)P7>'N )perational 7eteorological 4information5
)P1 )pen or opened or opening
)P& )perator or operate or operative or operating or operational
)PSN )perations
)2& )n re6uest
)'P )n top
)'S )rganised track system
)@DD )ut of bound
P Prohibited area 4followed by identification5
PAS Precision approach lighting system
PA1S Procedure for air navigation services
PAP(N Precision Approach Path (ndicator 4pronounced PAP(5
PA&NN Precision Approach &adar 475
PA& Parallel
PAG Passengers
PC1 Pavement classification number
PDCNN Pre departure clearrance
P>& Performance
P>&7 Permanent
P(D Pre$flight information bulletin
PC> Parachute :umping e!ercise
PA Practice low approach
P1 %light plan
P1 Prior notice re6uired
P1& Point of no return
P)D 4'otal5 Persons on Doard
P)SS Possible
PP( Plan position indicator
PP& Prior permission re6uired
P&( Primary
P&;9 Parking
P&)D Probability
P&)C Procedure
P&), Provisional
PS Plus
PS1 Position
PSP Pierced steel plank
PS&NN Primary surveillance radar
P'1 Procedure turn
P,' Private
PW& Power
ED( Compulsory (%& flight
ED7 7agnetic heading 4Kero wind5 4Sometimes employed to indicate magnetic heading of
a runway5
ED& 7agnetic bearing
E%> Altimeter subscale setting to indicate height above either aerodrome elevation, or
threshold elevation, or helideck elevation
E1> anding altimeter reading when subscale set *+*/ millibars
E1" Altimeter subscale setting to indicate elevation 4A7S5 when on the ground and
altitude in the air
E'> 'rue Dearing
E@AD Euadrant
& &ed
& &estricted area 4followed by identification5
& &unway 4runway identification5
&A &esolution Advisory 4see 'CAS5
&AC &ules of the air traffic services
&AD &adius
&A9 &unway arresting gear
&A( &unway alignment indication
&A(7N &eceiver autonomous integrity monitoring 4pronounced as %.I;, similar to JrainF5
&AS" &ain showers
&CA &each cruising altitude
&CC &escue Co$ordination Centre
&C% &adio communication failure 4message type designator5
&C &unway centre line
&C &unway centre line lights
&D" &eference datum height 4for (S5
&D &adial
&D) &adio
&>C &eceive or receiver
&>D &unway edge lights
&>% &eference to or refer to
&>9 &egistration
&>1 &unway end lights
&>P &eport or reporting or reporting to
&>&'> &e$route
&>S &eservation
&%C &adio facility chart
&9 &ange
&" &escue helicopter
&(% &eclearance in flight
&('> &ight 4direction of turn5
&S &unway lead in lighting system
&7; &emark
&1A,N Area navigation 4to be pronounced LA& 1A,M5
&1PNN &e6uired navigation performance
&)C &ate of climb
&)D &ate of descent
&)%)& &oute forecast 4in aeronautical meteorological code5
&)1 &eceiving only
&P &epetitive flight plan
&PC &eplace
&PS &adar position symbol
&PS &egional Pressure Setting
&P' &epeat
&E71'S &e6uirements
&EP &e6uest flight plan 4message type designator5
&ES &e6uest supplementary flight plan 4message type designator5
&& &eport reaching
&SC &escue sub centre
&SCD &unway surface condition
&SP &esponder beacon
&S& >n$route surveillance radar
&'> &oute
&'% &adiotelephone2&adiotelephony
&'9 &adio telegraph
&'" &unway threshold lights
&'1 &eturn or returned or returning
&'S &eturn to service
&'' &adio teletypewriter
&'Q &unway touch down Kone light
&@' Standard regional route transmitting fre6uencies
&, &escue vessel
&,&NN &unway ,isual &ange
&,S7NN &educed ,ertical Separation 7inima 4pronounced A"" ,>> >SS >775
&WP &unway
S South or southern latitude
SAS Simple approach lighting system
SA1 Sanitary
SAP As soon as possible
SA& Search and &escue
SA&PS Standards and recommended practices 4(CA)5
SA' Saturday
SA'C)7N Satellite communication
SD South bound
SDASN Satellite$based augmentation system 4pronounced >SS$DAS5
SC Strato cumulus
SC' Scattered
SDDP Standby
S> South east
S>C Seconds
S>C' Sector
S>CAN Selective calling system
S>P September
S>& Service or servicing or served
S>, Serve 4used e.g. to 6ualify icing and turbulence reports5
S%C Surface
S9 Signal
S(DN Standard (nstrument Departure
S(% Selective identification feature
S(97>'N Significant information concerning en$route weather phenomena which may affect
the safety of aircraft operations
S(9WG Significant weather
S(7@ Simultaneous or simultaneously
S;>D Schedule or scheduled
SW Slow
S7C Surface movement control
S7& Surface movement radar
SP>C(N Aviation selected special weather report 4in aeronautical, meteorological code5
SP>C(AN Special meteorological report 4in aeronautical, meteorological code5
SP Supplementary flight plan 4message type designator5
SP)'N Spot wind
SE S6uall
S& Sunrise
S&A Surveillance &adar Approach
S&> Surveillance &adar element of PA& system
S&9 Short range
S&& Search and rescue region
S&P Secondary
SS Sunset
SSD Single side band
SS> South south east
SS&NN Secondary Surveillance &adar
SS' Supersonic transport
SSW South south west
S' Stratus
S'A Straight in approach
S'A1A9 Standing Agreement 475
S'A&N Standard (nstrument Arrival
S'D Standard
S'% Stratiform
S'1 Station
S'1& Stationary
S') Short take off and landing
S'W Stopway lights
S@DC Sub:ect to
S@1 Sunday
S@P Supplement 4A(P supplement5
S@PPS &egional supplementary procedures
S,C Service message
S,CD Serviceable
SW South west
SWP Stopway
' 'emperature
'A 'raffic Advisory 4see 'CAS5
'A 'ransition altitude
'ACA1N @"% 'actical air navigation
'A%N 'erminal Aerodrome %orecast
'A(N 'ail wind
'A& 'erminal area surveillance radar
'AS 'rue air speed
'AG 'a!iing or ta!i
'CASN 'raffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System 4pronounced T<<-!.25 4see ACAS5
'CAS &AN 'raffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System 4pronounced T<<-!.2-.%-.C5
'C@ 'owering cumulus
'DQ 'ouchdown Kone
'>C& 'echnical reason
'> 'elephone
'>7P)N 'emporary or temporarily
'%C 'raffic
'9 'ouch and go landing
'9S 'a!iing guidance system
'"& 'hreshold
'"&@ 'hrough
'"@ 'hursday
'(N @ntil
';)% 'ake off
')% 'ouch down and lift off area
'7ANN 'erminal Control Area
')C 'op of climb
')DA 'ake off distance available
')P Cloud top
')&A 'ake off run available
'P 'urning point
'& 'rack
'&A 'emporary reserved air space
'&>1DN 'rend forecast
'&19 'raining
'&A1S 'ransmit or transmitter
'& 'ransition level
'S 'hunder storm
'S@1A7(N 'sunami 4used in aerodrome warnings5
'' 'eletypewriter
'@> 'uesday
'@&D 'urbulence
',)& 'erminal ,"% )mni &ange
'$,AS(S ' ,isual Approach Slope (ndicator System 4pronounced '>>$,AS(S5
'W& Aerodrome Control 'ower pr aerodrome control
'W@ 'actical Weapons @nit 475
'WP 'a!i
'WP 'a!iway link
'P' 'ype of aircraft
'PP" 'yphoon
@AD @ntil advised byU
@AC @pper area control centre
@A& @pper air route
@AS @pper Airspace
@%1 @ntil further notice
@"%N @ltra "igh %re6uency 4/++$/+++ 7"K5
@(C @pper information centre
@(&NN @pper %light (nformation &egion
@& @ltra long range
@1A @nable
@1 @nlimited
@1&> @nreliable
@2S @nserviceable
@'A @pper control area
@'C Coordinated universal time
,A ,olcanic ash
,AC ,isual approach chart
,A& ,isual aural radio range2 magnetic variation
,AS(SN ,isual Approach Slope (ndicator System 4pronounced ,AS(S5
,CP ,icinity
,D% ,ery "igh %re6uency Direction$%inding Station
,>& ,ertical
,%&NN ,isual %light &ules
,"%NN ,ery "igh %re6uency 4/+ to /++ 7"K5
,(P ,ery (mportant Person
,(S ,isibility
,% ,ery ow %re6uency 4/$/+ ;"K5
,& ,ery long range 4navigation5
,7CNN ,isual 7eteorological Conditions
,)7>'N 7eteorological information for aircraft in flight
,)&NN ,"% )mnidirectional &adio &ange
,)&'ACN ,)& and 'ACA1 combination
,)' ,)& airborne e6uipment test facility
,&D ,ariable
,SA Dy reference to ground
,SP ,ertical speed
,') ,ertical take off and landing
W West or western latitude or white
WAC World aeronautical chart (CA) *<*+,++,+++
WAASN Wide Area Augmentation System
WDA& Wing bar lights
WD( Wing direction indicator
WDSP& Wide spread
W>D Wednesday
W>% With effect from or effective immediately
W( Within
W(D Width
W(% With immediate effect or effective immediately
W(C) Will comply
W(P Work in progress
W;1 Weaken or weakening
W1W West 1orth West
WP' Waypoint
W&19 Warning
WS Wind shear
WSW West south west
W' Weight
W'SP' Waterspout
WG Weather
G Cross
GDA& Cross bar 4of approach lighting system5
G19 Crossing
GS Atmospherics
P Pellow
PCQ Pellow caution Kone 4&WP lighting5
P>SN Affirmative
P& Pours
N 'ransmitted as spoken word8 e.g. A(&P&)G is pronounced as airpro! and not as Alpha
(ndia &omeo Papa &omeo )scar G$ray.
NN 'ransmitted using the individual letters in non$phonetic form8 e.g. ,)& is transmitted as ,$
)$& and not as ,ictor )scar &omeo.
+.0 #onte,t
(n order for the reader to understand the conte!t in which specific phrases are used, most of
the e!amples of phraseology in this manual relate to typical situations. 'he call signs used in the
e!amples are fictitious8 any resemblance to actual call signs is purely coincidental. All the locations
used in the e!amples are (ndian to aid the reader to comprehend the e!amples in a local perspective.
(n the e!amples, the initial transmission 4message5 is in bold type. Commas have been used
in the messages to e!ercise a very brief pause in order to differentiate between the elements of the
message. 'his would be helpful to the reader while practising the transmissions.
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A%T!R .
G!$!RAL "%!RAT'$G %R"#!24R!S
..+ 'ntroduction
&adiotelephony 4&'%5 is the medium by which pilots and ground personnel communicate
with each other. %or the safe and e!peditious aircraft operations, the information and instructions
transmitted are of vital importance. "owever, the use of non$standard procedures and phraseology
can cause misunderstanding. @se of non$standard procedures and phraseology have been the cause
of many incidents and accidents. 'hus it is very important to use correct and precise standardised
... Trans-ittin/ TechniCue
....+ 'he following transmitting techni6ues are highly recommended to assist in ensuring that
transmitted speech is clearly and satisfactorily received.
4a5 Defore transmitting, receiver volume is to be set at the optimum level. isten$out on the
fre6uency to be used to ensure that there will be no interference with a transmission from another
4b5 )ne must be familiar with microphone operating techni6ues. Do not turn your head away from
the microphone while talking or vary the distance between the microphone and your mouth. Speech
may be severely distorted by<
4i5 ;eeping the microphone too close while speaking8
4ii5 ips touching the microphone8 or
4iii5 "olding the microphone or boom with the fingers 4of a combined headset2microphone system5.
4c5 Speech should be clear and distinct, using a normal conversation tone.
4d5 An even rate of speech not e!ceeding *++ words per minute should be used. When it is e!pected
that the message will be written down by the recipients, speech should be at a slightly slower rate.
4e5 Speaking volume must be maintained at a constant level.
4f5 Defore and after numbers, a slight pause will assist in making them easier to understand.
4g5 @sing hesitation sounds such as JerF must be avoided.
4h5 >!change of courtesies and entering into non$operational conversations is to be avoided.
4i5 Depress the press$to$talk switch fully before speaking and do not release it until the message is
complete. 'his will ensure that the entire message is transmitted. "owever, do not depress transmit
switch until ready to speak, this will block the channel.
4:5 7other tongue of the person receiving the message may not be >nglish. 'herefore, speak clearly
and as far as possible, use standard radiotelephony 4&'%5 words and phrases.
4k5 Wait for a period of at least *+ seconds before making a second call. 'his will avoid
unnecessary transmissions while the receiving station is getting ready to reply to the initial call.
..... Lan/ua/e to ?e 4sed
'he air$ground radiotelephony communications shall be conducted in the language normally
used by the station on the ground or in the >nglish language. 'he language normally used by the
station on the ground may not be the language of the State in which it is located. A common
language may be agreed upon regionally as a re6uirement for stations on the ground in that region.
)n re6uest from any aircraft station, >nglish language must be made available, at all stations on the
ground that are serving designated airports and routes used by international air services.
..0 Trans-ission of Letters
..0.+ (n &'%, letters are usually spoken in the form of phonetics. (f it is re6uired to e!pedite
communications, the use of phonetic spelling should be avoided if there is no risk of this affecting
correct reception and intelligibility of the message.
..0.. >ach letter in the aircraft call sign, e!cept the telephony designator and the type of aircraft,
should be spoken separately using the phonetic spelling.
..0.0 'he words to be used when using the phonetic spelling are given below. @nderlined
syllables are to be emphasised.
Ta?le ..+ %honetic ord of !n/lish alpha?ets
Letter Aord Appropriate pronunciation
A Alpha A %A"
D Dravo D&A" ,) "
C Charlie C"A& >> or S"A& >>
D Delta D> 'A"
> >cho >C; )"
% %o!trot %);S '&)'
9 9olf 9)%
" "otel ")" '>
( (ndia (1 D>> A"
C Culiett C>W >> >''
; ;ilo ;>P )"
ima >> 7A"
7 7ike 7(;>
1 1ovember 1) ,>7 D>&
) )scar )SS CA"
P Papa PA" PA"
E Euebec ;>" D>C;
& &omeo &)W 7> )"
S Sierra S>> A(& &A"
' 'ango 'A19 9)
@ @niform P)@ 1>> %)&7 or )) 1>> %)&7
, ,ictor ,(; 'A"
W Whiskey W(SS ;>P
G G$ray >C;S &AP
P Pankee PA19 ;>>
Q Qulu Q)) ))
..5 Trans-ission of $u-?ers
..5.+ When the >nglish language is used for communication, numbers should be transmitted using
the following pronunciation. 'he syllables in capital letters are to be stressed8 for e!ample, the two
syllables in Q>$&) are given e6ual emphasis, whereas the first syllable of %)W$er is given primary
Ta?le ... !n/lish nu-?ers and their pronunciation
1umeral or numeral
atin alphabet representation
+ Q>$&)
* W@1
0 '))
/ '&>>
. %)W$er
3 %(%>
? S(G
A S>,$en
B A('
- 1(1$er
Decimal DAP$S>>$7A
"undred "@1$dred
'housand ')@$SA1D
..5.. All numbers, other than as specified in 0.../, will be transmitted, pronouncing each digit
Ta?le ..0 %ronunciation of nu-?ers in different usa/es
Aircraft call signs
C>' +?0
Sahara 00*
'ransmitted as
Cet Air Dero si, to
Sahara to to one
%light levels
'ransmitted as
%light evel one Dero Dero
%light evel one ei/ht Dero
*3+ degrees
+B+ degrees
'ransmitted as
"eading one fi1e Dero
"eading Dero ei/ht Dero
Wind direction and speed
0++ degrees 03 knots
*?+ degrees *B knots
gusting /+ knots
'ransmitted as
Wind to Dero Dero degrees to fi1e knots
Wind one si, Dero degrees one ei/ht knots
gusting three Dero knots
'ransponder codes
0 .++
. 0+/
'ransmitted as
S6uawk to four Dero Dero
S6uawk four to Dero three
'ransmitted as
&unway to se1en
&unway three Dero
Altimeter setting
* +*+
* +++
'ransmitted as
E1" one Dero one Dero
E1" one Dero Dero Dero
..5.0 All numbers used in the transmission of altitude, height, cloud height, visibility and runway
visual range 4&,&5 information which contain whole hundreds and whole thousands must be
transmitted by pronouncing each digit in the number of hundreds or thousands followed by the
word "@1D&>D or ')@SA1D as appropriate. Combinations of thousands and whole hundreds
shall be transmitted by pronouncing each digit in the number of thousands followed by the word
')@SA1D and the number of hundreds followed by the word "@1D&>D8 e!amples of this
convention are as follows<
Ta?le ..5 !,ceptions for pronunciation of nu-?ers
'ransmitted as
!i/ht hundred
Three thousand four hundred
"ne to thousand
Cloud height
'ransmitted as
To thousand to hundred
Four thousand three hundred
'ransmitted as
,isibility one thousand
,isibility se1en hundred
&unway visual range
'ransmitted as
&,& si, hundred
&,& one thousand se1en hundred
..5.5 When indicating the fre6uency of the transmitting channel in ,"% &' communications, all
si! digits of the fre6uency should be used. >!ceptions to this rule are given in 0...3. (f both fifth
and si!th digits are Keros, only the first four digits should be used. >!amples are given below<
Ta?le ..6 Trans-ission of freCuency indications
Channel 'ransmitted as
**B.+++ )1> )1> >(9"' D>C(7A Q>&)
**B.++3 )1> )1> >(9"' D>C(7A Q>&) Q>&) %(,>
**B.+*+ )1> )1> >(9"' D>C(7A Q>&) )1> Q>&)
**B.+03 )1> )1> >(9"' D>C(7A Q>&) 'W) %(,>
**B.+3+ )1> )1> >(9"' D>C(7A Q>&) %(,> Q>&)
**B.*++ )1> )1> >(9"' D>C(7A )1>
Note 1:- There are two t#pes of =B4 communication s#stems with respect to the channel spacing
!hannel spacing can either $e @// GBH or '5 GBH >n some aircraft installations Iespeciall#
older s#stemsJ with a channel separation capa$ilit# of '5 GBH or more) it is possi$le to select onl#
the first five digits of the fre"uenc# on the control unit of =B4 communication s#stem In the newer
s#stems with @// GBH channel spacing) it is possi$le to select all the six digits of the fre"uenc# In
some airspace) onl# five digits of the fre"uenc# are used and in some other airspace) all the six
digits of the fre"uenc# are used Therefore) caution must $e exercised in indicating the fre"uenc#)
while fl#ing in airspace which uses onl# five digits of the fre"uenc# $ut the aircraft e"uipment is
capa$le of selecting all the six digits I@// GBH spacingJ 2imilarl#) caution must $e exercised in
indicating the fre"uenc# while fl#ing in airspace which uses all the six digits of the fre"uenc#) $ut
the aircraft e"uipment is capa$le of selecting onl# the first five digits of the fre"uenc#
Note ':- The fre"uenc# allotment for worldwide utilisation is given in I!.> .nnex 10) =olume =)
Ta$le 0-1
..5.6 (n airspace where all ,"% voice communications channels are separated by 03 k"K or more
and the use of si! digits as in 0.... is not substantiated by the operational re6uirement determined
by the appropriated authorities, the first five digits of the numerical designator should be used,
e!cept in the case of both the fifth and si!th digits being Keros, in which case only the first four
digits should be used.
Note /:- The following examples illustrate the application of the procedure in '05 and the
associated settings of the aircraft radio management panel for communication e"uipment with
channel separation capa$ilities of '5 kBH and @//&'5 kBH
Ta?le ..7 Trans-ission of freCuency indications
&adio management panel setting for
communication e6uipment with
Channel 'ransmitted as
03 k"K
43 digits5
03 k"K
4? digits5
**B.+++ )1> )1> >(9"' D>C(7A Q>&) **B.++ **B.+++
**B.+03 )1> )1> >(9"' D>C(7A Q>&) 'W) **B.+0 **B.+03
**B.+3+ )1> )1> >(9"' D>C(7A Q>&) %(,> **B.+3 **B.+3+
**B.+A3 )1> )1> >(9"' D>C(7A Q>&) S>,>1 **B.+A **B.+A3
**B.*++ )1> )1> >(9"' D>C(7A )1> **B.*+ **B.*++
..6 Trans-ission of Ti-e
..6.+ When transmitting time, only the minutes of the hour are re6uired to be transmitted. >ach
digit should be pronounced separately. "owever, if there is any possibility of confusion, the hour
too should be included. 'ime checks are given to the nearest half minute and preceded by the word
R'(7>R. Coordinated @niversal 'ime 4@'C5 is to be used at all times, unless specified. 0.++ hours
designates midnight, the end of the day, and ++++ hours the beginning of the day. %ollowing
e!amples illustrate the idea.
Ta?le ..8 Trans-ission of ti-e
'ime 'ransmitted as Pronounced as
+B0/ 'wo 'hree or Qero >ight 'wo 'hree ')) '&>> 4or Q>&) A(' ')) '&>>5
*/++ )ne 'hree Qero Qero W@1 '&>> Q>&) Q>&)
0+3A %ive Seven or 'wo Qero %ive Seven %(%> S>,>1 4or ')) Q>&) %(%> S>,>15
..6.. Pilots may re6uire checking the time with the A'S unit. 'ime checks are given to the
nearest half minute.
2!L*' #"$TR"L
VTAB#< R!E4!ST T')!
,'ADC D>"( C)1'&), '(7> +?**
,'ADC D>"( C)1'&), '(7> +A*3
A1D "A%
..7 Standard Aords and %hrases
'he following standard words and phrases are used in radiotelephony communications as
appropriate and have the meanings as given below<
Aord=%hrase )eanin/
AC;1)W>D9> Let me know that you have received and understood this message
A%%(&7 LPes
APP&),>D LPermission for proposed action grantedM
D&>A; L( hereby indicate the separation between portions of the messageM
Note 0:- To $e used where there is no clear distinction $etween the text
and other portions of the message
D&>A; D&>A; L( hereby indicate the separation between messages transmitted to
different aircraft in a very busy environmentM
CA1C> LAnnul the previously transmitted clearanceM
C"A19(19 ') ( intend to call . . . 4unit5 on . . . 4fre6uency5
Note 5:- *sed when an aircraft is leaving a network regular station and
transferring to a pilot-to-controller channel
C">C; L>!amine a system or procedureM
Note 6:- Not to $e used in an# other context No answer is normall#
C>A&>D LAuthorised to proceed under the conditions specifiedM
C)1%(&7 L( re6uest verification of< 4clearance, instruction, action, information5M
C)1'AC' L>stablish communication withUM
C)&&>C' L'rueM or LAccurateM
C)&&>C'()1 LAn error has been made in this transmission 4or message indicated5.
'he correct version isUM
D(S&>9A&D L(gnoreM
9) A">AD LProceed with your messageM
Note 9:- Not used whenever the possi$ilit# exists of misconstruing :>
.B<.8 for authorisation to proceed .lso see Note 16 $elow
")W D) P)@ &>AD LWhat is the readability of my transmissionVM
( SAP A9A(1 L( repeat for clarity or emphasisM
7A(1'A(1 LContinue in accordance with the condition4s5 specified or in its literal
senseM, e.g. Lmaintain ,%&M
7)1(')& Listen out on UM4fre6uency5
1>9A'(,> L1oM or LPermission not grantedM or L'hat is not correctM or Lnot
)@' L'his e!change of transmissions is ended and no response is e!pectedM
Note @:- Not normall# used in =B4 communications
),>& L7y transmission is ended and ( e!pect a response from youM
Note -:- Not normall# used in =B4 communication
&>AD DAC; L&epeat all, or the specified part, of this message back to me e!actly as
&>C>A&>D LA change has been made to your last clearance and this new clearance
supersedes your previous clearance or part thereofM
&>P)&' LPass me the following informationUM
&>E@>S' L( should like to knowUMor L( wish to obtainU
&)9>& L( have received all of your last transmissionM
SAP A9A(1 L&epeat all, or the following part, of your last transmissionM
SP>A; S)W>& L&educe your rate of speechM
S'A1DDP LWait and ( will call youM
Note 10:- The caller would normall# re-esta$lish contact if the dela# is
length# 2T.N8,C is not an approval or denial
@1AD> L( cannot comply with your re6uest, instruction, or clearanceM
Note 11:- *N.,?< is normall# followed $# a reason
W(C) 4Abbreviation for Lwill complyM5
L( understand your message and will comply with itM
W)&DS 'W(C> 4a5 As a re6uest<
LCommunication is difficult. Please send every word or group of words
4b5 As information<
LSince communication is difficult, every word or group of words in this
message will be sent twiceM
Note 1':-The phrase E:> .B<.8F has $een deleted vide .mendment No @' dated '' Nov '009
to the I!.> .nnex 10 =olume II Ideletion is mentioned specificall# in I!.> 8oc -0/' .N&-'5)
;anual of %adiotelephon#) 0
edition-'009J In its place) the use of the calling aeronautical
stationKs call sign followed $# the answering aeronautical stationKs call sign shall $e considered
the invitation to proceed with transmission $# the station calling
Note 1/:-Phrase E:> .B<.8F is used in .IP pu$lications ;anual of .T2 Part 1 and !N2
;anual Part II I!ommunication ProceduresJ ,oth these pu$lications clearl# mention that in case
of an# difference with I!.> prescri$ed standards) the standards prescri$ed in these manuals shall
prevail Thus) it is recommended to use the phrase wherever suita$le
..8 #all Si/ns
..8.+ #all Si/ns of Aeronautical Stations
..8.+.+ Call signs of aeronautical stations of the name of the location followed by a suffi!. 'he
suffi! indicates the type of unit or service provided.
4nit of ser1ice Ser1ice
Area control centre C)1'&)
&adar 4in general5 &ADA&
Approach control APP&)AC"
Approach control radar arrivals A&&(,A
Approach control radar departures D>PA&'@&>
Aerodrome control ')W>&
Surface movement control 9&)@1D
Clearance delivery D>(,>&P
Precision approach radar P&>C(S()1
Direction$finding station ")7>&
%light information service (1%)&7A'()1
Apron control AP&)1
Company dispatch D(SPA'C"
Aeronautical station &AD()
%low control %)W
..8.+.. When satisfactory communication has been established, and provided that there will be no
confusion, the name of the location or the call sign suffi! may be omitted.
..8.. Aircraft #all Si/ns
..8...+ An aircraft call sign shall be one of the following types<
Type !,a-ple
4a5 the characters corresponding to the registration marking
of the aircraft
,'ADC or Cessna ,'ADC
4b5 the telephony designator of the aircraft operating agency,
followed by the last four characters of the registration
marking of the aircraft< or
SP(&(' A(& 'ADC
4c5 the telephony designator of the aircraft operating agency, (C 00*
followed by the flight identification
..8.... )nce satisfactory communication has been established, and no confusion is likely to occur,
aircraft call signs specified in 0.A.0.* may be abbreviated as follows<
Type !,a-ple
4a5 the first and at least the last two characters of the aircraft
,DC or Cessna DC
4b5 the telephony designator of the aircraft operating agency
followed by at least the last two characters of the aircraft
SP(&(' A(& DC
4c5 no abbreviated form (C00*
..8...0 An aircraft must not change its type of call sign during flight e!cept when there is a
likelihood that confusion may occur because of similar call signs8 even in such cases, an aircraft
may be instructed by an air traffic control unit to change the type of its call sign temporarily.
..8...5 Aircraft in the heavy wake turbulence category should transmit the word J">A,PF
immediately after the aircraft call sign in the initial contact between such aircraft and A'S units.
Categories of aircraft according to their ma!imum certified take$off mass are given below<
4a5 *!AV3 4*5 # all aircraft types of *,/?,+++ kg or more 4Doeing DABA, DAAA, DA?A, DA.A,
Airbus A/B+, A/3+, A/.+, A//+, A/*+, A/++, 7cDonnell Douglas DC#*+, DC#B, 7D#**,
(lyushin (-?, (B?, Antonov A1 003, A1*0.5
4b5 )!2'4) 4)5 # aircraft types less than *,/?,+++ kg but more than A,+++ kg 4Doeing DA0A,
DA/A and DA3A, DA*A, Airbus A/0*, A/0+, A/*-, A/*B, %okker %riendship, 7etro .,
DAe#*.?, Dash B, A'&#A0, "ercules, DC#/ and Saab /.+, Dombardier E.++, C&C-++,
C&C0++, >mbraer >&C*.3, *-+, *A3, *A+, A'& .0$3++, Avro &C$B35
4c5 L'G*T 4L5 # aircraft types of A,+++ kg or less 4Cessna .+0 and .0*, (slander, 1omad, Piper
1ava:o and Deech --, Dornier 00B$0+*5.
..9 #o--unications
..9.+ !sta?lish-ent and #ontinuation of #o--unications
..9.+.+ When establishing communications, an aircraft should use the full call sign of both the
aircraft and the aeronautical station. 'he aircraft should use its abbreviated call sign only after it has
been addressed in the abbreviated form by the aeronautical station.
)4)BA' T"A!R VTAB#
,DC 7@7DA( ')W>&, 9)
7@7DA( ')W>& ,DC,
&>E@>S' '(7> C">C;
,DC, '(7> */*0, 7@7DA(
..9.+.. When a ground station wishes to broadcast information, the message should begin with the
call LA S'A'()1SM
ALL STAT'"$S )A$GAL"R! #"$TR"L< G"A V"R "$ T!ST
..9.+.0 When an aircraft wishes to broadcast information to aircraft in its vicinity, the message
should begin with the call LA S'A'()1SM.
ALL STAT'"$S VTAB#< $"RT*B"4$2 )A$GAL"R! V"R T" G"A<
L!AV'$G FL .7;< 2!S#!$2'$G T" FL +6;
1o reply is e!pected to such general calls unless individual stations are subse6uently called
upon to acknowledge receipt.
..9.+.5 (f there is doubt whether a message has been correctly received, a full or part repetition of
the message should be re6uested.
%hrase )eanin/
SAP A9A(1 &epeat entire message
SAP A9A(1U4item5 &epeat specific item
SAP A9A(1 A D>%)&>U4the first word satisfactorily
&epeat part of message
SAP A9A(1 A A%'>&U4the last word satisfactorily
&epeat part of message
SAP A9A(1 A D>'W>>1UA1DU &epeat part of message
..9.+.6 When a called station is uncertain of the identity of the calling station, the calling station
should be re6uested to repeat its call sign until the identity is established.
A' +.6
S'A'()1 CA(19
7A19A)&> ')W>&, SAP
A9A(1 P)@& CA S(91
7A19A)&> ')W>& A( *03
A( *03 7A19A)&> ')W>&,
9) A">AD
..9.+.7 (f an error is made in a transmission, the word LC)&&>C'()1M should be spoken, the last
correct group or phrase should be repeated and then the correct version should be transmitted.
2!L*' #"$TR"L I!TL'T!
..+< L4#K$"A ;:< FL 00;<
KA$%4R 5:< #"RR!#T'"$
KA$%4R 6:
C>'('> 00* D>"(
C)1'&), &)9>&
..9.+.8 'o make a correction by repeating the entire message, the operator should use the phrase
LC)&&>C'()1 ( SAP A9A(1M and then transmit the message a second time.
..9.+.9 (f the reception is likely to be difficult, important elements of the message should be
spoken twice.
#*!$$A' T"A!R VTAB#< .6;; F!!T< ' SA3 AGA'$ .6;; F!!T< %"RT
!$G'$! "$ F'R!< %"RT !$G'$! "$ F'R!
..9.+.: &eceipt of information should be signified by the use of the receiving stationsF call sign or
the &oger phrase and call sign. 7essages such as Jcall sign$copy the weatherF or Jcall sign$copy the
trafficF must not be used.
..9.. Transfer of #o--unications
..9...+ 'he aeronautical station providing A'C service to the aircraft shall advise the aircraft to
change from one radio fre6uency to another in accordance with agreed procedures. (f the aircraft
does not receive such an advice, the aircraft shall notify the aeronautical station before changing
over. Aircraft flying in controlled airspace must obtain permission from the controlling authority
before changing the fre6uency.
VTA)! K"LK"TA A%%<
;);)'A 'W& **B.*,
K"LK"TA A%% VTA)!<
#*A$G'$G "V!R T"
K"LK"TA TAR ++9.+
4(n the absence of change over
..9.... When a controller cannot immediately reply a call, he may instruct an aircraft to Jstand byF
on that fre6uency. (t means that the A'S unit intends to initiate communications soon and the
aircraft should LmonitorM a fre6uency on which information is being broadcast.
VTA)!< STA$2 B3 F"R
2!L*' TAR ++9.+
**B.* ,'A7>
VTA)! )"$'T"R AT'S
7)1(')&(19 *0..?, ,'A7>
..9.0 #learance and Read>?ack ReCuire-ents
..9.0.+ Provisions governing clearances are contained in the Anne ! ** # .i r Tr af f i c
2er vi ce s and t he Pr oce dur e s f or .i r Navi gat i on 2e r v i c es # .i r Tr af f i c
;anagement 4 PA1S$A'7, Doc ....5. A clearance may consist of a detailed description
of the route and levels to be flown or as brief as a landing clearance.
..9.0.. 'o avoid wasteful repetition, controllers will pass a clearance slowly and clearly since
the pilot needs to write it down. As far as possible, a route clearance should be passed to an
aircraft before start up and by using the full call sign of the aircraft. Ahen a pilot is en/a/ed in
co-plicated ta,iin/ -anoeu1res< controllers ill /enerally a1oid passin/ a clearance.
4nder no circu-stances should a clearance ?e passed hen the pilot is en/a/ed in
line up or take>off -anoeu1res.
..9.0.0 An A'C route clearance is $"T an instruction to take$off or enter an active
runway. The ords JTAK!>"FFJ are used only hen an aircraft is cleared for take>off. At
all other ti-es< the ord J2!%ART4R!J is used.
..9.0.5 &ead$back re6uirements are made compulsory in the interests of flight safety. &ead$back
re6uirement is mandatory in order to avoid any misunderstanding in transmission and reception of
A'C clearances and instructions. Dy strictly adhering to read$back procedures, it can be ensured that
the clearance has been received correctly and also that the clearance was transmitted as intended. (t
also ascertains that the right aircraft$and only that aircraft$ will take action on the clearance.
..9.0.6 'he following clearances2instruction should always be read back<
4a5 A'C clearances
4b5 Clearances and instructions to enter, land on, take$off from, hold short of, cross and backtrack
on any runway and
4c5 &unway$in$use, altimeter settings, SS& codes, level instructions, heading and speed instructions
and, whether issued by controller or contained in A'(S broadcasts, transition levels.
..9.0.7 )ther clearances and instructions, including conditional clearances shall be read$back or
acknowledged so that clear indication is given that the instructions have been understood and will
be complied with.
A' 6;6 #L!AR!2 T" 2!L*'
V'A A+< FL .9;< R4$AA3 .9<
SE4AAK 60;;
C>A&>D ') D>"( ,(A A*,
%0B+, &@1WAP 0B, SE@AW;
3/++, A( 3+3
G>#2 A*!$ A'RB"R$!
T4R$ R'G*T< L!AV!
#"$TR"L F"$! V'A
R"4T! !#*"
&(9"' '@&1, ,(A &)@'>
>C"), 9$CD
..9.0.8 Aircraft should terminate the read$back by its call sign.
C&)SS )P>9A % *B+, ,'ADC
G>#2< *"L2 %"S'T'"$ ")D(19, 9$CD
VTAII< SE4AAK 75;. SE@AW; ?.+0, ,'ACC
..9.0.9 'he controller shall listen to the read$back to make sure that the clearance or instruction
has been correctly acknowledged by the flight crew.
..9.0.: (f the pilotFs read$back of a clearance or instruction is incorrect, the controller should
transmit the word L1>9A'(,> ( SAP A9A(1M followed by the correct version again.
G>#2< E$* +;;0 E1", *+*/, 9$CD
G>#2< $!GAT'V!< ' SA3
AGA'$< E$* +;;0
E1", *++/ 9$CD
..9.0.+; (f there is a doubt that whether a pilot can comply with an A'C clearance or instruction,
the controller may follow the clearance or instruction by the phrase Lif unableM, and subse6uently
offer an alternative. (f at any time a pilot receives a clearance or instruction which cannot be
complied with, that pilot must advise the controller using the phrase L@1AD>M and give the
KT+;+ )4)BA' G$2<
#L!AR!2 T" 2!L*'< RA3
.8< FL.:;< #R"SS "%AKA
FL+6; "R AB"V!< 'F
4$ABL! )A'$TA'$ FL+0;
7@7DA( 91D ;'*+*,
@1AD> ') C&)SS )PA;A
%*3+ D@> W>(9"',
7A(1'A(1 %*/+
..9.5 RT Test procedures
..9.5.+ 'est transmissions should be in the following form and order<
4a5 'he identification of the aeronautical station being called
4b5 'he aircraft identification
4c5 'he words L&AD() C">C;M and
4d5 'he fre6uency being used
..9.5.. &eplies to test transmissions should be as follows<
4a5 'he identification of the station calling
4b5 'he identification of the station replying
4c5 (nformation regarding the readability of the transmission
..9.5.0 'he readability or intelligibility of transmissions is classified in accordance with following
readability scale<
*. @nreadable
0. &eadable now and then
/. &eadable but with difficulty
.. &eadable
3. Perfectly readable
2!L*' TAR VTAB# RA2'"
#*!#K ++9.+
S'A'()1 CA(19 D>"(
'W&, P)@ A&>
,'ADC D>"( 'W& &>AD
P)@ '"&>>, )@D
DAC;9&)@1D W"(S'>
,'ADC D>"( 'W&, &>AD
P)@ %(,>
..9.5.5 (f it is necessary for a ground station to transmit test signals, either for the ad:ustment
of a transmitter before making a call or for the ad:ustment of a receiver, such signals must not
continue for more than *+ seconds and should be composed of spoken numbers 4)1>, 'W),
'"&>>, etc.5 followed by the radio call sign of the station transmitting the test signal.
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A%T!R 0
G!$!RAL RT %*RAS!"L"G3
0.+ 'ntroduction
0.+.+ 'he phraseology used in international &' communication has been established for the
purpose of ensuring uniformity in &'% communications all over the world. (t is not possible and
practicable to establish phraseology suitable for every situation that may occur. 7ain purpose of
adhering to standard phraseology is to reduce any possible ambiguity to the minimum.
0.+.. Some abbreviations have become part of aviation terminology due to their common usage.
Such abbreviations may be spoken using their constituent letters rather than the spelling alphabet.
%or e!ample, (S is spoken as (S and not as (ndia ima Charlie, E1" is spoken as E1" and not
as Euebec 1ovember "otel, >'A is spoken as >'A and not as >cho 'ango Alpha.
0.+.0 (t is permitted to omit the following words from transmissions provided that no confusion or
ambiguity will result<
4a5 LS@&%AC>M in relation to surface wind direction and speed
4b5 LD>9&>>SM in relation to radar headings
4c5 L,(S(D(('PM, LC)@DM and L">(9"'M in meteorological reports
4d5 L">C')PASCASM when giving pressure settings
0.+.5 'he use of courtesies such as good morning, thank you etc. should be avoided.
0.+.6 When immediate action is re6uired for safety reasons, the word L(77>D(A'>PM should
be used.
0.. 4sa/e of %hraseolo/ies and %lain Lan/ua/e in RTF #o--unications
0...+ 'he use of language in &'% communications is governed by Standards and &ecommended
Practises 4SA&Ps5 and Procedures for Air 1avigation Services 4PA1S5 contained in Anne! *+
.eronautical Telecommunications and the PA1S$A'7. Specific language proficiency
re6uirements are contained in Anne! *$ Personnel ?icensing. (CA) phraseologies are published in
Anne! *+ ,olume (( # !ommunication Procedures including those with P.N2 status and the
PA1S$A'7. 'he phraseologies contained in the above documents are not intended to be
e!haustive, and both documents refer, in several instances, to the need for Ladditional
phraseologiesM or Lappropriate subsidiary phraseologiesM or Lplain languageM.
0.... (n situations where standard phraseologies are not available, plain language may be used.
Dut usage of plain language should not be e!ploited as licence to chat, to :oke or to degrade in any
way, good &'% techni6ues.
0.0 Le1el 'nstructions
0.0.+ Dasic level instructions are discussed in this chapter. 7ore comprehensive phrases are
contained in later chapters in the conte!t in which they are most commonly used.
0.0.. 'he e!act phraseology used in the transmission and acknowledgment of climb and descent
clearances will vary depending upon the circumstances, such as traffic density and the nature of the
flight operations. "owever, care must be taken to ensure that there are no misunderstandings as a
conse6uence of the phraseology employed during these phases of flight. %or e!ample, levels may be
reported as altitude, height or flight levels according to the phase of flight and the altimeter setting.
0.0.0 When a change is made to any part of a level clearance, the entire level clearance shall be
0.0.0.+ 'he climb and descent operations are interchangeable in the following e!amples. >!amples
of only one form are given.
R!%"RT L!V!L
7A19A)&> APP ,'DCC,
7A(1A'A(1(19 /+++ %>>'
,CC &>P)&' PASS(19 %B+ W(C) ,CC
)A$GAL"R! A%% VII<
%ASS'$G FL9;
&)9>&, 7A19A)&> APP
VII )A$GAL"R! A%%<
)A'$TA'$ .6;; F!!T
7A(1'A(1(19 03++ %>>', ,CC
> > > > > > > > > >
VII< #L')B T" FL8; >A,(19 03++ %>>',
C(7D(19 ') %A+, ,CC
)A$GAL"R! A%% VII<
R!E4!ST 2!S#!$T
,CC, D>SC>1D ') %?+
>A,(19 %A+, D>SC>1D(19
') %?+ ,CC
> > > > > > > > > >
*4BL' $2B #L')B T"
A%'>& "@D( 1DD %*3+, ,CC
0.0.0.. An overriding instruction to a previously passed instruction may be given to a pilot.
VII< ST"% 2!S#!$T AT
S')PP(19 D>SC>1' A'
%*3+, ,CC
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
VII< #"$T'$4! #L')B T"
C(7D(19 ') %/++, ,CC
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
VII< R!#L!AR!2 FL00; &>C>A&>D %//+, ,CC 'o cater to the needs of all traffic, a higher than normal rate$of$climb or descent instruction
may be passed.
VII< !(%!2'T! 2!S#!$T
T" FL9;
>GP>D('(19 D>SC>1' ')
%B+, ,CC
> > > > > > > > > >
VII< #L')B T" FL.5;<
!(%!2'T! 4$T'L %ASS'$G
C(7D(19 ') %0.+,
>GP>D('(19 @1'( PASS(19
%*B+, ,CC
@1AD> ') >GP>D('>, ,CC
0.5 %osition Reportin/
A'S routes are usually defined by designated significant points. 'he pilot is re6uired to
report his position as soon as the aircraft passes over the designated position reporting 4significant5
points while flying over the A'S routes. (n case of A'S routes which are not defined by designated
significant points, the pilot should report the aircraft position after the first half hour of the flight
and thereafter, at hourly intervals. Position reports should be made to the appropriate A'S unit
serving the airspace in which the aircraft is flying. Position reports should be made on the
appropriate ,"% fre6uency and if out of range of ,"%, then the position reports shall be made on
appropriate "% fre6uency.
0.5.+ Position reports will consist of the following information, e!cept that elements 4.5, 435 and
4?5 may be omitted when prescribed on the basis of regional air navigation agreements. >lement 4.5
shall be included in the initial call after changing to a new fre6uency.
4*5 Aircraft identification
405 Position
4/5 'ime
4.5 %light level or altitude, including passing level and cleared level if not maintaining the
cleared level
435 1e!t position and time over and
4?5 >nsuing significant point
)4)BA' #"$TR"L VTBII<
"%AKA 0.< FL.8;<
A4RA$GABA2 6.< 24B"(
,CC 7@7DA( C)1'&),
0.5.. %lights may be e!empted from making compulsory position reports if ade6uate flight
progress data are available from other sources, such as surveillance radar.
VII $!(T R!%"RT 24B"( ,CC W(C)
> > > > > > > > > >
VII ")'T %"S'T'"$
R!%"RTS 4$T'L 24B"(
,CC W(C)
> > > > > > > > > >
VII R!S4)! %"S'T'"$
,CC W(C)
0.6 Filin/ Fli/ht %lans
0.6.+ %light crew are supposed to file their flight plan to the %(C before commencing the flight.
Dut a pilot may also file a flight plan with an A'S unit during flight, although the use of busy A'C
channels for this purpose should be avoided. Details should be passed using the flight plan format.
)4)BA' #"$TR"L '#.+.<
(C 0*0 7@7DA( C)1'&),
&>ADP ') C)PP
0.6.. (f a pilot wishes to change from (%& to ,%& during flight, he should inform the appropriate
A'S unit.
)4)BA' A%% '#.+.<
#A$#!LL'$G )3 'FR
FL'G*T< %R"#!!2'$G
VFR< !ST')AT'$G 2A)A$
(C0*0 7@7DA( APP, (%&
%(9"' CA1C>>D A' .A,
C)1'AC' 7@7DA(
C)1'&) */0.A
> > > > > > > > > > >
7@7DA( C)1'&) */0.A,
0.6.0 When a pilot has informed the intention to change from (%& to ,%& flight, and the
meteorological conditions are not conducive for a ,%& flight, the A'S unit should pass to the pilot
such meteorological information.
VII< '$STR4)!$T
#"$2'T'"$S R!%"RT!2
'$ T*! V'#'$'T3 "F 2!L*'
,CC, &)9>&, 7A(1'A(1(19
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A%T!R 5
A!R"2R")! #"$TR"L "F A'R#RAFT TRAFF'#
5.+ 'ntroduction
'o maintain smooth, safe and e!peditious operations in an aerodrome, usage of brief and
unambiguous &' phraseology is vital. @sage of correct phraseology at the correct time provides a
means for the controllers to carry out their tasks in an efficient manner and also helps in the
awareness of the pilots regarding other nearby traffic. 'his is more so during poor visibility

