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BAKING TERMS

All Purpose Flour


Wheat flour milled from hard wheat or a blend of soft and hard wheat. All-purpose flour may be
bleached or unbleached and may be enriched with four vitamins (niacin, riboflavin, folic acid, and
thiamin) and iron. All-purpose flour may be used in a wide variety of home baked goods, such as
cookies, quick breads and some yeast breads
Baking Blind
he term given to the process whereby the pastry case is partially or completely pre-baked. he
pastry case is lined with greaseproof paper and weighted down with dried pulses to prevent the
pastry from rising.
Baking Powder
A mi!ture of baking soda and dry acid. When mi!ed with a liquid such as batter, the dry acid and
baking soda react together to release carbon dio!ide. Work quickly once you have added liquid to
the dry ingredients, as carbon dio!ide escapes quickly.
Baking Soda
Also known as bicarbonate of soda or sometimes simply as soda. When mi!ed with an acid
ingredient and a liquid, it releases carbon dio!ide, which causes a batter to rise.
Baking Tray
"aking tray is a flat tray which can withstand the heat of the oven and is used to bake biscuits,
cookies etc
Basting Brush
his is a kitchen brush that is used to apply a liquid (wash) over the top of any baked item, before,
during, or after the baking process.
Beaters or hisks
"eater is an equipment used for beating, refining and mi!ing pulps. Whereas whisk is a tool with a
multiple thin-wire base. A mi!ing tool designed such so that its many strands of looped wire make it
effective for beating.
Bloo!
#n bread baking the word bloom refers to the nice attractive brownish colour of the crust on a
perfectly baked loaf of bread
Butter Paper
$enerally used to line tins while baking ensures that the cake does not stick to tin
"ake Boards
%an be used as a separator plate between cake tiers instead of the usual plastic plates or as the
board on which to decorate and serve your cake. %ake boards can be made of cardboard. hey are
cut to suit the shape of the cake and decorative gold or silver aluminum foils are used to cover the
cardboard. hey are readily available.
"ake Tins
%ake tins are usually made of aluminum. hey come in various shapes and si&es.
"ri!p
o create ridges around the edges of pie by pressing with your fingers and tapping with the back of
a knife blade or a fork.
"utters #"ookie$ Bis%uit & Pastry "utters'
hese are available in different shapes and si&es and are used to make the above things.
(ough
A flour and water mi!ture, often with other ingredients, worked until it is firm enough to hold its
shape but malleable enough to mould by hand.
(ropping %onsisten%y (ough
he term used to describe the necessary consistency of a cake mi!ture before it is baked.
)eat *+en
o turn the oven controls to the desired temperature, allowing the oven to heat thoroughly before
placing food. 'eating takes about ten minutes.
I%ing Set
An icing set has a set of metal tubes and pipes with detachable numbered no&&les ranging from
thin, plain writing no&&les to star or ribbon no&&les. #cing bags can be made at home with butter
paper. his is convenient and less e!pensive.
I!,i,e
o soak cake with a flavoured sugar syrup or liqueur usually applied with a pastry brush.
Knead
A pressing and folding technique used to make dough firm and smooth. (neading stretches the
gluten in flour, providing elasticity.
-ea+en
o cause batter or dough to rise, usually by means of a chemical leavening agent. his process may
occur before or during baking.
Mar,le
o partly mi! two different colors of cake batter or icing so that the colors are in decorative swirls.
Mar.ipan
)weetened almond paste made in confections.
Mi/ing Bowls
A variety of bowls that are usually used for kneading dough, whisking cream, eggs, mi!ing batter
etc. hey can be easily procured from the market.
Palette Kni0e
#s an artist*s knife with a thin, dull, fle!ible blade, used for mi!ing, scrapping or applying paint. #t
can be made of plastic or metal. #n baking it is used to smoothen and spread icing evenly.
Pastry Brush
A pastry brush is one of those tools for which there is no substitute. #f you need to brush an egg
wash over a pie crust, a knife or spatula won*t do. #t should have soft, pliable boar bristles that are
firmly anchored into the sturdy black nylon handle. he handle has a small rest, which keeps the
brush elevated so the bristles stay clean and untainted. Whatever kind of wash your recipe calls for,
this brush will evenly paint your pastry or crust. #t*s also great for spreading marinades, gla&es, or
barbecue sauce on meat.
Rolling Pin
+referably a wooden one, it is used to roll out dough.
Sel01Raising Flour
An all purpose flour with leavening and salt already added. ,sed for recipes where baking powder
would be added, but not for yeast recipes such as bread.
Si0t
o work dry ingredients through a sieve so that larger pieces are retained in the sieve and separated
from the fine powder. ,sed frequently in baking to aerate ingredients.
Si0ter
A fine meshed sifter that removes unwanted lumps or grains from any dry ingredient like sugar or
flour.
Skewer
A thin long metal pin used to test if the cakes are baked completely.
So0ten
o allow fro&en food, such as butter, margarine or cream cheese, to stand at room temperature until
they are no longer hard. $enerally this will take thirty to si!ty minutes.
Sou00l2 (ishes
hese are high walled dishes, which have to be prepared beforehand by tying paper -collars- around
them to keep the souffl.s from overflowing.
Spatula
#s a small implement with a broad, flat, fle!ible blade that is used to mi! ingredients and also
plasters and similar substances. A wooden spatula can be used to fold in ingredients while a plastic
spatula can be used to mi! butter, flour or to scrape the insides of a bowl while mi!ing. Artists*
spatulas are usually finer and more fle!ible, while cement spatulas are stouter and stiffer.
Stir
o combine ingredients with a circular or -figure /- motion until they are of a uniform consistency.
Ti!,ale
A high-sided, drum-shaped mould that can taper toward the bottom. he food baked in the mould is
usually a custard-based dish. #t is un-moulded before serving.
ire Ra%k
,sed for cooling baked goods, wire racks allow air to surround the food on all sides, making cooling
quicker and preventing moisture build-up on the bottom of baked goods
")INESE G-3SSAR4
M3N3S3(I5M
G-5TAMATE 3R MSG
#t is e!tracted from seaweed and other vegetable matter. 0lavour
enhancing secret of this seaweed is an amino acid called glutamate.
BAMB33 S)33TS
hese are the tender spear shaped shoots from the base of bamboo
plants.
BAMB33 STEAMER
A special kind of steamer made from bamboo strips used in %hinese
cooking specially for steaming dimsums.
BEAN "5R(
Also known as 1ou 0u in %hinese and ofu in 2apanese, it is made with
boiled soya bean liquid. #t is soft and white, cheese like in te!ture, ranges
from firm to silken.
BEAN SPR35TS "ean sprouts are sprouted green gram (moong) and are highly nutritious.
B-A"K BEAN
FERMENTE(
hese beans are aromatic and are cooked either only with salt or with
salt, ginger and orange peel. "efore using them, salt should be rinsed off.
B-A"K BEAN SA5"E
,sed in place of soy sauce when a thicker sauce is required. 3ade from
salted soya beans, ground and mi!ed with flour and spices.
BR3""3-I
)imilar to cauliflower, dark green in colour. he word brocco means
sprout.
BR3N S5GAR
)mall crystals of refined white sugar treated with dark grade molasses.
)oft light brown sugar is treated with light colored molasses.
"E-ER4 A shoot vegetable with a distinct sharp and savoury flavour. he stalk is
used to flavour soups and salads.
"E--3P)ANE
N33(-ES
%ellophane noodles are made from green gram flour. hey are very hard
and fine. Also known as transparent noodles or bean threads.
")I--I 3I- #t is a very spicy bright red oil made of chillies with oil.
")I--I SA5"E
#t is made from chillies ground with vinegar, starch and salt. 4ccasionally
flavoured with garlic, it has thick consistency like tomato sauce and is very
hot.
")INESE BAR1BE1"5E
SA5"E
A combination of hoisin sauce, vinegar, sesame oil or paste and bean
sauce. ,sed in marination.
")INESE "ABBAGE
5arge headed cabbage with firmly packed pale green leaves. %hinese
cabbage is also wrongly referred to as "ok %hoy.
"I-ANTR3
5eaves of coriander plant, also referred to as %hinese parsley. ,sed as a
garnish.
"3RNSTAR")
%ommonly referred to as cornflour. "lended with water to form paste, it is
used as a thickening agent.
(R4 S)ERR4
raditional fortified wine. 5argely used in cooking, marinating and its
sweet version is used in making desserts.
EGG N33(-ES$
FRES)
hese yellow noodles range in si&e and shape from long spaghetti like, to
thin vermicelli like strands.
FERMENTE( BEAN
"5R(
Also called bean curd cheese, it is made by fermenting small cubes of
bean curd in wine and salt.
FIS) SA5"E
#t is a salty, thin, brown liquid made by fermenting fish6shrimps with salt
and soy sauce.
FI6E SPI"E P3(ER
3ade from varying combinations of star anise, fennel, cloves, cinnamon,
ginger, nutmeg and )ichuan peppercorns ground together.
