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MUESTREO DE SISTEMAS LINEALES INVARIANTES EN EL TIEMPO CON

ENTRADA GENERADA MEDIANTE RETENEDOR DE ORDEN CERO


MODELADO POR LA INTEGRAL DE CONVOLUCION

Un sistema lineal invariante en el tiempo puede modelarse por medio de la integral
de convolucin




Consideremos un sistema SiSo lineal invariante en el tiempo cuya entrada es ( ) U t
y cuya salida es ( ) y t La funcin de peso es todos definidos para 0 t >
0
( ) ( )* ( ) ( ) ( )
t
y t g t u t g t u d t t t = =
}
(1)
Supongamos que la entrada se genera por medio de un retenedor de orden cero
como se ilustra en la figura 2.




Figura 2. Sistema lineal con entrada generada por retenedor de orden cero.
( )
( )
0
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 1
r m m m
k
u t u t u kT t kT t k T

=
(
= = +

(2)

( )
0
( ) ; ( 1) ;
r m m m
u t u kT kT t k T k = s < + e
(3)

Vemos que ( )
r
U t es continua a trozos
La integral de convolucin hay que resolverla a trozos, se debe calcular ( ) y t por
partes. Aqu consideramos varios casos
Figura 1: Sistema LTI modelado por medio de la integral de convolucin
g(t)
g(t) Retenedor de
Orden Cero
u(kT
m
) u
r
(t) y(t)
i). 0
m
t T s <
( ) (0) u t u =
0 0
0
( ) ( ) (0) ( ) (0)
( ) ( ) (0); (0) 0
t t
t
y t g t u d g t T d u
y t g t d u y
t t t
t t
(
= =
(

(
= =
(

} }
}


ii). 2
m m
T t T s <
0 0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
m
m
T t t
r r r
T
y t g t u d g t u d g t u d t t t t t t t t t = = +
} } }

Como ( ) (0)
r
u t u = si 0
m
t T s < y ( ) ( )
r m
u t u T = si 2
m m
T t T s <
0
0
( ) ( ) (0) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) (0) ( ) ( )
m
m
m
m
T t
m
T
T t
m
T
y t g t u d g t u T d
y t g t d u g t d u T
t t t t
t t t t
= +
( (
= + ( (
( (

} }
} }

iii). 2 3
m m
T t T s <
( ) ( )
2
0 0 2
2
0 2
1
1
0
2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) (0) ( ) ( ) ( ) (2 )
( ) ( ) ( ) 2
m m
m m
m m
m m
m
T T t t
r r r r
T T
T T t
m m
T T
i t
m m
i
i T
y t g t u d g t u d g t u d g t u d
y t g t u d g t u T d g t u T d
y t g t d u iT g t d u T
t t t t t t t t t t t t
t t t t t t
t t t t
+
=
= = + +
= + +
(
(
= + (
(
(

} } } }
} } }

} }

iv). Generalizando tenemos
( 1)
m m
nT t n T s < +
2
0 0 1
( 1)
1
0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (0) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( 1 )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
m m m
m m
m
m
m m
T T nT t
r m m
T n T
t
m
nT
i T t
n
m m
i
iT nT
y t g t u d g t u d g t u T d g t u kT d
g t u k T d
y t g t d u iT g t d u nT
t t t t t t t t t
t t
t t t t

=
= = + + + +
+
( (
= + ( (
( (

} } } }
}

} }

Aqu tenemos
0
; ; 0
m m
t nT t n t T = +A e s A <
Muestreando ( ) y t con periodo
'
m
T tenemos
'
0
( ) ( ) ( )
m m
k
y t y t t kT o

=
=


Para obtener el tren de muestras
'
( )
m
y kT hacemos
1
: 1
m
t kT k = >
Pero por otro lado tenemos que
' '
; 0
m m
t nT t t T = + A s A <
'
'
( 1)
1
' ' '
0
1
' ' '
0
0 0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
m m
m m
m m m
i T kT
n
m m m m m
i
iT nT
T kT nT
n
m m m m m m m
i
y kT g kT d u iT g kT d u nT
y kT g kT iT d u iT g kT nT d u nT
t t t t
t t t t
+

=
( (
= + ( (
( (

(
(
= + (
(
( (

} }

} }

Si por ejemplo
'
; 0
m m
T T k n t = = A =
( 1)
1
0
1
0
0
( ) ( ) ( ); 1 0
( ) ( ) ( ); 1
m
m
m
i T
k
m m m
i
iT
T
k
m m m
i
y kT g kT d u iT k
y kT g k iT d u iT k
t t
t t
+