5.+.+ During the phases of take$off, initial climb, the last part of final approach or the landing roll,
the cockpit workload is the highest. Controllers should avoid transmitting to an aircraft unless it is
necessary for safety reasons, as it may be distracting to the pilot.
5.. 2eparture 'nfor-ation< AT# 'nstructions and !n/ine Start 4p %rocedures
5...+ Departure information, A'C instructions and engine start up approvals are usually passed by
the 9round control 4S7C5. C>A&A1C> D>(,>&P control issues the A'C instructions in
7umbai 40.hours5 and Delhi airports 4during two runway operations5. Where there is no A'(S
provided, the pilot may ask for current aerodrome information before re6uesting start up.
2!L*' G$2 A' 6;6< 'FR T"
$!A 3"RK< R!E4!ST
A( 3+3 D>"( 91D, &WP 0B,
W(1D 0-+ D>9&>>S . ;1)'S,
E1" *+00, '>7P 0B,
D>WP)(1' 0?, &,& 33+
&WP 0B, E1" *+00, W(
CA P)@ %)& S'A&' @P,
A( 3+3
D>"( 91D
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
2!L'V!R3< VTAB# "$
+.6.8< 'FR T" '$2"R!<
'$F"R)AT'"$ BRAV" ,'ADC D>(,>&P, S'A1DDP
&)9>&, ,'ADC
VTAB# 2!L'V!R3<
#"$F'R) R!A23 T" #"%3
D>(,>&P ,'ADC,
,'ADC D>(,>&P, (%& ')
(1D)&>, &WP 0B, S(D A;>A
*A, C(7D A1D 7A(1'A(1
/?++ %', >GP>C' .+++ %' *+
7(1@'>S A%'>&
D>PA&'@&>, C)1'AC'
D>"( APP *0A.-, SE@AW;
//0/, C>A&A1C> (SS@>D A'
+B0+Q, ,)(D A' +B/+Q
D>(,>&P ,'ADC, 4&>AD
C)&&>C', D>(,>&P
5.... While re6uesting for start up of engines, along with the re6uest, the pilot will state the
location of the aircraft and also acknowledge receipt of the A'(S broadcast 4See ..../5. (f the
departure of the aircraft will be delayed, the controller will normally indicate a start up time or an
e!pected start up time.
A(P >1& *.* re6uires that the pilot shall intimate the total number of persons on board
including the crew and security check completed to the appropriate A'S unit when re6uesting start
up clearance. Also, before asking for start$up or push$back clearance, pilot must ensure that the step
ladder is removed and the doors are closed.
2!L*' G$2 VTAII< STA$2
.5< R!E4!ST START 4%<
'$F"R)AT'"$ BRAV"
2!L*' G$2 VTAII< STA$2
.5< T"TAL +00 "$ B"AR2<
S!#4R'T3 #*!#K
#")%L!T!2< R!E4!ST
START 4%< '$F"R)AT'"$
,CC, S'A&' @P APP&),>D,
E1" *++-
,CC, S'A&' @P A' /3, E1"
,CC, >GP>C' S'A&' @P A' /3,
E1" *++-
,CC, >GP>C' D>PA&'@&> .-,
S'A&' @P A' )W1
D(SC&>'()1, E1" *++-
5...0 After receiving the A'C approval, the pilot starts the engines assisted as necessary by
ground crew.
R!A23 F"R START 4% S'A&' >19(1> 1@7D>& )1>
S'A&'(19 1@7D>& )1>
5.0 %ush>?ack %rocedure
5.0.+ At many aerodromes at which large aircraft operate, the aircraft are parked with the nose
towards the terminal. Parking stands in which the aircraft can ta!i$in and ta!i$out are called
P)W>& (12P)W>& )@' stands. Stands in which the aircraft can power in but cannot power out
have to be pushed backwards by tugs before they can ta!i for departure. &e6uests for push$back are
made to A'C or apron management depending on the local procedures. (f the aerodrome does not
have an apron control, the re6uest for push$back has to be made to the S7C.
2!L*' A%R"$ VTAII<
STA$2 .5< R!E4!ST %4S*
,CC D>"( AP&)1, P@S"
,CC D>"( AP1, S'A1D DP,
>GP>C' )1> 7(1@'> D>AP
D@> DA.A 'AG((19 D>"(1D
5.0.. 'he phraseology used by the pilot and the ground crew to coordinate the push$back is as
R!A23 F"R %4S* BA#K
C)1%(&7 D&A;>S
D&A;>S &>>AS>D C)77>1C(19 P@S" DAC;
D&A;>S S>', D(SC)11>C'
%4S* BA#K #")%L!T!2<
#"$F'R) BRAK!S S!T
D(SC)11>C'(19, S'A1D DP
%)& ,(S@A A' P)@& >%'
5.0.. When the push$back manoeuvre is completed, the ground crew shall give the pilot a visual
signal to indicate that the aircraft is free to ta!i. During the push$back, if the pilot wishes to stop the
manoeuvre at any stage, the phrase LS')P P@S"$DAC;M should be used.
5.5 Ta,i 'nstructions
5.5.+ 'a!i instructions issued by a controller will always contain a holding point, which is the
point at which the aircraft must stop until further permission to proceed is given. %or departing
aircraft, the holding point will normally be the ta!i$holding point of the runway in use, but it may be
any other position on the aerodrome depending on the prevailing traffic circumstances.
5.5.. When clearance to ta!i contains a ta!i limit beyond a runway, it shall contain an
unambiguous clearance to cross or an instruction to hold short of that runway.
AT S"4T* S'2! *A$GARS<
R!E4!ST TA(' F"R
,'ADC ,AD)DA&A 'W&,
'AG( ,(A 'AG(WAP C"A&(>
') ")D(19 P)(1' &WP 00,
W(1D 03+ D>9&>>S B ;1)'S,
E1" *+*+, '(7> 'W) '"&>>
A1D A "A%
,AD)DA&A 'W& ,'ADC,
E1" *+*+, &>E@>S' &WP +.
,DC, &>C>A&>D ")D(19
P)(1' &WP +., 'AG( D>"(1D
>>& C>' C)7(19 %&)7
P)@& >%'
")D(19 P)(1' &WP +.,
'&A%%(C (1 S(9"', ,DC
,AD)DA&A 'W&
T*! F4!L ST$< VFR T"
,7>, &WP +*, W(1D +B+
D>9&>>S *+ ;1)'S, E1"
*+*0, ,(S(D(('P B ;7, '(7>
+., 'AG( ') ")D(19 P)(1'
&WP +* ,(A 'AG(WAP
&WP +*, E1" *+*0,
&>E@>S' 'AG(WAP D&A,)
A1D DAC;'&AC;, ,7>
,7>, APP&),>D, 'AG( ,(A
D&A,), DAC;'&AC; A1D
(1> @P &WP +*, ")D
S")&' )% &WP +*
D&A,) DAC;'&AC; A1D
(1> @P &WP +*, ")D(19
S")&' )% &WP +* ,7>
*"L2'$G S*"RT "F RA3
V)! !(%!2'T! TA('<
TRAFF'# "$ F'$AL< RA3
;+L< R!%"RT RA3 ;+L
>GP>D('(19 'AG(, ,7>
RA3 VA#AT!2< V)! &)9>&
AT F4!L ST$< R!E4!ST
TA(' T" FL3'$G #L4B
,9D @C;1)W 'W&, 'AG(
') ")D(19 P)(1' &WP 0.,
,(A 'AG(WAP C"A&(>
,(A C"A&(>, ")D(19
P)(1' &WP 0., ,9D
A%%R"A#*'$G *"L2'$G
%"'$T< R!E4!ST #R"SS
RA3 .5
,9D, ")D S")&' &WP 0.
")D(19 S")&', ,9D
,9D, C&)SS &WP 0., &>P)&'
,ACA'>D, C)1'(1@> ')
%P(19 C@D
C&)SS(19, W(C) ,9D
RA3 VA#AT!2< VG2 ,9D &)9>&, @C;1)W 'W&
*!L' L4#K$"A TAR G>*!L'<
R!E4!ST A'R TA(''$G
FR") F4!L ST$ T"
9$">(, A(& 'AG( ,(A
D(&>C' %&)7 %@> S'1 ')
AP&)1 A,)(D DA.A 'AG((19
%&)7 S'A1D 0A ') ")D(19
P)(1' &WP 0.
A(& 'AG( D(&>C' %&)7
%@> S'1 ') AP&)1,
'&A%%(C (1 S(9"'
Note 1: - The runwa# is considered vacated) when the entire aircraft is $e#ond the appropriate
runwa#-holding position
5.5.0 When a pilot acknowledges receipt of the A'(S broadcast, the controller need not pass
departure information to the pilot while giving ta!iing instructions. 4See Part (( Chapter **
paragraph **.- for more on A'(S5
2!L*' G$2 VTAII *!AV3<
R!E4!ST TA('<
'$F"R)AT'"$ #*ARL'!
,CC D>"( 91D, 'AG( ')
")D(19 P)(1' &WP 0A,
9(,> WAP ') DA.A PASS(19
>%' ') &(9"', E1" *+*-
")D(19 P)(1' &WP 0A,
E1" *+*-, 9(,> WAP ')
5.6 Take>off %rocedures
5.6.+ (n aerodromes with separate 9&)@1D and ')W>& control services, aircraft are usually
transferred to the ')W>& at 4or when approaching5 the runway$holding position.
5.6.. 7isunderstandings and confusions in the granting and acknowledgement of take$off
clearances can result in serious conse6uences. @tmost care should be taken to ensure that the
phraseology employed during the ta!i manoeuvres cannot be interpreted as a clearance to enter the
runway or permission to take$off.
5.6.0 Some aircraft are re6uired to carry out checks prior to take$off and are not always ready for
take$off when they reach the holding point.
VB# #*!$$A' TAR<
R!%"RT A*!$ R!A23
F"R 2!%ART4R!
C">11A( 'W& ,DC, W(C)
#*!$$A' TAR VB#< R!A23
F"R 2!%ART4R!
,DC C">11A( 'W&, (1> @P
A1D WA('
(1(19 @P ,DC
5.6.5 Controllers should not transmit to an aircraft engaged in the process of taking off or during
the early stage of climb, e!cept in cases of emergency.
VB# #*!$$A' TAR< RA3
;8< #L!AR!2 F"R TAK!
&WP +A, C>A&>D %)& 'A;>
)%%, ,DC
5.6.6 (t may be necessary that, due to traffic conditions, the aircraft is re6uired to take off
immediately after lining up.
VB# #*!$$A' TAR< AR!
3"4 R!A23 F"R
'))!2'AT! 2!%ART4R!
C">11A(& 'W& ,DC,
,DC (1> @P, D> &>ADP
%)& (77>D(A'>
(1(19 @P, ,DC
,DC, &WP +A, C>A&>D %)&
&WP +A, C>A&>D %)&
'A;>$)%%, ,DC
5.6.7 (n low visibility conditions, the controller may ask the pilot to report when airborne.
#!SS$A +8. L4#K$"A
TAR< RA3 .8< #L!AR!2
F"R TAK!>"FF< R!%"RT
@C;1)W 'W&, &WP 0A,
C>A&>D %)& 'A;>$)%%,
W(C), C>SS1A *A0
L4#K$"A TAR #!SS$A
+8.< A'RB"R$! 68
C>SS1A *A0, C)1'AC'
@C;1)W APP *0+..3
@C;1)W APP *0+..3,
C>SS1A *A0
5.6.8 Conditional clearances are clearances depending on conditions regarding nearby aircraft or
vehicle traffic. Conditional clearances should not be used for movements concerning the active
runway4s5, e!cept when the aircraft or vehicles concerned are seen by both the controller and pilot.
(f the conditional clearance involves a departing aircraft and an arriving aircraft, it is important that
the departing aircraft correctly identifies the arriving traffic on which the conditional clearance is
based. 'o ensure correct identification, reference to the arriving traffic type may be insufficient and
it may be necessary to add a detail such as the colour or the company name. A conditional clearance
is given as follows<
4*5 Call sign
405 'he condition
4/5 'he clearance
4.5 Drief reiteration of condition
KT :++< R!%"RT A'RB4S
"$ F'$AL '$ S'G*T
;' -**, A(&D@S (1 S(9"'
;' -**, D>"(1D '">
A1D(19 A(&D@S, (1> @P
A1D WA(' D>"(1D
D>"(1D '"> A(&D@S, (1(19
@P A1D WA('(19 D>"(1D,
;' -**
5.6.9 1ormally, the runway number is stated in the take$off clearance to avoid any possibility that
the pilot may be confused as to which runway to use, especially when there are several runways are
in use.
#!SS$A +8.< RA3 ;:<
#L!AR!2 F"R TAK!>"FF
C>A&>D %)& 'A;>$)%%,
&WP +-, C>SS1A *A0
5.6.: 'o ensure separation between aircraft operating in the vicinity of the aerodrome and the
aircraft being cleared for take off, departure instructions may be combined with the take$off
#!SS$A +8.< #L')B
STRA'G*T A*!A2 4$T'L
.6;; F!!T B!F"R!
T4R$'$G R'G*T< RA3 .5<
#L!AR!2 F"R TAK!>"FF
S'&A(9"' A">AD 03++ %>>',
&(9"' '@&1, C>A&>D %)&
'A;>$)%%, C>SS1A *A0
> > > > > > > > > > > >
T4R$ A*!$ A'RB"R$!
,DC &(9"' '@&1
APP&),>D, &WP +?,
C>A&>D %)& 'A;>$)%%
&WP +?, C>A&>D %)&
'A;>$)%%, &(9"' '@&1, ,DC
5.6.+; A'C may cancel the take off or free the runway urgently due to une!pected traffic
developments or a departing aircraft taking longer to take off than anticipated.

#!SS$A +8.< TAK! "FF
'))!2'AT!L3 "R *"L2
S*"RT "F RA3
")D(19 S")&', C>SS1A
> > > > > > > > > > >
'))!2'AT!L3 "R
'A;(19 )%%, ,DC
A' .;.< *"L2 %"S'T'"$<
#A$#!L TAK!>"FF< '
SA3 AGA'$< #A$#!L
TAK!>"FF< V!*'#L! "$
")D(19, A( 0+0
5.6.++ (n order to avert a dangerous traffic situation, it may become necessary to stop an aircraft
which has started its take off run. 'he aircraft must be instructed to abandon its take$off and stop
immediately. 'he instruction and call sign must be repeated.
:A 0++< ST"%
'))!2'AT!L3< :A 0++
ST"% '))!2'AT!L3
S')PP(19, -W/**
5.6.+. When a pilot abandons the take$off manoeuvre, the control tower should be informed as
soon as practicable and assistance or ta!i instructions should be re6uested as re6uired.
S')PP(19, -W /** -W/**, &)9>&
'W& -W /**, &>E@>S'
&>'@&1 ') &A7P
-W/**, 'A;> 1>G' &(9"',
&>'@&1 ') &A7P, C)1'AC'
91D *0*.-
1>G' &(9"', &>'@&1 ')
&A7P, 91D *0*.-, -W/**
5.7 Aerodro-e Traffic #ircuit
An aerodrome circuit is illustrated in the figure below.
Fi/ure 5.+ Aerodro-e Traffic #ircuit
5.7.+ (nstructions to :oin the traffic circuit should be re6uested in time to allow for a planned entry
into the circuit taking other traffic into consideration. (f the traffic circuit is in a right$hand pattern,
this should be specified. eft$hand pattern need not be specified although it is advisable to do so if
there has been a recent change where the circuit direction is variable.
VTABB< +; )'L!S S"4T*<
.6;; F!!T< F"R LA$2'$G
,DD, C)(1 D)W1W(1D, &WP
0., W(1D 0A+ D>9&>>S 3
;1)'S, E1" *+*0
C)(1 D)W1W(1D, &WP 0.,
E1" *+*0, ,DD
5.7.. When the aircraft intends to :oin the traffic circuit, it should acknowledge the A'(S
broadcast 4if available5 in the initial call to the aerodrome.
VTABB< +; )'L!S $"RT*<
.6;; F!!T< F"R LA$2'$G<
'$F"R)AT'"$ BRAV"
,DD, C)(1 &(9"' "A1D
D)W1W(1D, &WP +-, E1"
C)(1 &(9"' "A1D
D)W1W(1D, &WP +-, E1"
*+*0 ,DD
"FF< RA3 ;: A$2 A
L!ARI!T 2"A$A'$2
'&A%%(C (1 S(9"', ,DD
5.7.0 (f the prevailing traffic conditions permit and depending on the direction from which an
aircraft is arriving, the A'C may be give a straight$in approach.
VTABB< +; )'L!S $"RT*<
.6;; F!!T< F"R LA$2'$G
,DD, 7A;> S'&A(9"'$(1
APP&)AC", &WP +-, W(1D
*-+ D>9&>>S 3 ;1)'S, E1"
S'&A(9"'$(1, &WP +-,
E1" *++-, ,DD
5.7.5 After :oining the traffic circuit, the pilot should make routine reports as re6uired by local
#*!$$A' TAR VTABB<
,DD, 1@7D>& 0, %))W
C>SS1A )1 DAS> >9
1@7D>& 0, '&A%%(C (1
S(9"', ,DD
TAR VBB< BAS! L!G ,DD, &>P)&' %(1A
W(C), ,DD
TAR VBB< F'$AL ,DD, C)1'(1@> APP&)AC",
W(1D 0A+ D>9&>>S A ;1)'S
5.7.6 When coordinating traffic in the circuit, the aircraft may be issued delaying or e!pediting
VTABB< !(T!$2
2"A$A'$2< $4)B!R .<
F"LL"A #!SS$A "$ 5
)'L!S F'$AL
>G'>1D(19 D)W1W(1D,
1@7D>& 0, C>SS1A (1
S(9"', ,'ADD
#!SS$A +8.< "RB'T
R'G*T 24! TRAFF'# "$
T*! RA3< R!%"RT
AGA'$ "$ F'$AL
)&D('(19 &(9"', W(C),
C>SS1A *A0
VTA)!< $4)B!R +<
)AK! S*"RT
A%%R"A#*< 2"R$'!R "$
7 )'L!S F'$AL
S")&' APP&)AC", ,'A7>
5.8 Final Approach and Landin/
5.8.+ Pilot has to make a L%(1AM report when the aircraft turns onto final phase, within A km
4.175 from touchdown. (f and when the aircraft turns onto the final at a greater distance, a L)19
%(1AM report is made. (f the aircraft is makes a straight$in approach, a L)19 %(1AM report is
made at about *3 km 4B175 from touchdown. (f A'C does not issue a landing clearance at that
time, a L%(1AM report should be made at A km 4.175 from touchdown.
VTA)!< L"$G F'$AL
,7>, C)1'(1@> APP&)AC",
W(1D 0?+ D>9&>>S *B ;1)'S
V)!< F'$AL
,7>, &WP 0A, C>A&>D ')
A1D, W(1D 0A+ D>9&>>S 0+
&WP 0A, C>A&>D ')
A1D, ,7>
5.8.. (f a pilot suspects the condition of his aircraft and decides to undergo a visual inspection
from the ground, he may re6uest to fly past the control tower or other observation point.
VTA)!< R!E4!ST L"A
G!AR '$2'#AT'"$
,7>, C>A&>D )W PASS,
&WP 0A, 1)' D>)W 3++
%>>', &>P)&' %(1A
&WP 0A, 1)' D>)W 3++
%>>', W(C), ,7>
5.8.0 (f the low pass is made for the purpose of observing the undercarriage, one of the following
replies could be used to describe its condition 4these e!amples are not e!haustive5<
4a5 A1D(19 9>A& APP>A&S D)W1
4b5 &(9"' 4or >%' or 1)S>5 W">> APP>A&S @P 4or D)W15
4c5 W">>S APP>A& @P
4d5 &(9"' 4or >%' )& 1)S>5 W">> D)>S 1)' APP>A& @P 4or D)W15
5.8.5 An approach along or parallel to the runway, without actually landing may be performed for
training purposes. Such an approach is called J)W APP&)AC"F.
A%%R"A#* RA3 .8 F"R
,7>, C>A&>D )W
APP&)AC" &WP 0A, 1)'
D>)W 03+ %', &>P)&'
C>A&>D %)& )W
APP&)AC" &WP 0A, 1)'
D>)W 03+ %', W(C),
CA(P@& 'W&
5.8.6 A manoeuvre in which the aircraft lands, continues rolling and takes off again without
stopping is called J')@C" A1D 9)F. Pilot should make specific re6uest for such a manoeuvre.
'his is usually done to save ta!iing time during traffic circuit training.
R!E4!ST T"4#* A$2
,7>, C>A&>D ')@C" A1D
C>A&>D ')@C" A1D 9),
,7>, @1AD> ') APP&),>
D@> '&A%%(C C)19>S'()1,
7A;> %@ S')P, &WP +-,
C>A&>D ') A1D
&WP +-, C>A&>D ')
A1D %)& %@ S')P,
,7>, 7A;> A1)'">&
C(&C@(', &>P)&'
W(C), ,7>
5.9 Go Around
5.9.+ 9o around or missed approach is a manoeuvre in which the aircraft which intends to land
pulls up and goes around the circuit once again. Controller may pass instructions to carry out a
missed approach to avert an unsafe situation. Cockpit workload will be high when a missed
approach is initiated. 'ransmissions to aircraft going around should be brief and minimum.
:A 0++< G" AR"4$2<
A'R#RAFT "$ T*! RA3
9)(19 A&)@1D, -W /**
5.9.. @nless instructions are issued to the contrary, an aircraft on an instrument approach will
carry out the missed approach procedure and an aircraft operating ,%& will continue in the normal
traffic circuit.
5.9.0 (f the missed approach is initiated by the pilot, the phrase L9)(19 A&)@1DM shall be
G"'$G AR"4$2< V)!
,7> &)9>&, &>P)&'
5.: Landin/
5.:.+ After landing, unless absolutely necessary, controllers should not give ta!i instructions to
pilots until the landing roll is completed. @nless otherwise advised, pilots should remain on tower
fre6uency until runway is vacated.
2!##A$>*!L'< A'R TA('
T" *!L'#"%T!R STA$2
A(&$'AG( ') ">(C)P'>&
S'A1D, D>CCA1$">(
> > > > > > > > > > > > >
R'G*T< A*!$ VA#AT!2
#"$TA#T G$2 +.+.86
%(&S' &(9"', W(C), *0*.A3,
> > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#"#*'$ G$2 VTABG<
,D9, 'AG( ') S'A1D *. ,(A
S'A1D *. ,(A 'AG(WAP
AP"A ,D9
5.+; !ssential Aerodro-e 'nfor-ation
5.+;.+ (nformation regarding the movement area and its associated facilities is necessary for the
safe operation of aircraft. Such information is called essential information. >ssential aerodrome
information should be passed to aircraft, as far as possible, before to start$up or ta!i and prior to the
commencement of final approach 4for arriving aircraft5, e!cept when it is known that the aircraft
has received all or part of the information from other sources. >!amples essential aerodrome
information are<
4a5 Construction or maintenance work on or immediately ad:acent to the movement area
4b5 &ough or broken surfaces on a runway, a ta!iway or an apron, whether marked or not
4c5 Snow, slush or ice on a runway, a ta!iway or an apron
4d5 Water on a runway, a ta!iway or an apron
4e5 Snow banks or drifts ad:acent to a runway, a ta!iway or an apron
4f5 )ther temporary haKards, including parked aircraft and birds on the ground or in the air
4g5 %ailure or irregular operation of part or all of the aerodrome lighting systems and
4h5 Any other pertinent information
A' 6;6< #A4T'"$<
#"$STR4#T'"$ A"RK
A2IA#!$T T" GAT! 08
&)9>&, A( 3+3
> > > > > > > > > > > > > >
A"RK '$ %R"GR!SS A*!A2 $"RT*
S'2! "F TA('AA3 AL%*A
> > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#!$TR! L'$! TA('AA3 L'G*T'$G
> > > > > > > > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > > > > > > >
LARG! FL"#K "F B'R2S $"RT* "F
RA3 .8 $!AR #!$TRAL TA('AA3
> > > > > > > > > > > > > >
'LS ;: 4$S!RV'#!ABL!
> > > > > > > > > > > > >
RA3 #"$2'T'"$S ;:< AVA'LABL!
A'2T* 0. )!TR!S< #"V!R!2 A'T*
T*'$ %AT#*!S "F '#!< BRAK'$G
A#T'"$ %""R< S$"A 4% T" 0; #)
AL"$G !2G!S
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A%T!R 6
A!R"2R")! #"$TR"L "F V!*'#4LAR TRAFF'#
6.+ 'ntroduction
,ehicular movement in the manoeuvring area and other parts of an aerodrome must be
controlled in order to regulate the vehicular traffic and segregate them from the aircraft traffic.
6.+.+ Since the aircraft are not as manoeuvrable as vehicles and the vision of the pilot in the
cockpit is restricted, the vehicle drivers must be e!tremely cautious and vigilant while operating the
vehicles close to the aircraft. Drivers should be fully conversant with the local aerodrome
procedures governing the movement of vehicles, since these procedures may vary from aerodrome
to aerodrome.
6.+.. Drivers of the vehicles in the movement area of aerodrome must maintain a continuous
listening watch on the appropriate &' channel. 'his will enable them to receive instructions from
the control and also have awareness of aircraft and other vehicle traffic, thereby reducing the risk of
6.. )o1e-ent 'nstructions
6...+ )n the initial call to the control, drivers should give their vehicle call sign, position and
intended destination and when possible, the re6uired route.
2!L*' G$2 A"RK!R .+<
GAT! .8< R!E4!ST
%R"#!!2 T" A"RK '$
W)&;>& 0*, P&)C>>D ')
'AG(WAP ")'> ,(A ;()
P&)C>>D(19 ')
'AG(WAP ")'> ,(A
;() A1D AP"A,
W)&;>& 0*
6.... 'he vehicle must not proceed until permission is given. (f a S'A1DDP instruction is given,
the driver must wait for the Control to call him2her again.
6...0 Due to traffic conditions, the Control may ask the driver to J")D P)S('()1F. 'he driver
shall not proceed until the controller calls back with permission to proceed. Control may ask the
vehicle to proceed to a position which may not be the intended destination. Since this may be due to
the prevailing traffic conditions, the vehicle must proceed to and hold at this point till he2she
receives further instructions to proceed to the intended destination.

2!L*' G$2 TR4#K!R 6<
!('T K'L"< R!E4!ST
%R"#!!2 T" *A$GAR 0
'&@C;>& 3, P&)C>>D ,(A
;(), AP"A A1D %)G'&)',
C&)SS &WP +-, ")D S")&'
)% &WP *.
,(A ;() AP"A %)G'&)', C&)SS(19
&WP +-, ")D(19 S")&' )% &WP *.,
'&@C;>& 3
TR4#K!R 6< #R"SS RA3 +5< #"$T'$4!
T" *A$GAR 0
C&)SS(19, '&@C;>& 3
TR4#K!R 6< RA3 +5
TR4#K!R 6 R"G!R< 2!L*'
6...5 7ovement on the apron will have to take other traffic into consideration.
#*!$$A' A%R"$
TR4#K!R 6< GAT! .+<
R!E4!ST %R"#!!2 T"
GAT! .7
'&@C;>& 3, 9(,> WAP ') (A
DA/A )1 P)@& &(9"' '">1
P&)C>>D ') 9A'> 0?,
CA@'()1 C>' DAS'
9(,(19 WAP ') DA/A, &)9>&
'&@C;>& 3
6.0 #rossin/ of Runays
6.0.+ (n most of the aerodromes, procedures do not allow for crossing of runways without
clearance from the Control. 'raffic must hold at the holding point till cleared to cross the runway.
Drivers should be aware of this and adhere to such procedures strictly. >ven when cleared to cross
the runway, clearance must be acknowledged. &unway vacated report must be given only when the
vehicle 4and tow5 is fully clear of the runway area beyond the holding point.
)4)BA' G$2 TR4#K!R
..< B3 T*! #"$TR"L
T"A!R< R!E4!ST
%R"#!!2 T"
)A'$T!$A$#! BAS!
'&@C;>& 00, P&)C>>D ,(A
(1D(A A1D D&A,), ")D
S")&' )% &WP 0A
,(A (1D(A A1D D&A,), ")D(19
S")&' )% &WP 0A '&@C;>& 00
TR4#K!R ..< *"L2'$G S*"RT "F
RA3 .8
'&@C;>& 0,0 S'A1D DP
TR4#K!R ..< #R"SS RA3
T" TA('AA3 )'K!<
R!%"RT RA3 VA#AT!2
C&)SS &WP 0A, '&@C;>& 00
TR4#K!R ..< RA3 VA#AT!2
'&@C;>& 00, C)1'(1@> )1
7(;> ') 7A(1'>1A1C>
&)9>&, '&@C;>& 00
6.0.. A vehicle operating on the runway may be instructed to leave the runway if the runway is
re6uired by an aircraft landing or taking off.
A"RK!R .+ VA#AT!
RA3 .8< TAK! $!(T
R'G*T< R!%"RT
,ACA'(19 &WP 0A ,(A 1>G'
&(9"', W)&;>& 0*
A"RK!R .+< RA3 VA#AT!2
W)&;>& 0*, &)9>&
6.0.0 A vehicle may be instructed to stop to avoid a potentially dangerous situation.

A"RK!R .+< ST"%
S')PP(19, W)&;>& 0*
6.5 Vehicles Toin/ Aircraft
6.5.+ Drivers of vehicles towing aircraft must inform the Control specifically about the tow.
Drivers must pass the information about the type, and if re6uired, the operator of the aircraft being
2!L*' A%R"$ T4G :<
B808 FR") GAT! .; T"
GAT! .6
'@9 - D>"( AP&)1, ')W
APP&),>D %&)7 9A'> 0+
') 9A'> 03 ,(A 'AG(WAP
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
G$2 T4G :< R!E4!ST
T"A 'G B808 FR")
)A'$T!$A$#! *A$GAR
0 T" GAT! .6
'@9 - 91D, ')W APP&),>D
%&)7 7A(1'>1A1C>
"A19A& / ') 9A'> 03,
P&)C>>D ,(A %)G'&)',
")D S")&' )% &WP /0
')W APP&),>D ,(A
%)G'&)', ")D S")&'
)% &WP /0, '@9 -
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A%T!R 7
G!$!RAL ATS S4RV!'LLA$#! S!RV'#! %*RAS!"L"G3
7.+ 'ntroduction
'his chapter discusses general A'S surveillance service phraseology which is used in
communications between aircraft and all types of radar units. Phraseology which is particular to
approach radar control or area radar control is discussed in Chapters A and B as appropriate.
While operating in a radar environment, heading information passed by the pilot and
heading instructions given by controllers are in degrees magnetic.
7.. 'dentification and Vectorin/
7...+ (n a Primary Surveillance &adar, the controller sees an aircraft as a JblipF on the radar
screen. When there are a number of aircraft within the radar surveillance area, there will be many
blips on the screen. 'he controller gives manoeuvring instructions to the aircraft to be identified and
identifies the aircraft by the corresponding movement of the blip on the screen. Different means of
A'S surveillance service identification are vectoring, use of position report information, re6uesting
the aircraft to make turns, the use of bearing and distance information from a prominent ob:ect or
radio aid, transfer of control and the use of SS&.
*!A2'$G A$2 L!V!L
7A19A)&> &ADA& ,AD,
"D9 **+ A' 03++ %>>'
,AD, %)&
(D>1'(%(CA'()1 '@&1
>%', "D9 +B+
>%', "D9 +B+, ,AD
,AD, (D>1'(%(>D, 0+
7(>S S)@'" W>S' )%
9)A, C)1'(1@> P&>S>1'
&)9>&, C)1'(1@> P&>S>1'
"D9, ,AD
,AD, 1)' (D>1'(%(>D.
1)' P>' W('"(1 &ADA&
C),>&, &>S@7> )W1
1A,(9A'()1 ')
&)9>&, &>S@7(19 )W1
1A,(9A'()1 ')
7.... (f identification is lost or about to be lost, the pilot should be advised accordingly and
appropriate instructions given.
VAB< '2!$T'F'#AT'"$
L"ST 24! RA2AR
FA'L4R!< #"$TA#T
)A$GAL"R! #TR +.8.66
&)9>&, 7A19A)&> C'&
*0A.33 ,AD
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
L"S! '2!$T'F'#AT'"$
T!)%"RAR'L3 24!
FA2! AR!A< R!)A'$
T*'S FR!E4!$#3
W(C), ,D9
7.0 Vectorin/
7.0.+ 'o establish and maintain separation between aircraft, specific vectors may be given to fly.
Pilots should be informed of the reasons why vectors are necessary.
#A ..+< T4R$ L!FT< *2G
;6; F"R S!%ARAT'"$
"D9 >%' +3+, CA 00*
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
'# +;+< FL3 *2G ;7; "D9 +?+, (C *+*
7.0.. Controllers may need to know the heading of the aircraft in order to maintain lateral
separation. An aircraft may be instructed to maintain its e!isting heading and the conflicting traffic
vectored to maintain lateral separation.

V)!< R!%"RT *2G ,7>, "D9 +3+
,7>, &)9>&, C)1'(1@>
"D9 +3+
W(C), ,7>
7.0.0 )nce the vectoring is complete, position information will be passed to the pilots and they
will be instructed to resume their own navigation along with appropriate instructions as necessary.
VII< %"S'T'"$ 0; )'L!S
$"RT* !AST "F
"A$ $AV'GAT'"$<
2'R!#T VA2"2ARA V"R
D(&>C' ,AD)DA&A ,)&, ,CC
VII< R!S4)! "A$
$AV'GAT'"$< 2'R!#T
.0;< 0; )'L!S
'&AC; 0/+, /+ 7(>S, D(&>C'
,)&, ,CC
VII< R!S4)! "A$
$AV'GAT'"$< %"S'T'"$
0; )'L!S !AST "F S4RAT
W(C), ,CC
7.0.5 An aircraft may be instructed to make a complete turn 4known as an orbit or a /?+ degree
turn5, for delaying purposes or to achieve a re6uired spacing behind preceding traffic.
A' .;.< )AK! A T*R!!
S'(T3 T4R$ L!FT F"R
'"&>> S(G'P '@&1 >%', A(
A' .;.< "RB'T L!FT F"R
)&D('(19 >%', A( 0+0
7.5 Traffic 'nfor-ation and A1oidin/ Action
7.5.+ When conflicting traffic is observed, information should be given in the following form<
4a5 &elative bearing of the conflicting traffic in terms of the *0 hour clock
4b5 Distance from the conflicting traffic
4c5 Direction of the flight of the conflicting traffic and
4d5 any other related information such as< unknown, slow moving, fast moving, closing, opposite
4or same5 direction, overtaking, crossing left to right 4or right to left5 and if known, aircraft type
and level, climbing or descending.
A' .;.< 4$K$"A$
TRAFF'# + K"L #L"#K< 0
)'L!S< "%%"S'T!
2'R!#T'"$< FAST
));(19 )@', A( 0+0
A' .;.< TRAFF'# '$ S'G*T
7.5.. Controller may offer vectors to a pilot or a pilot may re6uest for vectors to avoid conflicting
traffic. )nce the conflicting situation no longer e!ists, the controller should inform the pilot.
VII< 4$K$"A$ TRAFF'#
+; "L #L"#K< ++ )'L!S<
#R"SS'$G L!FT T"
R'G*T< FAST )"V'$G
,CC, 1>9A'(,> C)1'AC',
&>E@>S' ,>C')&S
,CC, '@&1 >%', "D9 +3+ >%', "D9 +3+, ,CC
R!S4)! "A$
$AV'GAT'"$< 2'R!#T
D(&>C' D>A&P 1DD, ,CC
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
V)!< TRAFF'# . "L
#L"#K< 6 )'L!S< $"RT*
B"4$2< 2"R$'!R AT .;;;
));(19 )@', ,7>
,7>, D) P)@ WA1'
1>9A'(,> ,>C')&S,
'&A%%(C (1 S(9"', ,7>
D>"( &ADA&
7.6 Secondary Sur1eillance Radar (SSR)
7.6.+ (n an SS& environment, the Controller instructs the pilot to set a four digit code on the
airborne SS& e6uipment. Airborne SS& e6uipment transmits this code towards the SS& ground
e6uipment. )n the radar screen, the code appears along with the blip representing the aircraft, thus
making it much easier for the controller to identify the particular aircraft. Another advantage of SS&
is, the e6uipment is also capable of transmitting the altitude of the aircraft 4see Part (((, Chapter .,
paragraph ..- for more on SS&5. 'he procedure of setting the code on the aircraft and transmitting
it is called JsCuakin/F. 'he following phrases 4with their meanings5 are instructions given by
controllers to pilots regarding the operation of SS& transponders.
%hrases )eanin/
SE@AW; 4code5 Set the code as instructed
C)1%(&7 SE@AW; Confirm mode and code set on the transponder
&>S>' 4mode5 4code5 &eselect assigned mode and code
SE@AW; (D>1' )perate the L(D>1'M feature
SE@AW; 7APDAP Select emergency code
SE@AW; S'A1D DP Select the stand by feature
SE@AW; C"A&(> Select pressure altitude transmission feature
C">C; A'(7>'>& S>''(19 A1D
C)1%(&7 level
Check pressure setting and confirm present level
S')P SE@AW; C"A&(> W&)19
Deselect pressure altitude transmission feature
because of faulty operation
N ,>&(%P >,> Check and confirm your level
&>S>' 7)D> S (D>1'(%(CA'()1
%or a 7ode S e6uipped aircraft, re6uest reselection of
aircraft identification
N 'his phraseology is used to verify the accuracy of the 7ode C derived level information displayed
to the controller.
7.6.. Pilot should either acknowledge or a read$back an SS& instruction.
') ..; 2!L*' RA2AR<
A2V'S! T3%! "F
D>"( &ADA& (7 00+,
'&A1SP)1D>& C"A&(>
(7 00+, SE@AW; ?.** ?.**, (7 00+
(7 00+, C)1%(&7 SE@AW; (7 00+, SE@AW;(19 ?.**
(7 00+, &>S>' SE@AW;
&>S>''(19 ?.**, (7 00+
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
RA2AR< #*!#K
A$2 #"$F'R) L!V!L
,'ADD, A'(7>'>& *+*/,
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
VT2BG< #F)
,'DD9, 1>9A'(,>,
7.7 Radar Assistance to Aircraft ith Radio #o--unications Failure
7.7.+ &adar can be used to confirm whether an aircraft is able to receive the controllerFs
instructions but cannot transmit acknowledgements, due to e6uipment failure. An aircraft whose
communication e6uipment has failed must s6uawk SS& code A?++.