GINGER his potato coloured root is indispensable to %hinese cooking.
)3ISIN SA5"E
#t is a thick and brownish red sauce. #t is made from soya beans, sugar,
salt, garlic and chillies with sesame oil.
)3T M5STAR(
%ondiment served with %hinese appeti&ers. 3ade by mi!ing dry mustard
powder with water, causing a chemical reaction that produces a sharp hot
taste.
75-IENNES 7egetables, like carrots, capsicums or even ginger cut into long thin strips.
-EM3N GRASS
A sub tropical plant resembling spring onion which gives a delicious
lemony flavour to )outh 8ast Asian dishes.
-EM3N RIN(
5emon peels with the inner white membrane removed can be used, grated
or 9ulienned, to garnish dishes both sweet and savoury.
-ETT5"E
here are three varieties of lettuce - crisp-head, romaine butter-head or
cabbage. All are mainly used raw and in salads.
-3T5S R33T
%runchy and gourd shaped, lotus roots grow underwater, four to five
together strung like sausages and often one to one and half feet long.
M3RE- M5S)R33MS
hese are the most e!pensive of the dried mushrooms. "ut only a few
should be used as they add quite a lot of flavour.
M5S)R33MS
%hinese mushrooms called )hitake are a beautiful pale gold colored when
fresh and have a pleasantly firm te!ture and a haunting flavour. Available
dry and should be soaked before cooking.
M5S)R33MS$ B-A"K
,sually available dried, the caps are thick with a nice curl and range in
colour from black to speckled brown black.
M5SSE-S
A seafood, closely related to the clam. 3ussels are generally sold fresh in
their shells and eaten raw or steamed or used in salads or soups.
N33(-ES
:oodles is a %hinese staple food. 3ein is the generic term after which the
popular dish %how 3ein is named.
3RANGE RIN(
1ry peels of oranges, 9ulienned, used for garnishing in various sweet and
savoury dishes.
34STER SA5"E
A dark brown sauce with a rich flavour made from e!tract of oysters, salt
and starch, used mainly in south of %hina.
PEAN5T B5TTER
A paste made from crushed peanuts, used mainly as a spread. )ometimes
it is also used to thicken sauces.
P-5M SA5"E
A thick, rich, spicy fruit sauce it is used in savoury braised dishes or in
dips. #t is available bottled.
RI"E N33(-ES
;ice noodles are made in southern %hina from rice flour. hey are flat,
ribbon like strands that do not require soaking before use.
RI"E 6INEGAR
5ight and delicately flavoured vinegar. ;ice vinegar is distilled from white
rice and is very aromatic.
RI"E INE
Wine from fermented rice, it is golden yellow in colour. #t has a dry sherry
like flavour and is used to flavour many %hinese dishes.
S)A--3TS
,nknown in ancient times and of uncertain origin, it is less pungent than
onion. 3ainly used in sauces, the elongated variety tends to be stronger in
flavour.
S)RIMPS
Another type of seafood. +ale pink when raw, shrimps are available fresh,
fro&en or canned.
S)RIMP PASTE
4ften used in dishes of vegetables and soups, it is salty in taste and
should be used sparingly. )old in 9ars and cans, should be refrigerated
once opened.
SI")5AN PEPPER his spice is not a species of pepper, though it does have a peppery taste.
SN3 PEAS
Also known as 3angetout. 8arly varieties of peas, which have very tender
pods.
S34 SA5"E
#t is made from fermented soy beans, salt, yeast and sugar. Available in
two versions - 1ark and 5ight.
S34A BEAN PASTE
$round soya beans are seasoned and flavored with chillies, peppers, sugar
and salt. #t is very hot and aromatic.
S85I(S
his seafood is found world wide in temperate waters, they are available
fresh or fro&en
STI"K4 RI"E
1espite its name this rice, widely used in %hinese cooking, is completely
gluten free. When boiled it becomes sweet and sticky.
STIR1FR4
o cook small pieces of food in very little fat, tossing constantly over high
heat, usually in a wok.
ST3"K
#t is an aromatic and nutritive liquid e!tracted by boiling bones, spices
and6or vegetables with water.
ATER ")ESTN5T
#t<s a walnut si&ed bulb with brown 6green skin. #nside the flesh is white
and crisp. Water chestnut flour too is used.
)ITE INE
6INEGAR
Wine vinegars are ideal for mayonnaise and all kinds of salad dressings.
hey are also used in many sauces that can be served with fish.
3K
%one shaped utensil which is normally used to cook %hinese food. #t has a
rounded bottom, which encourages ingredients to return to the centre.
3NT3N RAPPERS Wafer thin wrappers eight centimeter (three inches) square made from
wheat flour, egg and water.
G-3SSAR4 3F IN(IAN TERMS
F-35RS
hole wheat Flour Atta Re0ined Flour 3aida
Barley Flour 2au ka Atta Gra! Flour "esan
Se!olina ;awa or )u9i "orn Meal 3akkai ka Atta
Millet Flour "a9ri or "a9re ka Atta Milo Flour 2uar or 2owari ka Atta
P5-SES
Bengal Gra! %hana 1al "hi%k Peas (abuli %hana
Bla%k Gra! ,rad 1al hole Green Gra! )abut 3ung
Split Green Gra! 1huli 3ung -entil whole 3asoor
-entil split 3asoor dal Bla%k Eyed Beans9Pigeon Peas 5obia6%havli
Red Gra! whole )abut Arhar or uvar Red Gra! split Arhar or uvar dal
Kidney Beans ;a9ma )orse Gra! (oolith
(ried Peas 7atana
IN(IAN )ERBS
"oriander -ea+es 'ara 1hania= (othmir Basil ulsi
Bay -ea+es e9 +atta Mint -ea+es +udina
"urry -ea+es %urry patta or 3eetha :eem Fenugreek -ea+es 'ari 3ethi
Garli% 5asun Fresh Ginger Adrak
-e!on Grass

SPI"ES
Aniseed or Fennel )aunf Asa0oetida 'ing
"aro! Seeds A9wain Bla%k Pepper (ali 3irch
Green "arda!o! %hoti 8laichi Bla%k "arda!o! "adi 8laichi
Red "hilli 5al 3irch Green "hilli 'ari 3irch
"araway Seeds )hahi 2eera "inna!on 1alchini
"lo+es 5aung "oriander Seeds )ookha 1hania
"u!in Seeds 2eera Bla%k "u!in (ala 2eera
Ma%e 2avitri Fenugreek Seeds 3ethi dana
(ry Ginger )oonth Mango Powder Amchur
Mustard Seeds ;ai, )arson Nigella Seeds93nion Seeds (alon9i
Poppy Seeds (hus (hus Sa00ron (esar or >affran
Sesa!e Seeds il Tur!eri% 'aldi
Nut!eg 2aiphal Bla%k Salt or Ro%k salt (ala :amak
Star Anise "adiyan Stone Flower 1agad +hool
N5TS & SEE(S
Al!ond "adam "ashewnut (a9u
Sun0lower Seeds %hiron9i6%haroli (ry "o%onut (hobra
Peanut or Groundnut 3oong +hali6)ing 1ana Pista%hio +ista
alnut Akhrot Raisin (ishmish
Apri%ot (hubani (ates (ha9oor
Pine Nuts %hilgo&a (ried (ates (harik
Prunes Alu "hukara

6EGETAB-ES & FR5ITS
Arti%hoke 'attichok Ash Gourd +etha
Au,ergine or Eggplant "aingan Pu!pkin (addu
Snake Gourd +arwal Marrow $hia
"apsi%u! )imla 3irch Fren%h Bean 0arash "ean
(ru!sti%k )ui9an +halli Beetroot %hukander
Radish 3uli Turnip )halgam
4a! #Elephant' 2imikand6)ooran Sweet Potato )hakkarkand6;attalu
"arrot $a9ar "olo%asia lea+es Arbi ka )aag
"olo%assia Arbi Potato Alu6batata
3nions +ya&6(anda Spring 3nions 'ara +ya&
Spina%h +alak A!aranth 5al 3aat
(ill lea+es )uva Fenugreek lea+es 3ethi
MIS"E--ANE35S
Indian Goose,erry Amla Star anise Anasphal61agad +hool
Figs An9eer Grape Fruits %hakotra
Sapodilla %hikoo
Bla%k1eyed Beans9"ow
Beans
%hawli65obia
(ates %huara A!aranth %haulai ka )aag
"ra%ked heat 1alia65apsi Asparagus
'alyan6shatwar6soot
mooli
"assia 2ungli 1alchini 3at 2aee
Star0ruit9"ara!,ola (amrakh S%rewpine (ewra
Apri%ots (hubani62ardalu Sultanas9-arge raisin 3unakka
"ustard Apple )arifa6)itaphal ater "hestnuts )inghara
6inegar )irka Stone Apple )iriphal6"ael
(ill )uwa "elery 1oroo
G-3SSAR4 3F "33KING TERMS
Baking
he food to be cooked is surrounded by hot air in a closed oven. 0or e.g, bread,cakes,
pastry,puddings and potatoes may be cooked by this method.