=
(
= > (
(

(
= >
(
(

}

Sea
( )
0
( )
m
T
m m
h k i T g k i T dt =
}

0
( ) ( ) ; (0) 0
m
T
m m
h kT g k d h T t t = =
}
0,1, 2, 3 k =
( )
1
0
( ) ( )
k
m m m
i
y kT h k i T u iT

=
=

Con (0) 0 y = y (0) 0 h =


( )
( ) ( )
0
( ) ( ) *
k
m m m m m
i
y kT h k iT u iT h kT u kT
=
= =


( ) ( ) ( )* ; (0) 0
m m m
y kT h kT u kT h = =
Esta expresin es una convolucin discreta ( )
m
h kT , es una funcin de peso
discreta que es la equivalente de la funcin de peso continua.
Ejemplo 1: Circuito RC con entrada retenedor de orden cero

Figura 3 Circuito RC
Supongamos que la entrada
1
( ) V t se genera por medio de un retenedor de orden
cero
( )
( )
0
( ) ( ) 1 1 1
i i m m m
k
V t V kT t kT t k T

=
(
= +


Obtengamos la funcin de peso continua, la funcin de peso discreta la respuesta
en tiempo continuo a un escaln unitario y las muestras de las salidas
correspondientes
Solucin
La ecuacin diferencial que describe el comportamiento del circuito es
0
0
0
0
0
0
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) 1 1
( ) ( )
i
i
i
V t Ri t V t
dV
i t C
dt
dV t
V t RC V t
dt
dV t
V t V t
dt RC RC
= +
=
= +
= +

Dada la condicin inicial
0 00
(0) V V =
Para solucionar esta ecuacin podemos aplicar la transformada de Laplace
0 0 0
0 00
00
0
1 1
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
( ) ( )
1
( )
( ) ( )
1 1
i
i
i
sV s V V s V s
RC RC
s V s V s V
RC RC
V Rc
V s V s
s s
Rc Rc
= +
| |
+ = +
|
\ .
(
(
(
(
= + (
(
(
( + +
(



Tomando condiciones iniciales iguales
00
0 V =
0
1
( )
( ) ( )
1
i
RC
V s V s
s
RC
(
(
= (
(
+
(


La funcin de transferencia del circuito es
1
1 ( )
( )
1
1
RC
G s
RCS
s
RC
= =
+
+

La funcin de peso del circuito Rc es:
( )
( )
( ) / 1 /( )
1/
1 1
( ) ; 0 ; ( ) ; 0
1
t RC t RC
RC
g t e t g t e t
s RC RC RC

(
= = > = >
(
+


( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
/ / /
0 0 0
/ /
0
/ /
1 1
( ) ( ) ; 1 ; ( ) ; 1
1
( ) ; 1
( ) 1 ; 1
m m m
m m
m m
m m
T T T
kT RC kT RC RC
m m m
kT RC RC T
m
kT RC T RC
m
h kT g kT d k h kT e d e e d k
RC RC
h kT e RC e k
RC
h kT e e k
t t
t
t t t t

= > = = >
= >
(
= >

} } }

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
/ 1 /
( ) 1 1 1
m m
T RC k T RC
m m
h kT e e k T

(
=


Determinemos ahora la respuesta a una seal escaln de tamao
0 i
V
0
( ) 1( )
i i
V t V t =
Suponiendo condiciones iniciales iguales a cero la salida en respuesta a un
escaln de valor
0 i
V est dada por:
1
0
( ) ( )* ( ) ( ) ( ) ; 0
t
o i
V t g t V t g t V d t t t t = = >
}

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
/ / / ( )/
0
0 0
0 0 0
/ /
0
0
/
0 0
1 1
( ) ; ( )
( ) 1 ; 0 ; (0) 0
t t t
t RC t RC RC t RC
i
o i o i
t
t RC RC
i
t RC
o i
V
V t e V e e d V t e V d
RC RC Rc
V
e e d
RC
V t V e t V
t t

= = = =

(
= > =

} } }
}

Si muestreamos la salida con periodo
m
T obtenemos el tren de muestras de la
salida
( ) /
( ) 1 ; 0
m
kT RC
o m io
V kT V e k

(
= >


Como ( ) 0 0 V = podemos escribir
( )
( )
/
( ) 1 1 1
m
kT RC
o m io m
V kT V e k T

(
=


Por otro el escaln de valor
10
V corresponde a una entrada generada por medio de
un retenedor de orden cero
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Convolucion Discreta
( ) 1( )
o m m i m
i m io m
V kT h kT V kT
V kT V kT
= -
=