G A'R +99< R!%L3 $"T R!#!'V!2< 'F
3"4 R!A2< #*!$$A' #"$TR"L< T4R$
L!FT< *2G ;5;
9 A(& *BB, '@&1 )DS>&,>D, P)S('()1
?+ 7(>S 1> )% '"(&@C"(&APA(
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
VTA)!< R!%L3 $"T R!#!'V!2< 'F
3"4 R!A2< )A$GAL"R! #"$TR"L<
SE4AAK '2!$T
,7>, SE@AW; )DS>&,>D, .+ 7(>S 1W
)% CA(C@' ,)&, W( C)1'(1@>
&ADA& C)1'&)
7.8 Alertin/ %hraseolo/ies
7.8.+ (f a minimum safe altitude warning 47SAW5 is generated for a controlled flight, the air
traffic controller should inform the pilot and issue appropriate instructions.
'A 0..< L"A ALT'T42! AAR$'$G<
#*!#K 3"4R ALT'T42!
'))!2'AT!L3< E$* +;;7< )'$')4)
FL'G*T ALT'T42! 56; F!!T
> > > > > > > > > > > >
VTA)!< T!RRA'$ AL!RT< #L')B T"
.;;; F!!T< E$* +;;7
7.8.. (f the controller considers that an imminent risk of collision e!ists, he2she must instruct the
avoiding actions to be taken by the pilot.
') ..;< T4R$ R'G*T
'))!2'AT!L3< *2G ++;
T" AV"'2 TRAFF'# +. "L
#L"#K< 5 )'L!S
'@&1 &(9"' ">AD(19 **+,
(7 00+
(7 00+, C>A& )%
'&A%%(C, &>S@7> )W1
1A,(9A'()1, D(&>C'
7A19A)&> ,)&
D(&>C' 7A19A)&> ,)&,
(7 00+
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A%T!R 8
A%%R"A#* #"$TR"L
8.+ 'ntroduction
'he Aerodrome Control 'ower hands over the control of a departing aircraft to the
Approach Control at a designated point and altitude, as per local procedures. A single approach
control unit handles both arrivals and departures at most of the airports. At busier airports,
departures and arrival may be handled separately by specific arrival and departure control units.
8.. 'FR 2epartures
8...+ (n addition to the A'C route clearance, departing (%& flights may be given departure
instructions in order to provide separation. 'hese may be given in plain language or in the form of a
standard instrument departure 4S(D5.
8.... Standard 'nstru-ent 2eparture (S'2)
A S(D is a designated (%& departure route linking the aerodrome or a specified runway of
the aerodrome with a specified significant point, normally on a designated A'S route, at which the
en$route phase of a flight commences. S(Ds terminate at the point where the S(D designator :oins
the filed flight plan A'S route.
At most of the aerodromes, S(Ds will be established and the aircraft will be cleared to
follow the appropriate S(D while departing. (t is obvious that the S(D will be established to suit
local conditions. S(Ds are published in A(P ,olume ((, Part /, AD 0.* of aerodromes. Also, AD 0
of an aerodrome will consist of the S(D charts.
A S(D chart will normally illustrate the departure procedure for a runway 4or ad:acent
runways5. %or e!ample, ,(DP A+ is the chart for S(Ds for runways +- and *+. A;>A *D, A;>A
*D, A;>A *9 and A;>A *" are the S(D designators concerned with these runways. Such a
S(D chart will consist of instructions for departure in terms of levels, turns, ,)&
radial2track2heading and speed restrictions etc.
S(D procedure A;>A *" 4runway +-5 is given in plain language below<
LClimb straight ahead till /D4DP15 then turn right track *A-W 7 to ;>&1A. >stablish
&$+*A4S;A5 to Sakras ,)& D7>. 'hen establish &$0*04S;A5 to 'A>& to establish &$
*-/4DP15 to A;>A.M
/D4DP15 # / D7> distance to Delhi ,)&
*A-W 7 # 7agnetic heading
&$+*A4S;A5 # &adial +*A of Sakras ,)&
&$0*04S;A5 # &adial 0*0 of Sakras ,)&
&$*-/4DP15 # &adial *-/ of Delhi ,)&
&adio communication failure procedure appropriate to S(D of the aerodrome are also
published in the corresponding A(P AD.
)4)BA' 2!L'V!R3
'#056 *!AV3< R!E 2!%
(C /.3, &WP +-, A%'>&
D>PA&'@&> '@&1 >%' A'
*+++ %', (1'>&C>P' DDD ,)&
&AD(A +A/, %A+ )& D>)W
@1'( *3 17, C(7D ')
%/++ ') )PA;A, '">1
D(&>C' A@&A19ADAD ,)&
&WP +-, >%' A' *+++ %',
DDD ,)& &AD(A +A/,
%A+ )& D>)W @1'(
*317, C(7D %/++ ')
)PA;A, D(&>C' AA@ ,)&,
(C /.3
C)&&>C', D>(,>&P
>r Iinstructions using 2I8 designatorJ
)4)BA' 2!L'V!R3
'#056 *!AV3< R!E 2!%
(C/.3 D>(,>&P, &WP +-, S(D
)PA;A 0A, %A+ )& D>)W
@1'( *3 17
D>(,>&P, &WP +-,
)PA;A 0A, %A+ )&
D>)W @1'( *3 17,
)4)BA' A%% '#056<
"%AKA .A< %ASS'$G FL6;
(C/.3 7@7DA( APP, &>P)&'
PASS(19 %A+
W(C), (C/.3
)4)BA' A%% '#056<
%ASS'$G FL8;
(C/.3 7@7DA( APP,
C)1'AC' 7@7DA( C' )1
7@7DA( C' )1 */0.A,
8.0 VFR 2eparture
8.0.+ Approach control will pass relevant known traffic information to departing ,%& flights, so
that the pilots can maintain their own separation. When the ,%& flight is leaving the area of
:urisdiction of approach control, pilots should report accordingly to the approach control unit.
A%%R"A#* VTA)!<
%ASS'$G T*! #TR F"$!
,7>, C)1'AC'
(1%)&7A'()1 *03.A3+
*03.A3+ ,7>
8.0.. Special ,%& flights are cleared to leave the control Kone in accordance with established
VT)!!< L!AV! #TR<
S%!#'AL VFR V'A R"4T!
A*'SK!3< 0;;; FT "R
B!L"A< R!%"RT
A*'SK!3 "$!
C>A&>D ') >A,> C'&
SP>C(A ,%&, ,(A &)@'>
W"(S;>P, /+++ %' )&
D>)W, W( &>P)&'
W"(S;>P )1>, ,'7>>
8.5 'FR Arri1als
8.5.+ )n contact, aircraft is advised the type of approach to be e!pected and the procedure of
approach by the Approach control. When the transition level is published e.g. in the national A(P,
information regarding transition level may be omitted.
2!L*' A%% A' 6;6 *!AV3<
FL9;< !ST')AT'$G
R4G2A 57<
'$F"R)AT'"$ 2!LTA
A( 3+3, P&)C>>D '&AC;,
&AD(A 0A. ,)& SSD ')
P>D;A, D>SC>1D ') %?3,
A' 00D7> SSD '@&1 >%' ')
%P *3D7> DP1 A&C
D>SC>1D(19 ') 0?++ %',
C&)SS(19 &**3 '@&1 >%'
') (1'>&C>P' %(1A
APP&)AC" '&AC;, E1"
*++3, '&A1S('()1 >,> .+,
>GP>C' (S APP&)AC", &WP
0B< D>"( APP
.I 505 reads $ack
A' 6;6< !(%!#T 'LS
A%%R"A#*< RA3 .9< E$*
+;;6< 2!L*' A%%
&WP 0B, E1" *++3,
&>E@>S' S'&A(9"'$(1
(S APP&)AC", A( 3+3
A( 3+3, C>A&>D S'&A(9"'$
(1 APP&)AC", &WP 0B,
&>P)&' >S'AD(S">D,
D>"( APP
C>A&>D S'&A(9"'$(1
(S APP&)AC", &WP 0B,
W(C), A( 3+3
2!L*' A%% A' 6;6<
!STABL'S*!2< RA3 '$
A( 3+3, C)1'AC' D>"( 'W&
D>"( 'W& **B.*, A( 3+3
2!L*' TAR A' 6;6
A( 3+3 D>"( 'W&, &>P)&'
)@'>& 7A&;>&
W(C), A( 3+3
2!L*' TAR A' 6;6<
"4T!R )ARK!R
A( 3+3, &WP 0B, C>A&>D ')
A1D, W(1D 0B+ D>9&>>S B
&WP 0B, C>A&>D ')
A1D, A( 3+3
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
)4)BA' A%% VTA)! ,'A7> 7@7DA( APP, 9)
,'A7> %7 D>"( (%&,
%*++, 7@7DA( .A,
(1%)&7A'()1 D>'A
,7>, C>A&>D D(&>C'
7@7DA( 1DD, %A+, >1'>&
C)1'&)>D A(&SPAC>
%*++ )& D>)W, ")D
7@7DA( 1DD %A+, &(9"'
"A1D PA''>&1, >A' 30
C>A&>D D(&>C' ')
7@7DA( 1DD %A+, >1'>&
C)1'&)>D A(&SPAC>
%*++ )& D>)W, ")D
7@7DA( 1DD %A+, &(9"'
"A1D PA''>&1 >A' 30
,7>, >GP>C' (S APP, &WP
0A, 7@7DA( APP
>GP>C' (S APP, &WP 0A,
,7>, &>,(S>D >A' .B,
7@7DA( APP
&>,(S>D >A' .B, ,7> ,7>, D>SC>1D ') /3++ %',
E1" *+*3, '&A1S('()1
>,> .+, 7@7DA( APP
>A,(19 %A+,
D>SC>1D(19 ') /3++ %',
E1" *+*3, '&A1S('()1
>,> .+, ,7>
C)&&>C', 7@7DA( APP
V)!< #L!AR!2 'LS A%%<
RA3 .8< R!%"RT #R"SS'$G
)4)BA' $2B "4TB"4$2<
)4)BA' A%%
C>A&>D (S &WP 0A,
W(C), ,7>
)4)BA' A%% V)!<
)4)BA' $2B
,7>, &>P)&' >S'AD(S">D
)1 '"> Q
W(C), ,7>
V)!< !STABL'S*!2 LLF ,7>, &>P)&' )7
W(C), ,7>
)4)BA' A%% V)!< ")
,7>, C)1'AC' 7@7DA(
'W& **B.*
7@7 'W& **B.*, ,7>
)4)BA' TAR VTA)!<
,7> 7@7 'W&, C>A&>D
') A1D, &WP 0A, W(1D 0?+
D>9&>>S 00 ;'S
&WP 0A, C>A&>D ')
A1D ,7>
8.5.. When a pilot considers that he can complete the approach procedure by visual reference, he
should re6uest the Approach control for a visual approach. 'he flight will continue as per
instrument flight rules. A re6uest for a visual approach does not mean that the aircraft has changed
to ,%&. (t only means that the specified re6uirements for a visual approach have been met and the
pilot can maintain visual reference to the terrain.
)4)BA' A%% SR ..;
S& 00+ 7@7DA( APP< 9)
7@7 APP S& 00+,
>S'(7A'(19 7@7 1DD *B,
S& 00+ 7@7DA( APP,
C>A&>D 1DD APP &WP 0A,
D>SC>1D ') /+++ %', E1"
*+**, '&A1S('()1 >,> .+,
1) D>AP >GP>C'>D
0A, >A,(19 %A+,
D>SC>1D(19 ') /+++ %',
E1" *+**, '&A1S('()1
>,> .+, S& 00+
)4) A%% SR ..;< "V!R
)4) $2B< 0;;; FT< F'!L2
'$ S'G*T< R!E V'S4AL
S& 00+ 7@7DA( APP,
C>A&>D ,(S@A APP, &WP
0A, 1@7D>& *, C)1'AC'
'W& **B.*
C>A&>D ,(S@A APP,
&WP 0A, 'W& **B.* S& 00+
8.5.0 When an aircraft has to be delayed due to traffic or for se6uencing, the aircraft may be asked
to hold. "olding procedures are published in the A(P AD. (f the pilot re6uires a detailed description
of the holding procedure based on a facility, the following phraseology should be used<
SR ..;< *"L2 AT
D>"( APP S& 00+, &>E@>S'
")D(19 (1S'&@C'()1S
S& 00+, ")D A'
S(;A1DA&ADAD ,)&,
%?3, (1D)@1D '&AC; 0BB
D>9&>>S, &(9"' "A1D
PA''>&1, )@'D)@1D
'(7> * 7(1@'>
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
)4)BA' A%% S%'R'T A'R
++;< R!E4!ST *"L2'$G
SP(&(' A(& **+, ")D )1 '">
0?? &AD(A )% 7@7DA( ,)&
D'1 03 7(>S A1D /+ 7(>S
D7>, %*++, (1DD '&AC; +B?,
>%' "A1D PA''>&1, >A'
"olding instructions should be passed in the following order<
4*5 "olding fi!
405 "olding %2Altitude
4/5 (nbound track 4in degrees magnetic or ,)& radials5
4.5 'urn pattern 4right or left5
435 Duration of hold in minutes 4time of leg5. Also called as >!pected Approach 'ime 4>A'5.
8.5.5 2)! Arc
A D7> arc is transition from the flight plan onto the instrument approach. 'he aircraft
comes in for an approach, intersects a particular ,)& radial and then flies in an arc maintaining the
same D7> distance. 'he controller may ask the pilot to report while commencing the D7> arc.
'# 09:< R!%"RT
#"))!$#'$G T*! 2)!
C)77>1C(19 '"> A&C
1)W (C /B-
(C /B- &)9>&, (S
APP&)AC", &WP 0.,
&>P)&' C&)SS(19 '">
1>W DAD%
&WP 0., W( CA P)@
C&)SS(19 '"> 1>W DAD%,
(C /B-
8.5.6 Standard 'nstru-ent Arri1al (STAR)
Standard (nstrument Arrival 4S'A&5 route is a designated (%& arrival route linking a
significant point, normally on an A'S route, with a point from which a published instrument
approach procedure can be commenced.
%or each S'A&, a starting point 4or fix5 is designated. 'his fi! can be defined by a
navigational aid 4,)&5 or an intersection fi! 4,)&2D7>5. (n addition, a transition fi! based on
,)&2D7> intersection may also be designated.
'he arrival route 4S'A&5 begins at the starting fi! or at the transition fi!, as appropriate to
the A'S route, and terminates when the aircraft intercepts the final approach of the instrument
approach procedure appropriate to the landing runway.
Similar to S(Ds, S'A&s are given designators. %or e!ample, A(P AD0 ,(DPA? provides
S'A& procedures for (9(1) /A, A,9)1 /A, SA7PA /A and ,>19( /A. S'A& arrival
procedure for SA7PA /A is given in plain language below<
L%rom Sampla ,)&, proceed on &$*.?4SA75 maintaining %B+ or above till &@9DA.
%rom &@9DA, proceed on track &$0A.4SSD5 to P>D;A, descending to %?3. %rom 00D4SSD5
turn left to fly *3D4DP15 arc descending to 0?++ %t. Crossing &$+--, turn left to intercept the
final approach track of (SD7> procedure maintaining 0?++ %t 4for runway 0A5.M
&$*.?4SA75 # &adial *.? of Sampla ,)&
&$0A.4SSD5 # &adial 0A. of Sikandarabad ,)&
00D4SSD5 # 00 D7> distance from Sikandarabad D7>
*3D4DP15 # *3 D7> distance from Delhi D7>
1ormally, specific clearance from A'C will be re6uired for e!ecuting the instrument
approach for aircraft flying the S'A&.
8.6 VFR Arri1als
8.6.+ 'he pilot of an arriving ,%& flight may be re6uired to establish contact with the Approach
control unit and re6uest instructions before entering its area of :urisdiction. 'he pilot should
acknowledge receipt of A'(S broadcast, if A'(S is provided8 where no A'(S broadcast is provided,
the approach controller should pass the aerodrome data.
2!L*' A%% #!SS$A +8.
C>SS1A *A0 D>"( APP, 9)
C>SS1A *A0, ,%& %7
SA%D@&C@19 ') D>"(,
03++ %', C'& DD&P 30,
D>"( *A+0, (1%)&7A'()1
C>SS1A *A0, C>A&>D ,%&
') D>"(, E1" *+*0,
'&A%%(C W>S' D)@1D ">(,
0+++ %', ,%&, >S'(7A'(19
C'& DD&P 3/
C>A&>D ') D>"( ,%&,
E1" *+*0, '&A%%(C (1
S(9"', C>SS1A *A0
#!SS$A +8.< R!%"RT
A!R"2R")! '$ S'G*T
W(C), C>SS1A *A0
2!L*' A%% #!SS$A +8.<
A!R"2R")! '$ S'G*T
C>SS1A *A0, C)1'AC' D>"(
'W& **B.*
D>"( 'W& **B.*, C>SS1A
8.7 Vectors to Final Approach
8.7.+ ,ectors are given to arriving flights to position them onto a pilot$interpreted final approach
aid or to a point from which a radar$assisted approach can be made or to a point from which a visual
approach can be made. (n the following e!ample, an identified aircraft inbound to Delhi is given
radar vectors to the (S.
2!L*' RA2AR A'6;6
*!AV3< FL7;< "V!R
%'$!$< '$F"R)AT'"$
A(3+3 D>"( &ADA&,
,>C')&(19 %)& (S APP,
&WP *+, E1" *++B
(S APP, &WP *+, E1" *++B
A( 3+3
A'6;6< L!AV! %'$!$< *2G
>A,(19 P(1>1, "D9 /.A A(3+3, &>P)&' SP>>D
A( 3+3, 03+ ;'S
A(3+3, &>D@C> SP>>D ')
7(1 C>A1 SP>>D
&>D@C(19 SP>>D 0*+ ;'S,
A(3+3, D>SC>1D ') 0?++ %',
E1" *++B, '&A1S('()1
>,> .+, 1@7D>& . (1
>A,(19 %?+,
D>SC>1D(19 ') 0?++ %',
E1" *++B, '&A1S('()1
>,> .+, 1@7D>& .,
A( 3+3, P)S('()1 *. 7(>S
1W )% D>"(
&)9>&, A(3+3 A(3+3, '@&1 &(9"', "D9 **+
%)& DAS> >9
&(9"', "D9 **+, A(3+3
A(3+3, *0 7(>S %7
')@C"D)W1, &>D@C> ')
7(1 APP SP>>D, '@&1 >%',
"D9 *+., C>A&>D %)& (S
APP, &WP *+, &>P)&'
&>D@C> ') 7(1 APP
SP>>D, >%', "D9 *+.,
C>A&>D %)& (S APP,
&WP *+, W(C), A(3+3
A'6;6< !STABL'S*!2
A(3+3, 1) A'C SP>>D
&>S'&(C'()1S, C)1'AC'
D>"( 'W& **B.*
D>"( 'W& )1 **B.*, A(3+3 D>"( &ADA&
8.7.. Controller may ask the pilot to ad:ust the speed of the aircraft to achieve separation from the
traffic ahead as shown in the e!ample above. When only speed ad:ustment does not achieve the
re6uired separation for approach se6uencing, controller may issue additional vectors.
A'6;6< )AK! A T*R!!
S'(T3 T4R$ L!FT F"R
A'6;6< "RB'T L!FT F"R
A'6;6< #"$T'$4!
%R!S!$T *2G< TAK'$G
3"4 T*R"4G* LLF F"R
'"&>> S(G'P '@&1 >%',
)&D(' >%', A(3+3
C)1'(1@> P&>S>1' "D9,
8.8 Sur1eillance Radar Approach
8.8.+ When performing a surveillance radar approach 4S&A5, the pilot is given distances from
touchdown, advisory altitude2height information and aKimuth instructions so that the aircraft is able
to carry out an approach. (n the following e!ample, it is assumed that the aircraft has been vectored
to intercept the final approach track at B 17 from touchdown at 00++ ft E1" and that the
touchdown elevation is /++ ft. Advisory altitudes are based on / degree glide path.
2!L*' A%% A'6;6 *!AV3
7A(1'A(1(19 0?++ %'
&WP 0A, A(3+3
A( 3+3 D>"( APP, '"(S W(
D> A S@&,>(A1C> &ADA&
APP&)AC", &WP 0A,
'>&7(1A'(19 A' 0 17 %7
')@C"D)W1, )DS'AC>
C>A&A1C> A' */-+ %',
7A(1'A(1 0?++ %', C">C;
P)@& 7(1(7A 4in case of :>
&' "D9 0A*, W(C), A(3+3
A'6;6< T4R$ R'G*T< *2G .8+
F"R F'$AL< R!%"RT RA3
'$ S'G*T
A(3+3, D>SC>1D(19
A'6;6< 6.9 $) F)
T"4#*2"A$< #"))!$#!
2!S#!$T $"A T"
)A'$TA'$ 0 2!GR!! GL'2!
A%%(&7, A(3+3
A'6;6< #*!#K G!AR 2"A$
A$2 L"#K!2
&)9>&, A(3+3
A'6;6< 6 $) F)
T"4#*2"A$< ALT S*"4L2
B! .06; FT
"D9 0A+, A(3+3
A'6;6< G"'$G R'G*T "F
TRA#K< T4R$ L!FT 6
2!GR!!S< *2G .8;
&WP 0A, C>A&>D ')
A1D, A(3+3
A'6;6< 5$) F)
T"4#*2"A$ ALT S*"4L2
B! .;0; FT< RA3 .8<
#L!AR!2 T" LA$2< A'$2
A'6;6< 2" $"T
A#K$"AL!2G! F4RT*!R
A'6;6< "$ TRA#K< *2G 'S
G""2< #L"S'$G SL"AL3
F) T*! R'G*T< 0 $) F)
T"4#*2"A$< ALT S*"4L2
B! +8+; FT
A'6;6< .$) F)
T"4#*2"A$< ALT S*"4L2
B! +0:; FT
RA3 '$ S'G*T< A'6;6
A(3+3, APP&)AC"
C)7P>'>D, A%'>& D9
C)1'AC' 'W& **B.*
'W& **B.*, A(3+3
(f an S&A procedure ends at 0 17 from touchdown, the distance from touchdown and
advisory altitude checks are normally passed at * mile intervals. (f the S&A ends at less than 0 17
from touchdown, such checks are given each half mile.
Aircraft must reply to all transmissions e!cept when the S&A terminates at less than 0 17
from touchdown, the controllerFs transmissions should not be interrupted for intervals of more than
3 seconds while the aircraft is within . miles from touchdown and aircraft replies are then not
When the pilot reports runway in sight during an S&A and there is reasonable assurance that
a landing will be effected, the S&A may be terminated.
An e!ample of pre$computed levels for a / degree glide path, where the elevation of the
touchdown point is /++ ft A7S, appears in the below figure.
Fi/. 8.+ Glide path (An/le of descent)
8.9 %recision Radar Approach
8.9.+ (n a precision radar approach, the controller provides heading instructions during the
continuous passing of instructions. 'he controller also provides information on altitudes relative to
the glide slope. (f the aircraft is too low or too high from the glide path, instructions for corrective
actions will be given. (n the following e!ample, based on a / degree glide slope to runway 0A at
Delhi, it is presupposed that the aircraft has been radar vectored into precision approach radar
4PA&5 coverage and has been identified to the PA& controller by radar transfer.
Note: P.% is not used in civil aerodromes in India 4ollowing example is onl# to familiarise the
%eader with the procedure involved in a P.% approach
'#.;+ 2!L*' %R!#'S'"$<
R!%"RT *2G A$2 ALT
"D9 0.+ A' /+++ %', (C0+*
(C0+*, '"(S W( D> A P&>C(S()1
&ADA& APP&)AC", &WP 0A, )CA */-+
%', P)S('()1 ? 7(>S >AS' )% D>"(,
'@&1 &(9"', "D9 0?+, D>SC>1D ')
03++ %', E1" *+*.
P&>C(S()1 APP, &WP 0A, "D9
0?+, D>SC>1D(19 ') 03++ %',
E1" *+*., (C0+*
'#.;+< #L"S'$G F) T*! R'G*T< T4R$
R'G*T< *2G .8;
&(9"', "D9 0A+, (C0+*
'#.;+< "$ TRA#K< A%%R"A#*'$G
GL'2! %AT*< *2G 'S G""2 (C0+*
'#.;+< R!%"RT RA3 '$ S'G*T W(C), (C0+*
'#.;+< 2" $"T A#K F4RT*!R
TRA$S)'SS'"$S< "$ TRA#K<
A%%R"A#*'$G G%M#*!#K 3"4R
)'$')AM#"))!$#! 2!S#!$T $"A
AT 6;; FT %!R )'$M#*!#K G!AR
2"A$ A$2 L"#K!2M"$ G%< 6 )'L!S
F) T"4#*2"A$MSL'G*TL3 L!FT
"F TRA#K< T4R$ R'G*T 6 2!GR!!S<
$!A *2G .86< ' SA3 AGA'$ .86
5 )'L!S F) T"4#*2"A$< SL'G*TL3
T"" L"A< A2I4ST RAT! "F
2!S#!$TMST'LL 6; FT
T"" L"A< T4R$ L!FT 0 2!GR!!S<
*2G .8.< "$ TRA#K 0 )'L!S F)
T"4#*2"A$M#")'$G BA#K T"
T*! G%M"$ G% .N )'L!S F)
T"4#*2"A$< R!S4)! $"R)AL
RAT! "F 2!S#!$TM '#.;+< #L!AR!2
T" LA$2M"$ G%M*2G .8+ 'S G""2<
SL'G*TL3 ABV G%M. )'L!S F)
T"4#*2"A$M#")'$G BA#K T"
T*! G%M"$ G% +N )'L!S F)
T"4#*2"A$M"$ G% +O )'L!S F)
T"4#*2"A$< RAT! "F 2!S#!$T 'S
G""2< "$ G%< + )'L! F)
T"4#*2"A$MP "F A )'L! F)
T"4#*2"A$< "$ G%MN )'L! F)
T"4#*2"A$ "$ G%M
(C0+*, &WP (1 S(9"'
O )'L! F) T"4#*2"A$ A%%
#")%L!T!2 AFT!R L2G #"$TA#T
TAR "$ ++9.+
'W& )1 **B.*, (C0+*
8.9.. (f the PA& indicates that the pilot may be making a missed approach, the radar controller
shall pass the aircraftFs height above the glide path and ask the pilot if a missed approach is
MSL'G*TL3 ABV G%< 0 )'L!S F)
T"4#*2"A$MST'LL ABV G%< .N
)'L!S F) T"4#*2"A$ & G"'$G
F4RT*!R ABV G%< . )'L!S F)
T"4#*2"A$< AR! 3"4 G"'$G
8.9.0 @nder circumstances such as shown above, and when there is no sufficient time to obtain a
reply from the pilot, the controller must continue the precision approach emphasising the aircraftFs
offset from the glide slope. )nce the controller is convinced that the pilot is making a missed
approach either before or after the normal termination point, the radar controller must pass missed
approach instructions.
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A%T!R 9
AR!A #"$TR"L
9.+ 'ntroduction
An Area Control Centre will have a much larger airspace under its :urisdiction than the
Approach and Aerodrome Controls. (t may be responsible to provide separation and information to
the aircraft within its area.
9.+.+ An Area Control Centre 4ACC5 may be as simple as :ust one controller operated unit or may
be a large control centre which contains different control sections for arrival, departure and terminal
control. Phraseology discussed in this chapter can be used for any of the air traffic services
mentioned above.
9.+.. Area control phraseology is related to instructions for maintaining aircraft separation.
9eneral phraseology used in area control have been discussed in Chapter /. Specific phraseology
used for maintaining aircraft separation are discussed in this chapter.
9.+.0 'he phraseology e!amples given in this paragraph may be used as message2instruction
elements. 'hey can be used as short instructions or some other elements can be added to make a
detailed instruction.
A*)!2ABA2 #"$TR"L
A'6;6< R!E4!ST
A(3+3, 7A(1'A(1 %03+,
>GP>C' D>SC>1' A%'>&
7A(1'A(1(19 %03+,
> > > > > > > > > > > > >
A'6;6< )A'$TA'$ FL.6;
4$T'L A2V'S!2
7A(1'A(1(19 %03+,
> > > > > > > > > > > > >
KF6;6< 2!S#!$2 T" FL+0;<
#R"SS G4$') FL.;; "R
>A,(19 %03+,
D>SC>1D(19 ') %*/+,
C&)SS 9@1(7 %0++ )&
AD,, ;%3+3
> > > > > > > > > > > > >
;%3+3, A%%(&7
KF6;6< A2F 'F ABL! T"
#R"SS G4$') AT 6.
KF6;6< #R"SS G4$') AT 6.
C&)SS 9@1(7 A' 30 )&
A'>&, ;%3+3
> > > > > > > > > > > > > >
7A19A)&> C' CA..+,
IA55; )A$GAL"R! #TL<
#"')BAT"R!< A2F 'F ABL!
T" L"S! T')! !$RT
CA..+, A%%(&7
IA55;< A2F 'F ABL! T"
%R"#!!2 %ARALL!L
P&)C>>D(19 )%%S>', 3
7(>S &(9"' )% &.?*
@1'( AD7 P>G>9, CA..+
IA55;< %R"#!!2 "FFS!T 6
)'L!S R'G*T "F R57+
4$T'L AB) %!(!G
CA..+, >S'(7A'> P>G>9
IA55;< R!%"RT R!V'S!2
!ST')AT! F"R %!(!G
9.. %osition 'nfor-ation
9...+ Position reporting has been discussed in detail in Part (( Chapter /, paragraph /... (n
addition to routine position reports, controller may instruct the pilots to provide additional position
information to assist in establishing separation.
KF00; TV) #"$TR"L<
R!%"RT #"')BAT"R!
W(C), ;%//+
;%//+ ',7 C)1'&),
KF00;< #"')BAT"R! V"R
58< FL06;< )A24RA' V"R
> > > > > > > > > > > > >
'# +.. TV) #"$TR"L<
R!%"RT .6 )'L!S FR")
',7 C)1'&), W(C), (C*00
> > > > > > > > > > > > >
'#+..< R!%"RT 2'STA$#!
F) )A24RA'
',7 C', /A 7(>S, (C*00
> > > > > > > > > > > > >
IA +;+< R!%"RT %ASS'$G
000 RA2'AL G"A V"R CA *+*, W(C)
IA +;+< R!%"RT .6 )'L!S
2)! RA2'AL 000 G"A
V"R CA*+*, W(C)
9.0 Le1el 'nfor-ation
9.0.+ 9eneral level instruction phraseology was discussed in Part (( Chapter /, paragraph /./.
Phraseology used for instructions2reports of climb, descent, maintaining of level are given in the
e!amples below. Aircraft must follow the instructions as soon as practicable.
'# +6;< A*!$ R!A23<
2!S#!$2 T" FL+9;
D>SC>1D(19 ') %*B+, W(
&>P)&' >A,(19 %/3+, (C
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
GA .0.< #L')B T" FL..;<
R!%"RT %ASS'$G FL+;;
C(7D(19 ') %00+, W(
&>P)&' PASS(19 %*++,
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
IL ++;< 2!S#!$2
'))!2'AT!L3 T" FL.;;
24! TRAFF'#
>A,(19 %00+ %)& %0++,
9.0.. An aircraft may leave controlled airspace by descent. Pilot must re6uest permission
accordingly. (n the e!ample below, the lower limit of the airway is 33++ feet.
KF00;< R!E4!ST T"
L!AV! #"$TR"LL!2
A'RS%A#! B3 2!S#!$T
;%//+, C>A&>D %)&
D>SC>1', &>P)&' PASS(19
33++ %', E1" *+*.
>A,(19 A+++ %', W(
&>P)&' PASS(19 33++ %',
E1" *+*., ;%//+
9.0.0 (n ,7C during daylight and below %*++ in class D and > airspaces, a pilot may consider
climb or descent, maintaining own separation. Clearances for such re6uests should include
information on essential traffic.
IA 056< R!E4!ST V)#
2!S#!$T T" FL7;
CA /.3, D>SC>1D ') %?+,
7A(1'A(1 )W1
S>PA&A'()1 A1D ,7C %7
%-+ ') %A+, '&A%%(C
W>S'D)@1D D)>(19 A/A,
%B+, >S'(7A'()1 9)A ,)&
A' +A
>A,(19 %*++,
D>SC>1D(19 ') %?+,
7A(1'A(1(19 ,7C %-+
') %A+, '&A%%(C A' %B+,
CA /.3
9.5 Fli/hts Ioinin/ Airays
9.5.+ Aircraft desiring to :oin an A'S route should make their re6uest to the appropriate A'S
unit. (f a prior flight plan has not been filed, the pilot should include the filing of an airborne flight
plan 4See Part (( Chapter /, paragraph /.35. (f a flight plan about :oining of airway has already been
filed, an abbreviated call should be made. 'he re6uest should consist of the following information<
4a5 Aircraft call sign
4b5 Aircraft type
4c5 Position
4d5 evel and flight conditions
4e5 >stimated time at point of crossing2:oining
4f5 Desired crossing2:oining level
4g5 &oute and point of first intended landing
4h5 'rue airspeed
4i5 'he phrase &>E@>S' C&)SS(192C)(1(19 C>A&A1C>
(f possible, the selected crossing2:oining point should be associated with a radio facility to
provide accurate navigation.
VARA$AS' A%%< FAL#"$
B*"%AL< %S$ 'B4S4 AT
+++8< FL.;;< *2G .77< TAS
.6;< R!E I"'$'$G
#L!ARA$#!< A00
++0+< K*AI4RA*" $(T
+.+.< !TA B*"%AL +.65
,DC ,A&A1AS( APP, C& ')
C)(1 W// ),>&">AD
,A&A1AS( A' %0B+,
C)1'AC' ,A&A1AS( C' )1
*0+.A3 A' D"('(
,A&A1AS( APP, C& ')
C)(1 W// ),>&">AD
,A&A1AS( A' %0B+,
,A&A1AS( C' )1 *0+.A3
A' D"('(, ,DC
.$$reviated call when 3oining is filed in flight plan
R!E I"'$'$G
#L!ARA$#!< A00 AT
C>A& ') D")PA %(9"'
PA11>D &)@'>, C)(1 W//
A' %0B+
C>A& ') D")PA ,(A
,A&A1AS( %(9"'
PA11>D &)@'>, ') C)(1
W// A' ,A&A1AS(, %0B+
C)&&>C', ,A&A1AS( APP
9.5.. A clearance may not be issued immediately due to the prevailing traffic conditions.
A'6;6< R!)A'$ "4TS'2!
#"$TR"LL!2 A'RS%A#!<
!(%!#T #L!ARA$#! AT
&>7A(1(19 )@'S(D>, A(3+3
9.5.0 (f the aircraft re6uests for a flight level and that is already occupied by other traffic, the
controller should offer alternatives to the pilot.
A'6;6< R!E4!ST FL.5;
A(3+3, %0.+ 1)' A,D D@>
'&A%%(C, A'>&1A'(,>S
A&> %00+ )& %0?+, ADQ.
A(3+3, ACC>P' %00+
9.6 Fli/hts Lea1in/ Airays
9.6.+ %lights leaving controlled airspace must do so normally at a specific point. 'he pilots should
be given instructions accordingly, along with any other relevant instructions to ensure separation.
A'6;6< #L!AR!2 T"
L!AV! A+6 V'A G"A
V"R< )A'$TA'$ FL.0;
A*'L! '$ #"$TR"LL!2
C>A&>D ') >A,> W*3 ,(A
9)A ,)&, 7A(1'A(1(19
%0/+ W"(> (1
C)1'&)>D A(&SPAC>,
9.7 Fli/hts #rossin/ Airays
9.7.+ An aircraft desiring to cross an airway should make its re6uest to the appropriate A'S unit.
'he re6uest shall be made *+ minutes prior to crossing the A'S route. %ollowing information must
be passed with the re6uest<
4a5 Call sign of the aircraft
4b5 >stimate time of crossing the route
4c5 %light level
4d5 Position of crossing the route 4with reference to a navigational aid or geographical position on
the route5.
#*!$$A' #"$TR"L
,'ADC C">11A( C)1'&)
9) A">AD
C">11A( C)1'&) ,'ADC, .+ 7(>S
1W )% D);>', %B+, D);>' A' //,
&>E@>S' C>A&A1C> ') C&)SS A.?3
A' D);>'
,DC, C>A&>D ') C&)SS
A.?3 A' D);>', %B+,
C">11A( C'
C>A&>D ') C&)SS A'
D);>', %B+, ,DC
,DC, &>P)&' D);>',
C">11A( C'
W(C), ,DC
9.8 Fli/hts *oldin/ !n>route
9.8.+ An aircraft may be re6uired to hold en$route, due to traffic or other reasons. Controller will
issue holding instructions and a time at which onward clearance can be e!pected. &eason for the
delay should also be given.
A'6;6< *"L2 AT
B!LLAR3 V"R< FL..;<
!(%!#T F4RT*!R
#L!ARA$#! AT ;.< L2G
2!LA3S AT #*!$$A' .;
")D(19 A' D>A&P ,)&,
%00+, A(3+3
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
KF.;.< *"L2 AT
B!LLAR3 $2B< FL+;;
")D(19 D>A&P 1DD,
%*++, W"A' (S '"> D>AP,
;%0+0, >GP>C'>D D>AP
*+ 7(1@'>S
&)9>&, ;%0+0
9.8.. When an aircraft is asked to hold en$route, the pattern will be a left or right hand, based on
the track of the A'S route. (n case of an e!tended delay, a pilot may re6uest or receive an e!tended
holding pattern.
'#0;6< R!E4!ST
!(T!$2!2 *"L2'$G
(C/+3, ")D D'1 &AC;)'
A1D CA71A9A& ,)&, %*++,
'@&1S &(9"', >GP>C'
%@&'">& C>A&A1C> A'
")D(19 D'1 &AC;)' A1D CA71A9A&
,)&, %*++, &(9"' '@&1S, (C/+3
9.9 ATS Sur1eillance
9.9.+ When an aircraft is under radar control within an area control unit :urisdiction, the
phraseology used will usually be a combination of the phraseology discussed in the earlier parts of
this chapter, combined with the basic A'S surveillance phraseology in Part (( Chapter ?.
9.9.. When the flight crew of an aircraft are not aware of being under radar control, the controller
should inform the pilot.
'$ ..6< 4$2!R RA2AR
&)9>&, (1 003
'$ ..6< RA2AR #"$TR"L
&)9>&, (1 003
9.: Auto-atic 2ependent Sur1eillance (A2S)
9.:.+ Controller may wish to know whether the aircraft is e6uipped with ADS capability.
SI ++.< A2V'S! A2S>B
ADS$D '&A1S7(''>&
1>9A'(,> ADS$D
Controller may ask the pilot to stop ADS$D transmitter operation.
SI ++.< ST"% A2S>B
&)9>&, SC **0
When the ADS services are degraded, the pilot may be informed by voice.
SI ++.< A4T")AT'#
S4RV!'LLA$#! "4T "F
&)9>&, SC **0
9.+; "ceanic #ontrol
9.+;.+ @sually, the &' phraseology used for oceanic control purposes is basically the same as that
of the phraseology discussed in this book, there may be variations as per regional procedures.
9.+;.. Since aircraft flying oceanic routes are out of range of ,"%, communications are carried out
on "% fre6uencies. An "% channel is normally operated by a communication officer or air$ground
operator who passes the instructions and messages between the controller and the pilot.
9.+;.0 (n (ndia, Chennai %(& has )ceanic Control with ,"% fre6uency 4&CA95 *0?.*3 7"K.
Primary and secondary "% fre6uencies are used as back up communication fre6uencies.
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A%T!R :
2'STR!SS< 4RG!$#3 A$2 #"))4$'#AT'"$S FA'L4R! %R"#!24R!S
:.+ 'ntroduction
Distress and urgency communication have been mentioned in Part ( Chapter /, paragraph
/.0./. Distress and urgency &' communication procedures are detailed in (CA) Anne! *+ ,olume
((. 'he same are discussed in detail in this chapter.
:.. 2efinitions of 2istress and 4r/ency #onditions
4a5 2istress< A condition of being threatened by serious and2or imminent danger and of re6uiring
immediate assistance.
4b5 4r/ency< A condition concerning the safety of an aircraft or other vehicle, or of some person on
board or within sight, but which does not re6uire immediate assistance.
:...+ A distress message is identified by the word J7APDAPF at the beginning of the message.
An urgency message is identified by the words JPA1 PA1F 4PA1$ pronounced as the %rench word
LpanneM 5 at the beginning of the message. (n both cases, the words J7APDAPF or JPA1 PA1F, as
appropriate, should preferably be repeated three times at the beginning of the initial distress or
urgency call.
:.... Distress messages have priority over all other transmissions and urgency messages have
priority over all transmissions e!cept distress messages.
:...0 Distress or urgency calls should be, as far as practicable, transmitted slowly and distinctly so
that any unnecessary repetitions are avoid.
:...5 Distress and urgency phraseology procedures given in this chapter should be adapted to
specific needs and to the time available.
:...6 Whenever there is any doubt about to the safety of a flight, assistance should be re6uested so
that the risk of a more serious situation can be avoided.
:...7 1ormally, distress or urgency calls should be made on the fre6uency in use at the time.
Distress or urgency communications should be continued on this fre6uency and changing over to
another fre6uency should be done only if it is considered that better assistance can be provided by
changing to that fre6uency. 'he fre6uency *0*.3 7"K has been designated the international
aeronautical emergency fre6uency. (f necessary, any other communication fre6uency including the
maritime mobile service &'% calling fre6uencies can be used for distress and urgency
:...8 (f any station called by the aircraft in distress or urgency does not reply, then any other
ground station or aircraft which receive the distress or urgency call should reply and render
whatever assistance possible.
:...9 'he station which replies to a distress or urgency call should provide only the necessary
advice, information and instructions to the pilot. @nnecessary transmissions will distract the pilot
who is already busy tackling the situation.
:...: All other stations which are not involved in the distress2urgency communications or
rendering assistance, must stop using the fre6uency on which the distress2urgency traffic is being
e!changed. 'hey can resume using the fre6uency when the distress2urgency traffic has ended.
:...+; (f an aircraft or any other station intercepts a distress message for which there is no reply,
the station intercepting the message should acknowledge the message and then broadcast it.
:.0 2istress )essa/es
:.0.+ A distress message should contain as many as possible of the following elements and if
possible, in the order shown<
4a5 1ame of the station addressed 4time and circumstances permitting58
4b5 (dentification of the aircraft8
4c5 1ature of the distress condition8
4d5 (ntention of the person in command8
4e5 Present position, level 4i.e. flight level, altitude, etc., as appropriate5 and heading of the aircraft8
4f5 Any other useful information
)A32A3 )A32A3
)A32A3< A)R'TSAR
!$G'$! "$ F'R!<
)AK'$G F"R#!2 L2G< .;
)'L!S $"RT* "F
A)R'TSAR< %ASS'$G 0;;;
FT< *2G +9;
,'ADC A7&('SA& 'W&,
&)9>& 7APDAP, W(1D /3+
D>9&>>S *+ ;1)'S, E1"
> > > > > > > > > > > > > >
)A32A3 )A32A3 )A32A3<
!$G'$! FA'L!2< A'LL ATT!)%T T"
LA$2 3"4R F'!L2< 6 )'L!S S"4T*<
5;;; FT< *2G 06;
&)9>& 7APDAP, C>A&>D
S'&A(9"' (1 APP&)AC",
&WP /3, W(1D /3+ D>9&>>S
*+ ;'S, E1" *++B, P)@ A&>
1@7D>& )1>
C>A&>D S'&A(9"' (1 APP&)AC",
&WP /3, E1" *++B, ,'ADC
:.0.. 'he aircraft in distress must use any means at its disposal to attract attention and make
known its condition 4including the activation of the appropriate SS& code, AA++5. Any station
receiving the call must use any means at its disposal to assist an aircraft in distress. 'he elements
listed in -./.* can be varied when the transmitting station is not itself in distress. Dut such a
situation must be clearly stated.
:.0.0 'he emergency call must be normally addressed to the station which was communicating
with the aircraft or the A'S unit in whose :urisdiction the aircraft is operating.
:.0.5 '-position of Silence
'he aeronautical station or the aircraft in distress may impose silence either on all aircraft
using the fre6uency or on a particular aircraft which interferes with the distress traffic. All aircraft
and stations will maintain radio silence until advised that the distress traffic has ended.
ALL STAT'"$S 2!L*' TAR< ST"%
TRA$S)'TT'$G< )A32A3
A'6;6 ST"% TRA$S)'TT'$G< )A32A3
:.0.6 Ter-ination of 2istress and Silence
When an aircraft considers that it is no longer in distress, it should transmit a message
cancelling the distress condition. When the ground station controlling the distress traffic becomes
aware that the aircraft is no longer in distress, it should terminate the distress communication and
silence condition.
#*A$2'GAR* TAR VB#<
#A$#!L 2'STR!SS<
!$G'$! S!RV'#!ABL!<
RA3 '$ S'G*T< R!E4!ST
#*A$2'GAR* TAR VB#<
#A$#!L )A32A3<
!$G'$! F'R!
%R"#!!2'$G AS %!R
"R'G'$AL FL'G*T %LA$
,DC, W(1D /3+ D>9&>>S B
;'S, &WP /3, C>A&>D ')
,DC C"A1D(9A&" 'W&,
#*A$2'GAR* TAR<
2'STR!SS TRAFF'# !$2!2
:.5 4r/ency )essa/es
:.5.+ An urgency message should consists of as many of the elements detailed in -./.* as are
re6uired by the circumstances, only difference being the 4c5 urgency condition instead of distress.
'he call should be made on the fre6uency in use at the time and it should be addressed to the station
communicating with aircraft or the station in whose :urisdiction the aircraft is operating. All other
stations should not interfere with the transmission of urgency traffic.
%A$ %A$< %A$ %A$< %A$
%A$< IA'%4R TAR
VTAB#< .;;; FT< *2G +:;<
ABV #L"42< 4$S4R! "F
)3 %"S'T'"$< R!E4!ST
*2G T" IA'%4R
,'ADC CA(P@& 'W&, %P
"D9 *?+
"D9 *?+, ,'ADC
> > > > > > > > > > > > >
%A$ %A$< %A$ %A$< %A$ %A$<
$"RT* AT .;;; FT< %ASS!$G!R A'T*
S4S%!#T!2 *!ART ATTA#K<
R!E4!ST %R'"R'T3 L2G
,'ADC CA71A9A& 'W&,
1@7D>& )1>, C>A&>D
S'&A(9"'$(1 APP&)AC",
&WP *A, W(1D *B+ D>9&>>S
*+ ;'S, E1" *++B,
A7D@A1C> A>&'>D
C>A&>D S'&A(9"'$(1 APP&)AC",
&WP *A, E1" *++B, ,'ADC
> > > > > > > > > > > > >
%A$ %A$< %A$ %A$< %A$ %A$<
)A24RA' TAR VTA)!< '$T!R#!%T!2
4RG!$#3 #ALL F) VTAB#<
%ASS!$G!R A'T* S4S%!#T!2 *!ART
ATTA#K< R!E4!ST'$G %R'"R'T3 L2G
)A24RA'< *'S %"S'T'"$ +; )'L!S
$"RT* AT .;;; FT
,'A7>, &)9>& PA1 PA1
RA3 06< A'$2 05; 2!GR!!S
+; KTS< E$* +;;9< $"
4(f ,'ADC does not acknowledge this message ,'A7> will relay5
VTAB# VTA)!< )SG F) )A24RA'
TAR< RA3 06< A'$2 05; 2!GR!!S +;
KTS< E$* +;;9< $" TRAFF'#
(n the first e!ample above, 6uestions might be asked to the pilot to assist in ascertaining the
position of the aircraft.
:.5.. PA1 PA1, preferably spoken three times, followed by the radiotelephony signal for medical
transports 7AP$D>>$CA, pronounced as in the %rench LmedicalM are used to identify a medical
transport. 'he use of the phrases mentioned above indicates that the message which follows is about
a protected medical transport. 'he message shall convey the following data<
4a5 Call sign or other recogniKed means of identification of the medical transports8
4b5 Position of the medical transports8
4c5 1umber and type of medical transports8
4d5 (ntended route8
4e5 >stimated time en$route and of departure or arrival, as appropriate8 and
4f5 Any other information such as flight altitude, radio fre6uencies guarded, languages used, and
secondary surveillance radar modes and codes.
%A$ %A$ %A$ %A$ %A$ %A$< )A3 2!! #AL< K"LKATA G$2 VTAB#<
*4)A$ "RGA$ "$ B"AR2< 'FR T" 2!L*'< "V!RFL3'$G %AT$A A$2
L4#K$"A< !T! ;.0;< R!E %R'"R'T3 2!%ART4R!
:.6 !-er/ency 2escent
:.6.+ An aircraft may make descent due to emergency conditions such as loss of cabin pressure.
'he aircraft must announce that it is making an emergency descent and the controller must take all
possible action to safeguard other aircraft.
'he controller should make a general broadcast to warn aircraft of the emergency descent
and pass any re6uired specific instructions.
A*)!2ABA2 #"$TR"L
SI 0;+< %"S'T'"$ 2A)AK<
!)!RG!$#3 2!S#!$T
T" FL+;; 24! T"
C)1'&), C>A&>D ')
D>SC>1D ') %*++, &>P)&'
&>AC"(19 %*++
A''>1'()1 A A(&C&A%'
(1 '"> ,(C(1('P )% DA7A;,
>7>&9>1CP D>SC>1' (1
P&)9&>SS %7 %/3+ ')
%*++, >A,> AA-* ')
1)&'" (77>D(A'>P,
7A(1'A(1 0+ 17 )%%S>' ')
1)&'" )% AA-*
:.7 Aircraft #o--unications Failure
:.7.+ (f an aircraft fails to establish contact with the aeronautical station on the designated
fre6uency, it should attempt to establish contact with the station on another fre6uency appropriate to
the route. (f this attempt fails, the aircraft shall attempt to establish communication with other
aircraft or other aeronautical stations on fre6uencies appropriate to the route.
:.7.. (f all these attempts fail, the aircraft shall transmit its message twice on the designated
fre6uency4ies5, starting with the phrase L'&A1S7(''(19 D(1DM and if necessary, include the
addressee4s5 for which the message is intended.
2!L*' #"$TR"L VTA)!< TRA$S)'TT'$G BL'$2< %"S'T'"$ !LK4(
AT ;:6.< FL.;;< *2G +.8< S%!!2 .6; KTS< !ST')AT'$G 'G'$" +;+;< !TA
2!L*' +;.;< %A( +0;< ' SA3 AGA'$ 2!L*' #"$TR"LMM
:.7.0 When the pilot is aware of the fact that only the receiver has failed and the transmitter is
serviceable, he2she should transmit reports at the scheduled times or positions on the fre6uency in
use, preceded by the phrase L'&A1S7(''(19 D(1D D@> ') &>C>(,>& %A(@&>M. 'he
aircraft should transmit the intended message twice on the designated fre6uency and also, advise the
time of its ne!t intended transmission.
2!L*' #"$TR"L VTA)!< TRA$S)'TT'$G BL'$2 24! T" R(R
FA'L4R!< %"S'T'"$ !LK4( AT ;:6.< FL.;;< *2G +.8< S%!!2 .6; KTS<
!ST')AT'$G 'G'$" +;+;< !TA 2!L*' +;.;< %A( +0;< T')! "F $!(T
TRA$S)'SS'"$ +;+;< ' SA3 AGA'$< 2!L*' #"$TR"LMM
:.7.5 (f an aircraft has been provided with air traffic control or advisory service, it shall transmit
information regarding the intention of the pilot$in$command with respect to the continuation of the
flight of the aircraft.
2!L*' #"$TR"L VTA)!< TRA$S)'TT'$G BL'$2 24! T" R(R
FA'L4R!< %"S'T'"$ !LK4( AT ;:6.< FL.;;< *2G +.8< S%!!2 .6; KTS<
!ST')AT'$G 'G'$" +;+;< !TA 2!L*' +;.;< %A( +0;< )A'$TA'$'$G
FL.;; 4$T'L 'G'$" T*!$ 2!S#!$2'$G T" FL+;6< T')! "F $!(T
TRA$S)'SS'"$ +;+;< ' SA3 AGA'$< 2!L*' #"$TR"LMM
:.7.6 (f an aircraft e!periencing communication failure is e6uipped with SS& transponder, it
should s6uawk code A?++ to indicate radio failure.
:.7.7 When an aeronautical station is not able to establish contact with an aircraft after calls on the
fre6uencies on which the aircraft is believed to be listening, it shall<
4a5 re6uest other aeronautical stations to render assistance by calling the aircraft and relaying traffic,
if necessary8 and2or
4b5 re6uest aircraft on the route to attempt to establish communication with the aircraft and relay
messages, if necessary.
:.7.8 (f the attempts specified in -.?.? fail, the aeronautical station should transmit messages
addressed to the aircraft, other than messages containing air traffic control clearances, by blind
transmission on the fre6uency4ies5 on which the aircraft is believed to be listening.
:.7.9 Dlind transmission of air traffic control clearances shall not be made to aircraft, e!cept at the
specific re6uest of the originator.
:.7.: )ther than the &' procedures during communication failure, the pilot is supposed to take
the following actions to continue the flight<
:.7.:.+ (f flying in ,7C
4a5 continue to fly in visual meteorological conditions
4b5 land at the nearest suitable aerodrome
4c5 report its arrival by the most e!peditious means to the appropriate air traffic control unit
:.7.:.. (f flying in (7C or when conditions are such that it does not appear likely that the pilot will
complete the flight in accordance with -.?.-.*
4a5 unless otherwise prescribed on the basis of a regional air navigation agreement, in airspace
where procedural separation is being applied, maintain the last assigned speed and level, or
minimum flight altitude if higher, for a period of 0+ minutes following the aircraftFs failure to report
its position over a compulsory reporting point and thereafter ad:ust level and speed in accordance
with the filed flight plan.
4b5 when being vectored 4or the aircraft has been directed by A'C to proceed offset using &1A,
without a specified limit5, proceed in the most direct manner possible to re:oin the current flight
plan route no later than the ne!t significant point, taking into consideration the applicable minimum
flight altitude
4c5 proceed according to the current flight plan route to the appropriate designated navigation aid or
fi! serving the destination aerodrome and, when re6uired to ensure compliance with 4d5, hold over
this aid or fi! until commencement of descent
4d5 commence descent from the navigation aid or fi! specified in 4c5 at, or as close as possible to,
the >A' last received and acknowledged8 or, if no >A' has been received and acknowledged, at, or
as close as possible to, the >'A of arrival resulting from the current flight plan
4e5 complete a normal instrument approach procedure as specified for the designated navigation aid
or fi!
4f5 land, if possible, within /+ minutes after the >'A specified in 4d5 or the last acknowledged >A',
whichever is later.
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A%T!R +;
TRA$S)'SS'"$ "F )!T!R!"L"G'#AL A$2
"T*!R '$F"R)AT'"$ %!RTA'$'$G T" A!R"2R")!
+;.+ 'ntroduction
(nformation of the weather is provided to the pilots either by broadcast 4e.g. ,)7>'5 or
by means of specific transmissions from ground personnel to pilots. Such information is usually in
the form of reports, forecasts or warnings. (n such transmissions, information must be transmitted
using standard meteorological abbreviations and terms.
SI ++. )4)BA' TAR<
%R!S!$T A!AT*!R<
A'$2 07; 2!GR!!S 6
KTS< V'S'B'L'T3 .; K)S<
F!A #L"42S .6;; FT<
E$* +;;9
E1" *++B, SC **0
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
'2 ..; #*!$$A' TAR<
A'$2 .6; 2!GR!!S .6
KTS< V'S'B'L'T3 ++;;
)!TR!S< #"$T'$4"4S
)"2!RAT! RA'$<
"V!R#AST 7;; FT< E$*
C">11A( 'W& (D 00+, E1"
*++*, &>E@>S'
(D 00+, '>7P>&A'@&> 0A
D>9&>>S C"A&(>
&)9>&, (D 00+
+;.. Runay Visual Ran/e (RVR)
'he words L&@1WAP ,(S@A &A19>M or the abbreviation &,& should be used when
transmitting the runway visual range. 'his should be followed by the runway number and &,&
+;...+ When transmitting the &,& of multiple points of a runway, the order of transmission
should always be starting with the reading for the touchdon Done followed by the -id>point Done
and ending with the roll>out2stop end Done report. (f the report consists of &,& for all three
locations, the names of the locations may be omitted provided that the reports are passed in that
order. (n case one of the &,& information of any one position is not available, this information
should be included in appropriate se6uence.
IT ++;< RVR RA3 .8<
T"4#*2"A$ 76;
)!TR!S< )'2%"'$T 8;;
)!TR!S< ST"% !$2 7;;
&)9>&, C' **+
GA ..+< RVR RA3 06< 76;
)!TR!S< 8;; )!TR!S
A$2 7;; )!TR!S
&)9>&, 9A 00*
VTAB#< RVR RA3 .8< 8;;
)!TR!S< $"T
AVA'LABL!< 7;; )!TR!S
&)9>&, ,'ADC
+;.0 Runay Surface #onditions
&unway surface conditions are measured and reported as per procedures given in (CA)
Anne! *..
+;.0.+ When it is evident that the reports from pilots are useful to other aircraft, such information
may be retransmitted by a controller 4Also see Part (( Chapter **, paragraph **.?5<
QBRAK'$G A#T'"$ R!%"RT!2 B3 A0.; 4aircraft type5 AT ;:.8 4time5 4$R!L'ABL!
4assessment of braking action5
+;.0.. (f a controller considers it necessary, information about water presence on a runway shall be
passed to aircraft using the terms JDA7PF 4the surface shows a change of colour due to moisture5,
JW>'F 4surface is soaked but there is no standing water5, JWA'>& PA'C">SF 4significant patches
of standing water are visible5, or J%))D>DF 4e!tensive standing water is visible5 according to the
amount of water present.
+;.0.0 )ther runway conditions and activities which may be of concern to a pilot should be
transmitted at an appropriate time.
VTAB# #"#*'$ TAR<
GRASS )"A'$G '$
#!$TR! "F
C)C"(1 'W& ,'ADC,
7)W>&S (1 S(9"'
> > > > > > > > > > > >
A'6;6< T*R!S*"L2 RA3
.8 2'S%LA#!2 6;; FT 24!
BR"K!$ S4RFA#!
&)9>&, A(3+3
> > > > > > > > > > > > >
'#056< TA('AA3 G"LF
#L"S!2 24!
)A'$T!$A$#!< 4S!
,ACA'(19 ,(A AP"A, (C/.3
> > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A%T!R ++
)'S#!LLA$!"4S FL'G*T *A$2L'$G %*RAS!"L"G3
++.+ Fuel 2u-pin/
A pilot may, during emergency or urgency conditions, may dump fuel to reduce the
ma!imum landing mass in order to e!ecute a safe landing. During such a situation, the pilot should
inform the A'S unit about his intentions. 'he A'S unit should coordinate with the pilot about the
route to be flown, the flight level to be used and the duration of the fuel dumping. Controlled traffic
in the vicinity will be separated and for the non$controlled traffic, a warning will be broadcast.
ALL STAT'"$S )4)BA' #"$TR"L<
B888 24)%'$G F4!L< FL+;;<
B!G'$$'$G +; )'L!S A!ST "F B'S!T
"$ A56+ F"R 6; )'L!S< AV"'2 FL'G*T
BT$ FL8; A$2 FL++; A'T*'$ 6; )'L!S
B!*'$2< +; )'L!S A*!A2 "F T*!
A'R#RAFT A$2 A'T*'$ +; $) T" T*!
S'2!S "F F4!L 24)%'$G TRA#K
ALL STAT'"$S )4)BA' #"$TR"L<
F4!L 24)%'$G #")%L!T!2