Baghar9"hhonkha9Tadka
4il or fat heated to its ma!imum, poured over the prepared dish with or without vegetable or
spices.
Baste
o moisten with gravy or melted fat6butter to prevent the ob9ect of cooking from drying , usually
during dry methods of cooking as in roasting, grilling or barbecuing.
Beating
his method can be used with thin mi!tures or liquids. his should be done carefully with an aim of
enclosing air or breaking of soft matter to form a smooth consistency. 0or e.g beating of eggs
Bhunao
)earing the 9uices of the cooking ob9ect by roasting or frying, incorporating masalas or spices.
Bhunana9Roasting
#n #ndian cooking , roasting is usually done in a tandoor, which helps to impart the flavour. he
9uices of the meat drip on the the charcoal which si&&les and sends up billows of smoke. (ebabs,
paneer and vegetables can be roasted on a sigri or a grill.
Spit roasting
he food to be cooked is brought in direct contact with the flame of a clear,bright fire.he food is
basted with fat and is turned on regularly to ensure even cooking and browning. ;oast meats
have a very special flavour, for e.g barbecued meats.
3+en Roasting
0ood is cooked in a closed oven at a constant temperature by dry circulating air as in baking of
cake or roasting of chicken 6 mutton.
Pot roasting
his method is used to cook small 9oints in a thick heavy pan,not necessarily in an oven. he pan
is covered with a well fitting lid and cooked over a very slow flame.
Bind
Addition of things like egg, bread crumbs, sauce, flour etc. in dry ingredients for the purpose of
combining is called binding.
Blan%h
+utting in boiling water for a short time to remove skin, dirt, refreshing and also to brighten the
colour is called blanching.
Boiling
0ood is cooked surrounded by boiling liquid (stock or water).
Par ,oil
%ooking to a certain e!tent of any food ob9ect by boiling or simmering.
Poa%hing
+oaching is cooking slowly in a minimum amount of liquid even below the simmering point and
not allowing the liquid to boil. #t is a special technique to cook delicate food products. 0or e.g
poaching eggs,fish etc.
Si!!er
o cook food gently in liquid that bubbles steadily 9ust below boiling point so that the food cooks
in even heat without breaking up.
Braising
"raising term uses two cooking methods wherein a food is first roasted 6 fried and then cooked in
some moistening.
Broiling
"roiling is cooking by direct heat, food is cooked uncovered on hot metal such as a griddle 6 frying
pan or even in an oven.
"ara!ali.e
'eating sugar to ??@ degrees % and above at which it starts turning brown or melts is called
caramali&ation.
"hop
;educing food into smallest si&e cubes or squares by cutting is called chopping.
"hopping
;educing a cooking ob9ect into smaller pieces with the aid of a chopper, knife, scissors, processor
etc. is called chopping.
"lari0y
Act of removing impurities from liquids , butter etc. by heating. 0or e.g stock is clarified by adding
egg white.
"rea!ing
)oftening of fat by friction with a wooden spoon with an idea of incorporating air in it.
"ut and Fold
A special technique to incorporate flour into a batter of butter, sugar and eggs while making cakes.
(hunaar9S!oking
he dish is cooked6given flavour by smoke generated of a source which can be live coals or burning
wood dust.
(i%ing
%utting into even si&ed cubes is called dicing.
(ressing
Any condiment or herb or a combination of spices in a medium (cream, vinegar, oil, etc.). Which is
used for adding in the end (prior to consumption) for enhancing taste and flavour.
E!ulsi0i%ation
"lending one liquid in another in which it is immiscible with the help of an emulsifier, as in making of
salad dressings.
Fer!entation
Aeration brought upon in a dough or a batter through bacterial organic reactions. 0or e.g bread
dough ,dosa batter.
Frying
his is a method of cooking whereby the food to be cooked is brought into contact with hot fat 6 oil.
here are two types of fryingA
Shallow 0rying
0ood is cooked in pan with little fat 6 oil so that only bottom and side surfaces of the food are
immersed, hence this method ensures e!cellent colour and crispness to the fried product. 0or e.g
+atties,cutlets,etc.
(eep 0rying
he food is completely immersed in hot fat6oil and cooked. #n most cases , deep frying ensures
cooking with colouring of e!teriors. 1eep frying is done at a temperaturre of ?B@-?/@%6C@@-
CB@0. 0or e.g $ulab 9amun,vada etc.
Grating
;educing to fine particles by rubbing over a sharp, rough surface. 0or e.g $rated carrots used for
ga9ar halwa.
Grind
%rushing a food item to a powder or paste form in a mi!er or grinder or pulveriser or grinding stone
or mortar-pestle etc.
Grinding
;educing to small fragments or paste by crushing in a mill6mi!er6pulveriser.
Grilling
his is cooking by dry heat. he food is supported on a grid iron over fire or betweeen electric
heated grill bars.
7uliennes
7egetables, like carrots, capsicums or even ginger cut into long thin strips.
Kneading
%ombining of liquid with flour for making dough using pressure of hand is the process of kneading.
Marinade
A mi!ture, mostly comprising of a liquid like yogurt and herbs, spices and condiments. ,sed in
cooking for the purpose of applying to a cooking ob9ect to make it tender and6 or tasty.
Marinate
%overing the food ob9ect with oil, tenderisers, spices, seasonings etc. to tenderise, give good taste
and facilitate fast cooking.
Mashing
his is a method of breaking up soft foods for the purpose of giving them some shape or coating for
further cooking, such as cooked potatoes or vegetables.
Min%e
Another version of grinding. ;educing a food item to its smallest possible unit through mechanical
action of some gadget operated manually or electrically.
Peeling
;emoval of outermost layer of the cooking or ready to serve ob9ect.
Piping
o force a pulp or batter through a piping bag, to give a desired shape.
Pressing
his is done to shape foods like cutlets and sometimes as a method of subdivision to separate
liquids from solids as for in paneer.
Pressure %ooking
"y increasing the pressure in an enclosed vessel, the boiling temperature is increased leading to
decrease in cooking time.
Pri%k
3aking small pointed openings on a food item for the purpose of marination or to let spices
penetrate inside. #t can be done through the pointed end of a knife or a fork.
Puree
A smooth mi!ture obtained by passing cooked ingredients through a sieve6strainer.
Re0resh
o cool hot food quickly either under running water or by dipping in ice cold water to stop the
cooking.
Roast
A cooking process in which the item is first seared in a hot medium of oil6fat6butter etc. and then
cooked by dry process like in oven or saut.ed or fried in a pan6kadai.
Rou/
A thickening for soups or sauces made with flour, besan, maida and butter, for e.g besan and curd
mi!ed for kadhi.
Ru,,ing in
;ubbing fat into flour using the tips of the fingers and thumb until the mi!ture looks like
breadcrumbs
Saute
o toss and cook a cooking ob9ect in a shallow pan in a small quantity of cooking medium without
much of mi!ing.
S%rape
;emoving things stuck on the inside of a bowl etc. or on a flat surface with tools like spatula or
palette knife is known as scraping.
S%ooping
o shape a fruit, vegetableand icecream in spherical shape for decorative food presentations, using
a scooper.
Shred
o cut into fine long pieces, e.g shredding cabbage, spinach, etc
Si0t
o pass dry ingredients through a fine sieve. 0or e.g sifting flour before making a dough.
Skewer
A long metallic or wooden solid-cylindrical accessory. #ts one end is pointed and the other is flat or
has a handle. ,sed for holding pieces of food for bar-be-cuing or frying.
Ski!
o remove with a spoon the impurities or scum or even cream from milk or fat from soups from the
surface layer of liquid which is allowed to stand.
Sli%e
%utting any ingredient into thin pieces lengthwise.
Slit
+utting a cut on a food ob9ect in a manner such that the opposite side remains intact. his opening
allows filling of spicesetc. 1one mostly in ingredients like chillies.
Stea!ing
he cooking ob9ect is surrounded by steam ( the temperature is higher than boiling water), normally
covered, produced by some liquid.
Stewing
%ooking of food (seared or unseared ) in liquid at simmering point, (mostly covered) for longer time
to optimise doneness of tough meat and vegetables.
Stir
Whenever we are saut.ing or dry roasting a preparation, its ingredients need to be moved
continuously in the pan or griddle with a tool like flat spoon. his process is called stirring.
Stirring
3i!ing foods with a suitable tool such as spoon by a circular motion in contact with the pan, inorder
to combine well and to prevent sticking or burning . 0or e.g in halwas and toffee.
Stir10ry
o cook small pieces of food in very little fat, tossing constantly over high heat, usually in a wok.
Te!pering
4n completing some preparations like dal, a concoction of spices and6 or herbs fried in hot fat or oil
or butter is added. his process is known as tempering.
