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Industrial Application and Advanced Technology

of Fluid-Assisted Injection Molding (FAIM)


2012
Moldex3D R11
European
Webinar
Series
2
2
2
Current position:
CoreTech System Technical Research Division
Education:
Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from Illinois
Institute of Technology
Specialization:
Polymer processing simulation for optical
products and novel manufacturing technology,
such as micro injection molding, gas/fluid assist
injection molding and microcellular injection
molding.
Lloyd Shiu received his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from Illinois Institute of
Technology. He is currently a senior engineer and polymer specialist in Technical
Research Division of CoreTech System Co. He was a research assistant of The Center
of Excellence in Polymer Science and Engineering at IIT. He has worked in the area of
polymer rheology dealing with molten polymer flow behavior and physics of complex
fluid for many years.
Dr. Lloyd Shiu
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Content
> Introduction
What is Gas/Water Assisted Injection Molding
Preview of CAE Development
> CAE Application on GAIM/WAIM
Case Study
Experimental validation: Penetration determination
Experimental validation: Skin ratio determination
Real case: a handle product
> Summary
> Q & A
Introduction
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Introduction of Gas-Assist Injection
Molding (GAIM)
> Process Cycle
Plastics filling
Delay time
Gas filling
First penetration of
gas
Second penetration of gas
Packing by gas
Gas release
Packing stage
Mold open
Injection stage
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conventional injection molding
(stage before gas have been
introduced)
AIRMOULD

(packing stage)
Source: Battenfeld
Commercial Technique of GAIM
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Plastic Melt Filling Stage in GAIM
> Plastic Melt Filling Stage:
Frozen Layer
Pressure-Driven
Shear Flow
Melt
Melt Front:
Fountain Flow
Deforming Viscous Melt
Gas
Advancing Melt Front:
Fountain Flow
Frozen Layer
Penetrating Gas Front
Stationary Molten Layer
(Coating Melt Layer, Hydrodynamic Layer)
> Primary and 2
nd
Gas Penetration:
Melt
Gas
Frozen Layer
Stationary Molten Layer
(Coating Melt Layer)
Secondary Gas Penetration
Polymer
Skin Thickness
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> Process conditions
Short shot
volume of
Plastics
Delay
time
Gas filling
pressure
Gas
packing
pressure
Balanced
plastics
filling
Blow out + +
Fingering
effect
+ +

+
Poor gas
penetration

+ +
Sink mark + +
Hesitation
mark
+

GAIM - Process control
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Water Assisted Injection Molding
(WAIM)
> Started from 1970s
> Low cost media
> Additional cooling effect
> Main suppliers:
Aquamold from Battenfeld
Watermelt from Engel
AquaPress from Ferromatik Milacron Europe.
Independent sources
Alliance Gas Systems
Cinpres Gas Injection
Maximator in Germany
Project Management Engineering (PME) in Germany.
One materials supplier, Rhodia Engineering Plastics in
Germany, developed its own system.
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Advantages of WAIM
> Process is similar to GAIM
> Short cycle time because of effective internal
cooling
> More even wall distribution
> Complex molding with thick and thin walls easily
> Hollow surface is more smooth
Source: Battenfeld
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Process of WAIM
> Short shot
Adv.: Good for thicker parts
Adv.: Good surface quality
Source: Engel
> Overflow
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Process of WIAM
Adv.: combine both of short shot
and overflow processes,
with better cooling effect.
Adv.: very shot or no delay time
Source: Engel
> Overflow > Melt pushback
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Preview of CAE Technology
Source: Best of ANTEC2004
> Good agreement between simulation
and experimental result
Water pressure 18 MPa,
Delay time 0.8 sec,
Short shot around 80%,
Water temperature 25 oC
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Short shot 70 % (PP)
Short Shot Effect
Short shot 80 % (PP)
Short shot 70 % (PS)
Short shot 80 % (PS)
70 75 80 85
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PP PS
P
e
n
e
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

l
e
n
g
t
h

(
c
m
)
Short shot size (mm)
Experimental
PP
PS
> Numerical analysis
shows different
penetration effect
for PP and PS.
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35 MPa (PP)
Water Pressure Effect
80 MPa (PP)
35 MPa (PS) 80 MPa (PS)
Experimental
30 40 50 60 70 80
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35
40
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50