++.. Aake Tur?ulence
(f the controller suspects or is aware of any wake turbulence, he2she should warn aircraft as
appropriate. 4See Part (( Chapter 0 paragraph 0.A.0.. for categories of aircraft5.
VB#< !(T!$2
2"A$A'$2 24! AAK!
T4RB4L!$#!< B858
LA$2'$G A*!A2
>G'>1D(19 D)W1W(1D,
> > > > > > > > > > > >
V)!< *"L2 %"S'T'"$
24! AAK!
T4RB4L!$#!< A'RB4S
2!%ART'$G A*!A2
")D(19, ,7>
++.0 Aind Shear and )icro Burst
++.0.+ Wind shear is a sustained change in wind velocity along the aircraft flight path. Wind shears
occurring from the ground surface to a height of *3++ ft 4appro!5 are called Jlow level wind shearsF.
ow level wind shears are 6uite dangerous which can affect the control of aircraft in departure or
final approach phases of flight. Aircraft will report the wind shear information in the following
4a5 Aircraft call sign
4b5 Wind shear report
4c5 'ime of wind shear occurrence
4d5 (ntensity of wind shear # Li/ht=)oderate=Se1ere
4e5 Position and average height of wind shear layer
When wind shear is forecast by the 7et department or is reported by aircraft, A'C transmits
warnings to other aircraft until such time as aircraft report the phenomenon no longer e!ists.
++.0.. 7icro bursts are severe turbulences in a very limited space which can be very dangerous to
the aircraft, especially those in landing phase in the finals. An aircraft e!periencing micro bursts
will immediately report it to the controller on the fre6uency in use.
A'$2 S*!AR AAR$'$G<
;958< !(%!R'!$#'$G
)"2!RAT! A'$2
S*!AR< 0 )'L!S F'$AL<
RA3 .8< 9;; FT
&)9>&, 7@7DA( 'W&
A'6;6< A'$2 S*!AR
!)BRA!R R!%"RT!2
)"2!RAT! A'$2
S*!AR< 0 )'L!S F'$AL<
RA3 .8< 9;; FT
A'6;6< #A4T'"$<
)"2!RAT! A'$2 S*!AR
R!%"RT!2 AT 9;; FT< 0
)'L!S F'$AL< RA3 .8
&)9>&, A(3+3
++.5 2irection Findin/
4Also see Part ( Chapter / paragraph /.0..5
++.5.+ Direction finding helps a pilot to ascertain his bearing, heading or position. A pilot
re6uesting information should make use of the specific phraseology meant for direction finding.
'he transmissions should be ended by the aircraft call sign. 'he direction$finding station will reply
in the following order<
4a5 'he appropriate phrase
4b5 Dearing or heading in degrees in relation to the direction finding station, sent as three figures
4c5 Class of bearing
4d5 'ime of observation if necessary
++.5.. (f the pilot has re6uested a position, the direction$finding control station, shall determine the
observed position of the aircraft and should advise the aircraft in the following form<
4a5 'he appropriate phrase
4b5 'he position
4c5 Class of position
4d5 'ime of observation
++.5.0 'he accuracy of the observations, bearings and positions shall be classified as follows<
4a5 Class A # accurate within O 0 degrees
4b5 Class D # accurate within O 3 degrees
4c5 Class C # accurate within O *+ degrees
4d5 Class D # accuracy less than Class C
4a5 Class A # accurate within 3 17 4-./ ;7s5
4b5 Class D # accurate within 0+ 17 4/A ;7s5
4c5 Class C # accurate within 3+ 17 4-0 ;7s5
4d5 Class D # accuracy less than Class C
%4$! TAR VT!I%<
R!E4!ST *2G T"
,'>CP P@1> 'W&, "D9 ')
7@7DA( +-+ D>9&>>S,
CASS A, +B30
> > > > > > > > > > > > > >
AGRA *")!R VT!)!<
R!E4!ST E2)
A9&A ")7>&, ED7 +/+
D>9&>>S, CASS A, +B//
+/+ CASS A, ,'>7>
++.5.5 A pilot may re6uest for a series of bearings using the appropriate phrase. (f the transmission
by the aircraft has been too short for the direction$finding station to obtain a bearing, the aircraft
shall give a longer transmission for two periods of appro!imately ten seconds, or alternately provide
such signals as may be re6uested by the direction$finding station.
I"2*%4R *")!R
VT!)!< R!E4!ST E2)
,'>7> C)D"P@& ")7>&,
'&A1S7(' )19 %)& ED7
* 0 / . 3 3 . / 0 *, ,'>7>
ED7 +/+ D>9&>>S, CASS A,
ED7 +/+, CASS A, ,'>7> C)D"P@& ")7>&
> > > > > > > > > > > > > >
I"2*%4R *")!R VT!I%<
,CP C)D"P@& ")7>&,
'&A1S7(' %)& ED
* 0 / . 3 3 . / 0 * +.? D>9&>>S, CASS A, +-.0
+.? D>9&>>S, CASS A,
* 0 / . 3 3 . / 0 *
+.- D>9&>>S, CASS A
+.- D>9&>>S, CASS A,
C)D"P@& ")7>&
> > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A$2'GAR* *")!R
,DC C"A1D(9A&" ")7>&,
0+ 17 S)@'" )%
C"A1D(9A&", CASS A, +A3/
0+ 17 S)@'" )%
C"A1D(9A&", CASS A,
C"A1D(9A&" ")7>&
Note 1:- 8irection 4inding stations are not in use in !ivil .viation of India&..I ;ilitar# 2tations with
!ivil .ir Terminals are using =84&8%84&!.84 Ias per !ommunication) Navigation and
2urveillance ;anual Part-II pu$lished $# ..IJ
++.5.6 %ollowing E codes are used for the direction finding purposes<
Ta?le ++.+ E codes for direction findin/
E code Euestion Anser< Ad1ice or "rder
Do you intend to ask me for a series of
( intend to ask you for a series of bearings.
Will you indicate the 7A91>'(C
heading for me to steer towards you 4or...5
with no windV
'he 7A91>'(C heading for you to steer
to reach me 4or...5 with no wind was...
degrees 4at...hours5.
What is my 7A91>'(C bearing from
you 4or from...5V
Pour 7A91>'(C bearing from me 4or
from...5 was...degrees 4at... hours5.
What is my distance to your station 4or
Pour distance to my station 4or to...5 is...
4distance figures and units5.
1ote< 'his signal is normally used in
con:unction with one of the signals ED7,
ED&, E'> or E@C.
What is my '&@> bearing from youV
Degrees 4at...hours5. or
What is my '&@> bearing from... 4call
sign5V )r
What is the '&@> bearing of...4call sign5
from...4call sign5V
Pour '&@> bearing from me is... or
Pour '&@> bearing from...4call sign5 was
...degrees 4at...hours5. or
'he '&@> bearing of...4call sign5 from...
4call sign5 was...degrees at...hours.
Will you give me the position of my
station according to the bearings taken by
the D2% stations which you controlV
'he position of your station according to
the bearings taken by the D2% stations
which ( control was... latitude... longitude
4or other indication of position5,
Will you indicate the '&@> track to reach
you 4or...5V
'he '&@> track to reach me 4or...5 is...
degrees at... hours.
++.6 A#AS )anoeu1res
4See Part (((, Chapter ., paragraph ..*+ for more on ACAS5
++.6.+ When ACAS e6uipment generates a resolution advisory 4&A5, the pilot has to deviate from
the flight path 4and perhaps the level too5 to avoid conflict. "e2she should report the manoeuvre to
the controller and the controller shall not attempt to pass instructions to the aircraft until the pilot
reports that he has returned to A'C cleared level and path. 'he controller shall provide traffic
information as appropriate.
++.6.. )nce an aircraft departs from its clearance due to &A manoeuvre, the controller is no longer
responsible for providing separation between that aircraft and any other aircraft which may be
affected as a direct conse6uence of the &A manoeuvre. )nly when the controller receives and
acknowledges a report from the pilot that the aircraft has resumed the assigned clearance, does the
controller resume the responsibility for providing separation for all the affected aircraft. When the
controller receives a report from the pilot that the aircraft is resuming the current clearance, the
controller may issue an alternative clearance which should be acknowledged by the flight crew.
)4)BA' #"$TR"L
A'6;6< T#AS RA
4pronounced as TEE-CAS-AR-
A(3+3 7@7DA( C)1'&),
&)9>&, &>P)&' &>'@&1(19
') C>A&A1C>
A(3+3, C>A& )%
C)1%(C', &>'@&1(19 ')
C>A&A1C>, 1)W
7A(1'A(1(19 %/?+
&)9>&, 7@7DA( C)1'&)
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
:T 0;. 2!L*' #"$TR"L<
#L')B T" FL06;
D>"( C)1'&) -' /+0,
@1AD>, 'CAS &A
-' /+0 D>"( C)1'&),
&)9>&, &>P)&'
7A(1'A(1(19 %/3+
-' /+0, C>A& )%
C)1%(C', %/3+
&)9>&, D>"( C)1'&)
++.7 Brakin/ Action
Controller may ask the Pilot to report the braking action on a runway.
++.7.+ Draking action is normally categorised as<
4a5 9ood
4b5 7edium to 9ood
4c5 7edium
4d5 7edium to Poor
4e5 Poor
4f5 @nreliable
VT!I% #*!$$A' TAR<
C">11A( 'W&, D&A;(19
AC'()1 7>D(@7 ') 9))D,
++.7.. Draking action reports from pilots may be retransmitted by a controller when it is felt that
the information may prove useful to other aircraft 4See Part (( Chapter *+ paragraph *+./.*5.
++.8 A'R!% (Air Reports)
++.8.+ While flying over the A'S routes, aircraft are supposed to report the operational and2or
routine meteorological information at designated met reporting points. When position reports are to
be passed, the position report shall be given in the form of a routine air$report. Any special
observations by the aircraft shall be reported as special air$reports. All air$reports should be
reported as soon as practicable.
++.8.. Contents of routine air$reports 4A(&>P5 shall consist of the following elements<
Section * # Position information<
4*5 Aircraft identification
405 Position
4/5 'ime
4.5 %light level or altitude
435 1e!t position and time over
4?5 >nsuing significant point
Section 0 # )perational information
4A5 >stimated time of arrival
4B5 >ndurance
Section / # 7eteorological information
4-5 Air temperature
4*+5 Wind direction
4**5 Wind speed
4*05 'urbulence
4*/5 Aircraft icing
4*.5 "umidity 4if available5
++.8...+ Section * of the A(&>P is compulsory, e!cept that elements 435 and 4?5 may be omitted
when so agreed on the basis of regional air navigation agreements. Section 0 of the A(&>P or a
portion thereof, shall only be transmitted when so re6uested by the airline operator or a designated
representative or when considered necessary by the pilot$in$command.
7essage type designator 4A(&>P5 may be added in the in the beginning of the message.
C">11A( C)1'&) (C 00*, A(&>P, P)S('()1 D>A&P 4at5 /3,
%*-+, A1(&) 4at5*.+3, >'A C">11A( *.03, >1D@&A1C> +//+,
'>7P 7(1@S *A, W(1D 033 D>9&>>S ?3 ;', '@&D@>1C>
7)D>&A'>, C)@DS (1 A1D )@'
.$ove example is a routine .I%<P for a ;um$ai-!hennai flight reporting weather
overhead ,ellar# which is a compulsor# ;<T reporting point for flights on National .T2 route
C">11A( &D) A( 3?B, A(&>P, P)S('()1 A1);) 4at5*/*A, %/*+,
APAS( 4at5*/.+, A,1)S 1>G', >1D@&A1C> +B/+, '>7P 7(1@S .A,
W(1D 033 D>9&>>S ?3 ;', '@&D@>1C> (9"', (C(19 (9"'
.$ove example is a routine .I%<P for a trans-oceanic flight which is fl#ing on .T2 route ,066 and
is reporting routine meteorological o$servation at designated meteorological reporting points on the .T2
route The information of the next position) ensuing significant point and endurance are not re"uired for
transmission to the meteorological offices concerned
++.8.0 Contents of special air$reports 4A(&>P SP>C(A5 shall consist of the following elements<
7essage type designator
Section * # Position information
4*5 Aircraft identification
405 Position
4/5 'ime
4.5 %light level or altitude
Section / # 7eteorological information
435 Condition prompting the issuance of the special air$report8 to be selected from the list 4a5 to 4k5
as appropriate
4a5 moderate to severe turbulence or
4b5 severe icing or
4c5 severe mountain wave or
4d5 thunderstorms, without hail that are obscured, embedded, widespread or in s6uall lines or
4e5 thunderstorms, with hail that are obscured, embedded, widespread or in s6uall lines or
4f5 cumulonimbus 4CD5 clouds
4g5 low level wind shear and any meteorological condition in the opinion of the pilot in
command is likely to affect aircraft operation.
4h5 heavy dust storm or heavy sandstorm or
4i5 volcanic ash cloud or
4:5 pre$eruption volcanic activity or a volcanic eruption
(n addition, in the case of transonic and supersonic flights<
4k5 moderate turbulence or
4l5 hail or
4m5 cumulonimbus clouds
Special air$reports shall be made by all aircraft whenever the conditions specified in Section # / are
encountered or observed.
A(&>P SP>C(A, A( *+*, P)S('()1 +*.+/B.+1 +?++++/.?W 4at5*3/?,
%/*+, C(7D(19 ') %/3+, '"@1D>&S')&7S W('" "A(
.$ove example is a special air-report which is re"uired $ecause of the occurrence of widespread
thunderstorms with hail
SP>C(A, A( 0A/, ),>& A'>7A +B.?, *-+++ %', '@&D@>1C>
.$ove example is a special air-report which is re"uired $ecause of severe tur$ulence The aircraft is
on ANB setting
++.8.5 )eteorolo/ical Reportin/ %oints in 'ndia
'he meteorological reporting points while flying over domestic A'S routes in the (ndian
airspace are given below<
Ta?le ++.. )et reportin/ points
ATS Route Reportin/ %oint
;olkata # Chennai SA1)1
;olkata # Port Dlair Crossing 9.A0
Delhi # ;olkata ;@S7(
Delhi # Chennai D")PA and 9@DA&9A
Delhi # "yderabad # Dengaluru D")PA
Delhi # Srinagar PA'"A1;)'
7umbai # Chennai D>A&P
7umbai # Cochin DAD)(729)A
7umbai # Delhi P&A'AP9A&"
7umbai # ;olkata A@&A19ADAD and 1(PAD
7umbai # 'hiruvananthapuram DAD)(729)A
++.9 Aeather 2e1iation
When aircraft encounter adverse weather conditions, the pilot can inform the controller
about the intended deviation.
7@7DA( C)1'&) A(3+3, -+ 17 (1DD D(S>' +3, %/3+, W>A'">&
D>,(A'()1 &>E@(&>D D@> CD C)@DS A">AD
(f necessary, the pilot should initiate the communication using the urgency call PA1 PA1.
Controller response will depend on the prevailing traffic conditions.
A(3+3 7@7DA( C1'&), D>,(A'()1 APP&),>D, &>P)&' &>S@7(19
A(3+3 7@7DA( C1'&), @1AD>, '&A%%(C >AS' D)@1D, DA.A, %/3+,
>S'(7A'>D 4or ),>&5 D(S>' +-, CA S(91 A(& A&AD(A /*-, AD,(S>
Pilot should consider the situation and take action and report his intentions to the controller.
7@7DA( C)1'&), D>,(A'(19 >%' *3 17 %7 '&AC;, D>SC>1D(19
/++ %', S"A (1%)&7 A(& A&AD(A /*- )1 *0*.3 A1D (1'>&P()', A(3+3
++.: AT'S=2>AT'S=)!TAR
A'(S2D$A'(S27>'A& have been discussed in Par ( Chapter /, paragraph /.0.3 in detail.
"ere, only a current weather message e!ample is given.
CA .+* C">11A( &D), W>A'">& C">11A( +?/+, S@&%AC> W(1D /0+2*0
;', ,(S(D(('P *3++ 7>'&>S, C)@DS S;P C>A&, '>7P>&A'@&> /+
D>9&>>S C"A&(>, D>W P)(1' 0B D>9&>>S C"A&(>, E1" --+ ">C')
PASCAS,'&>1D 1) S(91(%(CA1' C"A19>, ),>&
Aircraft that have received the A'(S broadcast will inform the controller by using the word
(1%)&7A'()1 and designator.
++.+; 'nterpilot #o--unications
(nterpilot air$to$air communications is two$way communications between aircraft engaged
in flights over remote and oceanic areas out of range of ,"% ground stations to e!change necessary
operational information and to facilitate the resolution of operational problems. (nterpilot air$to$air
communications shall be established on the air$to$air channel *0/..3 7"K by either a directed call
to a specific aircraft station or a general call, taking into account conditions pertaining to use of this
channel. As the aircraft may be guarding more than one fre6uency, the initial call should include the
distinctive channel identification L(1'>&P()'M.
A'6;6 A'0;7< '$T!R%'L"T< 2" 3"4 R!A2
> > > > > > > > > > > >
A$3 A'R#RAFT V'#'$'T3 "F 0; $"RT* +7; !AST< A'6;6< '$T!R%'L"T<
> > > > > > > > > > > > >
)A32A3 )A32A3 )A32A3< ALL STAT'"$S '#5+;< !)!RG!$#3
2!S#!$T 24! ALT')!TR3 S3ST!) FA'L4R!< "V!R*!A2 )AB4R
"$ L86:< FL5;;< *2G +06< T4R$'$G R'G*T T" LAT!RAL TRA#K +6
$)< T*!$ 2!S#!$2'$G T" FL.:;
++.++ #%2L#
Controller Pilot Datalink Communications 4CPDC5 is an application which provides a
means of communication between the controller and pilot by the use of datalink, instead of voice
&'% communication.
When CPDC is established, the aircraft communicates with the controller through datalink.
)utside the '7A, CPDC will be the primary means of communication and position reporting.
,"%2"% will be back up for communication and position reporting.
(n (ndia, CPDC is operational within Chennai, ;olkata and 7umbai %(&s. Aircraft
e6uipped with datalink, departing from aerodromes within Chennai, ;olkata and 7umbai %(&s
have to re6uest and )9)1 to ,)7% or ,>C% or ,AD% prior to leaving the controlled airspace.
When CPDC is established, aircraft will be instructed to transfer from voice to CPDC.
Phraseology used is
'&A1S%>& ') C">11A( )C>A1(C C)1'&) )1 DA'A(1; 4P)S('()15,
7)1(')& *0?.*3 A'>&1A'> P&(7A&P *A-+A S>C)1DA&P ??33
++.+. 'nterception ?y )ilitary Aircraft
'here are occasions when an aircraft may lose direction and the pilot is unsure of his
position. "e is supposed to use the PA1 PA1 signal and contact the controller for directions.
'here are also occasions when an aircraft may stray from its planned flight path and if it is
not in contact with the controller, it may be considered as an unidentified aircraft. Also, there are
possibilities of the strayed aircraft flying into prohibited, restricted or military e!ercise areas.
During such situations, military aircraft may intercept the civil aircraft.
++.+..+ Action ?y the 'nterceptin/ Aircraft
When an aircraft is intercepted, the 'nterceptor 4intercepting aircraft5 places itself to the
port 4left5 and slightly above and ahead of the 'ntercepted aircraft within the field of view of the
intercepted aircraft. (n the second phase of interception, the (nterceptor closes in to the intercepted
aircraft for identification. (n the third phase, upon identification, the (nterceptor will fly away from
the intercepted aircraft by a shallow dive.
++.+... Action ?y the 'ntercepted Aircraft
When an aircraft is intercepted by an (nterceptor, it shall immediately
4a5 interpret and respond to the visual signals, follow the instructions given by the intercepting
4b5 if possible, immediately notify the appropriate air traffic services unit
4c5 attempt to establish radio communication with the intercepting aircraft or with the appropriate
intercept control unit, by making a general call on the emergency fre6uency *0*.3 7"K, giving
the identity of the intercepted aircraft and the nature of the flight8 and if no contact has been
established and if practicable, repeating this call on the emergency fre6uency 0./ 7"K
4d5 if e6uipped with SS& transponder, select 7ode A, Code AA++, unless otherwise instructed by
the appropriate air traffic services unit
4e5 if any instructions are received from any other source, and these instructions are in conflict to
the instructions issued by the intercepting aircraft, ask for clarification but continue to comply
with the instructions issued by the intercepting aircraft
++.+..0 Radio #o--unication ?eteen the 'ntercept #ontrol 4nit='nterceptin/ Aircraft and
the 'ntercepted Aircraft
When an interception is being made, the intercept control unit and the (nterceptor shall try to
establish two way communications with the intercepted aircraft using the call signs (1'>&C>P'
C)1'&), (1'>&C>P')& 4call sign5 and (1'>&C>P'>D A(&C&A%' on the fre6uency *0*.3
7"K. (f this attempt fails, attempts shall be made to communicate with the intercepted aircraft on
other fre6uencies prescribed by the A'S authority or to establish contact through appropriate A'S
++.+..5 %hraseolo/y to ?e 4sed
'he following phraseology shall be used by the (ntercepting and (ntercepted aircraft<
Ta?le ++.0 %hraseolo/y for use durin/ interception
'nterceptin/ aircraft 'ntercepted aircraft
%hrase %ronunciation )eanin/ %hrase %ronunciation )eanin
CA S(91 ;) SA$(1
What is your
call signV
CA S(91
4call sign5
;) SA$(1
4call sign5
7y call sign
is 4call sign5
%))W %)) %ollow me W(C) ,($;)
and will
D>SC>1D D>>$S>1D
Descend for
CA1 1)' ;A11 1)''
@nable to
P)@ A1D P)@ AA1D
and at this
&>P>A' &>> P>>'
&epeat your
P&)C>>D P&) S>>D
Pou may
A7 )S' A7 )SS'
( am in
"(CAC; "($CAC;
( have been
A1D 4place
4place name5
( re6uest to
land at 4place
D>SC>1D D>>$S>1D
( re6uire
++.+..6 Visual Si/nals ?y 'nterceptor and 'ntercepted aircraft
When an (nterceptor intercepts a civil aircraft, the (nterceptor draws the attention of the
intercepted aircraft and passes instructions by visual means if there is no common language over the
&' or the intercepted aircraft is e!periencing &' failure. 'he visual signals to be resorted to by both
the (nterceptor and the intercepted aircraft are given in the tables below<
Ta?le ++.5 Si/nals initiated ?y the 'nterceptor
'nterceptin/ aircraft
'ntercepted aircraft
* DAP or 1(9"' S &ocking
aircraft and
flashing navigational lights
at irregular intervals 4and
landing lights in the case of a
helicopter5 from a position
slightly above and ahead of,
and normally to the left of,
the intercepted aircraft 4or to
the right if the intercepted
aircraft is a helicopter5 and,
after acknowledgement, a
slow level turn, normally to
the left, 4or to the right in the
case of a helicopter5 on the
desired heading.
Pou have
%ollow me.
DAP or 1(9"' S
&ocking aircraft, flashing
navigational lights at
irregular intervals and
will comply.
0 DAP or 1(9"' S An
abrupt break$away
manoeuvre from the
intercepted aircraft
consisting of a climbing turn
of -+ degrees or more
without crossing the line of
flight of the intercepted
Pou may
DAP or 1(9"' S
&ocking the aircraft.
will comply.
/ DAP or 1(9"' S
owering landing gear 4if
fitted5, showing steady
landing lights and overflying
runway in use or, if the
intercepted aircraft is a
helicopter, overflying the
helicopter landing area. (n
the case of helicopters, the
intercepting helicopter makes
a landing approach, coming
to hover near to the landing
and at this
DAP or 1(9"' S
owering landing gear,
4if fitted5, showing steady
landing lights and
following the
intercepting aircraft and,
if, after overflying the
runway in use or
helicopter landing area,
landing is considered
safe, proceeding to land.
will comply.
Ta?le ++.6 Si/nals initiated ?y the 'ntercepted aircraft
'nterceptin/ aircraft
'ntercepted aircraft
. DAP or 1(9"' S &aising
landing gear 4if fitted5 and
flashing landing lights while
you have
DAP or 1(9"' S (f it
is desired that the
intercepted aircraft
follow me.
passing over runway in use
or helicopter landing area
at a height e!ceeding /++ m
4* +++ ft5 but not e!ceeding
?++ m 40 +++ ft5 4in the case
of a helicopter, at a height
e!ceeding 3+ m 4*A+ ft5 but
not e!ceeding *++ m 4//+
ft55 above the aerodrome
level, and continuing to
circle runway in use or
helicopter landing area. (f
unable to flash landing
lights, flash any other lights
follow the intercepting
aircraft to an alternate
aerodrome, the
intercepting aircraft
raises its landing gear 4if
fitted5 and uses the Series
* signals prescribed for
intercepting aircraft.
(f it is decided to release
the intercepted
aircraft, the intercepting
aircraft uses the
Series 0 signals
prescribed for
intercepting aircraft.
you may
DAP or 1(9"' S &egular
switching on and off of all
available lights but in such a
manner as to be distinct from
flashing lights.
DAP or 1(9"' S @se
Series 0 signals
prescribed for
intercepting aircraft.
DAP or 1(9"' S (rregular
flashing of all available
(n distress.
DAP or 1(9"' S @se
Series 0 signals
prescribed for
intercepting aircraft.
++.+..7 !,a-ple of RT #o--unication ?eteen 'nterceptor and 'ntercepted aircraft
During interception, it may not be possible to maintain the whole &' conversation in
standard phraseology as there are no standard &' phrases for every situation during interception. (t
is recommended to use available standard (CA) and any supplementary &' phraseology and plain
>nglish language.
T*'S 'S '$T!R#!%T"R
2AGG!R "$!< #ALL
DA99>& )1>, CA S(91
,'EAD, A7 )S'
,'EAD, C)1%(&7 ADC 1&
DA99>& )1> ,'EAD, ADC
?*., %7 D>"( ') S&(1A9A&
8agger >ne confirms from Intercept !ontrol
,'EAD DA99>& )1>,
W(C), ,'EAD
,'EAD, P)S('()1 AD7
ASA&(, W/*W, 7A(1'A(1
"D9 +*3 %)& PA'"A1;)',
P&)C>>D, DA99>& )1>
DA99>&& )1>, AD7 ASA&(,
W/*W, "D9 +*3 %)&
PA'"A1;)', W(C), ,'EAD
++.+0 4nlaful 'nterference and Aircraft Bo-? Threat
++.+0.+ 4nlaful 'nterference
(n the circumstances of an aircraft being sub:ected to unlawful interference and if the aircraft
is e6uipped with 7ode A transponder, it should s6uawk code A3++ to indicate it is sub:ected to
unlawful interference. (t may also s6uawk code AA++ to indicate the grave and imminent danger and
re6uirement of immediate assistance.
(f situation on the aircraft permits, the pilot should attempt to maintain the assigned track
and cruise flight level. (f the situation on the aircraft forces the aircraft to deviate from its assigned
track and flight level, the pilot should attempt to 4provided the circumstances permit5<
4a5 broadcast warnings on the ,"% emergency fre6uency and fre6uencies in use
4b5 proceed as per special procedures for in$flight contingencies 4Doc A+/+$&egional
Supplementary Procedures5 or
4c5 if no special procedures have been laid down, proceed at a level which differs from the cruising
levels normally used for (%& flights in the area, *+++ ft if above % 0-+ or by 3++ ft if below
% 0-+.
++.+0.. Bo-? Threat
(nformation of a bomb threat to the aircraft may come through the A'S unit or from a
source on board. 'he pilot may decide to use the distress signal 47APDAP5 to inform the A'S
unit. Action by the pilot of the aircraft which has received a bomb threat depends upon the phase of
the operation the aircraft is in.
++.+0...+ Aircraft in>fli/ht
'he pilot may decide to climb or descend for the purpose of e6ualising or reducing the
differential between the outside and cabin air pressures. Also, the pilot may decide to divert the
aircraft to a new destination.
++.+0.... Aircraft on the /round
A'S may ask the threatened aircraft to ta!i to a designated or isolated parking area in
accordance with local instructions. %light crew may decide to disembark the passengers and crew
)A32A3 )A32A3
)A32A3< $AG%4R #TL
'T 8:;< B")B T*R!AT<
R!E 2!S#!$2 T" FL +.;
A$2 2'V!RT T" B*"%AL<
%S$ B"B!T AT ;:68<
FL00;< *2G ;68< S%2 0;;<
!$2 ;5;;< %A( :8
(' A-+ 1A9P@& C', &)9>&
7APDAP, &>C>A&>D ') %
*0+ A1D D(,>&' ') D")PA,
C)1'AC' D")PA APP )1
1A9P@& C', &>C>A&>D
') %*0+ A1D &>'@&1 ')
D")PA, D")PA APP )1
**B.+3, (' A-+
1A9P@& C'
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
D")PA 'W& (' A-+,
A1D>D D")PA *+03
(' A-+ D")PA 'W&, 'AG(
D(&>C' ') (S)A'()1 DAP
A' &WP +? D@7D>
D")PA 'W& (' A-+, A'
(S)A'()1 DAP,
D(S>7DA&;(19 PAG A1D
C&>W, &>E A&&A19>
W(C), D")PA 'W&
++.+5 Air Traffic 'ncident Report
Whenever an air traffic incident occurs, it is to be reported to the A'S unit concerned.
Different types of air traffic incidents are A(&P&)G, obstruction on runway, runway incursion,
faulty2non$compliance with procedures and failure of ground facilities. Any air traffic incident must
be initially reported by radio followed by submission in a written air traffic incident form.
A(&P&)G is the code used for Air Pro!imity. Air pro!imity is a situation in which, in the
opinion of the pilot and2or the A'S personnel, the distance between aircraft and their relative
positions and speeds are such that the safety of the aircraft may have been compromised. A(&P&)G
classifications, classified according to the degree of risk involved, are as follows<
4a5 Risk of collision< &isk classification of an A(P&)G in which serious risk of collision has
4b5 Safety not assured< 'he risk classification of an aircraft pro!imity in which the safety of the
aircraft may have been compromised.
4c5 $o risk of collision< 'he risk classification of an aircraft pro!imity in which no risk of collision
has e!isted.
4d5 Risk not deter-ined< 'he risk classification of an aircraft pro!imity in which insufficient
information was available to determine the risk involved, or inconclusive or conflicting
evidence precluded such determination.
'he classification of an A(&P&)G incident is determined in the incident investigations after
a proper report has been filed.
When an A(P&)G 4or runway obstruction2incursion or procedure or facility5 is reported
initially on the &', the following information shall be given<
4a5 Aircraft identification
4b5 'ype of incident 4A(&P)&G2P&)C>D@&>2%AC(('P5
4c5 Date and time 4@'C5 of incident, position
4d5 )wn aircraft<
4i5 "eading and route
4ii5 'rue air speed
4iii5 evel and altimeter setting
4iv5 Aircraft level flight2climbing2descending
4v5 Avoiding action taken # yes2no
4e5 )ther aircraft<
4i5 'ype and call sign, if known. (f not known then description such as high2mid2low
wing2rotor craft, number of engines, marking, colour, etc.
4ii5 Aircraft level flight2climbing2descending2unknown
4iii5 Avoiding action taken # yes2no
4f5 Closest horiKontal and vertical distances
4g5 Aerodrome of first landing and destination
:A7;8< A'R%R"( R!%"RT
-W?+A A"7>DADAD 'W&,
&>ADP ') C)PP
A"7>DADAD 'W& -W?+A,
A(&P&)G, *0+/+B./, PS1 03
17 )@'D)@1D
A"7>DADAD, "D9 +/- )1
W*/, SPD 0.+ ;', %?3,
*+*/.0 "PA, C(7D(19,
A,)(D(19 AC'()1 'A;>1
P>S, '&A%%(C C>SS1A *A0,
,'ADC, >,> %(9"',
A,)(D(19 AC'()1 'A;>1
P>S, D(S'A1C>
")&(Q)1'A -++ %',
,>&'(CA 3++ %',
A1D(19 @DA(P@&,
D>S'(1A'()1 D>"(
-W?+A A">7DADAD 'W&,
4&>AD DAC;5, C)1%(&7
&>S@7>D '&AC;
A"7>DADAD 'W& -W?+A,
&>AD DAC; C)&&>C',
&>S@7>D ASS(91>D
-W?+A, &)9>&, C)1'AC'
A"7>DADAD APP )1 **-.?,
A"7>DADAD APP **-.?,
++.+6 #arria/e of 2an/erous Goods
(f an in$flight emergency occurs to an aircraft which is carrying dangerous goods on board,
the pilot$in$command is responsible to inform the appropriate A'S authority as soon as the situation
permits. 'he information should contain the class and division of dangerous goods carried on
++.+7 "perations $or-al Report
When aircraft are supposed to transmit operations normal reports, the report should consist
of the phrase )P>&A'()1S 1)&7A along with the usual elements. 'his is usually done only
when the ne!t estimated position is due after an interval of /+ minutes or more.
#*!$$A' "#!A$'# A'6;6 "$ +.+.7< "%!RAT'"$S $"R)AL
++.+8 !,a-ples of BR!AK and BR!AK BR!AK
++.+8.+ Phraseology D&>A; is used to indicate the separation between portions of the message. (t
can be used between the address and the te!t of the message, and the te!t and the sender.
)4)BA' RA2'" A' 5;6< F"R !$G'$!!R'$G A'R '$2'A !(%R!SS
)4)BA'< BR!AK< !$G'$! $R ;. #*A$G! R!E4'R!2 "$ ARR'VAL<
BR!AK< #A%TA'$ A' 5;6< "V!R
A' 6;6 #*!$$A' #TL< 2'SR!GAR2 #%2L# #L')B #L!ARA$#!
)!SSAG!< BR!AK< #L')B T" FL0+;
++.+8.. Phraseology D&>A; D&>A; is used to indicate the separation between messages
transmitted to different aircraft in a very busy environment. (t is also used for controlling multiple
aircraft flying in formation.
C *+0 &WP 0A W(1D 0B+ D>9&>>S 3 ;1)'S, C>A& ') A1D, D&>A;
D&>A;, (C... )&D(' >%' %)& D>AP, D&>A; D&>A;, ,DD >G'>1D
> > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A%T!R +0
*F #"))4$'#AT'"$S
+..+ 'ntroduction
While the ,2@"% are used for terminal communications, "% is used for en$route i.e. long
distance communications. "% has the advantage of reaching much farther distance than the ,2@"%
radio waves. )n the negative side, "% channels are much noisier than ,2@"% communications. "%
communication is being replaced by &emote Controlled Air 9round 4&CA95 and satellite
communications 4SA'C)75 which use ,"% and @"% fre6uencies.
+... 2efinitions
Radiotelephony netork is defined as a group of radiotelephony aeronautical stations which
operate on and guard fre6uencies from the same family and which support each other in a defined
manner to ensure ma!imum dependability of air$ground communications and dissemination of air$
ground traffic.
$etork station An aeronautical station forming a part of a radiotelephony network.
Re/ular station A station selected from those forming an enroute air$ground radiotelephony
network to communicate with or to intercept communications from aircraft in normal conditions.
%ri-ary /uard station &egular station that has the responsibility of providing the primary
guard 4monitoring the fre6uency5 so that continuity of air$ground communications is ensured and
messages from the aircraft can be effectively handled.
+..0 %rinciples of $etork "peration
'he aeronautical stations of a radiotelephony network should assist each other in order to
provide the air$ground communication service re6uired of the network by aircraft flying on the air
routes for which the network is responsible. 4P.N25
'he regular station will be those serving the locations immediately concerned with flights on
that route segment, i.e. points of take$off and landing and appropriate flight information centres or
area control centres and, in some cases, additional suitably located stations re6uired to complete the
communication coverage or for intercept purposes. IP.N2J
(n areas or on routes where radio conditions, length of flights or distance between
aeronautical stations re6uire additional measures to ensure continuity of air$ground communications
throughout the route segment, the regular stations should share between them a responsibility of
pri-ary /uard whereby each station will provide the primary guard for that portion of the flight
during which the messages from the aircraft can be handled most effectively by that station. 4P.N25
During its tenure of primary guard, each regular station should, among other things<
4a5 be responsible for designating suitable primary and secondary fre6uencies for its
communications with the aircraft8
4b5 receive all position reports and handle other messages from and to the aircraft essential to the
safe conduct of the flight8
4c5 be responsible for the action re6uired in case of failure of communication. 4P.N25
'he transfer of primary guard from one station to the ne!t will normally take place at the
time of the traversing of flight information region or control area boundaries, this guard being
provided at any time, as far as possible, by the station serving the flight information centre or area
control centre in whose area the aircraft is flying. "owever, where communication conditions so
demand, a station may be re6uired to retain primary guard beyond such geographical boundaries or
release its guard before the aircraft reaches the boundary, if appreciable improvement in air$ground
communication can be effected thereby. 4P.N25
+..0.+ )AARA and R2ARA
Dased on the above principles, radiotelephony networks have been divided as 7a:or World
Air &oute Area 47WA&A5 networks and &egional and Domestic Air &oute Area 4&DA&A5
+..0.+.+ )aSor Air Route Area $etorks ()AARA)
,ast areas of the world lack the necessary ,"% radio communication systems needed to
provide reliable radio coverage between aircrews and air traffic controllers. 'he lack of ,"%
coverage within most of these areas is due to the very remote location of these regions, for e!ample
much of the airspace over the oceans lack ,"% communications as it is impossible to install
transmitters on a reliable platform within these regions. %or the purpose of establishing
communications a vast network of "% %re6uencies has been allocated to provide voice
communications between aircrew and A'C facilities. Some of these regions will have as many as
si! different groups of fre6uencies assigned to them.
Aircraft operating international services to2from (ndia operate in the following 7WA&A
4a5 (ndian )cean Area # * 4(1) # *5
Coverage area< Antananarivo, Deira, )u-?ai, Drisbane, Coco (slands, Colombo, Dar es
Salaam, "arare, Ceddah, ;igali, ilongwe, usaka, #hennai, 7aha:anga, 7ale, 7auritius, 7oroni,
1airobi, Perth, Seychelles, St.Denis, 'oamasina
4b5 South >ast Asia $* 4S>A # *5
Coverage area< Dali, Dangkok, Colombo, Kolkota, Dhaka, 9uangKhou, Cakarta, ;athmandu, ;uala
umpur, ;unming, #hennai, 7ale, Singapore, Pangon
4c5 7iddle >ast Asia # 0 47(D # 05
Coverage area< Abadan, Almaty, Ashkabad, Dishkek, )u-?ai, 2elhi, Dushanbe, ;abul, ;arachi,
;athmandu, ;uwait, ahore, 7ale, 7uscat, )dessa, Samarkhand, Seychelles, 'ashkent, 'ehran,
'bilisi, @rum6i, Perevan
+..0.+.. Re/ional and 2o-estic Air Route Area $etorks (R2ARA)
%or domestic en$route usage, (ndia is divided into five areas, each area having its own
family of fre6uencies. Aircraft communicate on these fre6uencies as appropriate to the area in
which they operate. 'he &DA&As are designated as 1orthern, Western, Southern, >astern and
1orth >ast. Coverage area of each &DA&A is normally the %(&. All the aeronautical stations within
the coverage area of an %(& will guard the fre6uency family designated for that %(&.
+..0.+.0 'he list of %(&s and the fre6uencies 47WA&A and &DA&A5 are given in the table
below. 4as per >nroute 0.*$*, A(P5
Ta?le +..+ Fli/ht 'nfor-ation Re/ions< )AARA and R2ARA freCuencies
4nit pro1idin/
#all si/n
*ours of ser1ice
Chennai &adio
Chennai &adio
*A-+A ;"K, *//*B ;"K, **0B3 ;"K,
??33 ;"K, 3?A+ ;"K, /.A+ ;"K
Chennai &adio
Chennai &adio
BB?* ;"K, ??33 ;"K, ?3B/ ;"K,
0BA0 ;"K
Delhi &adio
Delhi &adio
*/0BB ;"K, *++*B ;"K, 3?3B ;"K,
/.?A ;"K
Delhi &adio
Delhi &adio
B-.B ;"K, B-+? ;"K, 3?+* ;"K,
33B+ ;"K, 0BA0 ;"K
9uwahati 9uwahati &adio
9uwahati &adio
B-.B ;"K, 3.B. ;"K, 0-0/ ;"K
;olkota &adio
;olkota &adio
*++?? ;"K, ?33? ;"K, /.-* ;"K,
0-.A ;"K
;olkota &adio
;olkota &adio
B-+? ;"K, BB?* ;"K, ?3B/ ;"K,
33B/ ;"K, 0-A0 ;"K
7umbai &adio
7umbai &adio
*/0BB ;"K, **/++ ;"K, *++*B ;"K,
BBA- ;"K, 3?3B ;"K, 3?/. ;"K,
3?+* ;"K, /.?A ;"K, 0BA0 ;"K
7umbai &adio
7umbai &adio
B-.B ;"K, B-+- ;"K, ??33 ;"K,
3?+* ;"K, 0BA0 ;"K
+..5 FreCuencies to ?e 4sed
Aircraft stations shall operate on the appropriate radio fre6uencies. 'he air$ground control
radio station shall designate the fre6uency4ies5 to be used under normal conditions by aircraft
stations operating under its control.
(n network operation, the initial designation of primary and secondary fre6uencies should be
made by the network station with which the aircraft makes pre$flight check or its initial contact after
take$off. 'his station should also ensure that other network stations are advised, as re6uired, of the
fre6uency4ies5 designated. IP.N2J
An aeronautical station, when designating fre6uencies in accordance with, should take into
account the appropriate propagation data and distance over which communications are re6uired.
(f a fre6uency designated by an aeronautical station proves to be unsuitable, the aircraft
station should suggest an alternative fre6uency.
When, air$ground fre6uencies are used for the e!change between network stations of
messages essential for coordination and cooperation between the stations, such communication
should, so far as possible, be effected over network fre6uencies not being used at that time for the
bulk of the air$ground traffic. (n all cases, the communication with aircraft stations should take
priority over the inter$ground station communications. IP.N2J
+..6 !sta?lish-ent of #o--unications
+..6.+ (nitiating a call on the "% is similar to that of ,"% communications i.e. called station call
sign followed by the call sign of the calling station shall be transmitted. 'he difference in "%
communications is, at the end of each transmission, the &' phraseology ),>& is used. When the
e!change of traffic has ended, the &' phraseology )@' is used.
#*!$$A' R2" VTA)!
"$ 7766< "V!R
,7> C">11A( &D), 9)
A">AD, ),>&
C">11A( &D) ,7>,
P)S('()1 DAS)P *-+0,
%/3+, "D9 0AA, SPD 03+,
>1D +3/+, ACD>,
A(&D)&1> P)&' DA(&
*B.3, >S'(7A'(19 SADAP
0-, 1>G' (DAS) 3/, >'A
C">11A( 0+/+, PAG *00,
,7> C">11A( &D), DAS)P
*-+0, %/3+, SPD 03+, "D9 0AA,
>1D +3/+, ACD>, A(&D)&1>
P)&' DA(& *B.3,
>S'(7A'(19 SADAP 0-, 1>G'
(DAS) 3/, >'A C">11A( 0+/+,
PAG *00, ),>&
,7> C">11A( &D), )@'
Aircraft stations shall, if possible, communicate directly with the air$ground control radio
station appropriate to the area in which the aircraft are flying. (f unable to do so, aircraft stations
shall use any relay means available and appropriate to transmit messages to the air$ground control
radio station.
When, in network operation, communication between an aircraft station and a regular station
has not been established after calls on the primary and secondary fre6uencies, aid should be
rendered by one of the other regular stations for that flight, either by calling the attention of the
station first called or, in the case of a call made by an aircraft station, by answering the call and
taking the traffic. IP.N2J
)ther stations of the network should render assistance by taking similar action only if
attempts to establish communications by the regular stations have proved unsuccessful. IP.N2J
+..6.. 'ndication of Trans-ittin/ FreCuency
"% channels are operated by a radio officer at the aeronautical fi!ed station. Since the
officer generally watches more than one fre6uency, the fre6uency being used for transmission by
the aircraft should be indicated in the call soon after the address. (f no confusion is likely to arise,
only the first two digits of the fre6uency 4in ;"K5 may be indicated to identify the transmitting
#*!$$A' R2" VTA)!
"$ 77< "V!R
,7> C">11A( &D), 9)
A">AD, ),>&
+..7 Transfer of *F #o--unications
An aircraft station should be advised by the appropriate aeronautical station to transfer from
one radio fre6uency or network to another. (n the absence of such advice, the aircraft station should
notify the appropriate aeronautical station before such transfer takes place. IP.N2J
#*!$$A' R2" #"%3
"$ 997+< F'R ))=## 5.<
FL 0;;< AL#*<
!ST')AT'$G V'FAG ;:.;<
,'A7> C">11A( &D), %(&
772CC .0, %/++, AC",
,(QA9 +-0+, C"A19> ),>&
') ;);)'A &D) ),>&
VTA)! K"LK"TA R2"<
R"G!R< ASS4)'$G
%R')AR3 G4AR2<
%R')AR3 997+<
S!#"$2AR3 7690< "V!R
;);)'A &D) ,'A7>,
&)9>&, P&(7A&P BB?*,
S>C)1DA&P ?3B/, ),>&
;);)'A &AD() ,7>
(n the absence of change over advice
#*!$$A' R2" #"%3
"$ 997+< F'R ))=## 5.<
FL0;;< AL#*< !ST V'FAG
;:.;< #*A$G'$G "V!R
T" K"LK"TA #"$TR"L
,'A7> C">11A( &D), %(&
772CC .0, %/++, AC", >S'
,(QA9 +-0+, C"A19> ),>&
C)1'&) ') ;);)'A &D),
(n the case of transfer from one network to another, the transfer should preferably take place
while the aircraft is in communication with a station operating in both networks to ensure continuity
of communications. (f, however, the change of network must take place concurrently with the
transfer of communication to another network station, the transfer should be coordinated by the two
network stations prior to advising or authoriKing the fre6uency change. 'he aircraft should also be
advised of the primary and secondary fre6uencies to be used after the transfer. IP.N2J
An aircraft station which has transferred communications watch from one radio fre6uency to
another shall, when so re6uired by the appropriate A'S Authority, inform the aeronautical station
concerned that communications watch has been established on the new fre6uency.
When entering a network after takeoff, an aircraft station should transmit its take$off time or
time over the last check$point, to the appropriate regular station. IP.N2J
When entering a new network, an aircraft station should transmit the time over the last
checkpoint, or of its last reported position, to the appropriate regular station. IP.N2J
Defore leaving the network, an aircraft station should in all cases advise the appropriate
regular station of its intention to do so by transmitting one of the following phrases, as appropriate<
4a5 when transferring to a pilot$to$controller channel<
Aircraft< C"A19(19 ') . . . 4air traffic services unit concerned5
4b5 after landing<
Aircraft< A1D>D . . . 4location5 . . . 4time5
+..8 #o--unication Failure
+..8.+ Air>Ground
(f an aircraft is not able to establish contact with the designated aeronautical station on the
designated fre6uency, it should attempt to establish contact on another fre6uency designated for the
route. (f even these attempts fail, the aircraft station should attempt to contact the appropriate
aeronautical station, other aeronautical stations or other aircraft by using all available means. (f
communication has been established, pilot should inform the aeronautical station that contact on the
assigned fre6uency could not be established. (n addition, an aircraft operating within network shall
monitor the appropriate ,"% fre6uency for calls from nearby aircraft.
(f all the above attempts fail, the aircraft should transmit its message twice on the designated
fre6uencies, preceded by the phrase J'&A1S7(''(19 D(1DF and, if necessary, include the
addressee4s5 for which the message is intended.
(n network operation, a message which is transmitted blind should be transmitted twice on
both primary and secondary channels. Defore changing channel, the aircraft should announce the
channel to which it is changing. IP.N2J
2!L*' R2" VTA)! "$ 9:59< TRA$S)'TT'$G BL'$2< %"S'T'"$
!LK4( AT ;:6.< FL.;;< *2G +.8< S%!!2 .6; KTS< !ST')AT'$G 'G'$"
+;+;< !TA 2!L*' +;.;< %A( +0;< ' SA3 AGA'$
2!L*' R2"M 4complete repetition up to PAG */+5, #*A$G'$G "V!R T"
2!L*' R2" VTA)! "$ 67;+M 4transmission of the complete message twice on
secondary fre6uency5
+..8.. Recei1er Failure
When the pilot is aware that he2she is unable to establish communication due to receiver
failure and the transmitter is serviceable, he2she should transmit reports at the scheduled
times2positions, on the channel in use, preceded by the phrase L'&A1S7(''(19 D(1D D@> ')
&>C>(,>& %A(@&>M. 'he aircraft station should transmit the intended message, following this
by a complete repetition. At the end of this call, the aircraft should also advise the time of its ne!t
intended transmission.
An aircraft which is proceeding as per filed flight plan 4under A'S control or provided with
advisory service5 should include information regarding the intention of the pilot$in$command with
respect to the continuation of the flight of the aircraft in his blind transmission.
'he aircraft which is e!periencing communication failure, if e6uipped, should s6uawk SS&
code A?++ to indicate the radio failure.
2!L*' R2" VTA)! "$ 9:59< TRA$S)'TT'$G BL'$2 24! T"
R!#!'V!R FA'L4R!< %"S'T'"$ !LK4( AT ;:6.< FL.;;< *2G+.8<
S%!!2.6; KTS< !ST')AT'$G 'G'$" +;+;< !TA 2!L*' +;.;< %A( +0;<
%R"#!!2'$G AS %!R #L!AR!2 FL'G*T %LA$< $!(T TRA$S)'SS'"$
+;..< ' SA3 AGA'$
2!L*' R2"M $!(T TRA$S)'SS'"$ +;..< 4complete repetition5 "4T
+..9 Selecti1e #allin/ (S!L#AL)
+..9.+ S>CA is an alerting system in which coded tones are transmitted on the fre6uency in use.
&eceipt of the assigned S>CA code activates a calling system in the cockpit, thereby alerting the
pilot about a call from a ground radio station. 'hus the flight crew need not maintain a continuous
listening watch on the "% channel. Detailed S>CA procedures may be found in Anne! *+
,olume ((. 4See Part ((( Chapter / paragraph /.. for more on S>CA5
(t is the responsibility of the aircraft operating agency and the aircraft to ensure that all the
aeronautical stations, with which the aircraft would normally communicate during a particular
flight, know the S>CA code associated with its radiotelephony call sign. IP.N2J
'he aircraft should IP.N2J<
4a5 include the S>CA code in the flight plan submitted to the appropriate air traffic services unit
4b5 ensure that the "% aeronautical station has the correct S>CA code information by
establishing communications temporarily with the "% aeronautical station while still within ,"%
)4)BA' R2" VTAB#<
,'ADC 7@7DA( &D),
+..9.. %re>Fli/ht #heck
'he aircraft station should contact the appropriate aeronautical station and re6uest a pre$
flight S>CA check and, if necessary, give its S>CA code. When primary and secondary
fre6uencies are assigned, a S>CA check should normally be made first on the secondary
fre6uency and then on the primary fre6uency. 'he aircraft station would then be ready for continued
communication on the primary fre6uency. Should the pre$flight check reveal that either the ground
or airborne S>CA installation is in$operative, the aircraft should maintain a continuous listening
watch on its subse6uent flight until S>CA again becomes available. IP.N2J
)4)BA' R2" VTAB# "$
7766< R!E4!ST
#*!#K< S!L#AL A*#K<
,DC 7@7DA( &D), S>CA
A"C;, SDDP %)& S>CA,
:round station transmits the 2<?!.? code and the aircraft receives the call
7@7DA( &D) ,DC,
S>CA ); )1
S>C)1DA&P, C"A19(19
),>& ') P&(7A&P, ),>&
7@7DA( &D)
7@7DA( &D) ,DC )1
B-.B, &>E S>CA C">C;,
A"C;, ),>&
,DC 7@7DA( &D), SDDP
%)& S>CA, ),>&
:round station transmits the 2<?!.? code and the aircraft receives the call
7@7DA( &D) ,DC,
S>CA ); )1 P&(7A&P,
7@7DA( &D)
+..9.0 !sta?lish-ent of #o--unications
When an aeronautical station initiates a call by S>CA, the aircraft replies with its radio
call sign, followed by the phrase L9) A">ADM 4I!.> .nnex 10 5'001 P.N25.
4,'ADC receives the S>CA chime and the S>CA lamp starts blinking5
VTAB#< G" A*!A2< "V!R
4Calling station replies e.g. ,'ADC 7umbai &doU..5
+..9.5 !n>route %rocedures
Aircraft stations should ensure that the appropriate aeronautical station4s5 are aware that
S>CA watch is being established or maintained. )nce S>CA watch has been established by a
particular aircraft station, aeronautical stations should employ S>CA whenever they re6uire to
call the aircraft. Aircraft should ensure that the aeronautical stations concerned with its flight are
immediately made aware of any malfunctioning of its S>CA installation, and that voice calling
is necessary. 4P.N25
)4)BA' R2" VTAB#< S!L#AL '$"%!RAT'V!< "V!R
+..9.6 AT# clearances< instructions and infor-ation on *F netork
When an aircraft is out of range for ,"%, it can be given A'C clearances, instructions or
information by the primary guard station.
VTAB# )4)BA' R2"<
7@7DA( &D) ,'ADC, 9)
A">AD, ),>&
,DC 7@7DA( &D), A'C
C>A&S ,DC ') D>SC>1D
') %0++, ),>&
C>A&>D ') D>SC>1D ')
%0++, ,DC
+..9.7 )essa/es addressed to aircraft operatin/ a/ency
When a message is originated from an aircraft and which re6uires to be handled by A%'1
for further routing, it shall be composed as follows<
4a5 Call
4b5 'he word %)&
4c5 1ame of the organiKation addressed
4d5 1ame of the station of destination
4e5 'e!t
2!L*' R2" A':;:< F"R A'R '$2'A !(%R!SS 2!L*'< $4)B!R "$!
!$G'$! #*A$G! R!E4'R!2 "$ ARR'VAL< "V!R
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A%T!R +0
+0.+ 'ntroduction
When an aircraft is in a situation where all the means of communication via the radio
medium 4&' and SS&5 have failed, the pilot should resort to communication through visual signals.
(n case of &' failure and the SS& is serviceable, pilot should s6uawk code A?++ indicating to the
controller that the aircraft &' has failed. (n the case of an aircraft not e6uipped with SS& or whose
&' and SS& have failed, aircraft$tower communication will be through visual means. 'his chapter
discusses procedures to be adopted during such a situation.
Although the visual signals offer the advantage that some control may be e!ercised over
aircraft with communication failure, pilots should be cogniKant of the disadvantages which are<
4a5 'he pilot may not be looking at the control tower at the time a signal is directed toward him.
4b5 'he instructions transmitted by a light signal are very limited since only approval or disapproval
of a pilotRs anticipated actions may be transmitted. 1o supplement or e!planatory information may
be transmitted e!cept by the use of the X9eneral Warning SignalX which advises the pilot to be on
the alert.
'he pilot of an aircraft with communication failure must employ every means available to
him to inform the tower of the prevailing condition. 'he pilot should remain alert and watch the
tower for light signals or monitor tower fre6uency 4if the receiver is operative5.
'hough visual communication does not fall under the sub:ect of &'% procedures, it has been
covered under this part since it is a means of communication. Similarly, &'% phraseology often has
reference to runway2ta!iway markings and lightings, these topics are also discussed in this chapter.
+0.. #o--unications ith AT# hen Trans-itter=Recei1er or Both Failure
+0...+ Arri1in/ Aircraft
+0...+.+ Recei1er 'noperati1e
(f only the aircraft receiver is inoperative, the aircraft should remain outside or above the
airport traffic area until the direction and flow of traffic has been determined, then advise the tower
of the type of aircraft, position, altitude, intention to land and re6uest that the aircraft be controlled
with light signals. When the aircraft is appro!imately / to 3 miles from the airport, advise the tower
of the aircraftFs position and :oin the airport traffic pattern. %rom this point on, watch the tower for
light signals. 'hereafter, if a complete pattern is made, transmit aircraft position< downwind and2or
turning base leg.
+0...+.. Trans-itter 'noperati1e
Aircraft should remain outside or above the airport traffic area until the direction and flow
of traffic has been determined, then :oin the airport traffic pattern and look for a light signal which
may be directed at the aircraft. A'C may be informed of the &' failure by rocking the wings or
blinking landing2navigation lights and, if traffic conditions permit, by making low$level passes.
'ower fre6uency should be continuously monitored.
+0...+.0 Trans-itter and Recei1er 'noperati1e
Aircraft should remain outside or above the airport traffic area until the direction and flow
of traffic has been determined, then :oin the airport traffic pattern and maintain visual contact with
the tower to receive light signals. (nform the A'C about &' failure as in */.0.*.0.
+0...+.5 Acknoled/e-ent of Visual Si/nals
A pilot shall, where practicable, acknowledge all clearances and instructions received by
visual signals. Signals may be acknowledged as follows<
4a5 During hours of daylight, distinct rocking of aircraft wings 4this signal should not be e!pected in
the base and final legs of the approach5.
4b5 During the hours of darkness, by flashing on and off tice the landing lights or, if not so
e6uipped, by switching on and off tice its navigation lights.
+0.... 2epartin/ Aircraft
(f the radio failure occurs prior to leaving the parking area, every effort should be made to
have the e6uipment repaired. (f this is not possible, tower should be contacted by telephone and
authorisation to depart without two$way radio communications should be re6uested. (f tower
authorisation is granted, departure information will be given and the pilot will be instructed to
monitor the tower fre6uency or watch for light signals, as appropriate.
(f the &' failure occurs after leaving the parking area, attention of the A'C should be
4a5 During night, by blinking the landing2navigation lights and ta!iing the aircraft into an authorised
position, clear of the active runway, so that the lights are visible to the A'C.
4b5 During day, by full movement of the ailerons or rudders whichever can be most easily seen
4such movement should be repeated at least three times5
+0.....+ Acknoled/e-ent of Visual Si/nals
A pilot of a departing aircraft shall, where practicable, acknowledge all clearances and
instructions received by visual signals. Signals may be acknowledged as follows<
4a5 During daylight hours, by moving the ailerons or rudder
4b5 During the hours of darkness, by flashing on and off tice the landing lights or, if not so
e6uipped, by switching on and off tice its navigation lights.
+0...0 4r/ency Si/nals
'he following signals, used either together or separately, mean that an aircraft wishes to
give notice of difficulties which compel it to land but does not re6uire immediate assistance<
4a5 'he repeated switching on and off of the landing lights
4b5 'he repeated switching on and off of the navigation lights in such manner as to be distinct from
flashing navigation lights.
+0.0 Visual Si/nals for Vehicles
At controlled aerodromes all vehicles employed on the manoeuvring area shall be capable of
maintaining two$way radio communication with the aerodrome control tower, e!cept when the
vehicle is only occasionally used on the manoeuvring area and is<
4a5 accompanied by a vehicle with the re6uired communications capability8 or
4b5 employed in accordance with a pre$arranged plan established with the aerodrome control tower.
When employed in accordance with a plan prearranged with the aerodrome control tower,
constructional and maintenance personnel should not normally be re6uired to be capable of
maintaining two$way radio communication with the control tower.
+0.5 AT# Toer Li/ht Si/nals
A'C personnel use a directive traffic control signal which emits an intense narrow light
beam of a selected color 4red, white, or green5 when controlling traffic by light signals. ight
signals used to pass instructions to the aircraft in flight, on the ground or vehicles are summarised in
the table below<
Ta?le +0.+ Li/ht si/nals used ?y the AT# toer
Li/ht si/nal Aircraft in fli/ht
Aircraft on the
Ground 1ehicles or
Series of white
and at this aerodrome
and proceed to apronT
&eturn to starting
point on the airport
,acate manoeuvring
area in accordance with
local instructions
Steady green Cleared to land Cleared for takeoff
Cleared to
Series of green
&eturn to land 4cleared
to approach airport5
Cleared to ta!i
Permission to cross
landing area or to move
onto ta!iway
Steady red
9ive way to other
aircraft and continue
Stop Stop
Series of red
Airport unsafe, do not
'a!i clear of landing
area in use
7ove off the landing
area or ta!iway and
watch out for aircraft
Alternating red and
9eneral warning signal
>!ercise e!treme
9eneral warning
>!ercise e!treme
9eneral warning signal
>!ercise e!treme
%lashing runway or
ta!iway lights
(mmediately clear the
landing area in use
,acate the runway and
observe the tower for
light signal
%iring of a red
pyrotechnical light
Whether by day or night and not withstanding previous instructions, do
not land for the time being.
Dy day and by
night, a series of
discharged from
the ground at
intervals of *+
seconds, each
showing, on
bursting, red and
green lights or stars
(ndication to an unauthoriKed aircraft that it is flying in or about to enter a
restricted, prohibited or danger area, and that the aircraft is to take such
remedial action as may be necessary.
T Clearances to land and ta!i will be given in due course 4by steady green at proper time5.
+0.6 Visual Ground Si/nals and Aids
,isual ground signals are given in the table below<
Ta?le +0.. Visual /round si/nals and aids
Visual /round si/nals )eanin/
Prohibition of landing<
A horiKontal red s6uare panel with yellow diagonals when displayed in
a signal area indicates that landings are prohibited and that the
prohibition is liable to be prolonged.
1eed for special precautions while approaching or landing<
A horiKontal red s6uare panel with one yellow diagonal when
displayed in a signal area indicates that owing to the bad state of the
manoeuvring area, or for any other reason, special precautions must be
observed in approaching to land or in landing.
@se of runways and ta!iways<
A horiKontal white dumb$bell when displayed in a signal area indicates
that aircraft are re6uired to land, take off and ta!i on runways and
ta!iways only.
'he same horiKontal white dumb$bell but with a black bar placed
perpendicular to the shaft across each circular portion of the dumb$bell
when displayed in a signal area indicates that aircraft are re6uired to
land and take off on runways only, but other manoeuvres need not be
confined to runways and ta!iways.
Closed runways or ta!iways<
Crosses of a single contrasting colour, yellow or white, displayed
horiKontally on runways and ta!iways or parts thereof indicate an area
unfit for movement of aircraft.
Directions for landing or take$off<
A horiKontal white or orange landing ' indicates the direction to be
used by aircraft for landing and take$off, which shall be in a direction
parallel to the shaft of the ' towards the cross arm.
Note:- (hen used at night) the landing T is either illuminated or
outlined in white coloured lights
A set of two digits displayed vertically at or near the aerodrome
control tower indicates to aircraft on the manoeuvring area the
direction for take$off, e!pressed in units of *+ degrees to the nearest
*+ degrees of the magnetic compass.
&ight$hand traffic<
When displayed in a signal area, or horiKontally at the end of the
runway or strip in use, a right$hand arrow of conspicuous colour
indicates that turns are to be made to the right before landing and after
Air traffic services reporting office<
'he letter C displayed vertically in black against a yellow background
indicates the location of the air traffic services reporting office.
9lider flights in operation<
A double white cross displayed horiKontally in the signal area indicates
that the aerodrome is being used by gliders and that glider flights are
being performed.
+0.7 Runay and Ta,iay )arkin/s
&unway and ta!iway markings are briefly discussed in the following paragraphs<
+0.7.+ Runay )arkin/s
&unway markings are in hite colour. Where there are intersecting runways, the markings
of the more important runway will be continued. Different runway markings are given below<
4*5 Runay desi/nation -arkin/< (ndicates the identification of the runway. Always in two digits8
first two digits of /?+
is considered e.g. +-, *B, 0A, ++, +. etc. &eciprocal runway designation is
always *B+
opposite, e.g. +- reciprocal is 0A, +. reciprocal is 00, etc. 2esi/nation is alays +9;
opposite of actual runay orientation. %or e!ample, if runway orientation is >ast$West, east end
of the runway will be 0A and west end runway will be +-. 'his is because, for an aircraft
approaching the east end for landing, the magnetic compass will show 0A+
and for an aircraft
approaching the west end of the runway, magnetic compass will show +-+
. (n case of parallel
runways, designations will consist of a single letter indicating the position of the runway, Left or
Right8 e.g. +- and +-&.
Fi/. +0.+ Runay -arkin/s
405 Runay centre line -arkin/< ocated along the centre line of the runway between the runway
designations at either end of runway. Consists of uniformly spaced stripes and gaps.
4/5 Runay threshold -arkin/< Parallel stripes of /+ mtr length, symmetrically on either side of
the runway centre. 'hreshold markings start ? mtr from the runway threshold. (f the threshold has
been temporarily displaced, a transverse marking and arrows will be provided.
4.5 Ai-in/ point -arkin/< Consists of two parallel stripes near the threshold markings.
435 Touchdon Done -arkin/< Consists of pairs of rectangular markings, symmetrically on either
side of runway centre.
4?5 Runay side stripe -arkin/< Where there is a lack of contrast between the runway edges and
the shoulders or surrounding terrain, runway side stripe markings are provided. Consists or two
stripes placed at edge of the runways and along the length of the runway between the thresholds.
4A5 Runay turn pad -arkin/< Provided at a runway turn pad for continuous guidance to enable
an aircraft to complete a *B+$degree turn and align with the runway centre line.
+0.7.. Ta,iay )arkin/
'a!iway markings including runway turn pad markings are always in yellow.
Fi/. +0.. Ta,iay -arkin/s
4*5 Ta,iay centre line -arkin/B Provided on a paved runway when the runway is part of a
standard ta!i route and<
4a5 there is no runway centre line marking8 or
4b5 where the ta!iway centre line is not coincident with the runway centre line.
(t provides continuous guidance from runway centre line to aircraft stands.
405 Runay holdin/ position -arkin/< Provided where ta!iways and runways intersect. Aircraft
is supposed to stop at this marking till cleared to proceed. 'here are two patterns< Pattern A # .
lines 4two are dashed5 and / spaces in between and Pattern D # 0 lines and * space in between.
4/5 'nter-ediate holdin/ position -arkin/< Provided where two ta!iways intersect. (t is a single
broken line. Aircraft are re6uired to stop ta!iing at this line till cleared to ta!i further.
+0.7.0 'nfor-ation Si/n
(nformation signs are provided where there is an operational need to identify by a sign, a
specific location, or routing 4direction or destination5 information. (nformation signs include
direction signs, location signs, destination signs, runway e!it signs, runway vacated signs and
intersection take$off signs.
+0.7.5 'nfor-ation )arkin/
Provided to supplement an information sign or when it is impracticable to install an
information sign, the information marking will be displayed on the surface of the pavement.
+0.8 Runay and Ta,iay Li/htin/
&unway and ta!iway lightings are briefly discussed in the paragraphs<
+0.8.+ Runay Li/htin/
4*5 Runay threshold identification li/hts< Flashin/ hite li/hts with flashing fre6uency
between ?+ to *0+ per minute. Provided to indicate the threshold on a non$precision approach
runway and where the threshold has been permanently or temporarily displaced. ocated
symmetrically on either side of the runway centre line, in line with the threshold and *+ m outside
each line of runway edge lights.
405 Runay ed/e li/hts< Provided along the full length of the runway parallel to the runway centre
line, one parallel row on each side. &unway lights are fi!ed white lights. ights of the last ?++ m or
one third of the end of runway may be yellow2amber. (f the threshold is displaced, along the
distance between the end of runway at approach end and the displaced threshold, will be of red
4/5 Runay threshold li/hts< Green in colour, installed along the runway threshold, in a row that
is perpendicular to the runway a!is.
4.5 Runay end li/hts< (nstalled on a line at right angles to the a!is of the runway and as near as
possible to the end of the runway, not more than / m outside the end. Colour of the runway end
lights is red.
435 Runay centre line li/hts< (nstalled on a precision approach runway Cat (( or (((. (nstalled
along the centre line of the runway. Colour of the runway centre line lights should be<
4a5 %rom threshold to a point -++ m from the end of runway # 1aria?le hite
4b5 %rom -++ m to /++ m from the end of runway # alternate 1aria?le hite and red
4c5 %rom /++ m from the end of runway to the end of runway # red
+0.8.. Ta,iay li/tin/
4*5 Ta,iay centre line li/hts< (nstalled along the centre line of ta!iway, visible only to the aircraft
in the vicinity. Colour is fi!ed /reen. 'a!iway centre line lights on e!it ta!iways will be fi!ed
alternate green and yellow lights.
405 Ta,iay ed/e li/hts< (nstalled when the ta!iway centre line lights are not provided. Colour is
4/5 Stop ?ars< ocated across the ta!iway at the runway holding point 4where it is desired that
traffic should stop5. Consist of lights spaced at intervals of / m across the ta!iway, showing red in
the intended direction4s5 of approach to the intersection or runway$holding position. Purpose of
these light is to prevent runway incursions.
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A%T!R +5
+5.+ 'ntroduction
(n this chapter, aeronautical chart reading will be discussed. ;nowledge of symbols used in
the aeronautical charts is necessary for following A'S routes. Also, necessary E codes and 7orse
codes are given in this chapter.
+5.. Aeronautical #harts
Airports Authority of (ndia 4AA(5 provides different series of aeronautical charts. 4A(P 9>1
/.05. Different series of aeronautical charts are given below<
4i5 Aerodrome Chart
4ii5 Aircraft Parking2Docking chart
4iii5 Aerodrome )bstacle chart 'ype A
4iv5 Aerodrome )bstacle chart 'ype D
4v5 Precision Approach 'errain Chart 4Precision Approach Cat (( &unway5
4vi5 >n$route Chart
4vii5 Standard Departure Chart$(nstrument 4S(D5
4viii5 Standard Arrival Chart$(nstrument 4S'A&5
4i!5 (nstrument Approach Chart 4%or each runway and procedure type5
4!5 Area2'7A Chart 4Arrival and 'ransit routes5
+5...+ Aeronautical #hart Sy-?ols
>n$route chart of (ndia consists of all the %(&, AD(Q, '7A coverage areas, aerodromes,
radio navigation aids and A'S routes along with details associated with the routes. Symbols used in
an en$route chart are discussed below.
Ta?le +5.+ Aeronautical chart sy-?ols and their -eanin/s
S3)B"L )!A$'$G