To (ust
)prinkling of flour into the areas where any batter or dough is to be handled is known as dusting.
0or e.g chapatis, baking cakes.
Toss
3i!ing the ingredients in a bowl or a pan by throwing the contents slowly in the air holding the
handle or by using one or two spoons taking care that the food does not get mashed.
Tri!
;emoving e!cess or unwanted element of a food item or making it lean. 5ike removal of fat portion
in meat or fish.
hip
o incorporate air by beating and thus increase the volume as in egg whites and whipped cream.
hisk
An accessory made with a length of )tainless )teel (mostly) wire shaped in a balloon shape with a
handle at its one end. ,sed for whipping eggs or mi!ing things. hese days you also get whisks
specially for use in eflon coated pans.
EIG)TS AN( MEAS5RES
-I85I( "3N6ERSI3NS
Measures Metri% I!perial
? tsp(teaspoon) B ml ?6D fl o&
? tbsp (tablespoon) ?B ml E fl o&
?6/ cup C@ ml ? fl o&
F cup D@ ml G fl o&
C6/ cup H@ ml C fl o&
E cup ?GB ml I fl o&
G6C cup ?DB ml B fl o&
J cup ?/B ml D fl o&
? cup GB@ ml / fl o&
? F cups C?@ ml ?@ fl o&
? E cups CKB ml ?G fl o&
G cups B@@ ml ?D fl o&
G E cups DGB ml G@ fl o& 6 ? pint
C J cups HCB ml ?E pints
I cups ?@@@ ml ?J pints
B cups ?F litres G pints
?/ cups I E litres ? gallon
-egend
fl o& L fluid ounce
pt L pint
gal L gallon
ml L milliliter
l L litre
MASS "3N6ERSI3NS
Measures Metri% I!perial
? tsp (teaspoon) B gm ?6D o&
G tsp ?@ gm ?6C o&
C tsp ?B gm E o&
? tbsp(tablespoon) ?B gm E o&
G tbsp C@ gm ? o&
F cup 6 I tbsp D@ gm G o&
E cup 6 / tbsp ?G@ gm I o&. 6 F lb
G6C cup 6 ?@ tbsp M G tsp ?D@ gm B ?6C o&
J cup 6 ?G tbsp ?/@ gm D o&
? cup 6 ?D tbsp GI@ gm / o&. 6 E lb
G cups 6 CG tbsp I/@ gm ?D o& 6 ? lb
-egend
gms L grams
kg L kilo grams
lb L pound
tsp L teaspoon
tbsp L tablespoon
4&.L ounce
TEMPERAT5RE "3N6ERSI3NS
GGBN 0 ??@N %
GB@N 0 ?G@N %
GKBN 0 ?I@N %
C@@N 0 ?B@N %
CGBN 0 ?D@N %
CB@N 0 ?KBN %
CKBN 0 ?H@N %
I@@N 0 G@@N %
IGBN 0 GG@N %
IB@N 0 GC@N %
IKBN 0 GI@N %
Note:
"on+ersions o0 ; " #degree "elsius' to ; F #degree Fahrenheit'
O % L B6H (0- CG)
O 0 L H6B ( % M CG)
(IFFERENT T4PES 3F KNI6ES
A well-equipped kitchen will contain a range of different knives. he following are a few of them.
"ar+ing kni0e
his knife has a long, narrow blade ideal for slicing hot cooked meats.
"he0<s kni0e
8ssential for chopping, slicing, dicing and mincing. his knife has a long triangular shaped blade that
ranges in length from D to ?G inches. he edge is slightly curved so you can rock the knife for easy
chopping.
Graters
3ost often consist of a hollow bo! with different perforations on each side. 4ther types of graters
are rotary graters, with different blades, single sided graters for citrus &est and cheese and concave
nutmeg graters, which can hold the whole spice.
Paring kni0e
,sed for cutting fruits, vegetables, meat and cheese.
Serrated kni0e
)old in various si&es, the smaller knives, which are usually B inches long, are ideal for slicing
through fruits and vegetables while the large ones cut cakes and breads evenly.
6egeta,le peeler
A vegetable peeler is easier to use than a paring knife for potatoes, apples, carrots and other fruits
and vegetables. A swivel blade conforms more to the shape of the ingredient than a fi!ed blade, so
less of the flesh is removed.
=ester
A &ester has a stainless steel rectangular head with five holes that are designed to remove fine
shavings of citrus &est when dragged along the surface of the fruit.
MEAS5REMENTS
INGRE(IENTS 85ANTIT4 "3N6ERSI3N
Almonds ?@ ?I grams
Asafoetida (hing) ? teaspoon I grams
"a9ra flour ? cup ?C@ grams
"aking powder ? teaspoon C grams
"lack cardamoms G ? gram
"lack peppercorns 15 ? gram
"lack pepper powder ? teaspoon C grams
%araway seeds (shahi 9eera) ? teaspoon C grams
%arom seeds ? teaspoon C grams
%innamon ? inch6G.B cm stick @.B grams
%loves ?@ ? gram
%oconut milk ? cup GGB millilitres
%oriander powder ? teaspoon G grams
%oriander seeds ? teaspoon I grams
? tablespoon K grams
%umin powder ? teaspoon C grams
%umin seeds ? teaspoon C grams
%umin seeds ? tablespoon K grams
8gg ? (small) B@ grams
? (big) D@ grams
0ennel seeds (saunf) ? teaspoon Bgrams
? tablespoon ?? grams
0resh coriander leaves ? tablespoon (chopped) B grams
? cup GB grams
? cup (chopped) D@ grams
$aram masala powder ? teaspoon G grams
$arlic ?@ cloves ?C grams
$arlic paste ? tablespoon ?B grams
$inger ? inch piece K grams
$inger paste ? tablespoon ?B grams
$ram flour (besan) ? tablespoon B grams
? cup H@ grams
? cup /D grams
$rated dry coconut ? tablespoon
? cup /C grams
$reen cardamom powder ? teaspoon G grams
$reen chillies ?@ ?H grams
$reen chilli paste ? teaspoon B grams
$reen chilli paste ? teaspoon B grams
0resh green peas (shelled) ? cup ?B/ grams
0resh scraped coconut ? tablespoon K grams
? cup ??/ grams
'oney ? tablespoon ?D grams
2aggery (grated) ? teaspoon / grams
? tablespoon G? grams
? cup G@B grams
2awari flour ? cup ??G grams
(okum petals ? cup ??G grams
5emon 9uice ? teaspoon D grams
? tablespoon B grams
3ace G strands C grams
3edium si&ed carrot ? K@-KB grams
3edium si&ed onion ? /B-H@ grams
3edium si&ed potato ? HB-?@@ grams
3edium si&ed tomato ? HB-?@@ grams
3ustard seeds (rai) ? teaspoon I grams
3ustard powder ? teaspoon G grams
+eanuts ? tablespoon ?G grams
? cup G@@ grams
+oppy seeds ? teaspoon 4 grams
? tablespoon 9 grams
+owdered sugar ? cup ?GI grams
;ed chilli powder ? teaspoon C grams
;ed chilli paste ? teaspoon K grams
;efined flour ? cup ??D grams
;ice ? cup ?H@ grams
;ice flour ? cup ?I@ grams
)alt ? teaspoon K grams
)emolina ? cup ?K/ grams
)esame seeds (til) ? teaspoon I grams
? tablespoon ?? grams
)plit "engal gram (chana dal) ? teaspoon I grams
? cup G@/ grams
)plit black gram (dhuli urad dal) ? teaspoon K grams
? cup G?I grams
)plit green gram (dhuli moong dal) ? cup G@K grams
)plit pigeon pea (toor dal6arhar dal) ? cup G@B grams
)tar anise G I grams
)ugar ? teaspoon D grams
? tablespoon ?B grams
? cup GB@ grams
amarind pulp ? teaspoon K grams
omato puree ? tablespoon ?I grams
? cup GGB grams
urmeric powder (haldi) ? teaspoon C grams
7inegar 1tablespoon ?C grams
White pepper powder ? teaspoon C grams
Whole red chillies B C grams
Whole wheat flour (atta) ? cup ?CK grams
Pogurt ? cup GBK grams
G-3SSAR4 3F 36ENARE
Baking ,eans
hese are ceramic or metal beans that help to weigh down pastry in its pan when baking blind
without a filling.
Baking sheets
hese are thin, metal, rectangular sheets, sometimes with lipped edges. $ood quality heavy
sheets are essential for even conduction of heat and to prevent buckling.
"ake pan
hese are metal, square, round or rectangular pans used for baking cakes. hey can be deep or
shallow. 1ecorative shapes are also available. )ome pans have loose bases, which help in
removing the cake easily.
"ake ra%ks
hese are round or rectangular footed open metal grids that enable air to circulate beneath the
food during cooling.