PP PS
P
e
n
e
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

l
e
n
g
t
h

(
c
m
)
Water pressure (MPa)
PP
PS
> PP is more sensitive
than PS regarding to
the water pressure
effect.
CAE Application on GAIM/WAIM
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GAIM/WAIM Process - Analysis Results
> Melt front time with gas/water front time
Allow to check the filling dynamics with the animation function.
> Gas/water front time
The time which the gas reached a particular in the part
Allow to check the filling dynamics with the animation function
to understand what the filling process happens.
> Skin ratio
The thickness fraction of the skin polymer at the end of molding
process
If Skin Ratio equals to 1, it standards a full-plastic material
region; if the value is smaller than 1, its indicated part of the
material has been core-out by fluid phase.
> Volume % of gas/water
The volume percentage of fluid in the cavity at the end of
molding process
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Case Study 1
> Case description
Material :
PS_ChiMei_PG33
Filling Time : 0.59 sec
Melt Temperature : 190
Mold Temperature : 55
Dimensions: 3.5 x 10.0 x 0.5 cm
3 different model
The flat plate model
The two-thickness model
The symmetric model
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3
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Material and Processing Conditions
> Plastic material:
PS(ChiMei/PG33)
> Molding Conditions
PVT
Shear Viscosity
Melt temperature (
o
C) 180~195
Mold temperature (
o
C) 50~65
Filling Time (sec) 0.59
Prefill (%) 80~90
Delay Time (sec) 0~0.5
Water Injection time (sec) 5.0
Water temperature (
o
C) 75~82
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Pre-Processing
Inlet Settings in Moldex3D-Mesh
ID1(melt)
ID2(water)
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CAE Solver
Create a new project and set module to Fuild-assisted injection molding
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WAIM Module in Moldex3D
> Inlet Settings in Moldex3D-Mesh
Melt entrance (red)
Water entrance (blue)
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Parameter Settings
Parameter settings in Moldex3D projectfilling and packing
Inlet #1(melt)
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Parameter Settings
Parameter settings in Moldex3D projectfilling and packing
Inlet #2(water)
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Flat plate case result -- Filling
Filling melt/water front
Mesh
T
m
=190 , T
mold
=55 , T
water
=80 , P
water
=10MPa, short shot size=80%
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Flat plate case result Filling Animation
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Blow Through Phenomena
> Blow through: water front exceed melt front
> Possible reason: short shot size is too low (Insufficient
melt)
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Two-Thickness and Symmetric Model
Two-thickness model,
P
water
=15MPa, short shot
size=85%
Symmetry model,
P
water
=10MPa, short shot
size=85%
> Cavity geometry has a crucial effect on melt/water flow
behavior
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Result Validation (I) Flat Plate
> The figures below show the melt and
water front at the (1) Beginning of filling and (2) End of
filling for the flat plate model. Flow behavior simulation
is in good agreement with experimental results.
Ref: S.-J. Liu and Y.-C. Wu, Dynamic visualization of cavity-filling process in fluid-assisted
injection molding-gas versus water, Polymer Testing, vol.26, Issue 2, pp.232-242 (2007)
Beginning of water injection End of filling
Experiment Simulation
Experiment Simulation
PP PP
PP PP
Water Water
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Result Validation (II) Two-Thickness
> Melt front and water front at the (1)Middle length and
(2) End of filling for the thickness-changed model.
Comparison between with experimental results, the
flow behavior trends are in good agreement.
Ref: S.-J. Liu and Y.-C. Wu, Dynamic visualization of cavity-filling process in fluid-assisted
injection molding-gas versus water, Polymer Testing, vol.26, Issue 2, pp.232-242 (2007)
Middle End
Experiment Simulation
Experiment Simulation
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Result Validation (III) -- symmetry
> These figures show the melt and water front at the
1)beginning of filling 2)end of filling for the symmetry
model. Compared with experimental results, the flow
behavior trends are in good agreement.
Ref: S.-J. Liu and Y.-C. Wu, Dynamic visualization of cavity-filling process in fluid-assisted
injection molding-gas versus water, Polymer Testing, vol.26, Issue 2, pp.232-242 (2007)
Beginning of water injection End of filling
Experiment Simulation
Experiment Simulation
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Parameter Effect (I) Short Shot Size
> Flat plate model used to investigate the effect of SHORT
SHOT SIZE on PENETRATION LENGTH.
Ref: S.-J. Liu, M.-J. Lin,
and Y.-C. Wu, Composites
Science and Technology,
vol.67, pp.1415-1424
(2006)
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Parameter Effect (II) Water Temperature
> Flat plate model used to investigate the effect of WATER
TEMPERATURE on PENETRATION LENGTH.
Ref: S.-J. Liu, M.-J. Lin,
and Y.-C. Wu, Composites
Science and Technology,
vol.67, pp.1415-1424
(2006)
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Parameter Effect (III) Mold Temperature
> Flat plate model used to investigate the effect of MOLD
TEMPERATURE on PENETRATION LENGTH.
Ref: S.-J. Liu, M.-J. Lin,
and Y.-C. Wu, Composites
Science and Technology,
vol.67, pp.1415-1424
(2006)
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Parameter Effect (IV) Melt Temperature
> Flat plate model used to investigate the effect of MELT
TEMPERATURE on PENETRATION LENGTH.
Ref: S.-J. Liu, M.-J. Lin,
and Y.-C. Wu, Composites
Science and Technology,
vol.67, pp.1415-1424
(2006)
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Conclutions
> The predicted melt front and water front are in good
agreement with experimental results.
> Parameter effects are significant with product quality
(i.e. penetration length, core-out ratio)
> Using Moldex3D WAIM simulation can help us to
have better insight into the determinations of effects
of WAIM process parameters on product quality and
provide a good guidance for optimizing the process
conditions.
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Function: Using skin ratio to estimate
core-out ratio
> Skin ratio=(D
outer
-D
inner
)/D
outer
=A
Core out ratio= D
inner
2
/ D
outer
2
= (1-A
2
)
D
outer
D
inner
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Case Study 2
> Case description
Material :
Everlon TC-63N, Ever Polymer, Taiwan
Filling Time : 4.2 sec
Melt Temperature : 170
Mold Temperature : 80
Dimensions: 14 x 11.9 x 5.3 cm
Ref: Che-Chi,Liu and S.-J. Liu, A
Study of the Water Assisted
Injection Molding of Thermoplastic
Elastomers, Master's thesis in
department of mechanical
engineering, (2007)
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> Inlet Settings in Moldex3D-Mesh
Melt entrance (red)
Water entrance (blue)
Implementation Details
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Melt Front Comparison
Ref: Che-Chi,Liu and S.-J. Liu, A Study of
the Water Assisted Injection Molding of
Thermoplastic Elastomers, Master's thesis in
department of mechanical engineering,
(2007)
Blow out
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20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
C
o
r
e