Air Defence (dentification Qone 4AD(Q5
%(& Doundary
%(& # 'ype of area2airspace
C">11A( # 1ame of %(&
@1 # @pper limit
91D2S>A >,> # ower limit
%(C C">11A( # @nit providing service
'erminal Control Area 4'7A5 Doundary
'7A # 'ype of area2airspace
7@7DA( # 1ame of '7A
% .?+ # @pper limit
% *3+ # ower limit
7@7DA( ACC # @nit providing approach control service
Control Area 4C'A5 Doundary
C'A # 'ype of area2airspace
A@&A19ADAD # 1ame of C'A
% *3+ # @pper limit
%3+ # ower limit
A@&A19ADAD APP # @nit providing approach control service
Control Qone 4C'&5 Doundary
C'& # 'ype of area2airspace
7A19A)&> # 1ame of C'&
% 3+ # @pper limit
7A19A)&> 'W& # @nit providing approach control service
&adio 1avigation Aid 41A,A(D5
D>A&P # 1ame of the 1avaid
,)&2D7> **0.B # 'ype of 1avaid and fre6uency
DD( $U $U .. # (dentification code and 7orse code e6uivalent
*BF.B.BM1, A?
.BF**.+M> # 9eographical co$ordinates of 1avaid in
*?++F # >levation of the D7> site 4to the nearest *++F5
&estricted Airspace
,(D 0?B # (dentification of Area.
, # (ndia 41ationality letter5
( # Delhi %(& 4) # Chennai %(&, > # ;olkata %(&, A # 7umbai %(&5
D # Danger, 4P # Prohibited, & # &estricted5
/++++F291D # ,ertical limits
A'S route for traffic in both directions
PA?0 # A'S &oute designator
, 03.
# 7agnetic tracks in both directions
-/ # Distance 4in 175 to ne!t significant point
%.?+2%0?+ # @pper and lower 4vertical5 limits
/+++F # 7inimum cruising level
A'S route for one direction only. (n the figure given, the A'S route is
for north bound 4W.015 traffic only. 4W.0S # south bound, > # east
bound, W # west bound5.
Advisory route 4AD&5
Compulsory lat$long reporting point 4&>P5
)n re6uest lat$long reporting point 4&>P5
Compulsory A'S27eteorological reporting point 47&P5
)n re6uest A'S27eteorological reporting point 47&P5
,"% )71( &A19> 4,)&5 1avaid
Compass pointer aligned towards north
1on Directional Deacon 41DD5
Distance 7easuring >6uipment 4D7>5
Co$located ,)& and D7> 1avaid 4,)&2D7>5
(sogonic line or (sogonal
Area 7inimum Altitude 4A7A5
>ach *
6uadrilateral contains an A7A which represents the lowest
altitude which may be used in (nstrument 7eteorological Conditions
4(7C5. 'he A7A provides a minimum of *+++ ft clearance above all
obstacles in that 6uadrilateral. (t is indicated in thousands and
hundreds of feet above 7S.
0- # 0-+++, 0 # 0++. 'he figure represents 0-,0++ ft.
An e!ample of A'S routes is given below. (n the given map, routes shown are Delhi #
Srinagar # Delhi. 'he routes pass over significant points. %rom Delhi, the routes are single direction
up to ASA&( and then in both directions from ASA&( to Srinagar. &oute segments can be common
for different A'S routes. %or e!ample, Delhi # D@')P segment is common for A3B-, W/+W and
W/*W. Similarly, >;@G # (9(1) # Delhi segments are common for A.??, W/+> and W/+W.
ATS route A0+ 2elhi>B4T"%>ASAR'>%athankot>)!SAR>Srina/arB
%(& is Delhi. All traffic from Delhi towards Srinagar have to follow the west bound A'S
route W/*W till D@')P, maintaining a heading of 0-A
. %irst /+ 17 from Delhi and up to %3+,
the traffic is controlled by Delhi 'ower2Approach. 'raffic on W/+W is assigned even flight levels
and the ma!imum is %.?+. At D@')P, traffic have to turn right and maintain a heading /30
ASA&(. Delhi ACC area is till ASA&(. %rom ASA&(, the route is W/+ which is flown by traffic in
both directions. At ASA&(, the traffic have to maintain a heading of +*3
to fly towards Pathankot
1DD. &oute circumvents D);AD to Pathankot airfield which is controlled by the (A%. Aircraft
flying between D@')P and Pathankot have to take traffic information from "alwara 'ower on
*00.A 7"K. %rom Pathankot, traffic have to maintain a heading of /..
to 7>SA& and then /0+
Srinagar. %rom D);AD, area of @dhampur Sub ACC begins northwards as outlined in the map.
'raffic from Srinagar to ASA&( follow the same route but are assigned odd flight levels.
%rom ASA&(, aircraft have to fly to >;@G 4*?0
heading5, (9(1) 4*/0
5 and then to Delhi
5. Aircraft between >;@G and Pathankot take traffic information from "alwara 'ower.
&oute designator, heading 4magnetic track5, distance to ne!t significant point 4in 175,
vertical limits and minimum safe altitudes are given along with the segment :oining line.
V'2% & V'SR & V'2%
ATS R"4T!S A0+ (!AST B"4$2) A$2 A0+ (A!ST B"4$2)
Fi/ +5.+ Aeronautical chart sa-ple
+5.0 E #odes
'he E codes were originally instituted at the &adiotelegraph Convention held in ondon,
*-*0. Series of E codes are utilised for different services.
EAA # E1Q series are used for the aeronautical service.
E)A # EEQ series are reserved fro maritime services.
E&A # E@Q series are for use by all services.
EQA # EQQ series are for other usage.
7eaning of E codes becomes complete when appropriate location indicators, approved
abbreviations, signals, call signs, figures or numbers are added to the codes. (mportant E codes with
their usages as 6uestions and answers are given below.
Ta?le +5.. E #odes and their -eanin/s
E #ode Euestion Anser or Ad1ice
7ay ( have clearance 4for...5 from...4place
and2or control5 to...4place and2or control5
at...4figures and units5 height above...
Pou are cleared cleared5 by...
from...4place and2or control5 to... 4place
and2or control5 at...4figures and units5
height above...4datum5.
Will you advice me when you are 4were5 at
( am 4was5 at 4over5...4place5 4at...hours5
4at...4figures and units55 height above...
EA( What is the essential trafficV 'he essential traffic is...
What is the latest available meteorological
observation for...4place5V
7eteorological observation made at...
4place5 at...hours was as follows...
What is the surface wind direction and
speed at... 4place5V
'he surface wind direction and speed
at...4place5 at...hours is 4direction5...4speed
figures and units5.
1ote< @nless otherwise indicated in the
6uestion, answer 4or advise5 surface wind
direction is given in degrees relative to
7A91>'(C 1orth.
&eport meteorological conditions as
observed from your aircraft at...4position or
Kone5 at...hours at...4figures and units5
height above...4datum5.
'he meteorological conditions as observed
from my aircraft at... 4position or Kone5
at...hours at...4figures and units5 height
above...4datum5 are...
"ow much fuel have you remaining
4e!pressed as hours and2or minutes of
consumption5V 4>1D@&A1C>5
%uel remaining is...4hours and2or minutes
of consumption5.
EC> When may ( e!pect approach clearanceV
>!pect approach clearance at...hours.
1o delay e!pected.
EC" 7ay ( ta!i to...4place5V
Cleared to ta!i to...4place5. 4the place is
given in plain language5.
EC( 7ake a /?+$degree turn immediately
4turning to the...5. 4)&D('5
( am making a /?+$degree turn
immediately 4turning to the...5.
ECG What is your full call signV
7y full call sign is...
@se your full call sign until further notice.
7ay ( make a *B+$degree turn and return
down the runwayV 4DAC;'&AC;5
Pou may make a *B+$degree turn and
return down the runway.
7ay ( assume position for take$offV
"ave you assumed position for take$offV
4(1> @P5
Cleared to hold at take$off position for
runway number...
( am assuming take$off position for
runway number...and am holding.
4At...4place55 what is the present
atmospheric pressure at official aerodrome
At...4place5 the atmospheric pressure at
official aerodrome elevation is 4or was
observed at...hours to be5 ...millibars.
E"" Are you making an emergency landingV
( am making an emergency landing.
>mergency landing being made At...
4place5. All aircraft below...4figures and
units5 height above...4datum5 and within a
distance of...4figures and units5 leave...
4place or headings5
7ay ( establish communication with
station on...k"K. 4or...7"K.5 now 4or
at...hours5V 4C)1'AC'5
>stablish communication
station on...k"K. 4or...7"K.5 now 4or
( will establish communication with station on...k"K 4or..7"K5 now 4or
What should ( set on the sub$scale of my
altimeter so that the instrument would
indicate my elevation if ( were on the
ground at your stationV
(f you set the sub$scale of your altimeter to
read...millibars 4or hundredths of an
inchN5, the instrument would indicate your
elevation if you were on the ground at my
station at...hours.
1ote< When the setting is given in
hundredths of an inch the abbreviation
X(1SX is used to identify the units.
What is the intelligibility of my signals 4or
those of...5V 4&AD() C">C;5
'he intelligibility of your signals 4or those
of...5 is...
*5 bad.
05 poor.
/5 fair.
.5 good.
35 e!cellent.
Are you being interfered withV 4&AD()
( am being interfered with
*5 nil
05 slightly
/5 moderately
.5 severely
35 e!tremely.
E&G When will you call me againV
( will call you again at...hours 4on...k"K
4or 7"K5. 4'(7> )% 1>G' C)1'AC'5
E&Q Who is calling meV
Pou are being called by...4on... k"K 4or
What is the strength of my signals 4or those
of...5V 4S(91A S'&>19'"5
'he strength of your signals 4or those of...5
*5 scarcely perceptible.
05 weak.
/5 fairly good.
.5 good.
35 very good.
Shall ( send each word or group more than
onceV 4W)&DS 'W(C>5
Send each word or group twice4or...times5.
What is your position in latitude and
longitude 4or... according to any other
7y position is...latitude longitude 4or
according to any other indication5.
E'( What is your '&@> trackV 7y '&@> track is...degrees.
What is your speedV
4&e6uests the speed of a ship or aircraft
through aircraft through the water or air
7y speed is...knots 4or... kilometers
or...statute miles per hour5. 4(ndicates the
speed of a ship or the water or air
E' What is your '&@> headingV 7y '&@> heading is...degrees.
E'7 What is your 7A91>'(C headingV 7y 7A91>'(C heading is...degrees.
Can you give me in the following order
information concerning< the direction.... in
degrees '&@> and speed of the surface
wind8 visibility8 present weather8 and
amount, type and height of base of cloud
above surface elevation at...4place of
"ere is the information re6uested 4'he
units used for speed and distances should
be indicated.5
"ave you received the urgency signal sent
by... 4call sign of mobile station5V
( have received the urgency signal sent
by...4call sign of mobile station5 at...hours.
"ave you received the distress signal sent
by... 4call sign of mobile station5V
( have received the distress signal sent
by...4call sign of mobile station5 at...hours.
What is the present atmospheric pressure at
the present water levelV
'he present atmospheric pressure at the
present water level at... 4place or position5
at...hours is...4figures and units5.
E@( Are your navigation lights workingV 7y navigation lights are working.
+5.5 )orse #ode
7orse code consists of two characters< a dot 4pronounced as Dit5 and a dash 4pronounced as
Dah5. 'hese two characters are used in various different combinations to indicate all the alphabets,
+$- numbers and special characters. Duration of a dah is three times that of a dit.
7orse code is transmitted in radiotelephony by either keying on$off the carrier wave or by
modulating the carrier wave by an audio tone 4usually of *+0+ "K5. 1avigation aids such as 1DD
and ,)& stations transmit their identification, a combination of letters in 7orse code. 7orse code
for the alphabets and numbers are given below.
A . & 4Dit Dah5 + . > > > > 4Dit Dah Dah Dah Dah5
B > . . . 4Dah Dit Dit Dit5 . . . > > > 4Dit Dit Dah Dah Dah5
# > . > . 4Dah Dit Dah Dit5 0 . . . > > 4Dit Dit Dit Dah Dah5
2 > . . 4Dah Dit Dit5 5 . . . . > 4Dit Dit Dit Dit Dah5
! . 4Dit5 6 . . . . . 4Dit Dit Dit Dit Dit5
F . . > . 4Dit Dit Dah Dit5 7 > . . . . 4Dah Dit Dit Dit Dit5
G > > . 4Dah Dah Dit5 8 > > . . . 4Dah Dah Dit Dit Dit5
* . . . . 4Dit Dit Dit Dit5 9 > > > . . 4Dah Dah Dah Dit Dit5
' . . 4Dit Dit5 : > > > > . 4Dah Dah Dah Dah Dit5
I . > > > 4Dit Dah Dah Dah5 ; > > > > > 4Dah Dah Dah Dah Dah5
K > . & 4Dah Dit Dah5
L . > .. 4Dit Dah Dit Dit5
) > > 4Dah Dah5
$ > . 4Dah Dit5
" > > > 4Dah Dah Dah5
% . > . . 4Dit Dah Dit Dit5
E > > . & 4Dah Dah Dit Dah5
R . > . 4Dit Dah Dit5
S . . . 4Dit Dit Dit5
T > 4Dah5
4 . . & 4Dit Dit Dah5
V . . . & 4Dit Dit Dit Dah5
A > . & 4Dah Dit Dah5
( > . . & 4Dah Dit Dit Dah5
3 > . > > 4Dah Dit Dah Dah5
F > > . . 4Dah Dah Dit Dit5
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
%ART '''
RA2'" %R'$#'%L!S A$2 %RA#T'#!
#*A%T!R +
!L!#TR'#'T3 A$2 )AG$!T'S)
+.+ !lectricity
All matter is made up of molecules, which in turn, are made up of atoms. Atoms can be
broken down into three types of particles namely, electrons, protons and neutrons. Protons and
neutrons are at the centre of the atom and form the part called nucleus, with the electrons revolving
around the nucleus. Protons and neutrons are tightly bound together and the electrons revolve
around the nucleus in different orbits at different distances from the nucleus. 'he analogy is that of
the planets revolving around a star. >lectrons can be dislodged from an atom, by application of
energy, much easier than the protons and neutrons. >lectrons in the outer orbits are easy to dislodge
than the electrons in the orbits nearer to the nucleus.
>lectrons and protons e!hibit a basic property called electric charge. >lectrons are
ne/ati1ely charged and protons are positi1ely charged. 1eutrons do not posses any charge i.e. they
are electrically neutral. 'he electric charge of an electron can be imagined as lines of force pointing
towards the electron8 similarly, the electric charge of a proton can be imagined as lines of force
pointing outwards from the proton. 'hough electrons and protons differ in mass, the charges
possessed by an electron and a proton are eCual and opposite. An electron is indicated by a JminusF
4$5 sign and the proton is indicated by a JplusF 4O5 sign.
When two electrons are brought close to each other, they tend to push each other away and
same is the case with protons. Dut when an electron and a proton are brought close, they tend to
attract each other. 'his gives the universal law Llike char/es repelU and Lunlike char/es attract
each other.M
Fi/. +.+ To protons repellin/ and an electron and a proton attractin/ each other.
(n some materials, the electrons on the outermost orbit move from one atom to another by
even a slight application of energy such as room temperature heat energy. Such electrons move
chaotically in the spaces between the atoms, these electrons are called free electrons. 1umber of
free electrons depends upon the material. 'he relative mobility of free electrons within the material
is called conducti1ity. 7aterials, like the metals, which have a large number of free electrons, are
called conductors. 7aterials which do not have many free electrons even when a large energy is
applied are called insulators. >!amples of insulators are wood, glass, wool, paper, pure water.
'here is one more class of materials which e!hibits conductivity property in between that of a
conductor and an insulator. 'hese are called se-i conductors. Semi conductors are used to
manufacture the electronic components that go into an electric circuit board.
#har/e is an amount of electrons. @nit of charge is #oulo-? 4denoted by E5 which is
e6ual to ? G *+
When there are more electrons on one side than the other in a material, there e!ists a
potential difference. >lectrons tend to move from an area of higher potential 4higher concentration5
to an area of lower potential 4lower concentration5. 'his is similar to the flow of water. 'his flow of
electrons is called current. Current is the rate of flow of charge, i.e. the number of coulombs
flowing, per second. @nit of current is A-pere 4amp in short5 and is denoted by A. )ne amp is
e6ual to one coulomb per second. !lectricity is the flow of current from one place to another.
Potential difference 4p.d.5 is also called 1olta/e. @nit of p.d. is 1olt 4denoted by V5. )ne
volt is the work done to move unit charge through a unit distance. When talking about power
sources, like a battery cell, volt is the potential energy available 4work to be done5 per unit charge,
to move electrons through a conductor.
'here are two types of currents namely, direct current 42#5 and alternatin/ current
4A#5. DC flows in only one direction in a circuit8 in other words, DC has fi!ed polarity. A battery
or an electric cell is a source of DC. All devices using a battery work on DC. When a circuit is
connected to a source of DC, electrons flow from the negative terminal of the battery, through the
circuit, into the positive terminal. Datteries and cells come in various voltage ratings e.g. *.3,, -,,
*0, DC. Datteries used on aircraft are usually 0., DC.
An AC reverses its direction of flow cyclically. 'here are no negative and positive terminals
to an AC power source because, for half a cycle, a terminal becomes negative and during the other
half, it becomes positive. 'herefore, in a circuit which is connected to an AC source, current flow
reverses its direction every half cycle. A complete cycle is /?+
, so AC reverses polarity each *B+
i.e. it interpolates between positive and negative values every *B+
. 1umber of cycles per second is
called freCuency. @nit of fre6uency is *ertD 4denoted by *D). 3+"K means the current does 3+
cycles per second. Domestic electric supply at homes is AC. AC voltage supplied to homes in (ndia
is 0/+,, 3+ "K, * phase. (n some countries like @.S. and Capan, the domestic supply is **+,, 3+ "K
4or up to ?+ "K5. AC is obtained from AC generators, also called alternators.
Ahat is the ad1anta/e of A# o1er 2#R When an electric current flows through a
conductor, heat is developed. 7agnitude of DC is constant8 it produces more heat than the AC. 'his
means more energy is lost in the form heat. When electricity is transferred over very long distances,
large amount of power will be wasted if DC is used, which can be reduced by using AC.
ResistanceB Why is heat produced when current flows through a conductorV Decause every
material has a basic property called resistance, denoted by R. &esistance can be defined as the
opposition offered to the flow of current. Conductors have less resistance and insulators have high
resistance. Conductors made of different materials have different resistance. 'his opposition
converts the electric energy into heat energy which is dissipated into the surrounding atmosphere.
&esitance of a wire is directly proportional to the len/th and indirectly proportional to the area
of cross section of the wire. onger the wire, higher the resistance and thicker the wire, lower the
resistance. &esistance of a material also depends on the temperature 4resistance increases with
increase in temperature # for most of the materials5 and specific resistance of the material.
&esistance is measured in "h-s denoted by the symbol Y. )ne ohm is defined as the
amount of resistance offered to the flow of one amp of current when there is a constant p.d. of one
volt between two points of a conductor. &esistances are widely used in circuits to drop voltages.
Physical resistances 4or resistors5 are components manufactured to have defined amount of
"h-Ls la states that Lthe current between two points of a conductor is directly
proportional to the p.d. between those two pointsM. Dy introducing the constant factor &, the
formula of relationship between volt, current and resistance is<
, T ( ! & or ( T ,2& or & T ,2(
With this formula, we can calculate one of the components if the other two are known. %or
e!ample, if a load resistance of 0 ohms is connected across a battery of 0., electromotive force
4emf5, what is the magnitude of current flowing in the circuitV
, T 0. ,, & T 0 Y, ( T V
,2& T (
0.,20 Y T *0A. Answer is *0 amps of current will flow in the circuit.
Resistance in series< When more than one resistance are connected one after the other in a
circuit, the total resistance is e6ual to the sum total of individual resistances. 'he following figure
illustrates the idea<
Fi/. +.. Resistances in series connected across a 1olta/e source.
(n the above figure three resistors &
, &
and &
are connected in series across a voltage
source ,. 'he dotted arrows indicate the flow of electron current in the circuit. (f each resistor is
e6ual to 0 ohms the total resistance will be ? ohms 4since & T &
5. (f , is *0,, then ( would
be 0A. 1ote that the magnitude of current is the same through all the resistors.
Resistance in parallel< &esistances can be connected in another method that is called
parallel. When resistors are connected in this fashion, the total resistance becomes e6ual to the sum
total of the reciprocals of individual resistors. (n other words, the total resistance will be lesser than
the s-allest resistorLs resistance. %igure *./ illustrates the idea.
Fi/. +.0 Resistances in parallel across a 1olta/e source
(n the above figure, three resistors are connected in parallel. (f each resistor is / ohms,
then the total resistance of the combination will be * ohm 4since *2& T *2&
O *2&
O *2&
5. (n this
circuit, the current splits and flows through the resistors. 'he magnitude of current through each
resistor depends upon the value of each branch resistance.
&esistors can be fi,ed or 1aria?le. %i!ed resistors are of various construction such as
wire$wound and carbon resistors. ,alue of fi!ed resistors is indicated by colour codes on the
surface of the resistors. A variable resistor is indicated as &
in figure *./. >!ample of variable
resistor is the 1olu-e control of a radio. &esistors can be ire>ound and car?on resistors
%oer and ener/y< >lectrical work has to be done to move the electrons across a
conductor against the opposition offered due to resistance. Amount of work done is given by the
product of >7% 4in volts5 and the current 4in amps5. @nit of electrical power is Aatt denoted by A.
P T >(
Where P T power 4in Watts5, > T >7% 4in ,olts5 and ( T current 4in Amps5.
So, *, of emf causing *A of current to flow through * Y produces *W of power.
'he above formula can also be e!pressed in terms of ,, ( and &.
P T ,
2& 4because ( T ,2&5 and
P T (
& 4because , T (&5
Since Watt is too small a unit for measurements of electricity consumed at homes, a
bigger unit, a kilo Watt is used. (f one kW power is consumed for * hour, it is said that * unit 4kWh5
has been consumed. >lectric consumption meters at houses measure and indicate the usage in units,
i.e. kWh.
Example< An electric bulb connected across a battery of *0, draws a current of 0A.
4a5 What is the resistance of the bulbV
Answer< , T (&, & T ,2(. 'herefore *0,20A T ? Y
4b5 What is the power consumed in the circuitV
Answer< P T ,(. 'herefore *0, G 0A T 0.W
>lectric bulbs fitted in houses are graded as per power rating. 1ormal ratings are .+W,
?+W, *++W. %luorescent lamps 4tube lights5 are usually of .+W or ?+W ratings. Compact
%luorescent amps 4C%5, which are fast replacing the bulbs and tube lights are rated at 3W, BW,
**W, etc. A television can be of B+W to *++W rating. An electric ceiling fan may be of ?+W or
Example< A house is fitted with . lamps of ?+W each and two fans of B+W ratings. (f the lamps are
lit for . hours and the fans are used for ? hours daily,
4a5 What is the power consumed in a month of /+ daysV
Answer< [4?+W G . G . G /+5 O 4B+W G 0 G ? G /+5H2*+++
T [0BB++ O 0BB++H2*+++
T 3A?++2*+++
T 3A.? @nits 4kWh5
4b5 (f cost of one unit is &s.0.3+2$, what is the monthly electricity chargeV
Answer< 3A.? G 0.3+ T &s. *..2$
#ells and Batteries< Cells are sources of DC. Cells convert chemical energy into
electrical energy. Cells have positive and negative terminals. When a load is connected across these
terminals, chemical reaction takes place inside the cell and electricity is produced.
%ri-ary and Secondary cells< 'here are two types of cells viK. pri-ary cell and
secondary cell. Primary cells can be used only once because the chemical reaction that goes on
inside the cell is irreversible. When the cell is fully discharged, the chemicals inside the cell are
spent. Primary cell voltage is *.3 ,.
Secondary cells are reusable. Secondary cells, once discharged, can be charged again. 'he
charging process reverts the chemicals to their original form. ead$acid, 1ickel$Cadmium and
ithium$ion cells are e!amples of secondary cells. Secondary cell voltage is 0 ,.
#ells in series or parallel< Cells can be connected in series or parallel configuration. (n
series, Ove terminal of one cell is connected to #ve terminal of the second cell and so on. When
cells are connected in series, the total voltage is e6ual to the sum of individual cell voltages and the
current provided by such a combination will be e6ual to the current rating of one cell. %or e!ample,
if three cells of *.3 , 3++ mA are connected in series, the combination can provide ..3 , 3++mA.
When cells are connected in parallel, the voltage of the configuration will be e6ual to the
voltage of one cell, but the current rating will be that of sum of all individual cell ratings. %or
e!ample, if three cells of *.3 , 3++ mA are connected in parallel, the combination can provide *.3,
*.3 A 43++mA G / T *3++mA T *.3A5.
Datteries are a number of cells connected together. Datteries give much higher voltage
and current than individual cells. Datteries are usually manufactured in ?,, *0, or 0., ratings.
A-pere *our 4A*5 is another term used with cells and batteries. (t is also called the
rating of the cell2battery. A" means the current$hour rating of a battery. *0 , *3 A" means the
battery provides *0 volts emf and can provide *3 amps of current for * hour before getting
discharged. 'his also means the battery can provide A.3 amps for 0 hours, /.A3 amps for . hours and
so on.
Fi/. +.5 #ells connected in series and parallel across 1olt-eter
#apacitance< When two conductors 4usually metal plates5 are placed ad:acent to each other,
separated by an insulating medium 4such as air, paper, mica5, and a DC source is applied to the
plates, both the plates get charged to the polarity they are connected to. >ven after the DC source is
removed, the plates retain this electric charge. 'his property is called capacitance, denoted by #.
@nit of capacitance is Farad. A farad is the char/e in coulo-?s hich a capacitor ill accept
for the potential across it to chan/e + 1olt. 'he plates can be neutralised by connecting a wire to
the two plates and the electrons from the negatively charged plate will flow into the positively
charged plate until the electron distribution is uniform in both the plates. Such an arrangement of
plates and the insulating medium is called a capacitor and the insulating medium is called
dielectric. 'his way, a capacitor stores electric energy in a circuit. Capacitance of a capacitor is
directly proportional to the area of the plates and indirectly proportional to the distance
?eteen the-. arger the area of the plates, higher the capacitance and the larger the distance
between the plates, lesser the capacitance. Capacitance also depends upon the material used as
dielectric medium.
Different types of capacitors are paper capacitors, -ica capacitors and air capacitors.
'hese capacitors do not have any polarity. !lectrolyte capacitors can be designed for large values
and these have polarity of plates.
#apacitors in series and parallel< When two or more capacitors are connected in series,
reciprocal of the total capacitance is e6ual to the sum of the reciprocals of the individual
capacitances. 'his means, the total capacitance of the combination will be lesser than the smallest
capacitor in the circuit. 'his is similar to resistances connected in parallel.
When capacitors are connected in parallel, the total capacitance of the combination will be
e6ual to the sum total of individual capacitances. 'his is similar to the resistances connected in
series. (n the figure *.3, C
capacitors are variable.
Fi/. +.6 #apacitors connected in series across a 2# source and parallel ith an A# source
#apaciti1e reactance< (f an AC is applied across the capacitor, due to the changing polarity
of the applied voltage, the energy is transferred from one plate to the other. "igher the fre6uency of
the AC, higher will be the amount of energy passed through the capacitor, whereas, DC is
completely blocked by a capacitor. 'he opposition offered by a capacitor to flow of current, by
virtue of its capacitance, is called capaciti1e reactance denoted by (
. A capacitor e!hibits high
reactance 4opposition5 to low fre6uencies 4remember, DC is Kero fre6uency5 and low reactance to
higher fre6uencies. 'his property of reactance is very useful in constructing filters and oscillators in
radio circuits. @nit of capacitive reactance is )hm.
+.. )a/netis-
7agnetism is the property e!hibited by some materials by virtue of which, they attract or
repel certain other materials. 'hough the e!act reason for such a property is not known, one
e!planation offered is the alignment of domains within the material which gives the material
magnetic property.
7agnets have two poles namely, north and south poles. When a bar shaped magnet is freely
suspended, it aligns itself along the north$south direction. 'his is because the earth itself behaves
like a magnet.
When two magnets are brought nearer, it can be observed that Qlike poles repel and unlike
poles attract each otherU. A magnet is surrounded by lines of force, which originate in the 1orth
pole and terminate at the South pole. Stronger the magnet, higher will be the number of lines of
force. 1umber of lines of force per unit area is known as -a/netic flu,.
Certain materials can be magnetised by applying magnetising force. 'he force can be
another magnet or electric current. 7aterials which retain the magnetic property even after the
magnetising force is removed are called per-anent -a/nets. 7aterials which lose the magnetism
once the magnetising force is removed are called para-a/netic materials. Ferro-a/netic
substances are used to make permanent magnets. !lectro-a/nets are magnetic materials wound
inside coils of wire8 when an electric current is passed through the coil, it induces a magnetic field
into the magnetic material and once the current is stopped, the magnetic field reduces to Kero.
7agnets are used in electronics to make electric meters, relays, headphones, speakers etc.
7agnetic property is used in inductances to store energy.
'nductance< When an electric current is passed through a conductor, a magnetic field is
created around the conductor. (f the electric current is fluctuating, the magnetic field around the
conductor also changes. A changing magnetic field around a conductor induces a voltage 4>7%5 in
the conductor as a result of changing magnetic flu!. 'his property is known as inductance, denoted
by L. @nit of inductance is *enry. "ne *enry is the inductance reCuired to /enerate one 1olt of
induced 1olta/e hen the current is chan/in/ at a rate of one a-pere per second. (nductors
4or inductances5 used in electronic circuits are usually in the form of wound coils with or without a
core. (nductors can store energy in the electromagnetic form.
'nductances in series and parallel< When inductors are connected in series, the total
inductance is e6ual to the sum total of individual inductances. 'his is similar to resistances
connected in series. When inductors are connected in parallel, the reciprocal of the total inductance
will be e6ual to the sum of the reciprocals of individual inductorFs inductance. (n other words, the
total inductance of a parallel combination will be lesser than the smallest value of the inductance in
the combination. 'his is similar to resistances connected in parallel. (n figure *.?, inductor
'nducti1e reactance< ike the capacitive reactance, an inductor, by virtue of its inductance,
offers reactance 4opposition5 to flow of current through its coils. Dut the difference is, the reactance
offered by an inductor to DC is nil and the reactance increases as the fre6uency of the input
increases. "igher the fre6uency of the AC applied, higher the inductive reactance. (nductive
reactance is denoted by (
and the unit of inductive reactance is )hm. 'his property of inductive
reactance is used to construct filters and oscillators in radio circuits.
Fi/. +.7 'nductances connected in series across a 2# source and parallel ith an A# source
+.0 "h-Ls la for A# circuits
(n an AC circuit, there are three oppositions offered to the flow of current namely, the
resistance &, inductive reactance G

and the capacitive reactance G

of the components. "owever,
these three cannot be summed arithmetically to calculate the total opposition because the & does not
have any direction8 G

and G
are opposite to each other in their reactance.
'he total opposition offered by the &, G

and G
is called the i-pedance which is denoted
by F. @nit of impedance is ohm.
+.5 Resonant freCuency
&esonant fre6uency is a very important term used in radio theory. Construction of many
radio circuits such as filters, oscillators and even antenna depend upon the resonant fre6uency.
Ahat is resonant freCuencyR We have learned that both capacitors and inductors offer
varying degrees of reactance 4opposition5 to flow of current through them.
Capacitors totally block DC and offer lesser and lesser reactance to increasing AC
fre6uencies. Putting this in a formula will be (
V +=.Wf# 40\ is a constant5
(nductors offer Kero reactance to DC and offer higher and higher reactance to increasing AC
fre6uencies. Putting this in a formula will be (
V .WfL 40\ is a constant5
When an inductor and capacitor are connected in a circuit 4series or parallel, depending
upon the circuit re6uirements5, both will offer reactance to the input signal depending upon the
values of C, and f 4f T signal fre6uency5. (f C and are kept constant and f is varied, there must
be one particular fre6uency for which G

. Since G

and G
are opposite to each other, they
cancel each other totally at this particular fre6uency. 'his fre6uency is called the resonant
freCuency. Putting the resonant fre6uency in a formula<

where fr is the resonant fre6uency.