"asseroles
hese are cast iron, earthenware or china cooking pots that are deep, lidded, single or double
handed cooking pots. )ome of them are flameproof and can be used on top of the stove as well.
"ookie and pastry %utters
hese are thin, metal straight-sided cutters in geometric and naturalistic shapes and in varying
si&es. hey are sold individually or in sets.
(e%orati+e !oulds
hese can be used for making breads, steamed or baked desserts, 9ellies, mousses, icecreams and
bombes etc.
Flan pans
hese are round and shallow pans often fluted and with removable bases. hey are generally
made of tinned steel, black steel or ceramic and used for baking tarts, flans and quiches.
Flan rings
hese are plain or scalloped metal hoops used with a baking sheet for tarts, flans and quiches.
hey can also be used for layering cakes.
Gratin dishes
hese are wide and shallow with straight or sloping sides and handles. hey are usually flameproof
so that they can be used under the broiler too.
7elly roll pan
his is a shallow rectangular metal pan designed specifically for cooking sheets of whisked sponge.
-oa0 pans
hese are plain, deep rectangular pans used for baking bread and pates. 5ong narrow baguette
pans for 0rench bread are usually made of tinned or blued steel.
Metal skewers
hese are long and thin rods with a sharp pointed end to cut through chunks of meat and
vegetables. $enerally used for making kebabs, piercing potatoes for baking and for testing for
doneness.
Pastry wheel
his is a wooden handled cutter with fluted wheel, used to trim edges of pies decoratively.
Pie pans
hese are shallow, slope sided round pans that are made of glass or metal or porcelain. hey can
also be used for serving at the table.
Ra%ks
hese are cradle shaped or rectangular footed grills primarily used to allow fats and 9uices to run
free from roasting poultry and meat into the pan kept below.
Ra!ekins
hese are individual si&ed souffl. dishes that are also useful for baking custard and cold or hot
desserts.
Ring !ould
hese moulds are used when baking heavy battered cakes where the central hole ensures that the
heat reaches the center of the cake. he ring supports the cake on rising.
Roasting pans
hese are rectangular or oval, flat based metal pans with straight or slightly sloping sides, used for
cooking meat and baked dishes. 1eep pans usually have integral racks.
Sou00l2 dishes
hese are straight sided, round dishes of glass, porcelain or stoneware, these are traditionally
fluted. An ungla&ed underside allows heat to penetrate quickly.
Spring 0or! %ake pan
his has a removable base and a spring clipped side that make e!traction easier.
Tartlet !oulds
hese are small, decoratively shaped metal moulds often with fluted sides that are ideal for petit
feurs and small pastries. %upcakes, muffins and other small buns can also be baked in pans that
contain multiple moulds.
Terrines
$enerally made of earthenware, they are usually oval and lidded with air vents on the top. hese
straight-sided containers are designed for cooking ground and chopped meat mi!tures.
ITA-IAN G-3SSAR4
T4PES 3F PASTAS
"annelloni
he word QcannelloniR meaning Qbig pipesR describes this hollow cylindrical pasta shape, which is
stuffed and baked.
"on%higlie
)hell-shaped pasta. Available in a variety of si&es.
Far0alle
+retty bow tie shaped pasta. hey normally have crinkled edges and can be ridged or plain.
Available in a variety of colours.
Fusilli
hin pasta spirals. he spirals open out during cooking.
-asagne
0lat pasta sheets, which may be plain or ridged. +lain and egg lasagne, are available mostly in two
flavors spinach and whole-wheat. 5asagne is normally precooked and then baked in the oven
between layers of sauce.
Ma%aroni
'ollow short pasta shapes. here are many versions varying in si&e and length. +lain and egg
macaroni are both available.
Pastina #soup pasta'
A tiny pasta available in almost countless number of pasta shapes used for broths and soups.
Penne
+enne are pasta tubes with angular ends that are often used in #talian dishes and in dishes with
chunky sauces.
Ra+ioli
he most well-known pasta dumpling, square in shape, it is traditionally stuffed with spinach and
ricotta cheese or herbs. #t can also be filled with savoury meat mi!ture. ;avioli is usually served
fresh.
Spaghetti
3ade from durum wheat the word spaghetti means little strings. #t remains the most popular type
of pasta and is available fresh or dried.
Tagliatelle
A ribbon shaped pasta. #t can be with or without egg and is available in different flavours, spinach
being the most popular apart from the plain noodle.
Tortellini
A small stuffed pasta dumpling, usually stuffed with a variety of fillings like chopped chicken,
sausage, cheese and nutmeg.
ITA-IAN ")EESE
Fontina
A cow<s milk cheese, it has a delicate nutty, slightly smoky taste and is much used for QfondutaR an
#talian version of the )wiss QfondueR.
Gorgon.ola
A blue veined cheese, it is considered one of the best blue cheeses in the world. #t is good for
deserts, snacks and salad dressings and when grated and grilled it can be used as a topping for
several foods.
Mas%arpone
3ade from the cream of curdled cow<s milk, this delicately flavoured triple cream cheese is too rich
to be eaten on its own, but can be used in the same way as whipped or clotted cream and has a
similar te!ture. #ts unique sweetness makes it ideal for desserts. #t is an essential ingredient of
iramisu and can be churned into a rich velvety ice cream.
Mo..arella
An #talian unripened curd cheese made from cow<s milk. #t is a soft cheese with a rather moist
te!ture. #t has a mild creamy te!ture and is widely used as a cooking cheese in pi&&as, lasagne and
toasted sandwiches.
Par!esan
4ne of #taly<s best-known cheeses, it is of a granular type. #t is a cow<s milk cheese made in large
wheel shapes and when fully matured it is used for grating and cooking.
Pro+olone
An #talian curd cheese made from cow<s milk, it is often used in cannelloni and ravioli.
Ri%otta
An #talian fresh, unripened cheese made from the whey of cow<s milk. #t is smooth and mild tasting
and is used in a variety of sweet and savoury dishes including pi&&as.
3T)ERS
Al dente
Although the term Qal denteR is applied in cooking of various foods, it is particularly associated with
cooking pasta. An #talian term, it means Qfirm to the biteR which pasta should be when cooked.
Antipasto
;efers to appeti&ers served before the main meal. Antipasto literally means -before the pastaR.
Ar,orio
his is one of the best-known #talian rice. 4riginally grown in +4 valley in #taly. A starchy short grain
rice that has been developed especially for ;isotto, the most famous #talian dish. When cooked it
develops a creamy consistency.
Basil
A member of the mint family, the fresh green leaves are full of flavour. %rumbled and dried leaves
are less aromatic. Associated with #talian cooking, basil is used in chicken, fish and tomato dishes,
pasta sauce and salads, soups, stuffings, pesto sauce and salad dressings.
Bis%otti
#talian cookie often hard in te!ture and lightly flavored with anise.
"annelloni ,eans
hese white oval shaped beans are used frequently in #talian dishes. hey are available canned.
"arnaroli
his is premium risotto rice. he outer part of the grain is made up of soft starch that dissolves
during cooking to leave the inner grain, which has a firm bite.
"ia,atta
hese flattish, slipper shaped loaves with squared or rounded edges are made with olive oil and are
often flavoured with fresh or dried herbs, olives or sun dried tomatoes. hey have an airy te!ture
inside and a pale crisp crust. %iabatta is delicious served warm and is e!cellent for sandwiches.
(ried red %hillies #peperon%ini'
'ot flakes of dried chillies added to many #talian dishes such as Arrabiata sauce, +asta All Aglio or
sprinkled over pi&&as.
Fo%a%%ia
0lavoured with olive oil, salt and herbs, this is simple flat bread shaped as a rustic slab or round. A
simple loaf of focaccia can turn into a feast when served as an antipasto with #talian salami, home
made #talian vinegar and olive oil dressing, and e!tra sea salt to sprinkle over the bread.
Grissini
hin, crunchy bread sticks made from simple yeast dough enriched with a little olive oil or lard,
often flavoured with +armesan. hey go well with soups, salads and antipasto, as well as dips and
are a wonderful replacement for party nibbles.
-ight oli+e oil
+aler in colour and less full flavoured than virgin or regular olive oil, light olive oil is still ?@@ percent
pure olive oil. #t can be used for cooking and in salads and marinades when a rich, distinctive oil
flavour is not desired.
3regano
;elated to mar9oram, the dried leaves of oregano are available crumbled or ground. ,sed in a wide
variety of pasta sauces and salad dressings.
Pesto
his is a classic basil sauce from #taly. #t is made with fresh basil, pinenuts, +armesan and olive oil
and is sometimes also flavoured with red peppers or sun dried tomatoes. #t is available fresh or
bottled.
Pine nuts
iny cream coloured nuts, with a distinct tarry flavor. +ine nuts are the key components of the
popular #talian +esto )auce.
Pros%iutto
An #talian ham from the hind leg of the pig rubbed with salt and other dry seasonings and matured
for eight to ten months.