10
0
( ) ( ) 1( )
k
o m m m
i
V kT h k i T V kT
=
=


( ) ( ) / ( 1 )/
10
0
( ) 1 1( 1 ) 1( )
m m
k
kT RC k i T RC
o m m m
i
V kT e e k i T V kT

=
(
=


( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) /
/ 1 / /
0
0
1
/ 1 /
0
0
( ) 1 1( 1 )1( )
( ) 1 ; 1
m m m
iT RC
m
m m
k
T RC k T RC iT RC
o m i m m
i
k
T RC k T RC
o m i
i
V kT e e V e k i T iT
V kT e e V e k

=


=
(
=

(
= >


( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
/
/ 1 /
0
/
1
( ) 1
1
m
m m
m
kT RC
T RC k T RC
o m i
T RC
e
V kT e e V
e


(
=



( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
/
/
0
/
1
( ) 1 ; 1
1
m
m m
m
T RC
kT RC kT RC
o m i
T RC
e
V kT e e V k
e

(
= >


( )
( )
( )
/
/
( ) 1 ; 1
( ) 1 1 1
m
m
kT RC
o m io
kT RC
o m io m
V kT e V k
V kT e V k T

(
= >

(
=


En la grfica siguiente se ilustra la seal de entrada, de salida las muestras

Figura 4. Salida de un circuito RC en respuesta a un escalon generado por ZOH
Como vemos los dos valores coinciden validando el modelo discreto


Ejemplo No 2 Motor DC
Consideremos el motor DC que se ilustra en la figura 4.


Figura 5. Motor DC.
Las ecuaciones que describen el motor DC son:
Ecuaciones Elctricas
( ) ( ) ( )
1
( ) ( ) ( )
i A A B
B A
i
A A A
di
V t R i t L k t
dt
k R di
t i t V t
dt L L L
u
u
-
-
= + +
= +

Ecuaciones Mecanicas
( ) ( ) ( ) ; ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
m m i i A
m A
m m
J t B t T t T t k i t
B k
t t i t
J J
u u
u u
-- -
-- -
= = =
=

( ) t u Es la posicin angular del motor DC
| | rad
( ) ( ) t w t u
-
= Es la velocidad angular del servomotor DC
rad
seg
(
(


( ) i t = Corriente del circuito de armadura
| |
Amp
( )
i
T t = Torque generado por el motor
| |
* N m
( )
i
V t =Tensin de armadura de servomotor De
| | Voltios
A
R Resistencia de armadura
| |
O
A
L Inductancia de la armadura
| | h
B
k Constante del motor
A
k Constante de troque del motor
* N m
Amp

m
J Inercia del motor
2
* Kg m (


m
B Coeficiente de friccin viscosa
Aplicando la transformada de Laplace y condiciones iniciales iguales a cero
tenemos
| | | | | |
( )
( )
( )
( )
| | | | | |
2
1
( ) ( ) ( )
1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
( ) ( ) ( )
/ ( ) 1/ ( )
( )
/ /
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
A B A
A i
A A A
A A
A A i
A A A
A A
A i
A A A
B i
A
A A A A
m A
A
m m
m
m
di k R
t i t V t
dt L L L
k k
sI s s s I s V s
L L L
k k
s I s s s V s
L L L
k L s s L V s
I s
s R L s R L
B k
t t i t
J J
B k
s s s s
J
u
u
u
u
u u
u u
(
= +
(

= +
| |
+ = +
|
\ .
= +
+ +
= +
= +
( ) ( )
2
2
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
/ /
A
A
m
m A
A
m m
m i A B A
m A A A A A A
I s
J
B k
s s s I s
J J
B V s k k k s s
s s s
J JL s R L JL s R L
u
u
u
| |
+ =
|
\ .
| | | | | |
+ = +
| | |
+ +
\ . \ . \ .

2
3 2
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
m A A B A
i
A m m A m A
m m A A A B A
i
m A m A m A m A
B R k k k
s s s s s s V s
L J J L J L
B B R R k k k
s s s s V s
J L J L J L J L
u u
u
| | | | | |
+ + = +
| | |
\ .\ . \ .
( | | | |
+ + + + =
( | |
\ . \ .

2
( )
( )
A
m A
i
m m A A c A
m A m A
k
J L s
V s
B B R k k R
s s s
J L J L
u
=
( | | +
+ + +
( |
\ .

Analicemos las races de denominador para estudiar la estabilidad del sistema
2
0
m m A A c A
m A m A
B B R k k R
s s
J L J L
| | | | +
+ + + =
| |
\ . \ .