Dy using different re6uired values of and C, different values of resonant fre6uencies can
be obtained in a circuit. Dy using variable inductors and capacitors, the resonant fre6uency can be
varied when the circuit is functional. 'his is what happens when we change the radio station in a
commercial radio or change the fre6uency in an aircraft radio receiver< the resonant fre6uency
changes and the receiver gets tuned to receive the new fre6uency.
+.6 Transfor-ers
'ransformer is a device which is used to increase or decrease the voltage in AC circuits. A
normal transformer has two coils of wire wound over a core. 'he coil to which the input voltage is
fed is called the pri-ary winding and the coil from which the output voltage is taken is called the
secondary winding. 'ransformer works on the principal of mutual induction8 the fluctuating current
4AC5 flowing in the primary coil creates a changing magnetic field around it. 'his changing
magnetic field induces a voltage in the secondary coil. 'his induced voltage can be tapped and used
as a voltage source. 'he core inside the coils acts as a medium for concentrating the magnetic
energy through the coils so that ma!imum energy is transferred from primary winding to secondary.
Fi/. +.8 Transfor-er
Dy having different number of windings 4turns5 in the primary and secondary coils, the
output voltage can be increased or decreased. (f the number of windings in the secondary is more
than that of primary, the output voltage will be higher than the input voltage. Such a transformer is
called step>up transformer. (f the number of turns in the secondary is lesser than that of primary,
the output voltage will be lesser than the input voltage. Such a transformer is called step>don
'he important point to be remembered here is that the total energy remains same as per the
universal law # Lenergy can neither be created nor be destroyedM. 'he product of ,oltage 4,5 and
Current 4(5 will remain same in the input and output. (n a step$up transformer, , will increase and (
will decrease in the secondary so that ,(
T ,(
. Similarly, in a step$down transformer, ,
will decrease in the secondary and ( will increase.
(A) (B)
Fi/. +.9 (A) Step up (B) Step don transfor-ers
'ransformers have wide range of applications. Commercial electrical supply is through
transformers in which the voltage is stepped up to a very high value then transferred over very long
distances, stepped down to 00+, and supplied to houses. #urrent transfor-ers are used for
changing the current rating from input to output where different current ratings are re6uired 4and
also for metering5. Audio transfor-ers are used to transform energy at audio fre6uencies and RF
transfor-ers are used to transfer energy at radio fre6uencies.
'he material of core used in transformer also varies as per the usage of the transformer.
Power transformers used in power supply and audio transfer have iron core whereas &%
transformers have air core. Some transformers have ferrite core.
+.7 )otors and Generators
A -otor is a device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. A motor has
coils wound over a core and this arrangement is called ar-ature. 'he armature is placed inside a
permanent magnet. When an electric current flows through the coils of the armature, it creates a
magnetic field around it which is repelled by the field of the permanent magnet. 'hus the armature
is made to rotate around an a!is over which the armature is mounted. 7otors can be designed to
work on both AC and DC. 7otors have wide variety of applications.
A /enerator is a device which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Construction of a generator is similar to that of a motor. 'he difference is, in a generator, the
armature is rotated mechanically 4generally by a combustion engine5. 'he movement of the
armature coils inside the magnetic field of the permanent magnet induces a voltage in the armature
coils and current flows in the output circuit. 9enerators can be designed to produce both DC and
AC. AC generators are called alternators. 9enerators are installed on the aircraft as power sources.
A starter>/enerator is a device on the aircraft which acts as a motor for cranking the engine while
starting and then acts as a generator to supply power to the aircraft systems.
+.8 )icrophones and Speakers
7icrophones are devices used for converting sound energy into electrical energy. 'here are
various types of microphones depending upon the application and construction. Carbon
microphones, capacitor microphones, dynamic microphones and electret microphones are some of
the types. A microphone consists of a diaphragm which vibrates when held near to source of sound
such as speech. (n a carbon microphone, the diaphragm consists of carbon granules which move
away or near to each other due to the vibrations. 'his varies the resistance of the diaphragm and if it
is connected across a voltage source, the current through the diaphragm will vary along with the
resistance. 'his variation will represent the variations in speech. (n a capacitor microphone, one of
the capacitor plates is fi!ed to the diaphragm and the vibrations will vary the distance between the
plates of the capacitor, thereby varying the capacitance. 'his, in turn, varies the output current. (n a
dynamic microphone, a coil is fi!ed to the diaphragm and the coil is placed inside a permanent
magnet. When the diaphragm vibrates due to sound, it moves the coil inside the magnet, magnitude
of movement depending upon the intensity of sound striking the diaphragm. When the coil moves
inside the magnet, an electric current is produced in the coil which represents the sound energy in
electric form. As can be seen, carbon and condenser microphones need power supply whereas the
dynamic microphone does not re6uire power supply for working. >lectret microphone is a
combination of capacitor and magnet. 'he electrical energy produced by a mic is usually very low
and has to be amplified to be used in circuits.
Speakers are devices for converting electrical energy into sound energy. @sually, a speaker
consists of a diaphragm, a coil and a permanent magnet. )ne end of the coil is fi!ed to the
diaphragm and the coil is placed inside the permanent ring magnet. When the electric energy
representing the sound flows through the coil, a magnetic field is created around the coil which is
either repelled or attracted by the ring magnet. 'his causes the coil to move forward and backward,
depending upon the polarity of the field produced, which in turn moves the diaphragm. 7ovement
of the diaphragm sets into motion the air in front of it resulting in sound. Speakers can be designed
in various siKes, shapes, power output and the fre6uency range as per the application. A small
speaker can be used as a microphone 4dynamic5 with slight modifications.
An aircraft headset is a combination of two speakers and a microphone. 7icrophones used
in aviation headsets are usually the electret type because of their noise cancelling feature.
7icrophone installed on a rod is called ?oo- -icrophone. Present day aircraft headsets have
boom microphones. )lden day aircraft had either throat microphones or hand held microphones.
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A%T!R .
RA2'" T*!"R3
..+ 'ntroduction
&adio communication takes place through electromagnetic 4>75 energy which travels
through atmosphere and space8 the advantage here is that no physical wires are re6uired and the
communication can take place over very long distances. Since the advent of satellite
communication, the 6uality of radio communications has increased immensely. Aviation
communication has been utilising the advancement of technology for ensuring the safety, security
and efficiency of international civil aviation. (n this chapter, basic radio principles and their
application to aviation will be discussed.
... !lectro-a/netic Aa1es
When electrical energy is applied to an antenna, this energy is radiated as electromagnetic
4>75 energy. 'his >7 energy travels through atmosphere at the speed of light which is /G*+
metres per second. An >7 wave has two components< the electrical component and the magnetic
component. Along with these, the >7 wave has a direction of propagation, in which it travels.
'heses three are perpendicular to each other. Cust like light, >7 waves ideally travel in straight
lines. Dut the >7 waves are sub:ect to certain phenomenon due to which they bend or deviate from
a straight line propagation.
Fi/ ..+ !lectro-a/netic a1e
..0 FreCuency< Aa1elen/th and their Relationship
As in electrical waves, >7 waves fluctuate between positive and negative polarities. (n
other words, >7 waves have a freCuency which is measured in "ertK 4"K5. 'he >7 wave will
travel a certain distance while completing one cycle i.e. starting from Kero, reaching the positive
peak value 4-+
5, falling back to Kero 4*B+
5, reaching the negative peak 40A+
5 value then back to
Kero 4/?+
5. 'his distance is known as the a1elen/th of the >7 wave. (t is obvious that lower
fre6uencies will have larger wavelengths compared to higher fre6uencies, as the speed of >7 wave
is same for all fre6uencies.
&elationship between fre6uency and wavelength can be put in an e6uation as follows<
f T


f is the fre6uency in "ertK
] is the wavelength in metres
C is the speed of >7 wave in space which is constant /+,++,++,+++ metres2sec.
<xample< %re6uency of an >7 wave is *+ 7ega "K. What is its wavelengthV
] T
*++++++ *+
*++++++++ /

T /+ metres
N )ne 7ega "K is *+
<xample< (f the wavelength of a radio wave is /++++ metres, what is the fre6uency of the waveV
f T
*++++++++ /
T *++++ "K T *+ ;"K 4* ;"K T *+++ "K5
Dy the above e!amples, it can be seen that lower fre6uencies have longer wave lengths and
higher fre6uencies have shorter wavelengths.
..5 Antenna
'his e6uation is very important in designing the radio e6uipment, especially the antenna.
ength of an antenna depends upon the fre6uency it is supposed to radiate. 'he correct length of the
antenna will determine the efficiency with which it radiates ma!imum energy without wastage.
'hus, if either fre6uency or wavelength is given, the other can be calculated by using the above
A radiating antenna is most efficient when its length is e!actly e6ual to half wavelength of
the fre6uency it radiates. A half wavelength antenna is known as a dipole antenna.
<xample< What is the length of a dipole antenna re6uired to radiate *++ 7"KV
.nswer< @sing the formula we get a full wavelength<
4/ ! *+
5 = 4*++ ! *+
T / mtr
'herefore, the dipole length will be /20 T *.3 mtr
>ven a dipole antenna is considered large to be installed on aircraft. An antenna called
unipole has a length e6ual to a 6uarter wavelength. 'hus, smallest length of an antenna for a given
fre6uency is one 6uarter of the wavelength, i.e. a unipole. 'his is the most favoured antenna on
aircraft. A unipole antenna is usually installed 1ertically 4or perpendicular to the surface of
installation5 because it uses its own reflection on the installed surface to act as a dipole antenna. (n
the above e!ample, the unipole antenna length will be A3 cms.
..6 %olarisation
As already mentioned, an >7 wave has two oscillating fields mutually perpendicular to
each other and to the direction of propagation. 'he electric field 4>5 will be parallel to the antenna
wire from which it was radiated and the magnetic field 4"5 will be perpendicular to the antenna
wire. An >7 wave whose > component is perpendicular to ground is called a 1ertically polarised
wave and an >7 wave whose > component is parallel to the ground is called a horiDontally
polarised wave. A vertical antenna radiates vertically polarised waves 4since the " field surrounds
the antenna wire and is perpendicular to it5 and a horiKontal antenna radiates horiKontally polarised
..7 Audio and Radio FreCuency Spectru-
%re6uencies within the fre6uency range from 0+ "K to 0+ ;"K are called audio freCuencies
4AF5. %re6uencies within this band in the form of sound energy can be heard by the human ear.
&adio fre6uency spectrum is divided into different fre6uency ranges or fre6uency bands.
'he different bands and their respective fre6uency ranges are given below<
,ery ow %re6uency 4,%5 / # /+ ;"K
ow %re6uency 4%5 /+ # /++ ;"K
7edium %re6uency 47%5 /++ ;"K # / 7"K
"igh %re6uency 4"%5 / # /+ 7"K
,ery "igh %re6uency 4,"%5 /+ # /++ 7"K
@ltra "igh %re6uency 4@"%5 /++ 7"K # / 9"KN
Super "igh %re6uency 4S"%5 / # /+ 9"K
>!tremely "igh %re6uency 4>"%5 /+ # /++ 9"K
N* 9"K T *+++ 7"K T *+
&adio waves of fre6uency /9"K and above are called microwaves because of their small
wavelengths. etter identifiers are designated to fre6uency bands used for radar. Different
organisations give different designations and there is no universal agreement on these designations.
Commonly used designations are given below<
band *.+ # *.3 9"K
S band *.3 # /.- 9"K
C band /.- # B.+ 9"K
G band B.+ # *0.3 9"K
;u band *0.3 # *B.+ 9"K
; band *B.+ # 0?.3 9"K
;a band 0?.3 # .+.+ 9"K
, band .+.+ # B+.+ 9"K
1 band B+.+ # *A+.+ 9"K
A band Above *A+.+ 9"K
..8 Radio Aa1e %ropa/ation
Antenna of a transmitter radiates &% waves in the form of electromagnetic energy. 'hese &%
waves travel through different media until they reach the antenna of a receiver. 'his travel is termed
as the propagation or the >7 waves. 'he various methods of propagation depend largely on the
fre6uency of the &% wave and also on the earth environment. Different methods of radio wave
propagation are discussed in the paragraphs below.
..8.+ Ground (Surface) Aa1es
9round waves progress along the surface of the earth. 'he reasons for the ground waves
propagating along the curved surface of the earth are two<
4a5 A phenomenon called diffraction which causes the wave to bend around any obstacle it passes.
4b5 Due to diffraction, the wave starts tilting towards the ground. As the tilting increases with
distance, and short circuiting of the electrical component causes currents to flow in the earthFs
surface. 'his is loss of energy for the wave and it bends over more. 'his phenomenon is called
surface attenuation.
%re6uencies of ,%, % and lower end of 7% bands propagate as ground waves. 9round
waves are used for navigation systems working in ,%, % and lower portion of the 7% bands.
..8.. Sky Aa1es
>7 waves are prone to a phenomenon called refraction. When there is change in the
density of the medium through which the >7 wave is propagating, the wave changes direction.
'his phenomenon is similar to the refraction of light. When >7 waves of "% and upper end of 7%
bands travel upwards towards the sky, they enter the ionosphere. 'he ionosphere density changes
with altitude and as the >7 wave travels upwards it starts bending due to refraction. @nder
favourable conditions, the wave will return back to earth at an angle by which it seems that the
wave has been reflected by the ionosphere. Such >7 waves which are returned to earth by the
ionosphere are called sky a1es. %re6uencies of higher portion of 7% and "% bands behave as sky
'he ionosphere has four main layers namely, D at the lowest level, >, %
and %
at the
highest level. Density of ions is least in the D layer and increases as we go higher up and is the
highest in the %
layer. (mportance of these layers is as follows<
4a5 2 layer # e!ists at an average height of A+ km with thickness of *+ km. Disappears at night.
&eflects some ,% and % waves and absorbs 7% and "% waves to a certain e!tent.
4b5 ! layer # e!ists at an average height of *++ km with thickness of around 03 km. Disappears
during night. 'his layer helps the 7% ground wave propagation and reflects some "% waves
during day.
4c5 F
layer # e!ists at a height of *B+ km during day time and combines with %
layer during night.
Daytime thickness is about 0+ km. Absorbs "% waves.
4d5 F
layer # e!ists at height from 03+ km to .++ km during daytime and /++ km during night.
'hickness is about 0++ km. 7ain effect of this layer is to reflect 4by gradual refraction5 the "%
waves back towards the earth.
'he ionosphere is also responsible for attenuation 4reduction in strength5 of the >7 wave.
>7 waves are absorbed on the way up and also on the way down after reflection.
..8...+ #ritical FreCuency
'he highest fre6uency that will be returned to earth by a layer after having been transmitted
towards the sky 4any fre6uency higher than this would pass through the ionosphere into space5.
Critical fre6uency is particular for a layer. (t can be seen from figure 0.0 that lower fre6uencies are
refracted at lower levels of the ionosphere and higher fre6uencies travel higher up before being
Fi/ ... #ritical freCuency and an/le
..8.... #ritical An/le
'he highest take off angle 4to the normal5 that will return a sky wave to earth under specific
ionospheric conditions is called critical an/le. (f the angle is any higher, the sky wave will escape
into space without being refracted.
..8...0 Skip 2istance
Skip distance is the shortest distance from a transmitter, measured along the surface of earth,
at which the first sky wave returns to earth.
..8...5 Skip Fone
(t is also known as silent Done or dead space. When using 7% and "%, the waves will travel
both as ground waves and sky waves. A skip Kone is a region between the furthest points at which
the ground wave can be received and the nearest point at which the refracted sky waves can be
received. (n this Kone, ground waves would have died down 4due to attenuation5 and sky waves do
not reach because of the larger angle of return. 1o signal can be received in the skip Kone.
Fi/ ..0 Skip distance and skip Done
..8...6 Sin/le *op and )ulti *op %ropa/ation
'he sky wave refracted from the ionosphere can be reflected back to the ionosphere by the
earthFs surface. %or this reflection to take place, the signal must be sufficiently strong. So the sky
wave may have a single hop or multi hop propagation. 'his way, the wave can reach very far
Fi/ ..5 Sin/le and -ultiple hop propa/ation
..8...7 Fadin/
When two waves, of the same signal which left the transmitter at the same time but reach the
receiver through different paths, will have difference in phase. (f both are in$phase, signal strength
will increase and if both are out$of$phase, signal strength will decrease. (f both waves are e!actly
out of phase and of the same amplitude, they may totally cancel each other. 'his fluctuation of
signal strength when it arrives at the receiver is called fadin/. 'he different paths taken by the
waves are due to<
4a5 refraction by different layers of ionosphere
4b5 sky waves arriving after different number of hops
4c5 wave reaching the receiver as ground wave and sky wave
..8...8 2ay and $i/ht FreCuencies
A problem that e!ists with sky wave communication is the change in density of ionosphere
during day and night. )n the night side of the earth, solar radiation does not reach the lower layers
of ionosphere. "ence, the ions which were created during day by the solar radiation bombardment,
recombine to form molecules which are electrically neutral. 'his brings down the ion density
appreciably. 'he effect is that the sky wave which would have been refracted by a lower
ionospheric layer during day time 4high ion density5 will travel further up into the ionosphere before
being refracted back to earth. 'he angle of refraction increases and the wave reaches the ground
much farther than it would have reached during the day. 'his problem is greater during sun rise and
sun set due to the rapidly changing ion density.
Solution to this problem is using a higher fre6uency during the day and a lower fre6uency
during the night. 'his is what is done in aircraft "% communication. >ach &DA&A and 7WA&A
has different fre6uencies for day and night use.
..8...9 Ad1anta/es and 2isad1anta/es of Sky Aa1es
7ain advantage of sky wave is the long range of communication possible. )ther advantage
of "% is that a single transmission can be received at different distances. Disadvantages are many<
"% band is more susceptible to atmospheric interference, bandwidth available is small, change of
fre6uencies during day and night, skip Kone and fading of signal. Dandwidth problem is somewhat
reduced by single side band 4SSD5 techni6ue. Sky wave communication is gradually being replaced
by SA'C)7 and &CA9 in aviation.
..8.0 Space Aa1es
,"% and above fre6uencies travel in straight lines. 'his is termed as Line of Si/ht 4L"S5
communication because the transmitting antenna must see the receiving antenna for the waves to
reach. 'hese waves do not bend along with the curvature of earth and if aimed at the ionosphere,
they will pass through to space rather than being refracted. Such waves are called space a1es. Any
tall or massive ob:ect in between the transmitting and receiving antennae will obstruct the waves
from reaching the receiving antenna. 'he area on the other side of the obstructing ob:ect 4or beyond
the horiKon5, looked from the transmitting side, will receive no signal and this is called the shado
Fi/ ..6 Space a1e co--unication
'hus, the range of communication using space waves depends on the height of transmitter
and receiver antennae. 'he formula which gives the range of communication using space waves is<
*.0/4 hr O ht 5 17
Where h
is the height 4in feet5 of the receiver antenna above sea level
is the height 4in feet5 of the transmitter antenna above sea level
17 is nautical miles.
(f an aircraft is flying at *+,+++ ft, appro!imate ma!imum range of communication using
,"% would be *0/ 17 400- ;m5 with the ground stations at sea level. Similarly, for an aircraft
flying at *+++ ft altitude, the ma!imum communication range would be /- 17 4A/ ;m5 with the
ground station at sea level.
With the above e!amples, it can be seen that the height of the aircraft plays an important
role in the range of space wave communications. 'hough the limited range of communications of
,"% is a disadvantage, it also enables the usa/e of sa-e freCuencies at different places. %or
e!ample, A'S units at Chennai, Delhi, ;olkata and 7umbai use the same fre6uency for their
services 4'W& # **B.* 7"K, APP # *0A.- 7"K, S7C # *0*.- 7"K5
..8.0.+ Superrefraction (2uctin/)
@nder certain atmospheric conditions such as temperature inversion, complete bending
down of the space waves takes place from the layer of atmosphere as low as :ust /+ metres from the
ground. 'hus, space waves are refracted back to the earth and reflected back by the surface,
continuously, and they propagate around the curvature of the earth for a long distance which
sometimes e!ceeds *+++ km. 'his phenomenon is called superrefraction. (t is also called ductin/
because the earth surface and the refracting layer of the atmosphere act like a duct for propagation
of waves.
Fi/ ..7 2uctin/ pheno-enonX space a1e tra1els ?eyond horiDon
..9 Basic Radio %rinciples
Audio fre6uencies 4such as a pilotFs speech5 are converted into electrical energy by a
microphone. (f attempt is made to radiate this energy directly, it will pose certain problems< audio
fre6uencies are low fre6uencies with large wavelengths, this would re6uire enormous siKe of
antenna to radiate the energy efficiently. %or e!ample human speech which is normally in the range
of / ;"K would re6uire an antenna length of *,++,+++ metres 4*++ ;7s5. >ven if half or 6uarter
wavelength antenna is used it would still be 3+ or 03 ;7s long. Another problem is that the A%
band is 0+ "K to 0+;"K which is a bandwidth of *-.BB ;"K. ,ery few channels can be
accommodated and even then, all the transmissions would be hopelessly mi!ed up. 'hird problem is
that very high power would be re6uired to transmit such low fre6uencies to enable them to travel
long distances. 'o overcome these problems a process called -odulation is used for radio
..9.+ )odulation
7odulation is the process of superimposing audio fre6uency over radio fre6uency.
Advantages are< &% has higher fre6uencies which re6uire shorter antennae8 &% spectrum has very
large bandwidth which can accommodate a large number of channels8 transmission power will be
very less because of the higher fre6uencies. 7odulation is done in the transmitter. Dasically there
are two types of modulation in analogue radio communications8 4i5 Amplitude modulation 4ii5
Angle modulation. Angle modulation has two types namely, fre6uency and phase modulations.
..9.+.+ A-plitude )odulation (A))
(n this type of modulation, the amplitude of the &% is made to change as per the amplitude
of the A%. 1ormal &' communication is amplitude modulated. %igure below illustrates the concept.
'he &% carrier, which has a much higher fre6uency than the A%, gets shaped according to
the shape of the A% which is the modulating wave. (t can be seen that, if the peaks of the modulated
result wave are :oined by a line, it takes the shape of the modulating wave.
Fi/. ..8 A-plitude -odulation
..9.+.. FreCuency )odulation (A))
(n this type of modulation, the fre6uency of the carrier is varied according to the amplitude
of the A% wave. When the amplitude of the modulating wave increases, the fre6uency of the carrier
&% increases and when the amplitude of the modulating wave decreases, the fre6uency of the carrier
&% decreases. %igure below illustrates the concept.
Fi/. ..9 FreCuency -odulation
%re6uency modulation is used in commercial %7 broadcast 4BB$*+B 7"K5 and also satellite
communications. SA'C)7 e6uipment fitted in aircraft use %7 in con:unction with the ,"%
communication e6uipment.
..9.+.0 %hase )odulation (%))
'his is a variant of %re6uency 7odulation in which the phase of the &% carrier is varied as
per the amplitude of the amplitude of the modulating wave 4A%5. Phase and %re6uency modulations
fall under the broad category of An/le -odulation.
Fi/. ..: %hase -odulation
..9.+.5 %ulse )odulation
'here is another class of modulation which is called pulse modulation in which the carrier is
a series of pulses and not sinusoidal. 'his can be further categorised into Pulse Amplitude
7odulation 4PA75, Pulse Width 7odulation 4PW75, Pulse Position 7odulation 4PP75 and Pulse
Code 7odulation 4PC75.
(n pulse modulation, the &% carrier pulses are modulated depending upon the amplitude of
the modulating wave.
Fi/ ..+; Types of pulse -odulation
..9.. 2e-odulation
Demodulation is the separation of A% from the carrier &%. 'his is the reverse process of
modulation. Demodulation is done in the receiver.
..9.0 Basic Trans-itter
A basic transmitter must accept the audio input, convert it into A%, modulate it with &%,
amplify the modulated signal to sufficient power and then transmit it. 'his is in very brief the
process of transmission of intelligence in the form of >7 waves. %igure 0.** puts the process in
block diagram form.
Fi/. ..++ Basic trans-itter ?lock dia/ra-
(n the A% chain microphone converts the speech into A% and feeds into the audio levelling
and processing circuits. %re6uency and amplitude of the A% are standardised here. 'he output of
this circuit is a weak signal which is pre$amplified and then fed to the A% amplifier. "ere, the A% is
further amplified and fed to the modulator. (n the modulator the level of A% is raised again to be
sufficient to modulate the &% carrier. 'hough this block is called the modulator, actual process of
modulation does not take place here.
(n the &% chain, the &% oscillator 4mostly a crystal oscillator5 provides the &% carrier.
Similar to the A%, this carrier signal is amplified in multiple stages and fed to the &% output power
amplifier. 'his is where the actual process of modulation takes place. 'he &% carrier is shaped as
per the type of modulation used and fed to the antenna from where it is radiated.
..9.5 Side Bands
Whenever two fre6uencies 4such as A% and &%5 are mi!ed together, as in the process of
modulation, the result will be generation of many fre6uencies. Assuming f
and f
are the &% and
A% fre6uencies being mi!ed, the output of such a process will consist of not only the original
fre6uencies but also the sum 4f
Y f
5 and difference 4f
& f
5 of those two fre6uencies and their
har-onics 4harmonics are multiples of the original, sum and difference fre6uencies5. 'hus the
output fre6uencies will be
, f
, 4f
Y f
5, 4f
& f
5, and multiples 4harmonics5 of these fre6uencies ^0f
, /f
U. 0f
, /f
O f
5, /4f
O f
5, 04f
# f
5, /4f
# f
'he harmonics are not of importance in A7 4in %7, harmonics are re6uired for clarity of
reception5. A% is not re6uired at the output and &% is the unmodulated carrier. Doth the sum and
difference fre6uencies are the modulated signals at radio fre6uencies. f
# f
will be a lower
fre6uency than the &% carrier 4f
5 and f
O f
will be higher than the &% carrier 4f
5. 'hese two
fre6uencies are called the side bands to the &% carrier. 'he lower fre6uency is the Loer Side
Band 4LSB5 and the higher fre6uency is called 4pper Side Band 44SB5. Doth side bands carry the
identical information obtained from the A%.
(n figure 0.*0, the sum, difference bands and the &% carrier are shown. A% is not shown
because it is a very low fre6uency and will be much distant on the left side of difference fre6uency.
Fi/ ..+. Su- and difference freCuency ?ands ith RF carrier in the centre
7odulation can be carried out anywhere in the &% chain and the reason why it is done in the
last stage is to simplify the circuits of all the blocks so that they do not have to operate in a wider
(n ,"% communication, both the side bands are transmitted along with the carrier. 'his type
of communication which contains both side bands is called 2ou?le Side Band 42SB5. "owever, in
"% only one side band is transmitted to conserve bandwidth 4See paragraph 0.A.0.B above5. 'his is
called Sin/le Side Band 4SSB5 techni6ue. 'his also re6uires loer poer for transmission.
..9.6 Basic Recei1er
A basic receiver must receive the >7 waves transmitted by the transmitter antenna, process
the received signal and present2display the output for the user. As the >7 waves cross the receiver
antenna, voltages are induced in the antenna. 'hese voltages are fed to the &% stage. &% stage
consists of filters and amplifier circuits. (n the &% stage, all the unwanted signals are filtered out
and the re6uired signal is amplified to a suitable level. 'his amplified signal is then demodulated to
separate the A% from the carrier &%. 'his is done in the demodulator stage. )utput of the
demodulator is A% which is fed to the audio amplification stage. )utput of the audio amplifier is fed
to the speaker2headset.
A practical receiver is much more complicated than the one described above. A practical
receiver has a stage called -i,er after the &% stage. 'he purpose of mi!er is to reduce the
fre6uency of the received signal to a lower fre6uency. %or this, the mi!er receives a fre6uency from
a signal source called the local oscillator. Doth the fre6uencies are mi!ed in the mi!er and the
outcome is e!actly as described in 0.?./.0. )riginal two fre6uencies, sum fre6uency, difference
fre6uency and harmonics will be the outputs. All these are passed through a filter which passes only
the difference fre6uency and blocks all others. 'he output of mi!er 4the difference fre6uency5 is
called the 'nter-ediate FreCuency 4'F5 which will be much lesser than the received &%. 'he
process of mi!ing two fre6uencies to get a third fre6uency is called superheterodynin/. (% has the
same waveform as the original modulated &%. (% is fed to the demodulator stage where the signal is
detected and the A% is separated from the carrier. 'he separated audio is fed to the audio amplifier
stage and finally fed to the speaker. %igure 0.*/ shows the process in a block diagram.
..9.6.+ Gan/ed Tunin/
When a particular fre6uency is to be received, the receiver has to be tuned to that particular
fre6uency. Since voltages due to many signals will be present at the antenna, only the re6uired
fre6uency must be passed through and the rest should be blocked. &% filters, &% amplifier, 7i!er
and the ocal )scillator are tuned together to the re6uired fre6uency by /an/ed tunin/.
..9.6.. Local "scillator
'he local oscillator 4.)5 provides a fre6uency which is always e6ual to the sum of the
received signal fre6uency and the (%. (f the receiver is tuned to *+++ ;"K, .) will produce *.33
;"K and if the receiver is tuned to *0++ ;"K, the .) will produce *?33 ;"K. 'hus, the (% 4.) #
&%5 will always be .33 ;"K. A constant fre"uenc# difference is maintained between the .) and
&% circuits. 'his constant fre6uency difference is always e6ual to the (%.
Fi/. ..+0 Superheterodyne recei1er
..9.6.0 Superheterodynin/
7ain purposes of superheterodyning are<
4a5 to bring down the received signal to a lower fre6uency which re6uires simpler components and
circuit designs
4b5 to avoid tuning of the stages after the &% 4and 7i!er5 to new fre6uencies whenever a channel
change is re6uired.
Some receivers employ more than one stage of mi!er8 such receivers are called double or
triple superheterodyne receivers.
..9.6.5 Auto-atic Gain #ontrol
'he phenomenon of fading has been discussed in 0.3.0.?. 'o overcome the effect of fading,
a circuit called A9C is employed in a receiver. (t keeps the audio output constant by providing
feedback to the &%, 7i!er and (% stages during variation in the strength of the received signal.
Weaker signals are amplified more and stronger signals are amplified less, thereby ensuring a
constant audio output. 'his is also called the Auto-atic Volu-e #ontrol 4AV#5.
..9.6.6 Beat FreCuency "scillator
A communication receiver may be re6uired to receive 7orse code transmissions, i.e. pulse
modulated &% carrier. Since there is no audio component in the pulse modulated &% carrier, the
?eat freCuency oscillator 4BF"5 provides the demodulator with a fre6uency * ;"K 4or .++ "K5
above or below the (%. 'his enables the receiver to produce whistling tones 4in dots and dashes5
whenever pulse modulated &% carrier is received. D%) function can be switched on2off by a switch.
..9.6.7 SCuelch
When there is no signal to be received, the receiver will receive atmospheric noise. When
this noise reaches the headset, it will be very annoying to the operator. 'o avoid this, a circuit called
sCuelch is used which switches off the audio stage when there is no carrier present at the
demodulator stage. 'his prevents the audio stage from amplifying the noise and feeding it to the
speaker. 'his is also called )ute.
..9.6.8 Eualities of a Good Recei1er
A good receiver must have the following four 6ualities<
4a5 Sensiti1ity< Ability to receive weak signals and amplify them.
4b5 Selecti1ity< Ability to select the desired fre6uency and re:ect all others from the signals that are
present at the antenna.
4c5 Sta?ility< Ability to stay tuned to the desired fre6uency, without drifting, over a period of time.
4d5 Fidelity< Ability to faithfully reproduce the original audio from the received signal.
..9.7 Transcei1ers
'ransceiver 4also called transrecei1er5 is an e6uipment which is a combination of a
transmitter and a receiver. During transmission, the transmitter part is active and at other times, by
default, the receiver is active.
Some circuits of a receiver and transmitter can be commonly utilised. 'he antenna has to be
switched between the transmitter and the receiver for transmission and reception respectively. 'he
local oscillator also can be utilised by both. A typical transceiver block diagram is shown in figure
Fi/ ..+5 Transcei1er ?lock dia/ra-
'he transceiver consists of a transmitter block and a receive block. 'he transmitter block
contains all the stages of a transmitter shown in figure 0.** e!cept the &% source oscillator.
Similarly, the receiver block consists of all the stages of a receiver shown in figure 0.*/ e!cept the
local oscillator.
A local oscillator 4.)5 provides a stable fre6uency to a device called Synthesiser. 'he
synthesiser produces re6uired fre6uencies and feeds it to the transmitter as the &% carrier. 'he
synthesiser also feeds the fre6uency to the receiver for mi!ing in the receiver.
When the pilot selects a channel on the control unit in the cockpit, the tuning signals are
sent to the synthesiser, transmitter and receiver blocks. All the relevant components get tuned to the
re6uired fre6uencies.
'he transmit$receive relay 4'!$&! &elay5 keeps the antenna connected to the receiver by
default. 'o transmit, pilot presses a %ress>To>Talk or %ush>To>Talk 4%TT5 button, usually located
on the control column. 'his operation activates the '!$&! relay and the antenna is connected to the
transmitter block and the signal is radiated out. As soon as the P'' is released, the relay connects
the antenna back to the receiver.
..: Types of #o--unication
Communications can be in only one direction or two directions, using one fre6uency for
both transmit and receive or two fre6uencies, simultaneous transmit and receive or non$
simultaneous, etc.
4a5 Si-ple,< A method in which telecommunication between two stations takes place in one
direction at a time. When applying this term to aeronautical communication, it is further subdivided
4i5 Sin/le #hannel Si-ple, 4S.#.S5< Simple! using the same fre6uency channel in each direction.
Communication in which a station can either transmit or receive at a time, but not simultaneous,
using the same fre6uency for both transmit and receive and one single antenna for both functions.
4'his is also called half>duple,5. &' communication of aircraft and Walkie$talkie are e!amples of
4ii5 2ou?le #hannel Si-ple, 42.#.S5< Simple! using two fre6uency channels, one in each
direction. Communication using two different fre6uencies, one for transmit and one for receive, but
not simultaneous. Aircraft e6uipped with SA'C)7 will have %7 D.C.S in addition to A7 S.C.S.
'his is also called cross ?and.
4iii5 "ffset FreCuency Si-ple,< A variation of single channel simple! wherein telecommunication
between two stations is effected by using in each direction fre6uencies that are intentionally slightly
different but contained within a portion of the spectrum allotted for the operation.
4b5 Full 2uple,< A method in which telecommunication between two stations can take place in
both directions simultaneously. Simultaneous two$way communication using two different
fre6uencies, one each for transmit and receive. and line and cell phones are e!amples of this
..+; !-ission 2esi/nators
('@ has assigned designators for the types of >7 waves that are used in radio
communication. 'his includes the simplest type of transmissions i.e. unmodulated carrier to the
comple! types which include digital data transmissions. 'he emission designators are listed below<
First sy-?ol > type of -odulation of the -ain carrierB
$ >mission of an unmodulated carrier
>missions in which the main carrier is amplitude$modulated 4including cases where sub$carriers are
A Double$sideband
* Single$sideband, full carrier
I Single$sideband, suppressed carrier
>mission in which the main carrier is angle modulated<
F %re6uency modulation
G Phase modulation
2 >mission in which the main carrier is amplitude$ and angle$modulated either simultaneously
or in a pre$established se6uence
>mission of pulses
% Se6uence of unmodulated pulses
K Se6uence of pulses modulated in amplitude
L Se6uence of pulses modulated in width2duration
) Se6uence of pulses modulated in position2phase
( Cases otherwise not covered
Second sy-?ol > nature of si/nal(s) -odulatin/ the -ain carrier
; 1o modulating signal
+ A single channel containing 6uantiKed or digital information ithout the use of a
modulating sub$carrier
. A single channel containing 6uantiKed or digital information ith the use of a modulating
0 A single channel containing analogue information
8 'wo or more channels containing 6uantiKed or digital information
9 'wo or more channels containing analogue information
: Composite system with one or more channels containing 6uantiKed or digital information,
together with one or more channels containing analogue information
( Cases not otherwise covered
Third sy-?ol > type of infor-ation to ?e trans-itted
$ 1o information transmitted
A 'elegraphy $ for aural reception
B 'elegraphy $ for automatic reception
# %acsimile 4%a!5
2 Data transmission, telemetry, telecommand
! 'elephony 4including sound broadcasting5
F 'elevision 4video5
A Combination of the above
( Cases not otherwise covered
..+;.+ Aircraft #o--unication and $a1i/ation Syste- !-ission 2esi/nators
1on Directional Deacon 41DD5 1+1 A*A, 1+1 A0A
"% C/>
S>CA "0D
,"% A/>
>' A/G
,D% A/%
,)& A-W
D7> P+1
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A%T!R 0
A'R#RAFT #"))4$'#AT'"$ A$2 V"'#! S3ST!)S
0.+ 'ntroduction
An aircraft must have provision to carry out two$way communication with the ground
control during any phase of its flight. (t means, both the aircraft and ground control must be able to
call the other at any phase. Droadly speaking, flight of an aircraft involves two phases< terminal
phase and the en$route phase. During the terminal phase, aircraft is within the range of ,"%
communication, therefore this is called terminal communication. During the en$route phase when
the aircraft is out of range of ,"% communication, the advantage of "% is used to maintain
communication, and is called en$route communication. Advantages and disadvantages of both types
of communications have been discussed in the previous chapter. (n this chapter, the airborne voice
communication and associated systems will be discussed. Also, >mergency ocator 'ransmitter
4>'5 used for Search and &escue 4SA&5 will be discussed. %re6uency ranges used for the voice
communication systems are given below.
Syste- FreCuency ?and
"% communication 0.B 7"K # 00 7"K
,"% communication **A.-A3 7"K # */A 7"K
0.. V*F #o--unication Syste-
,"% communication has the advantages of being less susceptible to atmospheric noise and
wider bandwidth. ,"% system utilises the Double Side Dand %ull Carrier 4DSD %C5 techni6ue in
which both the side bands and the full carrier are transmitted. Channel spacing can be 03 ;"K or
B.// ;"K. 'he principle of a transceiver has been discussed in the last chapter. (n this chapter, the
installation, controls and operations of this system will be discussed. &eceivers designed for
military purposes will also work in @"% range.
0...+ 'nstallation
A small aircraft will have at least one ,"% communication system and a larger aircraft will
have two 4or even three5 identical ,"% systems for redundancy. 'he system usually has three sub$
assemblies, v.i.K., transceiver, control unit and the antenna. 'ransceiver is fitted in the avionics rack
and the control unit is fitted in the cockpit. (n some systems, the transceiver and the control unit are
combined into one bo! and fitted in the cockpit. (n some other systems, the ,"% communication
and the ,"% 1avigation system 4,)&2(S5 are combined together in one unit.
'he antenna is fitted on the e!ternal of the aircraft. Antenna length is designed for mid$
fre6uency of the ,"% fre6uency band. 'ype of antenna can be hip or ?lade.
'ransmitted power output ranges from 03$3+ Watts. &eceiver sensitivity may be
appro!imately 0 micro volts.
0.... Guard Recei1er
7ost of the ,2@"% transceivers will have a built in guard$receiver which guards the distress
fre6uencies of *0*.3 7"K and 0./ 7"K. (f there is any transmission on these two channels, the
receiver automatically receives the signals though it is tuned to another fre6uency appropriate to the
terminal operations.
0...0 #ontrols and "peration< Controls and operations of a typical ,"% system are discussed in
the following paragraphs. 'he design and locations of the controls may vary in different models.
4*5 "n="ff & Volu-e control< @sed for switching on and off the system and controlling the system
audio volume.
405 FreCuency display< Displays the selected fre6uency and D('> results.
4/5 #hannel selector< 'o select any of the preloaded fre6uencies. 7anual position is used for in$
flight programming.
4.5 )ode selector< @sed to select the mode of operation. 7ay have different modes 4depending
upon the manufacturer5 such as Continuous Wave, 7odulated Continuous Wave, A7 DSD,
"oming, &adio &elay and Data. When this knob is placed in CW position, internal BF" is
435 2ata entry keypad< @sed to enter the fre6uency. Some older models may have rotary knobs
instead of keypads.
Fi/ 0.+ V=4*F co--unication syste- control unit
4?5 SCuelch< 'o switch on2off the s6uelch function. During weak signal reception or reduced
receiver sensitivity conditions, the pilot may choose to keep the s6uelch in off.
4A5 B'T!< Built>'n>Test>!Cuip-ent is a self$diagnostics system incorporated within the
transceiver. (t checks the whole system for errors and provides indications for the same.
(n older models, where channel selector is not available, two fre6uencies can be selected.
)ne fre6uency is Acti1e freCuency and the other is Stand?y freCuency. (n case the pilot wants a
fast change of fre6uency, he can do so by transferring the standby fre6uency into active mode with
the help of a Transfer sitch.
(n modern aircraft, the controls and displays of most of the communication and navigation
systems are provided in one unit called the )ulti Function #ontrol 2isplay 4nit 4)#245 or
)ulti Function 2isplay 4)F25. Different controls are selected by menus.
0.0 *F #o--unication Syste-
"% system takes advantage of the long range of the sky wave communication and is used for
en$route communication. 1arrow bandwidth of "% is overcome by SSD and reduced channel
spacing which can be * ;"K or even as less as *++ "K. 'his sacrifices the voice clarity to a certain
e!tent. 'he transmitter and the receiver basics are the same as described in the previous chapter.
0.0.+ 'nstallation
ight aircraft may have one low powered "% communication system whereas large airliners
may have twin high powered systems for redundancy. "% communication system usually consists
of a transceiver, antenna tuning unit, control unit and antenna. (n some installations, there may be a
separate power amplifier unit to amplify the transmission signals. 'he control unit is fitted in the
cockpit 4or available in the 7CD@5, rest of the units, e!cept the antenna, are fitted in avionics
'he antenna type depends on the type of aircraft. ight aircraft with low powered "% system
may have hip antenna. ow$speed aircraft may have a long ire antenna. arge aircraft have
notch antenna which is a slot cut into the aircraft structure. (n this type, the aircraft body itself acts
as antenna. Another type is a pro?e antenna fitted at either of the wing$tips or on top of vertical
'he antenna tuning unit 4A'@5 is re6uired due to the large difference in wavelength at both
ends of the "% band. 4*3+ metres at 07"K and *+ metres at /+7"K5. A'@ electrically tunes the
antenna to the selected fre6uency.
'ransmitter power output may be as low as *+W to as high as 3++W. &eceiver sensitivity
may be 0$. micro volts.
0.0.. #ontrols and "peration
Controls described below are of a typical "% system. 'hey may vary in different models by
different manufacturers.
4*5 "n="ff='ntensity< @sed for switching on and off the system. Also, varies the brightness of the
fre6uency display. Some control units may have a St?y selection for keeping the system on
405 Volu-e control< @sed for controlling the audio output level of the system.
4/5 SCuelch< S6uelch control is provided in steps. Pilot can choose the level of s6uelch. (n "ff
position, s6uelch is switched off. (n position 7, ma!imum s6uelch is provided and only strong
signals reach the headset.
Fi/ 0.. *F co--unication syste- control unit
4.5 #hannel selector< Provides selection of pre$programmed fre6uencies. (n ) 47anual5 position,
in$flight fre6uency entry can be done.
435 )ode selector< Selects the mode of operation. (n CW position, internal D%) is switched on.
A7 position provides reception of A7 DSD signals. @SD and SD positions provide selection of
upper or lower side band signal reception. D position is for data communication.
4?5 FreCuency display< Displays the selected fre6uency and test result indications.
4A5 2ata entry key pad< @sed for fre6uency input.
4B5 Test< D('> switch for testing the system. When switched to )1 position, tests the receiver
chain. When pressed together with P'' switch, tests the transmitter chain.
4-5 %TT< Push$to$talk switch.
0.5 Selecti1e #allin/ (S!L#AL) Syste-
Aircraft operating on long2transoceanic routes are out of ,"% coverage areas for ma:or part
of their flights. 7aintaining a listening watch on the en$route fre6uencies 4"%5 is mandatory for
such flights. Since "% channel is high in static noise, it will be very annoying to the flight crew to
continuously monitor these channels. 'o avoid this, S>CA system is installed on the aircraft.
With the help of S>CA, a ground station can call a particular aircraft.
0.5.+ %rinciple of "peration
S>CA system can function with both "% and ,"% communication systems. (n (ndia,
S>CA facility is available only with "% system.
S>CA decoder e6uipment is fitted to the audio output of "%2,"% system on the aircraft.
>ach aircraft has a particular S>CA code, which is selected on the decoder 4hard$wired or knob
selected5. A ground station that desires to call a particular aircraft transmits a S>CA code signal
on the appropriate "% 4or ,"%5 channel. All the aircraft tuned to that fre6uency and within
coverage area will receive this signal. )nly the aircraft on which the decoder is set to the code that
matches the received code will give the pilot a visual 4a blinking lamp in the cockpit5 and audio
4chime in the headset5 indications. 'his alerts the pilot about the call.
'he coded signal transmitted from the ground consists of two pulses and each pulse is
modulated by two audio tones8 thus, there are four tones per call. 'he tones are designated by letters
A to S, e!cept letters (, 1 and ). 'otal number of codes available is *+,-0+. >ach tone has a
fre6uency and is designated by a colour and letter as follows<
2esi/nation FreCuency (*D) 2esi/nation FreCuency (*D)
&ed A /*0.? &ed C A*?.*
&ed D /.?.A &ed ; A-../
&ed C /B..? &ed BB*.+
&ed D .0?.? &ed 7 -AA.0
&ed > .A/.0 &ed P *+B/.-
&ed % 30..B &ed E *0+0./
&ed 9 3B0.* &ed & *///.3
&ed " ?.3.A &ed S *.A-.*
'ransmission of S>CA coded signals is possible only from ground to air and not vice$
0.5.. 'nstallation
@sually, a single S>CA decoder is installed on the aircraft. "owever, large airliners will
have two identical decoders for redundancy. Different types of installations are available. 1ormally,
the codes are selected on the front panel of the decoder. 'he control unit provides access to the pilot
to choose the communication system with which the S>CA system should be coupled. Control
units with the code selectors are also available. A typical S>CA installation is shown in figure
Fi/ 0.0 Typical S!L#AL installation
'he ,"% and "% audio outputs are connected to the S>CA decoders. Second decoder is
not shown in the figure. Whenever a S>CA call addressed to the aircraft is received, the lamp on
the control unit starts blinking and an aural alert is heard in the headset. 'f the recei1er connected
to the S!L#AL ?eco-es unser1icea?le< the S!L#AL ill not ?e a?le to /i1e an indication.
0.6 Satellite #o--unication (SAT#"))
SA'C)7 systems on board aircraft e!tend the range of ,"% communications. Dy the use
of SA'C)7, en$route communication can take place using ,"% fre6uencies. (n addition to the
voice communication, SA'C)7 can also send2receive data pertaining to the aircraft systems.
0.6.+ %rinciple of operation
SA'C)7 system consists of three segments namely, aircraft earth staion 4A>S5, ground
earth station 49>S5 and the satellite.
,"% communication system audio is integrated with the SA'C)7 system. SA'C)7 also
receives data from different aircraft systems. SA'C)7 mi!es all the inputs by a process called
-ultiple,in/. 'his multiple!ed data is freCuency -odulated on an $band carrier and transmitted
towards a satellite 4(17A&SA'5 which is meant for providing satellite communication. 'he
satellite acts as a repeater. (nside the satellite, receivers demodulate the received signal, fre6uency
modulate the data on a C$band carrier, amplify the signal and transmit it towards a ground station.
'he ground station will have its own network linking all the consumers who use the data from the
received signal. %or e!ample, A'C is the consumer for voice communication component, airline
companies are consumers for aircraft system data components. Worldwide distribution of
information is through telephone e!changes.
;nowing the satellite position is very important here because the SA'C)7 antenna on the
aircraft focuses its transmission energy into a beam towards the satellite. Since both the aircraft and
the satellite are moving ob:ects in space, satellite position relative to the aircraft are computed in the
SA'C)7 computer.
SA'C)7 comes under the service category of Aeronautical )o?ile Satellite (Route)
Ser1ice 4A)SS5
Fi/ 0.5 SAT#") se/-ents
0.6.. 'nstallation
A typical SA'C)7 installation consists of a Satellite Data @nit 4SD@5, "igh Power
Amplifier 4"PA5, Control Display @nit 4CD@5 and an antenna with a steerable beam. ,"% audio
and other data coming from different aircraft systems are connected to the SD@. SD@ output is
connected to the "PA for amplification. Amplified signal is fed to the antenna. 'he antenna signal
beam is steered towards the satellite during transmission and reception. &eceived signal is given to
the SD@ from the antenna. ,"% audio is routed to the ,"% communication system. CD@ provides
human interface to various functions of the SA'C)7 system.
0.7 !-er/ency Locator Trans-itter (!LT)
>mergency ocator 'ransmitter 4>'5 is a transmitter which helps the Search and &escue
4SA&5 Service to home in on crashed aircraft. >' works on *0*.3 7"K, 0./ 7"K and .+? 7"K
>' transmitters working on *0*.3 and 0./ 7"K are no longer a part of #"S%AS>
SARSAT satellite system. C)SPAS$SA&SA' satellite system has ceased processing the >'
signals of *0*.3 and 0./ 7"K since +* %eb 0++-. 1ow the satellite system only monitors and
processes the >' transmission on .+? 7"K fre6uency.
0.7.+ %rinciple of "peration
(t is a simple transmitter which gets activated automatically on impact and transmits an
anony-ous siren tone. 'he tone is modulated on two carriers< *0*.3 7"K and its first harmonic,
0./ 7"K. Since most of the aircraft ,"% communication systems guard these two fre6uencies,
such a transmission will be picked up. )n being informed, the SA& service organises the search and
rescue, based upon homing of the >' transmission. 'he transmissions on *0*.3 7"K and 0./
7"K are analogue and carry no information or identity of the aircraft.
)n recommendation by '#A" and 'nternational )ariti-e "r/anisation 4')"5, latest
versions of >' transmit on .+? 7"K. 'his transmission is digital and consists of data
0.7.. 'nstallation
>' is a compact bo! which is incorporated with a gravity switch. 'he gravity switch
automatically operates the >' transmitter if it senses an impact of 3g or above. 'he installation
normally includes a remote switch located in the cockpit. 'he switch has three positions< AR)>
"FF>"$. During normal operations, the switch is placed in A&7 position. (n this position, >' is
ready to be activated upon impact. (n the )%% position, the system is powered off and cannot be
switched$on upon impact.
)1 position manually operates the transmitter. 'his position can also be used to test the
>'. ,"% communication system must be turned on 4tuned to *0*.3 7"K, if re6uired5 and then the
>' must be activated momentarily. Sweeping 4siren5 tone can be heard on the headset. %rior
per-ission fro- the Air Traffic #ontrol is -andatory for testin/ the !LT. A blinking lamp
may be provided with the switch to indicate the transmission condition of >'.
An identical switch 4or a switch which switches )12)%% the >'5 may be provided on the
>' bo!. Also, a &>S>' switch may be provided to reset the >' in case of inad1ertent
Different types of >' are<
4i5 Auto-atic Fi,ed !LT G!LT(AF)H which is permanently attached to the aircraft and is
automatically activated upon impact.
4ii5 Auto-atic %orta?le !LT G!LT(A%)H which is rigidly attached to the aircraft but can be
removed easily.
4iii5 Auto-atic 2eploya?le !LT G!LT(A2)H which is rigidly attached to the aircraft and is
automatically activated by impact. Some models may be designed to be activated by water
4iv5 Sur1i1al !LT G!LT(S)H which is removable from the aircraft and can be manually activated
by survivors.
When the >' is installed on the aircraft, it may be connected to an e!ternal antenna.
Portable type >'s will have a pull$out antenna. Colour of the >' is international oran/e.
0.7.0 Ad1anta/es and 2isad1anta/es of !LT
Disadvantages of >' 4*0*.3 and 0./ 7"K5 and advantages of >' operating on .+? 7"K
are given in the table below<
Ta?le 0.+ #o-parison of !LT syste-s
+.+.6 )*D and .50 )*D ?eacon 5;7 )*D ?eacon
Analog< no data encoded, higher
false alert rate
Digital< uni6ue identification,
registration data provides
information on the owner2vessel or
Si/nal %oer +.* Watts continuous 4typical5 3 Watts pulse
#o1era/e &egional 9lobal
%osition Accuracy Within 0+ km 4Doppler only5
*++m if 91SS 49PS5 position is
encoded in message.
Alert Ti-e
Waiting time for >) satellite
pass .3 minutes average
9>) alert within 3 minutes
%or more information on the Search and &escue )rganisation, refer Part ((, Chapter 0,
paragraph 0.?.
0.8 'nterco--unication Syste- (A'S)
'he system which provides communication between the pilots and the rest of the crew of the
aircraft is the intercommunication system. (t is also called the Audio 'nte/ratin/ Syste-. 7ain
function of this system is to take audio from different sources such as headset microphones,
communication system audio, cabin crew audio etc., and route them to selected destinations. %or
e!ample, when the pilot wants to transmit on ,"%*, appropriate selection is made on the (ntercom
system. (ntercom system connects the audio from mic of pilot headset to the ,"%* transceiver.
Similarly, if the co$pilot desires to listen to the AD%* audio, selection is made on the intercom
system and the intercom system connects the AD%* receiver audio to co$pilotFs headset speakers. A
typical audio integration system control unit is shown in figure /...
0.8.+ 'nstallation
(ntercom system usually consists of an audio :unction bo! and a control unit. (n most of the
cases there will be two identical control units in the cockpit, one each for the pilot and co$pilot. 'he
control unit provides access to the pilot for selecting the transmission and reception of
communication systems and monitoring of navigation system audio.
0.8.. #ontrols and "peration
4*5 T( Select< A transmitter select knob allows the pilot to select the system on which he wishes to
transmit. PA position connects the headset microphone to the passenger address system for making
405 )onitor Select< Push buttons that route the selected system audio to the headset. PA button
allows listening to PA system audio. ,oice button activates a *+0+ "K filter to filter out the 7orse
code from 1av receivers. 4See Part (((, Chapter ., paragraph ../...*5
4/5 Volu-e< @sed for varying the volume of audio coming to the headset.
Fi/. 0.6 Audio 'nte/ratin/ Syste- control unit
0.9 %assen/er Address Syste- (%A)
Passenger address 4P.A5 system consists of amplifiers and loud speakers fitted in the cabin.
'he system allows the pilot2cabin crew to make announcements to the passengers. Appropriate
selection has to be made on the intercom system to route the pilot2cabin crew mic audio to the
amplifiers and then to the speakers. Commercial airliners may have PA systems with pre$recorded
announcement and music play back facilities.
0.: #ockpit Voice Recorder (#VR)
A cockpit voice recorder 4C,&5 is an e6uipment for recording the audio to and from the
flight crew. (t records the audio in four channels< pilot, co$pilot, cockpit area and flight engineer2PA
system. 'he duration of recording is either /+ minutes or 0 hours depending on the type of C,&.
C,& colour is international oran/e or yello. C,& bo! is designed to withstand high temperatures
for a long duration and is water resistant. (nstallation of the C,& will be in such a location on the
aircraft that in case of crash, minimum damage will be caused to C,&. (n case of an aircraft
accident, the C,& provides the investigating team with the audio interchanges during the last /+
minutes20 hours before the crash.
0.+; #ontroller %ilot 2ata Link #o--unication (#%2L#)
(n very busy air traffic environment, a number of aircraft will be operating on one fre6uency
for a particular air traffic service. )n the other end, a single controller will be controlling all the
traffic unless the air space is divided into sectors and each sector traffic handled by a dedicated
controller. >ventually, saturation will occur on the channel. 'o prevent saturation of a
communication channel and reduce the work load of the controller, CPDC is implemented.
Controller Pilot Data ink Communications 4CPDC5 is a means of communication which
replaces the air2ground voice communications. (t uses data link for transmitting and receiving data
which includes controller initiated instructions2clearances and pilot initiated
re6uests2acknowledgements. 'hrough CPDC, both the controller and the pilot can e!change a
se6uence of messages e.g. a re6uest and its clearance, in &' phraseology. 'his se6uence of message
is termed as a JdialogueF. 'he dialogues are displayed on display units in the format of &'
phraseology. Also, there is a provision for sending Jfree te!tF for communications which has no
standard phraseology.
CPDC supports emergency alerts, downlink 4pilot to controller5 position reports and
clearance re6uests, uplink 4controller to pilot5 A'C clearances and instructions and free$te!t as
supplement to pre$formatted message elements.
CPDC, is available in Chennai, ;olkata and 7umbai %(& to all %uture Air 1avigation
System 4%A1S5 *2A 4or e6uivalent5 e6uipped aircraft.
0.+;.+ %rinciple of "peration
CPDC can work with both "% and ,"% communication systems. CPDC e6uipment that
will be installed on the aircraft should be compatible with the aircraft "% and ,"% communication
systems 4which depends on the A&(1C standard5. CPDC display can be integrated into the
7%D27ulti Control Display @nit 47CD@5 or the >ngine (ndication and Crew Alerting System
4>(CAS5 display. Doth the pilot and controller can select from a list of pre$formatted message
elements 4which correspond to standard &' phraseology5 which are displayed on the display unit.
'his data is converted to a suitable format and fed to the ,"% or "% communication system,
depending upon the installation. &eceived data is displayed on the display unit. 7essage
transactions can be stored and printed if re6uired. When "% is used with CPDC, it is known as "%
datalink 4"%D5 and when ,"% is used, it is known as ,"% datalink 4,D5.
0.+;.. 'nstallation
A typical installation may consist of a Communication 7anagement @nit 4C7@5 which will
connect the data coming from the 7CD@ to the "%2,"% communication systems. "%2,"% system
will transmit the data towards the ground and receive the data from the ground which will be sent to
the C7@. C7@ will send these data to the display unit.
(n case of the CPDC is integrated with the ,"% system, normally it will be through the
SA'C)7. Depending upon the aircraft and airline operatorFs re6uirement, the installation may also
include aircraft identification module, ,"% Data &adio 4,D&5.
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
#*A%T!R 5
5.+ 'ntroduction
Aeronautical navigation is said to be flying an aircraft from one point on the earth to another
along a prescribed route safely, and landing at the destination. With the above definition, it is
obvious that navigational indications are re6uired in the cockpit to provide guidance to the flight
crew. Dy following these indications, the flight crew should be able to fly the aircraft from the
source station to the destination, along the route prescribed by the appropriate authorities. Since the
definition also speaks about the safety of the flight, there should be e6uipment on board the aircraft
which should provide warnings to the flight crew about adverse weather, mid$air traffic and
unanticipated closing$in of terrain. %urther, indications should be available to e!ecute a safe landing
even in poor visibility conditions.
(n this chapter, radio systems which provide navigational data and safety warnings to the
flight crew will be discussed. Different navigational systems along with their fre6uency bands are
given below<
Syste- FreCuency ?and
)mega *+$*. ;"K
Decca A+$*/+ ;"K
oran C *++ ;"K
AD% 0++$*A++ ;"K
7arker beacon A3 7"K
(S 4ocaliser5 *+B$**0 7"K
,)& *+B$**B 7"K
(S 49lideslope5 /0+$/.+ 7"K
D7> -?+$*0*3 7"K
SS& *+/+ and *+-+ 7"K
&adio altimeter ..0$... 9"K
Weather radar 4C band5 3.3 9"K
Doppler 4G band5 B.B 9"K
Weather radar 4G band5 -.. 9"K
Doppler 1avigation 4; band5 */./ 9"K
5.. Auto-atic 2irection Finder 4A2F5
Automatic direction finding system provides the pilot an indication of the direction of a
particular transmitting station. AD% operates in the %27% band 40++$0+++ ;"K5. 'ransmitting
station transmits a modulated continuous wave in all directions, this is the reason it is called $on
2irectional Beacon 4$2B5. An AD% receiver which is tuned to the transmission fre6uency
receives the signal. A pointer in the cockpit indicates the direction from which the signal was
transmitted and also the identity of the transmitting station in the form of morse code can be heard
in the headset. (n (ndia, 1DDs operate in the fre6uency band of 0++$.3+ ;"K 4Dimapur 1DD
having the highest fre6uency at present # .00 ;"K5. Channel spacing is 3++ "K. Since the All (ndia
&adio 4A(&5 7edium Wave 47W5 broadcast at different cities are also within AD% band, AD% can
be tuned to the A(& stations to find the direction of a particular location. A list of A(& stations with
corresponding fre6uencies is given in the A>&AD().
5...+ %rinciple of "peration
AD% system utilises the receiving properties of a loop antenna to find the direction of
arrival of signal. When the plane of a loop antenna is perpendicular to the direction of arriving
wave, minimum or Kero voltage is induced in the loop. 'his is called a -ini-u- or a null. When
the plane of the loop is parallel to the direction of arriving wave, ma!imum voltage is induced in the
loop. 'his is called a -a,i-u-. (f the loop antenna is made to rotate through /?+
, it will give rise
to two minima and two ma!ima because the loop will be perpendicular twice and parallel twice to
the arriving wave. 'he nulls are much sharply defined than the ma!ima. (f an arrangement is made
so that a pointer points to the direction at which the loop is induced ma!imum voltage 4ma!ima5,
the pointer will point at two directions which are opposite to each other8 only one of them is true
and the other is in the opposite direction.
Fi/ 5.+ A2F principle of operation
'o resolve this ambiguity, the AD% system uses another antenna called the sense antenna.
'he sense antenna is an omnidirectional antenna which receives the signal in e6ual strength from all
directions. When the loop and sense antenna outputs are combined, there will be one null and one
ma!imum. 'his is because at one ma!imum position of the loop, the sense voltage will be e6ual and
in phase8 therefore loop and sense voltages add up to form a ma!imum. At the opposite ma!imum
of the loop, sense and loop voltage will be e6ual and opposite8 therefore they cancel each other to
form a null. 'his null is sharply defined than the ma!imum8 it is used to indicate the direction of the
transmitting station. Principle of operation is illustrated in figure ..*.
Pattern of signal reception 4and transmission5 of an antenna is called its polar dia/ra-.
Polar diagram of a loop antenna is in the shape of B. Polar diagram of a sense antenna is circular.
When the polar diagrams of both loop and sense antennae are combined, a cardioid 4heart shape5 is
'his combined signal is fed to a double superheterodyne receiver and demodulated. Audio
component of the received signal is routed to the (ntercom system 4A(S5 for the headsets. Another
component of the received signal is processed and converted into a signal which is fed to the
&D(2&7( for indication.
Previously, the 1DD were of 1+12A*A emission type in which the carrier was interrupted
to send the identification. Disadvantage of this was when the carrier is interrupted, since there is no
signal, the indicator pointer may hunt. Also, D%) is re6uired to produce an audio tone. 1+12A*A
1DD are being replaced by A0A emission type 1DD in which the carrier is modulated with *+0+
"K tone for identification. Since carrier is always present, the pointer will not hunt and D%) is not
re6uired in receivers designed for A0A emissions. Disadvantage with A0A emission is, the range is
lesser than that of 1+12A*A 1DD for a given transmission power output.
5.... 'nstallation
An AD% system installation consists of an AD% receiver, a control unit, a loop antenna, a
sense antenna and an indicator. Antennae are installed on the e!ternal of the aircraft. (n some
models, the receiver and the control unit may be combined into one unit and installed in the cockpit.
(ndicators are fitted in the cockpit. 'here are two types of indicators< 4i5 Relati1e Bearin/
'ndicator 4RB'5 in which the compass card does not rotate. 'he indication is the relative bearing
4angle5 between the longitudinal a!is of the aircraft and the direction of the station. +++ degree of
the compass card is always aligned with the lubber line. 4ii5 Radio )a/netic 'ndicator 4R)'5 in
which the compass card rotates as per the heading of the aircraft. 'he indication is the magnetic
bearing of the 1DD. &elation between relative bearing, magnetic bearing and aircraft magnetic
heading is given as<
)a/netic Bearin/ (of $2B) V Relati1e Bearin/ Y )a/netic *eadin/ (of aircraft)
arge aircraft have twin AD% installation for redundancy. (n such installations, the indicator
will have two pointers. %igure ..0 4A5 illustrates an &D( with a single pointer. %igure ..0 4D5
illustrates an &7( with two pointers. Such an &7( may also have push buttons for selecting the
mode of operation between AD% and ,)&.
5...0 #ontrols and "perations
A typical AD% control unit is shown in figure ../. (n a twin installation, two such units will
be installed in the cockpit. (n modern aircraft, the controls may be provided in the 7CD@.