Pugliese
3ade with really good fruity olive oil, this is soft, yet chewy, olive oil bread with a thin crust. his
bread is best eaten warm on the day of baking. 4n the ne!t day it makes fine crostini, #talian open
sandwiches made on thin slices of toast.
Sun dried to!atoes #po!odori se%%hi'
Wrinkled red dried tomatoes are available dry in packets or preserved in olive oil. hey are brick red
in colour and have a chewy te!ture. hey can be eaten on their own as a snack, but for cooking
they should be soaked in hot water until soft.
Sun dried to!ato paste
his is similar to standard tomato puree, but is made from intensely flavoured sun dried tomatoes
and olive oil. Although thick in te!ture, the flavour of sun dried tomato paste is sweet and mild
compared with regular tomato puree.
6ialone Nana
his rice too is also used for making risotto. his has a plump grain and a firmer inner starch, so
that risottos made from this rice tend to have a slightly more bite.
6irgin oli+e oil
3ade from only the pulp and not the kernels of the highest quality olives. 7irgin olive oil has a
robust fruity flavour and a green gold colour. #t adds a distinctive flavour to salad dressings and is
used in dishes where strong flavoured oil is needed.
-AR(ER TERMS
Ait%h,one
he hip or rump bone= also, the cut of meat (usually beef or pork) containing
the bone.
A la According to the style of such as a la franchise or according to the 0rench way.
A la %arte 0oods prepared to order= each dish priced separately.
Al dente
%ooked 9ust to the point of being done, especially pastas and fresh vegetables=
cooked to retain crispness.
Allu!ettes +otatoes, carrots, and similar items cut into thin strips like matchsticks.
Appeti.ers "everages or assorted snacks served before a meal.
Aspi%
erm that applies to a way of arranging cold dished. #t consists of of placing
slices or fillets of meat, fish or vegetables into molded 9elly.
Aspi% >elly
A clarified, 9ellied stock that solidifies when cold. #t can be flavored with such
wines as port, sherry, marsala, 3adeira, champagnes, or white wine. #t is used
to coat foodstuffs or in the production of molds.
As natural %ooked simply.
Bain1Marie
A table having openings to hold containers of food over hot water in steam
table. 1ouble boiler can be used for same purpose with smaller amounts of
food.
Barding o cover (for e!ample, meat or game) with slices of bacon for cooking.
Beignets 0ritters.
Blan%h
o scald or parboil foods in boiling water or steam before cooking or free&ing.
Also, to dip in boiling water to facilitate the removal of skins from tomatoes,
fruits, nuts.
Blending horoughly mi!ing two or more ingredients.
Bou%hee
)mall meat patty or pastry shell filled with meat, poultry, or lobster. )ometimes
filled with fruits.
Bou?uetiere
A variety of vegetables in season, arranged around a dish or platter of meat,
poultry, or fish.
Braise
o brown meat or vegetables in a small amount of lat and then cook covered in
oven or on top of the range, adding liquid as needed to prevent scorching or
burning.
Bra.ier 'eavy duty stewing pan with tightly fitting cover.
Brine 5iquid of salt, nitrites, spices, and water used for pickling meats or fish.
Brio%he
A small pear-shaped roll of raised dough made with yeast, eggs, milk, butter,
and flour. 7ery light. )ometimes filled for service as canap..
Brunoise %ut in fine dice.
Bu00et
1isplay of ready-to-eat hot and cold foods, 4ften self-service from table or
tables of assorted foods.
"anap2 An appeti&er prepared on a base such as bread, toast, or crackers.
"apon %astrated poultry noted for its tenderness and delicate flavor.
"har%uterie
%old cuts and meat dishes such as sausages. Also a delicatessen speciali&ing in
dressed meats and meat dishes.
"haud 10roid
A 9ellied sauce used as a covering for meat, fish, or poultry= food covered with
a chaud-froid sauce usually has been molded into shapes after cooking and is
served cold. 3ay be white, brown (asparagus) or red (tomatoes).
"iseler o shred finely= to score in the skin of fish or meat.
"lari0y
o make clear by adding a clarifying agent, which removes suspended particles
BASI" BAKER4 TERMS
Allu!ette
0rench word for matchstick 7arious puff pastry items made in thin sticks or
strips.
Al!ond Paste A mi!ture of finely ground almonds and sugar.
Angel 0ood %ake A type of cake made with meringue(egg white and sugar) and flour.
Angel 0ood Method
A cke mi!ing method involving folding a mi!ture of flour and sugar onto a
meringue.
Ba,a A type of yeast cake that is soaked in syrup.
Ba,ka A type of sweet yeast bread or coffee cake.
Baked Alaska
A dessert consisting of ice cream on a sponge base covered with meringue
and browned in the oven.
Baking A!!onla A leavening agent that releases amounla gas and carbon dio!ide.
Bakla+a
A $reek or 3iddle 8astern dessert made of nuts and phyllo dough and
soaked in syrup.
Batter
A semi-liquid mi!ing containing four or other starch, used for the production
of cakes and breads, and for coating products to be deep-fried.
Ba+arian "rea!
A light cold dessert made of gelatin, whipped cream, and custard sauce or
fruit.
Beignet Sou00l2 A type of fritter made with .clair paste, which puffs up greatly when fried.
Bla%k Forest Torte A chocolate sponge layer cake filled with whipped cream and cherries.
Blan% Mange
An 8nglish pudding made with milk, sugar and cornstarch.
0rench dessert made of milk, cream, almonds and gelatin.
Bloo! A whitish coating on chocolate, caused by separted cocoa butter.
Blown Sugar
+ulled sugar that is made into thin walled, hollow shapes by being blown up
like a balloon.
Bo!,e A type of fro&en dessert made in a dome shaped mold.
Boston "rea! Pie
A sponge cake or other yellow cake filled with pastry cream and topped with
chocolate fondant or confectioners sugar.
Bran he hard outer covering of kernels of wheat and grain.
Bran Flour 0lour to which bran flakes have been added.
Bread 0lour )trong flour, such as patent flour, used for breads.
Brio%he
;ich yeast dough containing large amounts of eggs and butter, or product
made from this dough.
Brown Sugar
;egular granulated sucrose containing various impurities that give it a
distinctive flavor.
Butter%rea!
A icing made of butter and6or shortening blended with confectioners sugar
or sugar syrup a and sometimes other ingredients.
"a,inet Pudding A baked custard containing sponge cake and fruits.
"ake 0lour A fine, white flour made from soft wheat.
"ara!eli.ation he browning of sugar caused by heat.
"ast Sugar
)ugar that is boiled to hard crack stage and than poured into molds to
harden.
"elsius S%ale
he metric system of temperature measurement, with @o% set at the
free&ing point of water and ?@@o % set at the boiling point of water.
A cold dessert made of "avarian cream or other cream in a special mold
G-3SSAR4 3F KIT")EN 5TENSI-S
Baking
trays
5arge and small, aluminium 6 stainless steel trays used for baking purposes.
Ba!,oo
,roo!
A normal short broom of bamboo sticks, widely used in %hinese kitchens to clean
the wok.
Ba!,oo
Stea!er
A special kind of steamer made from bamboo strips used in %hinese cooking
specially for steaming dimsums.
"hakla &
Belan
%hakla is a small marble or wooden platform and belan the rolling pin, usually
made of wood. hey are used for rolling dough to make various #ndian breads.
"hi!ta
#n simple term tongs, meant for holding cooking ob9ect in frying, griddle cooking
etc.
"hopping
Board
3ade of food grade fibre, comes in different shapes, si&es, thickness and colours
used for the purpose of cutting and chopping food items on it.
"ling Fil!
A transperant food grade ultra thin plastic sheet used for covering cooked,
uncooked food kept in food trays, bowls etc. under room temperature or
refrigerated conditions.
"ollander
;ound, deep utensil with lots of holes meant to drain liquid and retain the residue
for further processing.
"oni%al
Strainer
A grooved stainless steel conical sieve used for straining soups, sauces etc. in large
quantities
(eg%hi 9
Pateela
A pot of metal normally with good depth, round in shape, a very general utensil for
#ndian cooking= generally provided with a lid.
Foil
#t is a very thin sheet made of aluminium, can be easily moulded to shape and
retains heat well. #t is a multiutility product where the use ranges from wrapping
finished product to keeping semi processed food product in the refrigerator and
beyond.
Food
pro%essor
An electric equipment run by motor, used to break down food items or for blending
and other purposes. #t comes with various attachments and blades meant for the
above processes.
Frying Pan A shallow thick bottom pan used for shallow frying .
Gateau/
sli%er
A flat spoon with a handle at an angle to help in lifting delicate pastries, specially
fresh cream cake slices.
Grater
An equipment which has sharp grooves of different si&es meant for the purpose of
grating (reducing to very small si&e).
)a!a!1
(asta
$enerally known as mortar and pestle, used to pound dry masala.
)andi
3ade of brass and the cooking surface is coated with tin, has a neck that is
narrower than the base.