o
u
t

r
a
t
i
o

(
%
)
Selected points
Simulation
Experiment
Core out ratio comparisons
> Sling and interpolate the skin ratio data for core out ratio
Ref: Che-Chi,Liu and S.-J. Liu, A Study of the Water Assisted Injection Molding of Thermoplastic Elastomers,
Master's thesis in department of mechanical engineering, (2007)
blow out
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Case Study 3
> Case description
Material :
TPE
Filling Time : 1.0 sec
Melt Temperature : 190
Mold Temperature : 60
Dimensions: 15 x 21 x 5.7 cm
Ref: Che-Chi,Liu and S.-J. Liu, PPS 24 (2008)
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Implementation Details
Melt temperature (
o
C) 170
Mold temperature (
o
C) 80
Filling Time (sec) 4.2
Prefill (%) 40
Delay Time (sec) 0.3
Water Injection time (sec) 18
Water temperature (
o
C) 60
> Plastic material: TPE(TC-30N)
PVT
Shear Viscosity
> Molding Conditions
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> Inlet Settings in Moldex3D-FAIM
Melt entrance (red)
Water entrance (blue)
Implementation Details
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3D results
> Water front time > Skin ratio
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Melt front comparison
> Interpolate the skin ratio data for core out ratio
Ref: Che-Chi,Liu, Master's thesis in
department of mechanical engineering,
(2007)
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60
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80
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
C
o
r
e

o
u
t

r
a
t
i
o

(
%
)
Selected points
Simulation
Experiment
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Case Study 4
> Case description
Material :
PA6 Ultramid B3GM35 Black Q642 BASF
Filling Time : 4.28 sec
Melt Temperature : 280
Mold Temperature : 85
Dimensions: 305 x 92 x 77 mm
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> Plastic material:
Material Information
PVT
Shear viscosity
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Filling/Packing Process Animation
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Isosurface of Gas Front Time
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Check Gas Filling by Animation
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Skin Thickness
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Skin Ratio
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Max. Volume Shrinkage
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Pressure and Clamping Force
> Clamping Force > Sprue Pressure
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Summary
> Major purpose of GAIM/WAIM is to core-out the cavity to
save material cost; however, thickness distribution of core-
out shape is difficult to determine from experimental result.
> CAE simulation can systematically study the core-out shape
for complex manipulation on many the process parameters,
material, and part geometry easily.
> The comparison results tell that 3D CAE tool give a
promising way for advanced process design and mold
design for GAIM/WAIM.
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If you need help or have questions,
please type into the chat box.
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Contact Information
Dr. Shiu
lloydshiu@moldex3d.com
Vincent
vincenthung@moldex3d.com
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Next Webinar
Topic
In-depth Study of RHCM and IHM Technologies
and Industrial Applications
Goals
Realize various variotherm technologies and their applications
Understand what true 3D Transient Cool Technology is
Learn how to recognize the differences among CIM, RHCM, and
IHM
Visualize the IHM technology application in an real industrial
case development
Visualize the RHCM technology application in an real industrial
case development
Understand how IR-heating technology can enhance the micro-
feature replication
Time
9:00AM UTC -13 January,2012
Thank you for your attention!