(A) (B)
Fi/ 5.. A2F indicatorsB (A) RB' (B) R)'
4*5 "$="FF='$T=V"L4)!< )n$)ff$(ntensity button is used to switch on2off the receiver and
vary the intensity of the fre6uency display. ,olume control is used to vary the system audio level
405 FreCuency 2isplay< Displays the selected fre6uency
4/5 FreCuency Select< &otary knobs which are used to select the desired fre6uency
Fi/ 5.0 A2F #ontrol unit
4.5 #hannel Select< %or selecting the pre$programmed fre6uencies stored in appropriate channels.
7anual 475 position is used for in$flight programming.
435 BF" "$="FF< Switch is used to switch$on the D%) when CW reception is desired.
4?5 T!ST< D('> switch. When pressed, the pointer on the indicator parks at a pre$determined
position and an audio tone is heard in the headset.
5...5 Factors affectin/ the perfor-ance of A2F syste-
'here are various factors such as the transmitter power, atmospheric conditions, choice of
fre6uency, terrain characteristics, time of the day, etc. which affect the performance of the AD%
system. 7ain sources of system error are discussed below.
4*5 $i/ht effect< 'his is due to the 1DD wave being reflected from the ionosphere and arriving at
the loop antenna. 'wo voltages will be induced in the loop< one due to the ground wave arriving
directly and the other being reflected from the ionosphere. 'his will result in a non$Kero or shifted
null. 'here will be bearing error or hunting of the pointer. 'his effect is prominent during sunrise
and sunset due to rapid changes in ionosphere.
% and 7% ground waves are contaminated beyond 0++ miles at 0++ ;"K and 3+ miles at
*?++ ;"K during day time. At night, the contamination is much worse due to the arrival of sky
waves. 'o overcome this, AD% should be used only with ground wave signals and at night time,
lower end of the AD% fre6uency range should be used. Also, flying at higher altitudes and tuning to
stations within *++ miles will improve the bearing.
405 #oastal refraction< When >7 waves travel over land and then over sea, refraction occurs and
there is a change in the direction of propagation. AD% indicator will show a bearing different from
the actual direction of the transmitter.
4/5 )ountain effect< 'his is due to the wave being reflected from mountains, hills or large
structures. AD% indicator will point towards the direction of reflection rather than the actual
4.5 Station interference< (f a number of 1DD stations are located closely and transmit signals with
narrow fre6uency spacing, station interference may result. AD% receiver should be designed so as to
have high selectivity to overcome this effect.
435 Static interference< Static build$up on the airframe and thunderstorms reduce the effective
range and accuracy of the system.
4?5 'nstallation error< (f the loop antenna is not installed properly on the airframe or the
connections of the loop antenna are not proper, this will give rise to bearing errors.
5...6 Locators
A locator 4or locator beacon5 is an %27% 1DD used as an aid to final approach for landing.
&adius of coverage of a locator is usually between *+ 17 to 03 17. ocator transmitters may be
co$located with the )uter and 7iddle 7arker beacons of (S. (n such cases, they are called as
ocator )uter 4)5 and ocator 7iddle 475. (n the absence of (S, locators are installed at the
locations where the 7iddle and )uter markers are installed. (f the aircraft is not e6uipped with
,)&2(S, locator beacon signals can be used as approach and landing aids.
5...7 *o-in/
During flights, the controllers often instruct the aircraft to home$in to 1DD and fly over or
hold at them. 'o home$in to an 1DD, the aircraft should be manoeuvred so that the AD% indicator
pointer should point directly at the lubber line i.e. directly ahead and the aircraft should maintain
this heading. (n an &D(, the pointer will point to +
and in an &7(, the pointer will coincide with the
lubber line. 'his means the relative bearing to the 1DD is Kero.
5.0 V*F "-nidirectional Ran/e (V"R)
,)& system is a navigation system operating in ,"% band. (t overcomes the anomalies in
direction finding using %27% signals because of the space wave properties of ,"%. ,)& system
is integrated with (nstrument anding System 4(S5. ,)& operates in the band *+B$**B 7"K out of
which *+B$**0 7"K band is shared with (S. %re6uencies in which tenths of 7"K 4first digit after
the decimal5 is even is used for ,)& and odd for (S. %or e!ample, *+B.0+, *+B.03, *+B..+, *+B..3
etc. are ,)& fre6uencies and *+B.*+, *+B.*3, *+B./+, *+B./3 etc. are (S fre6uencies. Channel
spacing of ,)& is 3+ ;"K.
Some ,)& stations are designed for high power output 40++W5 and are used for en$route
navigation, having coverage of 0++ 17. ,)& with low power output 43+W5 are for terminal
navigation 4called TV"R5 which have coverage of about 03 17.
5.0.+ %rinciple of operation
,)& operates on the principle of measurement of phase difference between two signals.
,)& transmits a composite signal consisting of<
4*5 /+ "K, %7, called the reference phase signal
405 /+ "K, A7, called the variable phase signal
4/5 *+0+ "K A7, identification of the station in morse code 4three letters5
4.5 ,oice, A7, can be used for ground$to$air communication or weather broadcast 4See ../...*5
'he reference signal has the same phase at any bearing throughout /?+
around the ,)&
station. 'he variable phase signal has a changing phase of *
for every *
of bearing around the
,)& station, starting at +
at due 1orth. (f an aircraft is flying due north from2to 4+
bearing5 the
,)& station, the ,)& receiver on board the aircraft will read Kero phase difference between the
two signals. An aircraft flying at ++*
bearing from2to the ,)& station, the receiver will read *
phase difference between the two signals. 'his phase difference gives the bearing of the station.
'here will be *
increment in phase difference between the two signals as we rotate around the
,)& station. 'his can be imagined as /?+ spokes of a wheel, spaced at *
from each other. >ach
degree is called a radial. Due east, phase difference will be -+
, due south # *B+
and due west it
will be 0A+
'his phase difference is converted into the appropriate form and sent to the &7( for
indicating the direction of ,)& station. 'he actual reading presented to the pilot is the phase
difference Y *B+
because the &7( pointer should indicate the JtoF bearing to the ,)& station rather
than JfromF. 'his is illustrated in figure ...
Fi/. 5.5 T"=FR") )a/netic ?earin/s of a V"R station
(n addition to the bearing 4to the ,)& station5, the ,)& also provides steering information
to the pilot. 'his information can be used to approach or depart from a station on a particular
bearing. Also, the ,)& provides indication of whether the aircraft is flying towards or flying away
from a ,)& station with the help of ')2%&)7 indicator. 'he steering information and ')2%&)7
indications are available on an instrument called *oriDontal Situation 'ndicator 4*S'5. Provisions
for coupling the ,)&2(S system with the autopilot is also possible8 ,"% 1av system provides the
steering information to autopilot for flying on desired radial or course.
5.0.. 'nstallation
,)& system has a receiver, a control unit and antenna. 'he ,)& receiver is combined with
the (S receiver in one bo!. Small aircraft may have ,"% 1av combined with ,"% communication
4Jall ,"% in one bo!F concept5. arge aircraft will have dual ,"% nav installation. 'he control unit
may be independent or provided in the 7CD@.
'wo unipole antennae are installed horiKontally back to back on the vertical stabiliser.
"oriKontal installation is because Conventional ,)& 4C,)&5 radiates horiKontally polarised >7
5.0.0 #ontrols and "peration
A typical ,)& control will be able to select (S fre6uencies too. 'he control unit will have
controls such as )12)%%, ,olume, (ntensity, %re6uency select, Self test 4D('>5, Active2Standby
fre6uency transfer, etc.
,)& indicators include &7( 4which has been discussed in AD% section5 and an
"-ni?earin/ Selector 4"BS5 or an "S(. )nly the "S( will be discussed here.
4*5 #ourse Select %ointer< (ndicates the selected course. Pilot can select a particular radial with this
405 T"=FR") 'ndicator< (ndicates whether the aircraft is flying ') or %&)7 a ,)& station. (f
the indicator is pointing upwards 4as in figure ...5, it is ') and if it is pointing downwards, it is
Fi/. 5.6 *oriDontal Situation 'ndicator (*'S)
4/5 V"R=L"# 2e1iation Bar< (ndicates the magnitude by which the aircraft is off its course i.e.
from the selected radial. 7ovement of the bar is lateral along the V"R=L"# de1iation scale.
When a course is selected, the bar moves left or right. 'his indication is called %P$>%' or %P$
&(9"'. Pilot has to manoeuvre the aircraft so as to bring the bar to the centre. )nce the bar is in
the centre, the aircraft is on course, flying the desired radial.
4.5 #ourse Select Kno?< %or selecting the course. &otating this knob rotates the course select
435 $a1 Aarnin/ Fla/< (ndicates the usability of the received ,)& signal. 'he flag comes into
view when the ,)& signal is very weak or absent. When the signal is good, flag goes out of view.
4?5 #o-pass Aarnin/ Fla/< Similar to 1av warning flag. %lag comes into view when compass
signal not usable or absent. 9oes out of view when the signal is usable.
Compass signal is used to rotate the co-pass card of "S( so as to indicate the heading of the
aircraft. 'he heading of the aircraft is the reading on the compass card that is aligned with the
lu??er line.
4A5 *eadin/ Select Kno? and Bu/< When "S( is coupled to the autopilot system, the aircraft can
be steered towards a desired heading by placing the headin/ ?u/ 4by rotating the headin/ select
)peration of ocaliser and 9lideslope will be discussed in the (S topic.
5.0.5 Ad1anta/es and 2isad1anta/es
5.0.5.+ Ad1anta/es
,)& has many advantages over the AD% based on %27% 1DD.
4*5 Provides magnetic bearing of the station, ')2%&)7 indication, steering information, provision
for coupling with autopilot.
405 1o drawbacks of ground waves and sky waves such as night effect, coastal refraction,
atmospheric noise.
4/5 ,)& system has made possible the formation of JairwaysF which are tracks :oining ,)&
stations. Air traffic management is much easier due to airways.
4.5 Provision for ground$to$air voice communication 4such as weather broadcast5 is available in
,)&. When both voice and morse code 4station identity5 are being received, by pressing the
,)(C> button on the A(S, the morse code gets suppressed and only the voice communication is
heard. 7>'A& broadcast over ,)& channels is available in Delhi 4**?.* 7"K5, ;olkata 4**0.3
7"K5 and 7umbai 4**?.? 7"K5 using A/> emission.
5.0.5.. 2isad1anta/es
,)& system has its own drawbacks.
4*5 Since ,)& works on space waves, )S is mandatory for reception. &ange becomes limited.
"igh altitudes improve the range.
405 Due to the small wavelength of ,)& signal, they are easily reflected by buildings and hills.
Doth direct and reflected waves reach the receiver and give rise to errors called -ultipath errors.
4/5 %re6uent air$calibration is necessary to reduce the error margin.
4.5 Directly over the ,)& station, there will be a cone shaped region where the ,)& signal will be
weak and unusable. 'his region is called the #one of #onfusion. When flying in this area, the
')2%&)7 indicator will toggle between these two positions and the deviation indicator will
oscillate or indicate full scale.
5.0.6 2oppler V"R 42V"R5
D,)& overcomes the multipath errors that e!ist with C,)&. (n D,)&, the reference
signal is /+ "K A7 and the variable phase signal is /+ "K %7. 'he modulations are so arranged
that D,)& transmission is compatible with C,)& receiver i.e. same receivers can work with both
D,)& and C,)& transmissions. DSD$D,)& transmits the reference signal from an
omnidirectional antenna. ,ariable phase signal is radiated from diametrically opposite antennae in a
ring of fifty antennae. Dy measuring the Doppler shift, the receiver calculates the phase difference.
5.5 'nstru-ent Landin/ Syste- 4'LS5
(S is a landing aid for approaching aircraft. (t complements the ,)& en$route navigation
by guiding the aircraft for final approach and landing, even during poor weather conditions. (S has
three segments<
4*5 Localiser< Provides lateral guidance to align with the centre of runway.
405 Glideslope< Provides vertical guidance to maintain the correct angle of descent.
4/5 )arker< Provides indications of distance from touchdown.
5.5.+ #ate/ories of 'LS
'here are different categories of (S, based on their accuracy of service. 'he least accurate
provides guidance to a point from where the pilot has to perform the landing with visual contact.
"igher the accuracy, shorter the altitude and distance of visual approach. 'he accuracy is defined in
terms of 2ecision *ei/ht 42*5 and Runay Visual Ran/e 4RVR5. 'he most accurate category
provides guidance with no D" and &,&. (S categories and their specifications are given below<
Ta?le 5.+ #ate/ories of 'LS
#ate/ory 2* Visi?ility RVR
( 1ot ` ?+ m 40++ ft5 B++ m 1ot ` 33+ m
(( ` ?+ m but not ` /+ m 4*++ ft5 $$ 1ot ` /++ m
(((A ` /+ m or no D" $$ 1ot ` *A3 m
(((D ` *3 m or no D" $$ ` *A3m but not ` 3+ m
(((C 1o D", cloud base or visibility restrictions
5.5.. Localiser
ocaliser works in the fre6uency band *+B.*+ # ***.-3 7"K with 3+ ;"K channel spacing.
%re6uency band is shared with ,)& 4see paragraph ../5. When an aircraft comes in for landing
and starts receiving the localiser signals, it is called esta?lishin/ the localiser. &ange of localiser is
03 17 within O *+
from the runway centre line. Within *A 17, it can be received up to O /3
the centre line.
5.5...+ %rinciple of "peration
ocaliser works on the principle of measurement of difference in depth of -odulation
422)5. ocaliser transmits a signal modulated by tones of -+ "K and *3+ "K. %or an aircraft flying
to the left of the e!tended runway centre line, -+ "K modulation predominates and for an aircraft
flying to the right of the centre line, *3+ "K modulation predominates. 7agnitude of deviation from
the centre line is calculated by the DD7 of both modulations. %or an aircraft flying e!actly on the
centre line, both modulations will be e6ual i.e. the DD7 will be Kero.
Fi/. 5.7 Localiser co1era/e (top 1ie) and "BS indications
'he measured DD7 is converted into a voltage which is used to drive the lateral de1iation
?ar of the )DS2"S( 4,)&2)C deviation bar in figure ..35. "igher DD7 will result in larger
movement of the bar. (f the aircraft is flying to the right of the centre line, the bar will move to left,
thereby indicating to the pilot to Lfly leftM and if the aircraft is to the left of the centre line, the bar
will move to the right giving a Lfly ri/htM indication. Pilot has to maintain the bar in the centre to
make the proper approach.
ocaliser also transmits a station identification tone of *+0+ "K morse code. @sually the
identification consists of four letters, transmitted at least si! times per minute.
5.5.... Localiser Backcourse
)lder ,)& installations using less directional antennae allows a runway to have a non$
precision approach called a localiser ?ackcourse. 'his lets aircraft land using the signal transmitted
from the back of the localiser array, i.e. from the opposite end of the runway. )n normal ,)&
indicators, the lateral deviation indicator swing will be reversed. Dackcourse can also be used for
5.5.0 Glideslope
9lideslope works in the @"% band, /0B.? # //3.. 7"K at *3+ ;"K channel spacing. >ach
9S fre6uency is paired with a localiser fre6uency, so there is no separate selection of 9S fre6uency.
When a localiser fre6uency is selected, the paired 9S fre6uency also gets selected automatically.
5.5.0.+ %rinciple of "peration
9lideslope works on the similar principle as localiser. Above the correct glide path -+ "K
tone will predominate and below the glide path, *3+ "K tone will predominate. Along the correct
glide path, the DD7 will be Kero. A nominal glide path angle should be /
. (f the approaching
aircraft is lower than the correct glide slope, the 9S pointer 49lide Slope pointer in figure ..35 will
move up indicating Lfly upM and if the aircraft is above the correct glide slope, the 9S pointer will
move down, indicating Lfly donM. Pilot must ad:ust the engine power to climb2descend to align
along the correct glide path which will be indicated by the 9S pointer moving to the centre of the
9S Deviation scale.
Fi/. 5.8 Glideslope and "BS indications
5.5.5 )arker Beacons
7arker beacons provide range information to the approaching aircraft. 'here are three
beacons along the e!tended centre line of the runway< )uter 7arker 4)75, 7iddle 7arker 4775
and (nner 7arker 4(75. 7arkers radiate signals of A3 7"K carrier.
5.5.5.+ %rinciple of "peration
7arker beacons radiate directly upwards &% beams which are called pencil beam
transmissions. Polar diagram of such transmissions will be in the shape of inverted cone. When an
aircraft approaches along the e!tended centre line, it passes over the marker beacons. 7arker
receiver receives the beams and after processing the signal, provides aural and visual 4lamp5
indications to the pilot.
Fi/. 5.9 Glideslope specifications
)7 is so located as to provide distance, height and e6uipment functioning check point for
the aircraft on intermediate and final approach. 77 is located so as to provide indication of the
pro!imity of visual approach guidance in low visibility conditions. (7 is located so as to provide
indication of the pro!imity of runway threshold in low visibility conditions.
7odulating fre6uencies, distances from threshold, light indications and the identity codes
are given in the table below<
Ta?le 5.. )arker ?eacon specifications
2istance fro-
Li/ht indication
'dentity code
)uter /.- 17 4A.0 km5 Dlue2Purple .++ "K 'wo dashes
7iddle /3++ ft O 3++ ft Amber */++ "K
Dots and dashes
(nner 03+ ft to *3++ ft White /+++ "K Si! dots
5.5.5.. Fan )arkers
%an markers are also called Airays or F marker. %an marker is a position aid for en$route
navigation. (t is located on airways or at holding points. Carrier of A3 7"K is modulated by /+++
"K tone. Some aircraft have the marker lights as A 4Airways5, ), 7 instead of (, ), 7.
5.5.6 'nstallation
,)& and (S 4ocaliser, 9lideslope and 7arker beacon5 receivers are usually combined in
one bo!. (n older models, they may be separate units. Some manufacturers put both the receiver and
control unit in one bo!, installed in the cockpit. As mentioned earlier, ,"% communication and
,"% 1av units are also combined together in one bo! by certain manufacturers. ,)&2(S2D7>
control units may be combined together
Antenna can be combined for ,)&, ocaliser and 9S, installed horiKontally on the vertical
stabiliser 4see ../.05. 9S antenna may be separate in some installations. 7arker beacon receiver has
a separate antenna because of the lower fre6uency.
5.5.7 #ontrols and "peration
A typical control unit will have )12)%% control, fre6uency selectors, D('> switch. 'here
may be AC'(,>2S'A1DDP fre6uency selection with a '&A1S%>& switch to toggle between the
active and standby fre6uencies. (1'>1S('P control may be provided if the display is >D.
,)@7> control may be provided for varying the ,)&2(S system audio.
Switching on the system will power on ,)&, (S receivers and D7> transceiver. Selecting
a ,)& fre6uency will automatically select a pairing D7> fre6uency. Selecting a localiser
fre6uency will automatically select a glideslope fre6uency. When the system is tuned to a )C29S
fre6uency and valid signal is received, the )DS2"S( will indicate the lateral and vertical position of
the aircraft with respect to the runway centre line. )C identity code can be heard on the headset by
selecting the appropriate control on the intercom system. )perating the '>S' 4D('>5, should result
in a complete test of the system and indications such as predetermined movement of )C and 9S
deviation indicators on "S(, test audio tone in the headsets and blinking of 7arker beacon lamps.
A switch that re6uires special mention is the )arker *i=Lo sensiti1ity switch. 'his switch
may be located on the 1av control unit or separately. Purpose of this switch is to change the marker
receiver sensitivity high or low. When the aircraft is flying over the fan markers, the switch is kept
to *i position due to the high altitude 4en$route5. Dut when the aircraft is approaching for a landing,
the switch is kept to Lo position because of the low altitude. (f the switch is kept to "i during
approach, the marker beacon lamps may remain on for longer than the stipulated *+ sec or it is even
possible that )7 and 77 lamps will be on together.
5.5.8 'LS Reference 2atu-
A point at a specified height located above the intersection of the runway centre line and the
threshold and through which the downward e!tended straight portion of the (S glide path passes.
%or a standard /
glideslope, the (S reference datum is usually at 3+ ft 4*3 75 above the threshold.
5.5.9 Li-itations of 'LS
'hough Cat ((( (S provide accurate guidance for approach and landing, (S system suffers
from some limitations.
4*5 Aircraft have to approach only within the )C29S coverage sectors. 'his restricts the number
of aircraft that can approach for landing.
405 %alse glideslopes can appear at multiples of glide path angle. 'o avoid this, the glideslope must
be captured from below.
4/5 &eflections from nearby buildings, hills etc, can cause beam bending and false indications on
the indicators 4multipath effect5.
5.6 )icroa1e Landin/ Syste- 4)LS5
7S is an all weather precision approach and landing guidance system. (t is a Ti-e
Referenced Scannin/ Bea- 4TRSB5 system. (t operates in the fre6uency band of 3+/*.+ 7"K to
3+-+.A 7"K. 0++ channels are available.
5.6.+ %rinciple of "peration
A radio beam is scanned rapidly to and fro on either side of the runway centre line. An
aircraft flying within the coverage of this scan will receive two pulses< one each for JtoF and JfroF
scans. Dy measuring the time difference between the two pulses, position of the aircraft can be
calculated 4by the 7S receiver in the aircraft5, provided it is known which is the JtoF scan and
which is JfroF scan.
)ne beam scans laterally 4aKimuth5 for lateral guidance and another beam scans vertically
for vertical guidance. 'hese are similar to the ocaliser and 9S guidance respectively.
&ange of aKimuth guidance coverage is .+
on either side of the runway centre line 4total
coverage B+
5 up to a distance of about 00.3 17, vertically up to 0+,+++ ft.
&ange of elevation guidance should be same as that for the aKimuth guidance coverage area.
Fi/. 5.: )LS specifications
5.6.. Ad1anta/es
7ain advantages of 7S system are<
4*5 Ade6uate number of channels to avoid interference with nearby airfield 7S.
405 Wide coverage area that allows aircraft to approach from wider areas around the runway.
4/5 1egligible signal bending due to reflected signal 4multipath5.
4.5 >!cellent all$weather performance.
435 Provision for data transmission along with the beams.
4?5 Curved approaches are possible
5.7 2istance )easurin/ !Cuip-ent 42)!5
D7> is a ranging guidance which gives e!act slant ran/e to the D7> e6uipment installed
in the airfield. (f D7> data is combined with ,)& data, the position of a ,)&2D7> station 4in
turn, the position of the aircraft with respect to the ,)&2D7> station5 can be calculated 4ranging
data from D7> and bearing from ,)& which is called rho>theta5. A %recision 2)! data can be
combined with 7S to obtain much accurate bearing and range data.
D7> works in the fre6uency range of -?0 # *0*/ 7"K. 030 channels are available.
Coverage range is omnidirectional up to distances from + to 0++ 17. Can be e!tended to /++ 17.
5.7.+ %rinciple of "peration
When a transmitted radar pulse is reflected by obstruction and received back at the source,
by measuring the time taken, the distance to the obstruction can be calculated. Speed of the >7
wave 4*?0+++ 172Sec5 multiplied by the time taken between transmission and reception, divided
by two will give the distance.
D7> works on the principle of secondary surveillance radar. D7> has an interro/ator in
the aircraft and a transponder on the ground. (nterrogator transmits coded pulses. 'ransponder
receives these pulses, introduces a delay of 3+ micro seconds, then transmits a reply of coded pulses
to the aircraft. D7> receiver in the aircraft receives the reply and measures the time taken for
transmission and reply. Compensating for the 3+ micro second delay, it calculates the slant distance
to the D7> station. 'his data can be used to calculate the aircraft ground speed and time$to$station
5.7.. 'nstallation
D7> interrogator 4with receiver5 can be a bo! fitted in avionics rack with the control unit
fitted in the cockpit. 9eneral aviation D7> e6uipment may have one unit containing the
interrogator, receiver, &1A, computer and the controls and display for indicating range, ground
speed and time to station. Antennae are omnidirectional and are fitted on the underside of the
5.7.0 #ontrols and "peration
D7> will have minimum controls because the fre6uency selection is automatic with ,)&
fre6uency pairing. D7> power on$off is usually provided on the ,)& control unit. ,)& control
unit may have a selection in which the ,)& receiver is kept on and the D7> system is either stand
by or off.
(ndication of D7> outputs may be given in a separate display unit or within the integrated
control display unit. Some models of "S( will have digital displays for displaying the range, ground
speed and time$to$station.
Fi/. 5.+; *S' ith 2)! display
5.7.5 Ad1anta/es and 2isad1anta/es
7ain advantages are<
4*5 &anging accuracy is very high, i.e. O+.* to O+./ 17.
405 Accurate distance to the touch down is available.
7ain disadvantage of D7><
Beacon saturation. D7> can provide service to a ma!imum of *++ aircraft at a time. (f the
number of aircraft interrogating the D7> e!ceeds *++, the D7> transponder will reply only to the
*++ aircraft whose interrogation signal strength is stronger.
5.8 "-e/a $a1i/ation Syste- 4"$S5
)1S is a ,%, CW, long range navigation system. >ight transmitting stations are
strategically installed around the world. >ach station transmits three fre6uencies *+.0, **.// and
*/.? ;"K in a predetermined se6uence, within a *+ second period. 'he transmissions are
omnidirectional, the transmission power being *+ ;W. 'he station locations are 1orway, iberia,
"awaii, 1orth Dakota, a &eunion, Argentina, 'rinidad2Australia, and Capan.
5.8.+ %rinciple of "peration
At a time, only three stations will transmit, each on a different fre6uency from the given
three fre6uencies. All the transmitters are phase locked using atomic clocks. A receiver will receive
minimum four stations anywhere in the globe. Dy measuring the phase of the received signals from
different stations, the computer in the receiver can compute its distance from each of the
transmitting station. Dy using the hyperbolic lines from the transmitters, the receiver fi!es its
position at the point of intersection. (n other words, the receiver ranges 4measures the distance5
itself from three fi!ed points and makes a position fi! where the three ranges meet or intersect. 'his
method of position fi! is called the rho>rho>rho method. 'he type of ranging used by )1S is
known as hyper?olic ranging. )ther two types of hyperbolic ranging are the 2ecca na1i/ator and
Loran #. )1S system was phased out in *--A and Decca navigator was shut down in 0+++, oran
C was phased out in 0+*+.
5.8.. 'nstallation
(nstallation on the aircraft consists of a &eceiver Processor @nit 4&P@5, a Control Display
@nit 4CD@5 and an Antenna Coupler @nit 4AC@5.

5.9 Satellite Based $a1i/ation Syste-s
'hese systems are known as Glo?al $a1i/ation Satellite Syste-s 4G$SS5. Decause of the
high altitude of the satellites, they have wider coverage and )S with receivers below. 'hey do not
suffer from the drawbacks of ground wave and sky wave navigation. 'here are three main satellite
based navigation systems at present< $a1star Glo?al %ositionin/ Satellite Syste- 4G%S5, by the
@SA, Glo?al $a1i/ation Satellite Syste- 4GL"$ASS5 by the &ussian %ederation and Galileo by
the >uropean @nion. Since the working principle of all these systems is same, only 9PS will be
discussed here.
5.9.+ Glo?al %ositionin/ Satellite Syste- 4G%S5
'he 9PS system works on the rho$rho$rho principle, i.e. ranging from three reference points
and fi!ing the position. 9PS satellites are the reference points. 'hat is the reason why the system is
known as space$based navigation system. 9PS has three segments<
4*5 Space se/-ent which consists of 0. satellites covering the whole globe
405 #ontrol se/-ent which consists of a master control station in the @S and monitoring stations
all over the globe.
4/5 4ser se/-ent which is the 9PS receiver.
5.9.+.+ %rinciple of operation
9PS satellites transmit signals in coded form. %re6uency of transmission is in band. 9PS
satellites revolve around the world twice in 0. hours. A receiver on the ground or aircraft receives
these signals from three satellites and decodes them. Since the e!act location of each satellite is
stored in the memory of a receiver, the satellites are used as reference points. Distance from each
satellite is calculated by measuring the time taken by the signal to reach the receiver. Distances
from three reference points gives the position fi!. Dy using the signal from a fourth satellite, the
receiver corrects its time. 'he receiver can receive signals from many satellites, but uses only four
satellite signals for processing.
9PS satellites transmit two types of signals, one for the @S military 4% & %recision code5
and other for global civilian usage 4#=A & #oarse AcCuisition code5.
9PS data output are the position 4in at$ong or @'75, altitude and time. 'ime provided by
9PS is very accurate since it is derived from atomic clocks. 'he outputs are compatible and can be
easily integrated with advanced digital navigation and weapon systems.
5.9.+.. Ad1anta/es and 2isad1anta/es
9PS provides very accurate positioning and timing signals. Advanced versions of 9PS such
as Differential 9PS 4D9PS5 and Augmented 9PS 4A9PS5 provide very accurate positioning of the
receiver in a dynamic environment. 'hese systems can be used by the aircraft for precision
approach and landing.
7ain disadvantage of 9PS system is, @S military can introduce errors intentionally into the
C2A signals or the whole system can be switched off in case of military threats to the @S.
5.: Secondary Sur1eillance Radar 4SSR5
SS&, also known as (dentification %riend or %oe 4(%%5 was designed for military purposes to
overcome the drawbacks of primary surveillance radar. SS& operates on two fre6uencies of band,
viK. *+/+ 7"K and *+-+ 7"K. SS& has three modes of operation< 7ode A, 7ode C and 7ode S.
5.:.+ %rinciple of "peration
SS& works on the (nterrogator$transponder basis. A ground based interrogator transmits a
pair of pulses as interrogation, from a directional antenna. 'he directional antenna is mounted on a
primary surveillance radar 4PS&5 antenna co$a!ially and both the antennae rotate together. Pulse
pair is modulated on a carrier wave of *+/+ 7"K. 'ime gap between the two pulses defines the
interrogation8 )ode A $ LWhat is your identityVM or )ode # $ LWhat is your altitudeVM. 'his is the
interrogation part.
'he aircraft SS& transponder receives these pulses and checks them for validity. (f the
interrogation is valid, the transponder generates a reply in the form of a pulse train 4series of
pulses5. &eply transmission is modulated on a carrier of *+-+ 7"K. &eply to 7ode A interrogation
will be a particular code which is called sCuak. %or 7ode C interrogation, the aircraft transponder
takes the altitude of the aircraft from the encoding altimeter and transmits as reply. 'he identity or
altitude is coded in the pulse train by using different time gaps between the pulses.
&eply is received at the (nterrogator receiver and displayed on a screen for the controller.
'he display shows the bearing and identity of the aircraft if the reply is mode A or the bearing,
identity and altitude if the reply is mode C. Dearing is calculated by the position of the aKimuth
4angle with respect to north5 of the ground directional antenna when it receives the reply from the
&eplying to an interrogation is automatic and needs no pilot intervention.
5.:.+.+ "peration of SSR and 'dentifyin/ an Aircraft
After establishing &' communication with an aircraft, the controller will give the pilot a
four digit SS& code8 &' phraseology used is sCuak. Pilot sets the code on the control unit of the
SS& and switches on the SS& system. When the aircraft transponder receives an interrogation, it
replies with its identity 4and altitude $ if mode C5. A dot representing the aircraft is displayed on the
controllerFs radar screen along with the code. 'his way, the controller ascertains an aircraftFs
5.:.. 'nstallation
A large transport aircraft may have twin transponder system. 'he installation consists of a
transponder, control unit and an antenna. 9eneral aviation aircraft will have a transponder and the
control unit combined and fitted in the cockpit. Aircraft transponder antenna is omnidirectional.
5.:.0 #ontrols and "peration
Controls of an SS& transponder will be very simple. A typical control unit controls are
discussed below<
Fi/. 5.++ SSR #ontrol unit
4*5 Function sitch< 'his will have positions such as )%%, S'DP, A 4or )15 and C 4or A'5.
;eeping the switch in )%% position powers off the system, S'DP position switches on the system
and keeps it in standby, A 4or )15 puts the system into identity reporting mode 47ode A5 and C 4or
A'5 puts it into altitude reporting mode 47ode C5
405 #ode selector< >ither rotary knobs or thumb$wheel switches for selecting the s6uawk code.
4/5 #ode display indo< Displays the selected four digit s6uawk code.
4.5 '=% sitch or '2!$T< (ndicate Position switch. (n a busy air traffic environment, there will be
many blips 4dots5 on the controllerFs screen. (t will be difficult for him to search for a particular
aircraft. 'he controller can use the &' phraseology sCuak Z Z Z Z ident and the pilot will press
this switch 4e.g. ,'ADC SE@AW; %)@& 'W) Q>&) Q>&) A1D (D>1'5. 'his will send a
Special %osition 'ndicator 4S%'5 pulse in the reply pulse train. 'his will be processed in the
interrogator and will make the blip representing the particular aircraft ?losso- 4glow brightly and
become large5, thereby attracting the attention of the controller towards it. (2P switch is spring
loaded to return to default position when released.
435 Lo Sense sitch< 'his switch reduces the sensitivity of the transponder sensitivity. 'his is to
avoid being interrogated by side lobes.
4?5 Test sitch< Activates the D('> function to check transponder serviceability. Passing of D('>
test will be indicated by lighting up of a lamp. (n some control units, the lamp itself may be the push
button for test.
4A5 Reply la-p< 'his lamp indicates when a successful reply is transmitted by the transponder.
4B5 2i-< A potentiometer 4variable resistor5 for controlling the brightness of the front panel.
5.:.5 SSR #odes
SS& code assignment is published in A(P ,olume (, Part 0, >1&*.?. Some of the important
SS& codes are given below<
Code AA++ # indicates aircraft is in emergency
Code A?++ # indicates aircraft has radio communication failure
Code A3++ # indicates aircraft is being sub:ected to unlawful interference 4"(CAC;5
Code ++++ # general purpose code
Code 0+++ # indicates aircraft has not received any instruction from A'C to operate the transponder
5.:.6 )ode S Transponder
7ode S transponders have the capability of transmitting data in addition to identity and
altitude reporting capability. 'his lessens the workload of the pilot and controller because most of
the clearances can be sent on this datalink.
7ode S transponders also work with Collision Avoidance Systems onboard the aircraft.
'his topic will be discussed under Collision Avoidance Systems heading.
5.:.7 Li-itations of SSR
SS& is susceptible to drawbacks such as
4*5 False tar/ets caused due to side lobe interrogation.
405 Fruitin/ due to receiving replies by an interrogator which are actually replies meant for another
interrogator within range.
4/5 Gar?lin/ which happens if one aircraft is directly behind another and within *.?3 17 of the
aircraft ahead. &eplies of both will overlap at the interrogator antenna and gives rise to garbling.
4.5 (f either interrogation or reply are reflected from mountains or large structures, it will give an
incorrect range.
5.+; Air?orne #ollision A1oidance Syste- 4A#AS5
ACAS and Traffic #ollision A1oidance Syste-s 4T#AS5 are installed on the aircraft for
preventing the mid$air collisions. %unctions of the ACAS system are<
4*5 Surveillance
405 9enerating 'raffic Advisories 4providing the pilot with visual and aural alert L'raffic 'rafficM5.
4/5 'hreat 4in the form of conflicting traffic5 detection
4.5 9enerating &esolution Advisories
435 Coordinating between own aircraft and conflicting traffic
4?5 Communicating with ground stations
Surveillance is provided for traffic up to *. 17. &A is generated for only traffic within *0
17. ACAS can detect broadcast interrogations from other aircraft e6uipped with ACAS up to a
distance of /+ 17.
'here are three types of ACAS depending on their functional capability<
4*5 A#AS '< 'his type provides information as an aid to Lsee and avoidM action. ACAS ( does not
have the capability to produce &esolution Advisories 4&A5. (t generates 'raffic Advisories 4'A5
to alert the pilot.
405 A#AS ''< 'his type provides 'A and vertical &A. (n case of a threat, it generates the 'A
warning L'raffic 'rafficM and a #li-? RA or a 2escend RA.
4/5 A#AS '''< 'his type provides the 'A, vertical and horiKontal &A. 'his type of ACAS provide
&A to manoeuvre the aircraft in horiKontal plane, in addition to 'A and vertical &A.
5.+;.+ %rinciple of operation
ACAS interrogates other aircraft fitted with 7ode A2C and S transponders. When the
transponder of the other aircraft replies, the bearing of the traffic is obtained from the bearing of the
directional antenna, altitude is obtained from the 7ode C reply. &eplying traffic can also obtain its
position from 91SS such as 9PS receiver and send this information in the 7ode S reply.
&eplies from the traffic allow the ACAS computer to ascertain the range, flight path and
speed of the traffic. 'hus, the ACAS computes the possibility of a collision and generates 'A and if
re6uired, &A. (t also communicates with the other aircraft via 7ode S transponder datalink to
e!change information regarding its own position and &A. ACAS of both aircraft coordinate to
avoid the conflict. Also, the ACAS broadcasts the &A information to a 7ode S capable ground
station. (nterrogation and replies from other aircraft on ground will not generate 'A and &A.
Along with the aural alert, the visual alerts are put up on display for the pilots. Displays can
be dedicated or integrated with other displays, such as glass cockpit. 'he displays provide a plan$
view of traffic around the own aircraft.
5.+;.. 'nstallation
'he e6uipment installation usually consists of an ACAS transceiver, directional antennae,
7ode S transponder with associated antennae, control unit and a vertical speed indicator or
integrated >%(S display.
5.++ Aeather Radar
Weather radar gives the pilot indication of the weather ahead of the aircraft. Weather radar
operates in C and G bands. &ange of weather radar is around /?+ 17.
5.++.+ %rinciple of "peration
Weather radar works on the principle of reflection of &% pulses. An &% pulse is transmitted
from the aircraft weather radar antenna. (f the pulse hits an obstruction 4target5, it is reflected back
and received at the aircraft weather radar antenna. Dy measuring the time taken for the pulse to
travel up to the reflecting ob:ect and travel back, the distance of the ob:ect can be calculated. 'he
direction 4bearing5 of the transmitting antenna during transmission of the pulse gives the bearing of
the target. After processing, the targets are displayed on a screen.
>ven clouds reflect back the &% pulses. Denser the cloud, stronger will be the echo signal
strength. 'his gives information about the density of the cloud. (n the display, this information can
be displayed in different colours. %or e!ample, cu-uloni-?us 4#B5 clouds, the type of clouds
dangerous for aircraft operations can be displayed in red colour.
&adar antenna scans the air space ahead of the aircraft in a sector, the boundaries of which
can be selected by the pilot.
Disadvantage of weather radar is, it cannot detect weather phenomena such as turbulence in
dry weather. Presence of water droplets is necessary for reflection of &% pulses.
5.+. Radio=Radar Alti-eter
&adio altimeter works on a similar principle to weather radar. (t emits &% pulses 4or %7
CW5 towards the ground and receives the echo. Dy the time taken by the pulse for two way travel, it
calculates the distance which is the height of the aircraft above the ground. 'he system can give a
warning to the pilot if the aircraft descends below a preset level. &adar altimeter measurement is
very accurate. Difference between D7> and &adar altimeter is D7> measures the slant distance
whereas the latter measures the straight distance. 'ypical ma!imum range of radar altimeter is 03++
ft. 7ilitary aircraft may be e6uipped with higher range radio altimeters. 'he fre6uency range of
carrier is .0++$..++ 7"K band.
Fi/. 5.+. #o-parison ?eteen 2)! and Radio Alti-eter ran/in/
5.+0 Ground %ro,i-ity Aarnin/ Syste- 4G%AS5
9PWS is a system which provides warning to the aircraft in case of terrain closure. 9PWS
was developed after cases of #ontrolled Fli/ht 'n to Terrain 4#F'T5 took place. 'he system takes
input from the radio altimeter, pressure altimeter and landing gear status. (f the aircraft comes too
close to ground, the system gives aural and visual warnings to the pilot. Pro!imity of ground may
be intentional 4such as when coming in for landing5 or unintentional 4such as approaching mountain
range when visibility is poor or flying over unfamiliar terrain5. (f it is intentional, pilot can choose
to override or ignore the warning.
5.+0.+ !nhanced G%AS 4!G%AS5
>9PWS is the advanced version of 9PWS. 'errain characteristics of the whole globe is
digitised and stored in the memory of >9PWS computer. 'he computer takes its present position
from the 9PS data and displays a /$D visual display of terrain underneath that position. >9PWS is
also capable of providing wind shear warning. 'his capability is known as Forard Lookin/
Aind Shear Aarnin/ Syste-.
5.+5 Auto-atic 2ependent Sur1eillance 4A2S5
Automatic Dependent Surveillance is a system which automatically provides the aircraft
identification, position in four dimensions 4/D and time5, navigational and additional data to the
ground controller. 'hese data are presented to the controller on a screen similar to a radar screen.
'wo main forms of ADS are given below<
4a5 A2S & Broadcast 4A2S & B5< ADS system in which the data is broadcast and any suitable
receiver can receive.
4b5 A2S & #ontract 4A2S & #5< 'his is similar to ADS # D but works on a contract between a
ground system and aircraft.

> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
%RA#T'#! T!ST %A%!RS
!(A)'$AT'"$ & %ART & '
%RA#T'#AL T!ST & R!G4LAT'"$S A$2 TRAFF'# %R"#!24R!
Authors note
'ransmission test consists of communicating with the >!aminer, using &' phraseology, on
a synthetic channel. According to the notice from WPC 4P$*.+0A2+.2+-$C)P dated 002*+20++-5,
the following changes in Part ( have been brought into force from %ebruary 0++- session<
4*5 'he candidate is re6uired to maintain a log for his2her entire &' communication transactions
with the >!aminer for all the five 6uestions.
405 Assessment of the performance of the candidate in the e!amination will take the log into
4/5 Duration of the e!amination has been increased from *3 minutes to 03 minutes.
'herefore, it is advised to practise maintaining a log while preparing for the transmission
test. %ive of the solved test papers in this chapter have logs with them. 'he answers given in these
solved papers are only samples of the typical answers and may vary from the actual answers,
especially the second stage onwards of each 6uestion. 'his is because the transmissions from the
>!aminer may be at variance from the answers given in the solved papers. %or e!ample, the
>!aminer may refuse to give a descent clearance. 'he >!aminer may even refuse clearance for any
re6uest by the candidate and the candidate should ask LA2V'S! '$T!$T'"$M. Also, it is not
binding to use the same abbreviations or shortcuts as used in these logs. (t is strongly advised to use
standard abbreviations. Since the candidate is re6uired to Jread backF, one should practise the right
way of logging the receptions so that there is no confusion about what has been logged. (t is advised
to develop oneFs own standard of logging and maintain that standard throughout.
'ransmission techni6ues have been discussed in Part ((, Chapter 0, paragraph 0.0. 'he
candidate should be thorough with these techni6ues. 'ransmission skills can be developed through
repeated practice.
A map set will be provided with the 6uestion paper. 'he map number, to be referred to
attempt the given set of 6uestions, will be mentioned at the top of the 6uestion paper. Certain air
routes will be given in the map and the situations in the 6uestions will be framed around the air
route. 'he candidate should be conversant with map reading, especially with the four$letter location
indicators of aerodromes. Also, the candidate should be familiar with the significant points and their
geographic locations. 'he candidate is re6uired to know the coverage areas of '7A and C'&
because there will be 6uestions in which the candidate is re6uired to contact the Lappropriate
Data such as call sign, Selcal and SS& codes, cruising flight level, etc will be given in the
6uestion paper and the fre6uencies on the map. 'he candidate should use these for answering the
6uestions. (f any data is not given, hypothetical data can be used. Where departure time has been
given, specific time has to be written against the 6uestion numbers on the answer sheet.
7aps given in this guide book are only for practice and one should not e!pect the same
maps in the e!amination. >ven the design of the maps is slightly different than the maps given
during e!amination. )bviously, the candidate must be totally ready to work with any map rather
than e!pect a standard set of maps for all the sessions of the e!amination.
astly, it is strongly advised not to learn by rote 4by heart5, the e!amples given in preceding
chapters and the answers given in the solved test papers. What is important is, to study the elements
of the message and use corresponding standard phraseology while preparing the messages. 'he
elements must be in proper se6uence so that the clarity of the message is maintained. Where there is
no standard phraseology for a particular situation, usage of plain language, as concise as possible, is
T!ST %A%!R & +
Ti-e alloedB .6 -inutes fro- handin/ o1er Cuestion paper. )a,i-u- -arksB +;;
Aircraft identificationB '# 7.; Type of AircraftB Air?us Fli/ht Le1elB .9;
2eparture Aerodro-eB V!## 2estination Aerodro-eB V"))
RouteB "1er flyin/ V!BS @ V!VF Selcal co-?inationB AL#*
2eparture Ti-eB +5;;
Refer to Route #hart $oB ;+
Take RTF action for situations /i1en ?elo in ascendin/ order.
4se hypothetical data< for -essa/e that reCuire to ?e trans-itted at specific ti-e< candidate
should rite that specific ti-e a/ainst Cuestion nu-?er on the anser sheet.
#ontinue anserin/ till you are told to QGo to ne,t CuestionU.
4sa/e of A1iation Lan/ua/e and prescri?ed %hraseolo/ies is -andatory.
E *. Defore Departure from ;olkata obtain the following
4a5 Start up Clearance
4b5 'a!i (nstruction
4c5 'ake )ff clearance
E 0. )ver ;olkata Chennai %(& boundary you have received a S>CA indication. 'ake action.
E /.
4a5 When crossing D);>', you observed fire on left engine and decided to make force landing.
4b5 'he fire was minor and you are able to e!tinguish the fire and decided to proceed as per flight
plan. 'ake action.
E .. When you are /+ 17 D7> distance of Chennai re6uest for ,isual approach.
E 3. 'ransmit the following phrases as per &adiotelephony procedure.
4a5 Wait, ( shall call you.
4b5 >stablish radio contact
4c5 7y transmission is ended and ( e!pect response from you
4d5 >!amine a system or procedure
4e5 Continue in accordance with the condition specified
T!ST %A%!R & .
Ti-e alloedB .6 -inutes fro- handin/ o1er Cuestion paper. )a,i-u- -arksB +;;
Aircraft identificationB :A7;7 Type of AircraftB B808 Fli/ht Le1elB 0+;
2eparture Aerodro-eB VABB 2estination Aerodro-eB V'2%
RouteB "1er flyin/ VA'2< VAB%< V'GR Selcal co-?inationB A#2F
2eparture Ti-eB ;:0;
Refer to Route #hart $oB ;.
Take RTF action for situations /i1en ?elo in ascendin/ order.
4se hypothetical data< for -essa/e that reCuire to ?e trans-itted at specific ti-e< candidate
should rite that specific ti-e a/ainst Cuestion nu-?er on the anser sheet.
#ontinue anserin/ till you are told to QGo to ne,t CuestionU.
4sa/e of A1iation Lan/ua/e and prescri?ed %hraseolo/ies is -andatory.
E *. While ta!iing to runway *., you have entered ta!iway D/ instead of D0. 'ake action.
E 0. Position report over D)'(P. 7umbai Control not responding.
E /.
4a5 /+ 17 inbound (ndore, you e!perience severe turbulence and you decide to descend to % 03+.
4b5 Clear of turbulence, you decide to proceed as per assigned level.
E .. &e6uest visual approach for the reciprocal of the runway in use.
E 3. 'ransmit the following phrases as per &adiotelephony procedure.
4a5 ,isibility by accredited ground observer
4b5 &unway lights dim
4c5 Pass me the following information
4d5 ( cannot comply with your instruction
4e5 7ake a complete turn to right
T!ST %A%!R & 0
Ti-e alloedB .6 -inutes fro- handin/ o1er Cuestion paper. )a,i-u- -arksB +;;
Aircraft identificationB '#5+; Type of AircraftB B808 Fli/ht Le1elB 05;
2eparture Aerodro-eB V"TV 2estination Aerodro-eB VABB
RouteB "1er flyin/ V"#'< V"#L< V")L< VAG" Selcal co-?inationB AL#2
'FR Fli/ht 2eparture Ti-eB .;+6
Refer to Route #hart $oB ;0
Take RTF action for situations /i1en ?elo in ascendin/ order.
4se hypothetical data< for -essa/e that reCuire to ?e trans-itted at specific ti-e< candidate
should rite that specific ti-e a/ainst Cuestion nu-?er on the anser sheet.
#ontinue anserin/ till you are told to QGo to ne,t CuestionU.
4sa/e of A1iation Lan/ua/e and prescri?ed %hraseolo/ies is -andatory.
E *. 'ake A'C clearance.
E 0. 0+ 17 outbound 7angalore, an Airbus /0+ crosses path. 'ake action.
E /. Pou are overhead 9oa. 47>' reporting point5
E ..
4a5 At destination, you are on left base leg and you see another aircraft on right base leg switching
on and off its lights repeatedly. (nform A'C.
4b5 At destination aerodrome while ta!iing on the manoeuvring, you are uncertain of your position.
E 3. 'ransmit the following phrases as per &adiotelephony procedure.
4a5 1DD not coding.
4b5 et me know that you have received and understood the message.
4c5 ( am approaching for landing with greater than . 17 final.
4d5 ( have no two$way communication but ( believe you are able to receive my transmission
4e5 Select pressure altitude transmission feature on transponder
T!ST %A%!R & 5
Ti-e alloedB .6 -inutes fro- handin/ o1er Cuestion paper. )a,i-u- -arksB +;;
Aircraft identificationB SR..; Type of AircraftB B808 Fli/ht Le1elB 0+;
2eparture Aerodro-eB V'2% 2estination Aerodro-eB V'SR
RouteB "1er flyin/ V'#G< V'AR Selcal co-?inationB A2B!
'FR Fli/ht 2eparture Ti-eB +00;
StandB 05 Air?orne Ti-eB +05;
Refer to Route #hart $oB ;5
Take RTF action for situations /i1en ?elo in ascendin/ order.
4se hypothetical data< for -essa/e that reCuire to ?e trans-itted at specific ti-e< candidate
should rite that specific ti-e a/ainst Cuestion nu-?er on the anser sheet.
#ontinue anserin/ till you are told to QGo to ne,t CuestionU.
4sa/e of A1iation Lan/ua/e and prescri?ed %hraseolo/ies is -andatory.
E *.
4a5 &e6uest for A'C clearance.
4b5 Comply with A'C clearance.
E 0. At runway holding point, you observe ta!iway edge asphalt broken. 'ake action.
E /.
4a5 *3 17 inbound Chandigarh, aircraft cabin pressure is leaking.
4b5 At %*A+, you feel comfortable and you intend to proceed.
E .. While on finals, you are not getting three greens. 'ake action.
E 3. 'ransmit the following phrases as per &adiotelephony procedure.
4a5 ,(DDPGAG
4b5 'ransponder code .0+/
4c5 Altimeter setting *+*+
4d5 Altitude *033+
4e5 &eport clearing the runway
T!ST %A%!R & 6
Ti-e alloedB .6 -inutes fro- handin/ o1er Cuestion paper. )a,i-u- -arksB +;;
Aircraft identificationB 'A666 Type of AircraftB Air?us Fli/ht Le1elB 05;
2eparture Aerodro-eB V")) 2estination Aerodro-eB V'2%
RouteB "1er flyin/ V"*L< VAB% Selcal co-?inationB #2K!
'FR Fli/ht 2eparture Ti-eB ;80;
StandB 5 Air?orne Ti-eB ;85;
Refer to Route #hart $oB ;6
Take RTF action for situations /i1en ?elo in ascendin/ order.
4se hypothetical data< for -essa/e that reCuire to ?e trans-itted at specific ti-e< candidate
should rite that specific ti-e a/ainst Cuestion nu-?er on the anser sheet.
#ontinue anserin/ till you are told to QGo to ne,t CuestionU.
4sa/e of A1iation Lan/ua/e and prescri?ed %hraseolo/ies is -andatory.
E *. .
4a5 &e6uest for start up. During start up, you are informed that persons onboard are -B instead of --.
4b5 Pou have been allocated runway /+ which has ')&A of 0+?3 7. Pou re6uire ')&A of /+++
7 and ')&A of runway 03 is /?3B. 'ake action.
E 0. Chennai S7C informs you there is delay due to reciprocal traffic on W0+.
4a5 &e6uest for departure via alternate route.
4b5 Coining clearance at D)D>
E /. .+ 17 inbound ,ADP, you have drifted 0+ 17 to the left of track. 'ake action.
E .. A' D@;) report position to appropriate A'S authority.
E 3. 'ransmit the following phrases as per &adiotelephony procedure.
4a5 ( am retransmitting the correct version of entire message.
4b5 &unway visual range *?++ metres
4c5 Deselect pressure altitude transmission feature because of faulty operation.
4d5 'CAS &A
4e5 %.*+
T!ST %A%!R & 7
Ti-e alloedB .6 -inutes fro- handin/ o1er Cuestion paper. )a,i-u- -arksB +;;
Aircraft identificationB IA5++ Type of AircraftB ATR Fli/ht Le1elB 0+;
2eparture Aerodro-eB VAA* 2estination Aerodro-eB V'LK
RouteB "1er flyin/ V"*L< VAB% Selcal co-?inationB A2!B
'FR Fli/ht 2eparture Ti-eB ;80;
StandB 5 Air?orne Ti-eB ;85;
Refer to Route #hart $oB ;7
Take RTF action for situations /i1en ?elo in ascendin/ order.
4se hypothetical data< for -essa/e that reCuire to ?e trans-itted at specific ti-e< candidate
should rite that specific ti-e a/ainst Cuestion nu-?er on the anser sheet.
#ontinue anserin/ till you are told to QGo to ne,t CuestionU.
4sa/e of A1iation Lan/ua/e and prescri?ed %hraseolo/ies is -andatory.
E *. Carry out pre$flight Selcal check.
E 0. While .+ 17 inbound (ndore, you get a 'CAS &A and you deviate from assigned track.
Control is calling you and instructing you to resume track. 'ake action.
E /.
4a5 Crossing (9)1A, you e!perience electrical failure. Pou need a delay of +3 minutes to resolve
the problem.
4b5 >lectrical problem is resolved and you would like to proceed as per flight plan.
E .. While on finals you reach D" but do not see the runway. 'ake action.
E 3. 'ransmit the following phrases as per &adiotelephony procedure.
4a5 A change has been made to your last clearance and supersedes your previous clearance.
4b5 Surface wind 0++ degrees *+ knots gusting two Kero knots
4c5 Weather conditions less than the minima specified for visual reference flight
4d5 &ead back incorrect, ( am transmitting the correct version
4e5 ( am unable to establish communication due to receiver failure
T!ST %A%!R & 8
Ti-e alloedB .6 -inutes fro- handin/ o1er Cuestion paper. )a,i-u- -arksB +;;
Aircraft identificationB '# 0:7 Type of AircraftB Air?us Fli/ht Le1elB 5;;
2eparture Aerodro-eB VABB 2estination Aerodro-eB V!##
RouteB "1er flyin/ VAA4< VA$%< V!IS Selcal co-?inationB A*KB
'FR Fli/ht 2eparture Ti-eB ;0+;
StandB 5. Air?orne Ti-eB ;0.;
Refer to Route #hart $oB ;8
Take RTF action for situations /i1en ?elo in ascendin/ order.
4se hypothetical data< for -essa/e that reCuire to ?e trans-itted at specific ti-e< candidate
should rite that specific ti-e a/ainst Cuestion nu-?er on the anser sheet.
#ontinue anserin/ till you are told to QGo to ne,t CuestionU.
4sa/e of A1iation Lan/ua/e and prescri?ed %hraseolo/ies is -andatory.
E *.
4a5 After lining up on the runway, you get port generator warning8 'ower is asking you for
immediate departure. 'ake action.
4b5 After 3 minutes, generator warning light goes off and you decide to proceed for departure.
E 0. 0+ 17 from D@D)G you are cruising at %/B+. Pou are cleared by 7umbai to reach ')C at
D@D)G. 7umbai ACC is not replying. Contact ne!t A'S@ for further clearance.
E /. While over ;(1;(, you come to know that your "% receiver has failed. 'ransmit your position
to the appropriate authority.
E .. *3 17 from ;olkata, red fire lights have been activated in the cockpit. 'ake action.
E 3. 'ransmit the following phrases as per &adiotelephony procedure.
4a5 )perate (D>1' feature on SS& transponder.
4b5 Communication is difficult8 please send every word or group of words twice
4c5 ,isibility, cloud and present weather better than prescribed values or conditions
4d5 isten out on **B.*
4e5 (gnore my last transmission
T!ST %A%!R & 9
Ti-e alloedB .6 -inutes fro- handin/ o1er Cuestion paper. )a,i-u- -arksB +;;
Aircraft identificationB KF +9+ Type of AircraftB ATR 8.>6;; Fli/ht Le1elB .0;
2eparture Aerodro-eB V!GT 2estination Aerodro-eB V!)$
RouteB "1er flyin/ V!IT Selcal co-?inationB AL#2
'FR Fli/ht 2eparture Ti-eB ;756
StandB 7 Air?orne Ti-eB ;766
Refer to Route #hart $oB ;9
Take RTF action for situations /i1en ?elo in ascendin/ order.
4se hypothetical data< for -essa/e that reCuire to ?e trans-itted at specific ti-e< candidate
should rite that specific ti-e a/ainst Cuestion nu-?er on the anser sheet.
#ontinue anserin/ till you are told to QGo to ne,t CuestionU.
4sa/e of A1iation Lan/ua/e and prescri?ed %hraseolo/ies is -andatory.
E *. At departure aerodrome ask for
4a5 Push back
4b5 'a!i instructions.
E 0.
4a5 )verhead 7(;A9, you intercept a distress call from ,'A7>8 starboard engine on fire, /+ 17
from Corhat at %*-+. 'ake action.
4b5 ,'A7> not replying A'C call. 'ake action.
E /. )verhead 1)7A9, you receive S>CA indication.
E .. 03 17 from Dibrugarh, you are getting A'C instructions which you suspect to be false or
deceptive. 'ake action.
E 3. 'ransmit the following phrases as per &adiotelephony procedure.
4a5 'hat is not correct
4b5 Permission for proposed action granted
4c5 What is the readability of my transmissionV
4d5 ( wish to obtainU
4e5 Approach along or parallel to the runway without landing
T!ST %A%!R & :
Ti-e alloedB .6 -inutes fro- handin/ o1er Cuestion paper. )a,i-u- -arksB +;;
Aircraft identificationB VTAII Type of AircraftB 2ornier Fli/ht Le1elB .9;
2eparture Aerodro-eB V!VF 2estination Aerodro-eB V"*L
RouteB "1er flyin/ V"K) S!L#ALB AL)!
'FR Fli/ht 2eparture Ti-eB .;;;
StandB 7 Air?orne Ti-eB ;766
Refer to Route #hart $oB ;:
Take RTF action for situations /i1en ?elo in ascendin/ order.
4se hypothetical data< for -essa/e that reCuire to ?e trans-itted at specific ti-e< candidate
should rite that specific ti-e a/ainst Cuestion nu-?er on the anser sheet.
#ontinue anserin/ till you are told to QGo to ne,t CuestionU.
4sa/e of A1iation Lan/ua/e and prescri?ed %hraseolo/ies is -andatory.
E *. After take$off, you suspect damage to undercarriage due to bird hit. 'ake action.
E 0. Due to reciprocal traffic, Control asks you to hold over ;hammampet 1DD. Pou are not
familiar with holding pattern.
E /. .+ 17 inbound "yderabad, passenger is seriously ill. 'ake action
E ..
4a5 / 17 on %inals, you e!perience low level wind shear.
4b5 'ower asks you to report braking action after landing.
E 3. 'ransmit the following phrases as per &adiotelephony procedure.
4a5 and, continue rolling, take off without stopping
4b5 &educe your rate of speech
4c5 "eading 0A+
4d5 ( repeat for clarity or emphasis
4e5 'rue
T!ST %A%!R & +;
Ti-e alloedB .6 -inutes fro- handin/ o1er Cuestion paper. )a,i-u- -arksB +;;
Aircraft identificationB VTA)! Type of AircraftB !-?raer Fli/ht Le1elB +7;
2eparture Aerodro-eB V")) 2estination Aerodro-eB V"TV
RouteB V"TR< o1erflyin/ V")2 Alternate aerodro-eB V"#B
V*F Fli/ht< Trainee aircraft 2eparture Ti-eB +8+6
StandB 9 Air?orne Ti-eB +8.6
Refer to Route #hart $oB +;
Take RTF action for situations /i1en ?elo in ascendin/ order.
4se hypothetical data< for -essa/e that reCuire to ?e trans-itted at specific ti-e< candidate
should rite that specific ti-e a/ainst Cuestion nu-?er on the anser sheet.
#ontinue anserin/ till you are told to QGo to ne,t CuestionU.
4sa/e of A1iation Lan/ua/e and prescri?ed %hraseolo/ies is -andatory.
E *. Carry out radio check with Chennai tower.
E 0. At 'hiruchchirapalli, for training purpose, re6uest landing and take off without stopping.
E /.
4a5 *B 17 from 7adurai, you see a large flock of birds ahead and you decide to climb.
4b5 )utbound 7adurai, widespread rain and thunderstorm. Pou decide to divert to alternate
E ..
4a5 .+ 17 from Coimbatore, you decide to proceed ,%&.
4b5 eave controlled airspace by re6uesting for a lower level.
E 3. 'ransmit the following phrases as per &adiotelephony procedure.
4a5 ( understand your message and will comply with it.
4b5 Standard (nstrument Arrival
4c5 Cumulonimbus clouds
4d5 >stimating departure
4e5 'his e!change of transmissions is ended and no response is e!pected
R"4T! #*ART $". ;+
R"4T! #*ART $". ;.
R"4T! #*ART $". ;0
R"4T! #*ART $". ;5
R"4T! #*ART $". ;6
R"4T! #*ART $". ;7
R"4T! #*ART $". ;8
R"4T! #*ART $". ;9
R"4T! #*ART $". ;:
R"4T! #*ART $". +;
T!ST %A%!R +
Anser SheetB Lo/ keepin/
*/3+ S
CC 9nd (C?0+ "eavy, *0*.-, stnd 0A, *00 o2b, sec chk
completed, re6 s2u, inf D
(C?0+ CC 9nd, s2u apvd, E1" *+*+
CC 9nd, &, E1" *+*+, (C?0+
CC 9nd (C?0+, stnd 0A, re6 ta!i inst
(C?0+ CC 9nd, ta! via twy C hldg pt rwy +*r, wind 03+2B, E1"
*+*+, rep hldg pt
CC 9nd, twy C, rwy +*r hldg pt, E1" *+*+, wilco, (C?0+
CC 9nd
CC 9nd (C?0+, hldg pt rwy +*r
(C?0+, contact CC twr on **B.*, CC 9nd
CC 9nd, CC twr on **B.*
CC twr (C?0+ "eavy on **B.*
(C?0+ CC twr
CC twr (C?0+, hldg pt rwy +*r, ready for dep
(C?0+ CC twr, line up
ining up, (C?0+
(C?0+ CC twr, rwy +*r, clr for tkof
CC twr, rwy +*r, clr for tkof
0. *.+. S
(C?0+, 92A, ;
(C?0+ CC rdo, rep psn, ;
CC rdo, 77 rdo to copy, (C?0+ on BB?*, fir CC277 at *.+.,
fl0B+, hdg 0*., spd 03+, EDD +.++, est D);>' 0?, 9@&AS
n!t 3., >'A ,>CC *3*0, pa! *+?, ;
(C?0+ CC rdo, fir CC277 at *.+., fl0B+, hdg 0*., spd 03+,
EDD +.++, est D);>' 0?, 9@&AS n!t 3., >'A ,>CC *3*0,
pa! *+?, ;
(C?0+ 77 rdo, fir CC277 at *.+., fl0B+, hdg 0*., spd 03+,
EDD +.++, est D);>' 0?, 9@&AS n!t 3., >'A ,>CC *3*0,
pa! *+?, ;
CC rdo, chng over to 77 rdo, (C?0+
(C?0+ CC rdo, &, out
(C?0+ 77 rdo, chg over to 77 rdo, pri BB?*, sec ?3B/, ;
77 rdo (C?0+, pri BB?*, sec ?3B/, S>CA AC", ;
(C?0+, S>CA AC", 77 rdo
/. *.0? S
7APDAP G/, 77 Ctl (C?0+, port eng fire, intend to ldg at
,(,C, psn ohd D);>' at *.0?, fl0B+, hdg 0*., spd 03+, EDD
+//+, >'A ,(,C *..?, pa! *+?
(C?0+ 77 Ctl, & 7ayday, rcld to ,(,C
77 Ctl, rcld to ,(,C, (C?0+
77 Ctl (C?0+, cnl distress, port eng fire e!tngd, decided to
proceed as per original %P, psn 0+ nm oubd D);>' at *./+,
fl0B+, >'A ,>CC *3*0
(C?0+ 77 Ctl, & cancel Distress, rcld as per filed %P
77 Ctl, rcld as per %%P, (C?0+
.. *3+. S 77 App (C?0+ ">A,P
(C?0+ 77 App
77 App (C?0+, Psn /+ 17 D7> to ,)77 at *3+., radial
+/3, flA+, re6 visual app
(C?0+, clrd visual app, rwy /+, S'A, des /+++ ft, E1" *+**,
'& .+, no del e!pected, 77 App
77 App (C?0+, clrd visual app, rwy /+, S'A, des /+++ ft, E1"
*+**, '& .+, no delay e!pctd
(C?0+, &2D C, rep rwy established, 77 App
77 App, Wilco, (C?0+
77 App (C?0+, field in sight
(C?0+, C'C ,)77 'wr **B.*, 77 App
77 'wr **B.*, (C3*A
3. S 4a5 S'A1DDP
4b5 C)1'AC'
4c5 ),>&
4d5 C">C;
4e5 C>A&>D
T!ST %A%!R .
Anser sheetB Lo/ keepin/
*. +-03
DD gnd -W?+?, clr to rwy *. via D0. entered D/, hlding psn. re6
apv proceed via D/ or alternate ta!i inst.
-W?+?, apvd to proceed via D/, rep hldg pt rwy *., DD gnd
DD gnd, apvd to proceed via D/, wilco, -W?+?
0. *+++
DD rdo -W?+? on B-.B, psn rep, DD Ctl not responding, ohd
D);>' at *+++, fl /*+, hdg ++., est APA1) *0, D)DA& /3,
>'A D( *0.+, pa! *0/, ;
-W?+? DD rdo, ohd D);>' *+++, fl /*+, hdg ++., est APA1)
*0, D)DA& /3, >'A D( *0.+, pa! *0/, ;
DD rdo, r2b correct, -W?+?
DD rdo
/. *+3A
A" Ctl -W?+?, A&S, psn /+ 17 inbd ,A(D at 3A, %/*+,
turbulence severe, re6 des to fl0++
-W?+? A" Ctl, clr to des to %0++, rep psg fl03+
A" Ctl, des to fl0++, wilco, -W?+?
A" Ctl
A" Ctl -W?+?, fl03+, clr of turbulence, re6 resume fl/*+
-W?+? A" Ctl, reclr to fl/*+, rep toc
A" Ctl, reclr to fl/*+, wilco, -W?+?
A" Ctl, toc fl/*+, -W?+?
-W?+?, &, A" Ctl
Dli App -W?+?, psn 7>>1A, flB+, re6 visual app on reciprocal
rwy 0B
-W?+?, Dli App, clr for visual app reciprocal rwy 0B, des to
0?++ ft, E1" *+**, 'A.+++, no delay e!p
Dli App -W?+?, clr for visual app reciprocal rwy 0B, des to 0?++
ft, E1" *+**, 'A.+++, no delay e!p
Dli App -W?+?, 0?++ ft, field in sight
-W?+? Dli App, contact Dli 'wr **B.*
Dli App, Dli 'wr **B.*, -W?+?
Dli App
S 4a5 9round ,isibility
4b5 &unway lights intensity low
4c5 &eport
4d5 @nable
4e5 )rbit right
T!ST %A%!R 0
Anser sheetB Lo/ keepin/
*. 0++3 S
'vm 9nd (C.*+ on *0*.-, (%& to 7um, re6 A'C inst
(C.*+ 'vm 9nd, clr for (%& to 7um, rwy 0A, clmb s2a aft dep
till 0+++ ft, then turn rt, mntn hdg /.3, e!pct /+++ ft aft *+ of
dep, w*3, fl/.+
'vm 9nd (C.*+, clr for (%& 7um, rwy 0A, clmb s2a aft dep till
0+++ ft, then turn rt, hdg //B, e!pct /+++ ft aft *+ of dep, w*3,
(C.*+, C, 'vm 9nd
'vm 9nd (C.*+, stnd /0, *+0 o2b, security chk completed, re6
s2u, inf D
(C.*+, s2u apvd, E1" *++-, 'vm 9nd
0. 0*0. S
7ng Ctl (C.*+ on *0A.33, Airpro! rep
(C.*+ 7ng Ctl, ready to copy
7ng Ctl (C.*+, A(&P&)G, *0+/*-0**-, 0+17 oubd 7ng, "dg
//B, W*3, 'AS 03+ kt, %/.+, Alt set *+*/.0, level flt, avoiding
action taken yes, Airbus/0+, Al Ameen airlines, climbing,
avoiding action taken yes, distances horiKontal ?++ ft, vertical
.++ ft, ldg and destination mum
(C.*+ 7ng Ctl, 4r2b5
7ng Ctl, r2b C, (C.*+
(C.*+ 7ng Ctl cfm resumed assigned clearance
7ng Ctl, affirm, (C.*+
7ng Ctl
/. 0*3- S
7ng Ctl (C.*+ on *0A.33
(C.*+ 7ng Ctl
7ng Ctl (C.*+, A(&>P, psn ohd 9oa at 0*3-, %/.+, est
);(A 000+, ;ADS) 0-, >'A 7um 3-, temp minus . deg c,
wind 0*32/+ kt, turbulence light, icing light
(C.*+ 7ng Ctl 4r2b5
7ng Ctl r2b C, (C.*+
7ng Ctl
.. S
PA1 PA1 !/, 7um 'wr (C.*+, on lt base leg, ( see traffic on rt
base, urgency lgt signal
(C.*+ 7um 'wr, & urgency, traffic sighted, cmb to /+++ ft and
orbit rt
7um 'wr, cmb to /+++ ft and orbit rt, (C.*+
7um 9nd (C.*+, uncertain of my psn, vacated rwy *. via twy
D/, hldg psn at int, re6 inst
(C.*+ 7um 9nd, flash ldg lgt
(C.*+ 7um 9nd, located, ta! via twy %*, proceed behind bay .?
to bay 3.
7um 9nd (C.*+, ta! via twy %*, proceed behind bay .? to bay
(C.*+ 7um 9nd do you want follow me
7um 9nd, 1egative, (C.*+
7um 9nd
3. S 4a5 1DD off the air
4b5 Acknowledge
4c5 Cancel
4d5 'ransmitting Dlind
4e5 S6uawk Charlie
T!ST %A%!R & 5
Anser SheetB Lo/ keepin/
*. 4a5
Dli 9nd S&00+, (%& to Sri, &e6 A'C inst, infn b
S&00+ Dli 9nd, &wy 0B, clr for ifr to sri, sid sp *A, E1" *++-
Dli gnd S&00+, rwy 0B, clr for sri, sid sp *A, 6nh *++-
C, Dli gnd
Dli gnd S&00+, (%& to Sri, sid sp *A, AB o2b, sec chk completed,
re6 s2u
S&00+ s2u apvd, s2u own discretion, Dli gnd
Dli gnd, s2u apvd at own discretion, S&00+
0. *//3 S
Dli gnd S&00+, at hldg pt rwy 0B, ( see broken asphalt on twy
edge at hldg pt rwy 0B
S&00+, &, cnfm able to proceed to rwy0B, Dli gnd
Affirm, S&00+
S&00+, contact Dli twr on **B.*, Dli gnd
Dli twr **B.*, S&00+
/. 4a5
*.0+ S
Cdg twr S&00+, cabin presr leaking, re6 des to %*3+, psn *3
17 inbd cdg at *.0+, fl/*+, hdg /+B, pa! AB
S&00+ cdg twr, &, clr to des to %*3+, maintain %*3+ or abv
Cdg twr, clr to des %*3+, W(C), S&00+
Cdg twr S&00+, cabin pressure ok at %*A+, re6 clr to proceed at
S&00+, reclr to %*A+, cdg twr
.. S
Sri 'wr S&00+, re6 low pass, unsafe gear indication
S&00+ Sri 'wr, rwy 0B, clr for low pass, not blw 3++ ft, rep
Sri 'wr, rwy 0B, clr for low pass, not blw 3++ ft, wilco, S&00+
Sri 'wr
3. S 4a5 ,(C')& (1D(A D>'A D>'A PA1;>> G&AP
4b5 SE@AW; %)W>& 'W) Q>&) '"@&>>
4c5 E1" )1> Q>&) )1> Q>&)
4d5 A'('@D> )1> 'W) ')@SA1D %(,> "@1D&>D
%(,> Q>&) %>>'
4e5 &@1WAP ,ACA'>D
T!ST %A%!R & 6
Anser SheetB Lo/ keepin/
*. +A0+ S
77 9nd (A333, (%& to Dli stnd ., total -- o2b, sec chk
completed, re6 s2u
(A333, s2u apvd, 77 9nd
77 9nd (A333, re6 file chng in flt plan
(A333 77 9nd, ready to copy
77 9nd (A333, total nr of persons o2b -B
(A333, total nr of persons o2b -B, 77 9nd
C, (A333
77 9nd (A333, re6 rwy 03 due ')&A
(A333 77 9nd, rwy 03 apvd
77 9nd, rwy 03 apvd, (A333
77 9nd
0. +A03 S
77 9nd (A333, re6 dep via D.?? till ,)'P, then W-? and :oin
W0+ at D)D>
(A333 77 9nd, rclr for dep via D.??, S(D A,1)S 0, :oin W-?
at ,)'P ,)& and then W0+ at D)D>
77 9nd, rclr for dep via D.??, S(D A,1)S0, :oin W-? at
,)'P, W0+ at D)D>, (A333
C, 77 9nd
77 Ctl (A333 on **B.-
(A333 77 Ctl
77 Ctl (A333, airbus fm ,)77 to ,(DP, psn W-? 3+ 17
inbd D)D> at +A/., %/0+, hdg /3A, 'AS /++, re6 :oining clr
W0+ at D)D> %/.+, est D)D> .., n!t ,)" +B*., >'A
,(DP *+/*
(A333, clr to :oin W0+ at D)D> at %/.+, 77 Ctl
77 Ctl, clr to :oin W0+ at D)D> at %/.+, (A333
/. +-*- S
1gpr Ctl (A333
(A333 1gpr Ctl
1gpr Ctl (A333, (%& fm ,)77 to ,(DP, psn .+ 17 inbd
,ADP on W0+ at +-*-, drifted off tr 0+ 17 to lt, resuming tr
(A333, &, rep tr resumed, 1gpr Ctl
1gpr Ctl, wilco, (A333
.. +-.B S 7um rdo Dli rdo D> (A333 on B-.B, ;
(A333 D> 7um rdo, g2a, ;
(A333 D> Dli rdo, g2a, ;
7um rdo, Dli rdo, De (A333, psn rep, D@;) at .B, %/.+,
"D9 /3B, SPD /++ kt, EDD +0++, est DA,)G *+*0, )S&A7
n!t at 0B, >'A Dli *+/*, Selcal CD;>, ;
(A333 7um rdo, psn D@;) .B, %/.+, "D9 /3B, Spd /++ kt,
EDD +0++, DA,)G *+*0, )S&A7 0B, >'A Dli, Selcal CD;>,
*+/*, chng over to Dli, ;
7um rdo, Wilco, (A333
7um rdo
(A333 Dli rdo, assuming pri guard, pri B-.B, sec 3?+*, ;
Dli rdo, pri B-.B, sec 3?+*, (A333
Dli rdo
3. S 4a5 C)&&>C'()1 ( SAP A9A(1
4b5 &@1WAP ,(S@A &A19> 4or A& ,>> A&5 )1>
')@SA1D S(G "@1D&>D 7>'&>S
4c5 S')P SE@AW; C"A&(> W&)19 (1D(CA'()1
4d5 '>> CAS A& &AP
4e5 %(9"' >,> %)W>& )1> Q>&)
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
!(A)'$AT'"$ & %ART & ''
"RAL T!ST & RA2'" %R'$#'%L!S A$2 %RA#T'#!
(A) R!G4LAT'"$S A$2 %R"#!24R!
*. What is the significance of WPCV
0. What is the significance of ('@V
/. What are &adio &egulationsV
.. What is the significance of (CA)V
3. What are the different (CA) Anne!esV What is the significance of Anne! *+ ,ol 0 and Anne!
?. What is AA(V
A. Who is responsible for promulgating the Civil Aviation &e6uirementsV
B. What are the communication and navigation e6uipment that are re6uired to be fitted on the
-. Euestions on Definitions and abbreviations. 4&eader is advised to study the definitions and
abbreviations given in Part (( Chapter *5.
*+. What is the purpose of aeronautical servicesV
**. What are the different aeronautical services of (ndiaV
*0. What is C1SV
*/. What are the different communication services in (ndiaV
*.. What are the different categories of messages of aeronautical mobile serviceV
*3. What is A'(S2DA'(SV
*?. What is ,)7>'V
*A. What is the significance of A(SV Which is the responsible service in (ndiaV
*B. What is the significance of A(PV What are the different parts of A(PV What are A(P
*-. What do you understand by 1)'A7V Who issues 1)'A7sV
0+. What are the different types of pre$flight and post flight information systemsV
0*. What is A>&AD()V Who is responsible for publishing A>&AD()V
00. What is A(CV Who is responsible for publishing A(CV
0/. What is an %(&V What are the %(& of (ndiaV
0.. What are the different classifications of airspaceV
03. What are significant points of an A'S routeV
0?. What is the significance of 7eteorological servicesV Who is responsible for 7eteorological
0A. What do you understand by Search and &escue serviceV
0B. What is @'CV
4i5 Convert +/++ (S' to @'C
4ii5 Convert 0*++ @'C to (S'
0-. What are the points to be observed while transmitting on the &' channelV
/+. What is the role and importance of phraseology in aeronautical communicationsV
/*. Which A'C instructions are to be compulsorily read$backV
/0. "ow to abbreviate an aircraft call signV
//. What do you understand by readability or intelligibility of a transmissionV
/.. What is position reportingV What are the different elements of a position report messageV
/3. What are the different air traffic control services in an aerodromeV
/?. What is push$back and who controls the push backV
/A. What is aerodrome traffic circuitV What are the different components of a traffic circuitV
/B. What is long finalV
/-. What do you understand by (7C and ,7CV
.+. What is aerodrome operating minimaV
.*. Define distress and urgency conditions.
.0. What is the SS& transponder codes for communication failure, hi:ack and emergencyV
./. What is the procedure to be followed by an aircraft with respect to continuing the flight while
flying in (7C and ,7CV
... What are the different wake turbulence categoriesV
.3. What is wind shearV
.?. What is direction findingV What are the different classes of bearings and positionings and their
.A. >!plain the following<
4a5 A(&>P
4b5 7>'A&
.B. What is (nterpilot communicationV What is the fre6uency allocated for interpilot
.-. What is interception by military aircraftV What are the visual signals employed by the
(nterceptor and the (ntercepted aircraftV
3+. What are AD(QV What are the different AD(Q in (ndiaV
3*. What do you understand by unlawful interferenceV
30. What is air traffic incidentV What are different types of air traffic incidentsV
3/. What is A(&P&)GV What are the different classifications of aircraft pro!imityV
3.. Driefly discuss principle of network operations in "% communicationV
33. What are 7WA&A and &DA&AV What are the different 7WA&A and &DA&A in (ndiaV
3?. What are the visual signals employed by an aircraft e!periencing radio communication failureV
3A. What is the meaning of an aircraft switching on and off its e!ternal lights repeatedlyV
3B. What are the visual signals employed by a ground station to an aircraft e!periencing radio
communication failureV
3-. What are the different runway markingsV
?+. What are the different ta!iway markingsV
?*. What are the different runway lightingsV
?0. What are the different ta!iway lightingsV
?/. What are aeronautical chartsV What are the different types of aeronautical chartsV
?.. What are E codesV What are the different series of E codesV
?3. What are location indicatorsV
(B) RA2'" %R'$#'%L!S A$2 %RA#T'#!
*. What is electric currentV What is the unit of currentV
0. What is potential differenceV What is the unit of potential differenceV
/. What are the different types of currentV
.. What do you understand by DC and ACV
3. What is the advantage of AC over DCV
?. What is resistanceV What is the unit of resistanceV
A. Pou are given three resistances of /+ )hms. "ow will you connect them to obtain
4i5 *+ )hms 4ii5 03 )hms
B. What happens when resistances are connected in 4a5 series 4b5 parallelV
-. What is )hmFs lawV
*+. What is the unit of powerV What are the power ratings of a common$use electric bulbV
**. What is kilowatt$hourV
*0. What are cellsV What are the types of cellsV
*/. "ow to obtain more 4a5 voltage 4b5 current by different connections of cellsV
*.. What is capacitanceV What is the unit of capacitanceV
*3. What happens when you connect capacitors in 4a5 series 4b5 parallelV
*?. What is capacitive reactanceV What is the unit of capacitive reactanceV What is the relationship
between fre6uency and capacitive reactanceV
*A. What is inductanceV What is the unit of inductanceV
*B. What is inductive reactanceV
*-. What happens when you connect inductances in 4a5 series 4b5 parallelV
0+. "ow do you apply )hmFs law to AC circuitsV
0*. What is resonant fre6uencyV What are the practical applications of resonant fre6uencyV
00. What is a transformerV What are the different types of transformersV
0/. What is a motorV What is the working principle of a motorV
0.. What is a generatorV What is an alternatorV
03. What is a microphoneV
0?. What is a speakerV Can a speaker be used as a microphoneV
0A. What do you understand by >lectromagnetic wavesV
0B. What do you understand by polarisation of an >7 waveV
0-. What do you understand by fre6uency and wavelengthV
/+. Discuss the relationship between fre6uency and wavelength.
/*. What is the wavelength of an >7 wave of *++ 7"K fre6uencyV
/0. What is the fre6uency of an >7 wave whose wavelength is *+ metresV
//. What is the speed of >7 wavesV
/.. What is an antennaV "ow do you calculate the length of an antennaV
/3. What is the smallest length of the antenna re6uired for a fre6uency of *+ 7"KV
/?. What is the fre6uency range of ,%, %, 7%, "%, ,"%, @"%, S"% and >"% bandsV
/A. What are the different methods of >7 wave propagationV
/B. What do you understand by ground wavesV
/-. What do you understand by Sky wavesV
.+. What are skip distance and skip KoneV
.*. What is fading of signalV
.0. Why do we use different fre6uencies during day and nightV
./. What are the advantages and disadvantages of sky wavesV
... What do you understand by space wavesV What is )SV
.3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of ,"% and above fre6uency bandsV
.?. What is shadow KoneV
.A. What is modulationV What are the different methods of modulationV
.B. What is Amplitude 7odulationV
.-. What is %re6uency 7odulationV
3+. What are the different types of pulse modulationV
3*. What is demodulationV
30. Describe the various stages of a basic transmitter.
3/. What do you understand by side bandsV
3.. Describe a basic receiver and its working principle.
33. What do you understand by tuningV
3?. What is Automatic 9ain Control 4A9C5V
3A. What is Deat %re6uency )scillatorV
3B. What do you understand by S6uelchV
3-. What are the 6ualities of a good receiverV
?+. What do you understand by a transceiverV
?*. What do you understand by simple!, single channel simple!, double channel simple! and full
?0. Discuss the emission designators.
?/. What is the difference between terminal and en$route communicationsV
?.. What is the fre6uency band of aircraft ,"% communication systemV What type of emission is
used in ,"% systemV
?3. Discuss the installation of a typical ,"% communication system.
??. Discuss various controls and operations of a ,"% communication system.
?A. What are the advantages and disadvantages of ,"% communicationV
?B. What is a guard receiverV What is the purpose of having a guard receiverV
?-. What do you understand by D('>V
A+. What is the fre6uency band of aircraft "% communication systemV Why does "% use SSD
whereas ,"% uses DSD techni6ueV
A*. What type of emission is used in "% communication systemV
A0. Discuss the installation and various controls of "% communication system.
A/. What is S>CA systemV
A.. >!plain the working principle and installation of S>CA.
A3. What is SA'C)7V >!plain the working principle.
A?. What is >'V What are the different types of >'V
AA. What are the advantages of .+? 7"K beacon over the *0*.3 and 0./ 7"K >'V
AB. What is aircraft intercommunication systemV
A-. What is passenger address systemV What are the basic components of a passenger address
B+. What is a C,&V
B*. What do you understand by CPDCV What are the advantages of CPDCV
B0. What do you understand by aircraft navigation systems in generalV
B/. What is Automatic Direction %inderV
B.. >!plain the working of loop antenna, sense antenna and their signals in finding the direction of
an 1DD.
B3. What do understand by relative and magnetic bearings of an 1DD and what is their relationship
with the magnetic heading of the aircraftV
B?. What is an &D(V What is an &7(V
BA. What is the purpose of '>S' switch on the AD% control unitV
BB. What are the different factors affecting the performance of AD% systemV
B-. What are ocator DeaconsV
-+. What is "omingV
-*. >!plain the principle of ,)&.
-0. What are the different indications available in ,)& systemV
-/. What are the advantages and disadvantages of ,)& systemV
-.. What is (SV What are the different categories and their accuraciesV
-3. "ow is the lateral guidance indicated in a (S indicatorV
-?. What is ocaliser backcourseV
-A. >!plain the working principle of 9lideslope.
-B. What are 7arker DeaconsV >!plain the audio and visual indications of marker beacon system.
--. What are %an 7arkersV
*++. What are the limitations of (SV
*+*. What do you understand by 7SV What are its advantages over (SV
*+0. What is D7>V >!plain the working principle.
*+/. What are the advantages and disadvantages of D7> systemV
*+.. What is )mega systemV
*+3. What are the different global navigation satellite systemsV
*+?. What is 9PSV Discuss briefly.
*+A. What are the advantages and disadvantages of 9PS system.
*+B. What is SS&V What are the different working modes of SS&V
*+-. What are the advantages and disadvantages of SS&V
**+. What do you understand by ACASV What are the different types of ACASV
***. What is weather radarV What is the utility of weather radarV
**0. What is &adio AltimeterV What is the difference between D7> ranging and radio altimeter
**/. What do you understand by 9PWS and >9PWSV
**.. What is ADSV
**3. What are the different types of ADSV
> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
(CA) Anne! 0, %ules of the .ir
(CA) Anne! *+, ,olume (, %adio Navigation .ids
(CA) Anne! *+, ,olume ((, !ommunication Procedures
(CA) Anne! *+, ,olume (((, !ommunication 2#stems
(CA) Anne! *+, ,olume (,, 2urveillance and !ollision .voidance 2#stems
(CA) Anne! *+, ,olume ,, .eronautical %adio 4re"uenc# 2pectrum *tilisation
(CA) Anne! *., Aerodromes, ,olume (, .erodrome 8esign and >perations
(CA) Document .... A'723+*, .ir Traffic ;anagement) Procedure for .ir Navigation 2ervices
(CA) Document .... &AC23+*, %ules of the .ir and .ir Traffic 2ervices
(CA) Document B.++ I!.> .$$reviations and !odes
(CA) Document -./0 A12-03, ;anual of %adiotelephon#
('@ %adio %egulations
AA( ;anual of .ir Traffic 2ervices Part 1
AA( ;anual of .eronautical Information 2ervices
AA( !ommunication) Navigation and 2urveillance ;anual) =olume I) ;aintenance of !N2 4acilities
AA( !ommunication) Navigation and 2urveillance ;anual) Part II) !ommunication Procedures
AA( 4ire >rder 5 09) ,asic %adiotelephon# Procedure and Phraseolog#
AA( .IP =olume I) Part 1) :eneral I:<NJ
AA( .IP =olume I) Part ') <n-route I<N%J
AA( .IP =olume II Part /) .erodromes I.8J
D9CA CA& Section . # .erodrome 2tandards and .ir Traffic 2ervices) 2eries 8 Part III
D9CA CA& Section . # .erodrome 2tandards and .ir Traffic 2ervices 2eries L Part III
D9CA CA& Section B # >peration of !ommercial .ir Transport-.eroplanes 2eries >) Part II
D9CA CA& Section - # .irspace and .ir Traffic ;anagement 2eries 8 Part I through =I
"imalayan Dooks .ircraft %adio 2#stems 5 Mames Powell
'ata 7c9raw "ill <lectronic !ommunication 2#stem 5 :eorge Genned#) ,ernard 8avis
,igyan Prasar . !omprehensive :uide ,ook for the B.; %adio <nthusiasts 5 2andeep ,aruah