Kadai
A deep frying pan, made of various metals and alloys, the most common being iron,
stainless steel, aluminium and brass.
Kni0e
A sharp edged tool used for cutting. #t is a basic necessity in the kitchen and comes
in various si&es and shapes for different purposes like carving, butchering etc.
Masala (ani %ommonly known as )pice "o! , contains the commonly used dry spices.
Moulds
#mplements of different shapes, si&es, width etc. as required for the process of
cooking, baking or setting of food items in a desired shape in which it is set or
cooked.
Muslin %loth
A thin loosely woven cotton cloth used for fine straining purpose such as to drain
curds, strain 9uices, or often used to line a sieve.
No..le
A small conical tool, used with the piping bag, to force out pulp or batter in various
floral 6 leaf or other fancy shapes.
Palette
kni0e
A long, flat, blunt knife used for the purpose of creaming and icing cakes.
Parat A big si&e round shaped utensil with side walls in which dough is kneaded
Pauni A perforated spoon meant for frying.
Piping ,ag
A conical bag with an opening for a no&&le, made of cloth and lined with plastic,
temporarily can be made with butter paper, used for the purpose of piping or
creating a fancy shape. 8g. while making biscuits etc. or icing on a cake
Potato
Peeler
An implement with a sharp groove and a serated edge on one side to peel potatoes
and other firm fruits and vegetables. he serated edge is used for creating ridges
for decorative purposes.
Pressure
"ooker
A stove pot hermetically sealed, in which steam pressure builds up so that foods
cook quickly at temperatures above boiling point.
Pul+eriser
A heavy duty electrical grinding machine with a very high speed of grinding and
breaking down of ingredients.
Round
spoon
A stainless steel spoon with rounded base to help in lifting off gravy or other moist
preparations.
S%ooper
A tool used to scoop out fruits, vegetables or icecreams in spherical shapes of
different si&es.
Sie+e
A tool of equal si&ed grooves, used for removing of impurities and separating grains
of different si&es, it is available in various si&ed grooves for different purposes.
Sli%er spoon A flat spoon with hori&ontal grooves on it.
Spatula
A flat spoon of a definite shape made of plastic or rubber widely used in bakery for
the purpose of mi!ing ingredients.
Tandoor
A clay, baking chamber which is heated with live coals. #t is used for baking various
#ndian breads, tikkas and other tandoori items.
Tandoor
sariyas
5ong iron rods, onto which the food items are pierced and put in the tandoor for
cooking, while similar rods either with a hook edge or with a flat edge are used for
removing rotis or other tandoori breads from the tandoor.
Tawa
A slightly concave thick iron 6 non stick pan used for cooking #ndian breads like
chappati, parantha , etc.
Thali
A big plate, with straight sides, made of aluminium, stainless steel or brass.
raditionally #ndian 0ood is always served in a hali. #t can also serve as a lid, to
cover a vessel.
Tin %utter A tool used for cutting open the lids of a food can or container.
hisk
An accessory made with a length of )tainless )teel (mostly) wire shaped in a
balloon shape with a handle at one end. ,sed for whipping eggs or mi!ing things.
ire whisk
A stainless steel wire coiled to resemble a balloon, used for beating of eggs, cream
etc. to incorporate air and make it lighter in te!ture or for blending of sauces.
ok
)imilar to a kadai, made of iron, nowadays even non-stick woks are available.
'owever they are shallower and wider than a kadai, to enable the heat to penetrate
the food items easily for faster cooking used specially in chinese cuisine.
G-3SSAR4 3F MIS"E--ANE35S TERMS
A>ino!oto9!onosodiu!
3r Msg
#t is e!tracted from seaweed and other vegetable matter. 0lavour
enhancing secret of this seaweed is an amino acid called glutamate.
Akhni or 4akhni 0lavoured )oup or )tock
Atta Whole wheat flour
Ba!,oo Shoots
hese are the tender spear shaped shoots from the base of bamboo
plants
Batter
Any mi!ture of grounded grains or flour and a liquid mi!ed together
to a coating 6 dripping consistency .
Bean "urd
Also known as 1ou 0u in %hinese and ofu in 2apanese, it is made
with boiled soya bean liquid. #t is soft and white, cheese like in
te!ture, ranges from firm to silken.
Bean Sprouts
"ean sprouts are sprouted green gram (moong) and are highly
nutritious
Bha>>ia9Pakora
)liced6 %hopped veg6non veg commodity dipped in batter and deep
fried.
Biryani
An e!otic #ndian rice preparation where rice (of best quality) and
main ingredient (in gravy) are cooked together.
Bla%k Bean 0er!ented
hese beans are aromatic and are cooked either only with salt or
with salt, ginger and orange peel. "efore using them, salt should be
rinsed off.
Bla%k Bean Sau%e
,sed in place of soy sauce when a thicker sauce is required. 3ade
from salted soya beans, ground and mi!ed with flour and spices.
Bro%olli
)imilar to cauliflower, dark green in colour. he word brocco means
sprout.
Brown Sugar
)mall crystals of refined white sugar treated with dark grade
molasses. )oft light brown sugar is treated with light colored
molasses.
"elery
A shoot vegetable with a distinct sharp and savoury flavour. he
stalk is used to flavour soups and salads
"ellophane Noodles
%ellophane noodles are made from green gram flour. hey are very
hard and fine. Also known as transparent
"he0
A creative, innovative, educated professional who specialises in the
field of cooking and presenting food.
"hilli 3il #t is a very spicy bright red oil made of chillies with oil
"hilli Sau%e
#t is made from chillies ground with vinegar, starch and salt.
4ccasionally flavoured with garlic, it has thick consistency like
tomato sauce and is very hot.
"hilli Bar ,e1%ue Sau%e
A combination of hoisin sauce, vinegar, sesame oil or paste and
bean sauce. ,sed in marination.
"hinese "a,,age
5arge headed cabbage with firmly packed pale green leaves.
%hinese cabbage is also wrongly referred to as "ok %hoy.
"ilantro 5eaves of coriander plant, also referred to as %hinese parsley. ,sed
as a garnish.
"ornstar%h
%ommonly referred to as cornflour. "lended with water to form
paste, it is used as a thickening agent.
"onsisten%y
A term describing the te!ture, usually the thickness6thinness of a
mi!ture.
"urry powder
A mi!ture of various spices such as peppercorns,coriander, chillie,
turmeric, cumin, cloves and curry leaves, roasted and powdered
together used mainly in )outh #ndian curries.
(o Pya.
5iterally -twice onion-. )liced and fried onion added to veg 6non veg
preparations, a second time, along with other spices.
(ough
A mi!ture of flour, liquid, etc. kneaded together into a stiff6soft
paste as desired.
(ry Sherry
raditional fortified wine. 5argely used in cooking, marinating and
its sweet version is used in making desserts.
Egg noodles
0resh hese yellow noodles range in si&e and shape from long
spaghetti like, to thin vermicelli like strands.
Fer!ented Bean "urd
Also called bean curd cheese, it is made by fermenting small cubes
of bean curd in wine and salt.
Fish Sau%e
#t is a salty, thin, brown liquid made by fermenting fish6shrimps
with salt and soy sauce.
Fi+e Spi%e Powder
3ade from varying combinations of star anise, fennel, cloves,
cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg and )ichuan peppercorns ground
together.
Gara! Masala
Whole or powdered ,aromatic combination of famous #ndian hot
spices which is a mi!ture of green and black cardamoms, cinnamon,
cloves, cumin, bay leaves and mace.
Garnish 8dible ingredients put in a decorative fashion for presentation.
Ginger his potato coloured root is indispensable to %hinese cooking.
)alwa A sweetmeat made from lentils, dryfruits, flour or vegetables.
)oisin Sau%e
#t is a thick and brownish red sauce. #t is made from soya beans,
sugar, salt, garlic and chillies with sesame oil.
)ot Mustard
%ondiment served with %hinese appeti&ers. 3ade by mi!ing dry
mustard powder with water, causing a chemical reaction that
produces a sharp hot taste.
Ke,a,s
%ooked6,ncooked, minced6mashed, veg6non veg mi!tures, binded,
shaped along with aromatic spices and cooked on direct heat.
Kheer
A sweet pudding like preparation of milk with other ingredients such
as rice or carrot.
Kor!a
;ich,thickened white6 brown curry of chicken, mutton or
vegetables.
-addoo A ball shaped sweet made from a variety of ingredients
-assi
A beverage made of beaten yoghurt, flavoured, sweetened or
salted.
-e!on Grass
A sub tropical plant resembling spring onion which gives a delicious
lemony flavour to )outh 8ast Asian dishes.
-e!on Rind
5emon peels with the inner white membrane removed can be used,
grated or 9ulienned, to garnish dishes both sweet and savoury.
-ettu%e
here are three varieties of lettuce - crisp-head, romaine butter-
head or cabbage. All are mainly used raw and in salads.
-otus Root
%runchy and gourd shaped, lotus roots grow underwater, four to
five together strung like sausages and often one to one and half
feet long.
Morel Mushroo!s
hese are the most e!pensive of the dried mushrooms. "ut only a
few should be used as they add quite a lot of flavour.
Mushroo!s
%hinese mushrooms called )hitake are a beautiful pale gold colored
when fresh and have a pleasantly firm te!ture and a haunting
flavour. Available dry and should be soaked before cooking.
Mushroo!s$ ,la%k
,sually available dried, the caps are thick with a nice curl and range
in colour from black to speckled brown black
Mussels
A seafood, closely related to the clam. 3ussels are generally sold
fresh in their shells and eaten raw or steamed or used in salads or
soups.
Noodles
:oodles is a %hinese staple food. 3ein is the generic term after
which the popular dish %how 3ein is named.
3range Rind
1ry peels of oranges, 9ulienned, used for garnishing in various
sweet and savoury dishes.
3yster sau%e
A dark brown sauce with a rich flavour made from e!tract of
oysters, salt and starch, used mainly in south of %hina.
Paratha 5eavened and flaky , :orth #ndian bread made in a variety of ways.
Peanut Butter
A paste made from crushed peanuts, used mainly as a spread.
)ometimes it is also used to thicken sauces.
Plu! Sau%e
A thick, rich, spicy fruit sauce it is used in savoury braised dishes or
in dips. #t is available bottled.
Rasa!
A spicy thin soup made of lentils and tomatoes. 'ot and sharp=
served sometimes as an appetiser. A speciality of )outh #ndia.
Ri%e Noodles
;ice noodles are made in southern %hina from rice flour. hey are
flat, ribbon like strands that do not require soaking before use.
Ri%e 6inegar
5ight and delicately flavoured vinegar. ;ice vinegar is distilled from
white rice and is very aromatic
Ri%e ine
Wine from fermented rice, it is golden yellow in colour. #t has a dry
sherry like flavour and is used to flavour many %hinese dishes.
Shallots
,nknown in ancient times and of uncertain origin, it is less pungent
than onion. 3ainly used in sauces, the elongated variety tends to
be stronger in flavour.
Shri!ps
-Another type of seafood. +ale pink when raw, shrimps are available
fresh, fro&en or canned.-
Shri!p Paste
4ften used in dishes of vegetables and soups, it is salty in taste and
should be used sparingly. )old in 9ars and cans, should be
refrigerated once opened.
Si%huan Pepper
his spice is not a species of pepper, though it does have a peppery
taste.
Snow Peas
Also known as 3angetout. 8arly varieties of peas, which have very
tender pods.
Soy Sau%e
#t is made from fermented soy beans, salt, yeast and sugar.
Available in two versions - 1ark and 5ight.
Soya Bean Paste
$round soya beans are seasoned and flavored with chillies,
peppers, sugar and salt. #t is very hot and aromatic.
S?uids
his seafood is found world wide in temperate waters, they are
available fresh or fro&en
Sto%k
#t is an aromatic and nutritive liquid e!tracted by boiling bones,
spices and6or vegetables with water.
Te/ture
A term used to describe the characteristics of a finished food
product
Toddy
An alcoholic drink obtained from a variety of palm. #t is used for
fermenting sannas - steamed rice cakes from konkan.
6ark
hin foil of silver or gold which is edible, mostly used to decorate
#ndian sweets.
6indaloo
A sharp and hot curry made of pork, prawn, chicken or mutton.
%ooked in special goan spices with vinegar and garlic.
ada 0ried dumpling made of fermented batter of lentils.
ater "hestnut
#t<s a walnut si&ed bulb with brown 6green skin. #nside the flesh is
white and crisp. Water chestnut flour too is used.
hite ine 6inegar
Wine vinegars are ideal for mayonnaise and all kinds of salad
dressings. hey are also used in many sauces that can be served
with fish.
onton rappers
Wafer thin wrappers eight centimeter (three inches) square made
from wheat flour, egg and water.
ENG-IS) )IN(I
Almonds "adam
Alum +hitkari
Aniseed )aunf
Apple )eb
Apricot (hoomani
Artichoke 'attichak
Asafoetida 'ing
Ash $ourd +etha
Aubergine "aingan
"aking soda +akane ka soda
"anana (ela
"arley 2au
"asil ulsi
"ay leaves e9patta
"eef $hosht
"eetroot %hukander
"ell +epper )imla mirch
"engal gram %hana
"engal gram (split) %hana dal
"engal $ram flour "esan
"itter gourd (arela
"lack cardamom "adi 8laichi
"lack cumin (ala 2eera
"lack eyed beans 3oth
"lack gram )abut urad
"lack gram (split) ,rad dal
"lack 4nion seeds (alon9i
"lack peppercorns (ali mirchi
"lack rock salt (ala namak
"lackberry 2amun
"ottle gourd 5auki
"read 1ouble roti
"rin9al "aingan
"road "eans "akla
"roken wheat 1alia
"utter 3akhan
"uttermilk 3attha
%abbage "andh gobi
ENG-IS) G57ARATI
Almonds "adam
Alum +hatkadu
Aniseed 7ariyali
Apple )afar9an
Asafoetida 'ing
Ash $ourd )afed koloo
Avocado (ulanshpati
"anana (ela
"arley 2au
"asil 1amaro
"eef $o-mas
"eetroot "eet
"ell +epper )imla 3irch
"engal gram %hana
"engal gram (split) %hana ni dal
"engal $ram flour "esan
"itter gourd (arela
"lack eyed beans 3uth
"lack gram Alad
"lack gram (split) urad dal
"lackberry 2ambu
"ottle gourd dudhi
"rin9al ;ingna
"road "eans +apdi
"utter 3aakhan
"uttermilk %hhas
%abbage (obi
%apsicum )imla 3irch
%araway seed )afed 9iraum
%ardamom 8laychi
%arrot $a9ar
%ashewnuts (a9u
%auliflower +hool gobi
%innamon 1alchini
%loves 5avang
%luster beans $uvar
%oconut :ariyal
%olacassia Alvi
%olocassia leaves Alu na patra
%oriander leaves (othmir
%oriander )eeds 1hana
%orn 3akai
%ottage cheese +aneer
%ow peas chorap
%rab (arachlo
%ucumber (akadi
%umin seeds 2iru
%urd 1ahi
%urrants (black) 3udraka
%urry leaves 5imbdo
%ustard apple )itaphal
1ates (ha9ur
1ill )uvani bha9i
1rumstick )ekta ni sing
0at $hee
0ennel seeds 7ariari
0enugreek leaves 3ethi bha9i
0enugreek seeds 3ethi
0ig An9eer
0ish 3aachli
0rench beans 0ansi
$arlic 5asan
$herkins indli
$ingely seeds al
$inger Adu
$rapes 1raksha
$reen cardamom 8laichi
$reen gram (split) 3agni dal
$reen gram (whole) 3ag
$roundnuts "hoising
$uava 2amphal
'oney 3adh
#ndian gooseberry Aavla
2ackfruit +hanas
2aggery $ol
5ady 0inger "hinda
5emon 3otu limbu
5emon(sweet) 3itha limbu
5ettuce )alat
5ime limbu
5inseed seeds Alsi
5iver (ale9u
3ace 2aypatri
3ai&e 3akai
3ango (eri
3ango (ripe) (eri
3elon musk (harboo9a
3ilk 1oodh
3illet "a9ri
3ilo 2uar
3int 0udina
3ustard leaves ;ai ni bha9i
3ustard seeds, small rai
3utton $heta nu gos
:utmeg 2aiphal
4nion (anda
4range )antra
+apaya +apayi
+apaya (ripe) +apaya
+each +each
+eanuts shingp
+ear :aspatti
+eas vatana
+epper (ala 3ari
+ickle athanu
+igeon +ea (split) uver-ni-dal
+ineapple Ananas
+istachios +esta
+lantain (green) (ela
+lantain flower (el phool
+omegranate 1alamb
+oppy seeds (hus khus
+ork )uvarnu mas
+otato "atata
+umpkin (ohlu
;adish 3ula
;adish leaves 3ooli na patta
;agi bhav
;aisins (hismis
;ed gram (split) 3asur dal
;efined 0lour 3aida
;ice %hokha
;ice (parboiled) ukda chokha
;ice puffed mamra
;idge gourd uria
;oasted gram dal daliya
)affron kesar
)ago sabudana
)alt mithu
)emolina ;awa
)nake gourd +andola
)pinach +alak
)ugar saakar
)ugar syrup chaasni
)unflower seeds charoli
)weet lime 3osambi
)weet potato )akkarai
amarind Aamli
amarind leaves Amli na patta
omato tameta
urmeric 'aldhar
7ermicelli )ev
Walnuts Akrot
Water chestnut )hingoda
Wheat $hau
Wheat flour (whole) Ato
White +eppercorns safed mariw
Woodapple (othu
Pam )uran
Pogurt dahi