2
2 2
( )
1 1 4
2 ( )
m A m A m A m A m A A B
m A m A m A
m A m A m A A B
m A
m A m A m A
B L J R B L J R B R k k
s
J L J L J L
B L J R B R k k
J L
J L B R J L
| | | | | | + + +
= =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
( | | + +

( |
+
\ .

Para que estas races tengan parte imaginaria se debe cumplir que
2 2
2 2
2
4 4
1 4 ; 1 ; 1
( )
(1 ) (1 )
4
1
(1 )
m A m A B
m A A B m m A A B m A m A
m A
m A m A
m A m A m A
m A m A
m A B m A
m A m A
m A
m
m A
J R J k k
B R k k J B R k k B L B L
J L
J L J R
B R J L B L B
B R B L
J k k J R
B L B L
J R
B
B L
( (
+
( (
( + +
( ( < < <
(
+
( (

+ +
( (

(
+
(
( <
(
+
(


( )( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2
0
4 ( ) 4 ( )
1 1 ; 1 1
2 2
m m A A B A
m A m A
m A m A m A m A A B m A m A m A m A A B
m A m A
m A m A m A m A
B B R k k R
s s s a s b
J L J L
B L J R J L B R k k B L J R J L B R k k
a b
J L J L
B L J R B L J R
| | | | +
+ + + = + =
| |
\ . \ .
( (
| | | | + + + +
( ( = =
| |
+ + ( (
\ . \ .


Con esto tenemos
0
0
0 1 2
( )
( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
i
A
m A
i
P s
V s s s a s b
k
P
J L
s
V s s s a s b
u
o o o u
=
+ +
=
= + +
+ +

( )
( )
0 0
0
0
2 2

lim
( )
( )( )
4 ( )
1 1
4
( )
A
m A A
s
m A A B
m A m A m A m A A B
k
m A m A
m A
m A m A
A m A m A
o
m A A B
k
s P P J L k
B R k k
s s a s b ab
B L J R J L B R k k
B L J R
J L
B L J R
k B L J R
B R k k
o
o

= = = =
+
+ + | |
+ +
+ |
+
|
+
\ .
+
=
+

0 0 0
1
0
1
( )
lim
( )( ) ( ) ( )
( )
s a
s a P P P
s s a s b a b a a a b
P
a a b
o
o

+
= = =
+ +
=


( )
2
4 ( )
1
m A m A A m A A B
m A
m A m A
B L J R L B R k k
a b
J L
B L J R
| | + +
=
|
+
\ .

Sea
( )
m A m A
m
m A
B L J R
B
J L
+
=
( )
2
4 ( )
; 1
A m A A B
m
m A m A
L B R k k
r a b B r
B L J R
+
= =
+

( )
0 0
1
0
1
2
0 0 0
2
2
0
2
2
2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
2 1 1
( )
lim
( )( )
2 1 1 1
2 1 1
m m m
m
s b
m m
m
P P
B r B r B r r
P
B r r
s b P P P
s s a s b b a b
B r B r
P
B r r
o
o
o
o

= =
( (
+

=
(
+

+
= = =
+ + (
+

=
(
+


| |
0 1 2
1 1 0 1 2
0 1 2
( )
( ) ( )
( ) 1( ) 1( ) 1( )
at bt
G s
s s a s b
g t G s
s s a s b
g t t e t e t
o o o
o o o
o o o


= +
+ +
| |
= = +
|
+ +
\ .
= + +

Supongamos que la entrada es generada por un retenedor de una orden cero
0
( ) ( )
0 1 2
0
( ) ( ) ; (0) 0; 0,1, 2, 3
( ) 1( ) 1( ) 1( ) ; 0,1, 2, 3
m
m
m m
T
m m
T
a kT bkT
m m m m
h kT g kT d h k
h kT kT e kT e kT d k
t t
t t
o t o t o t t

= = =
( = + + =

}
}
( ) ( )
0 1 2
0 0 0
( ) ; 1, 2,...
(0) 0
m m m
m m
T T T
a kT b kT
m
h kT d e d e d k
h
t t
o t o t o t

= + + =
=
} } }
( )
0 1 2
0 0
( ) 1 1
m m
m m
T T
akT bkT a b
m m m
h kT T e e d e e d k T
t t
o o t o t

(
= + +
(
(

} }
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 2
0
1
1
1 2
0
( ) 1 1 1 1
( ) 1 1 1 1
m m m m
m
m m m
akT aT bkT T
m m m
b k T
a k T aT bkT
m m m
h kT T e e e e k T
a b
h kT T e e e e k T
a b
o o
o
o o
o



(
= + +
(

(
= + +
(



Ejemplo 3: Servomotor de Simplificado
Consideremos la funcin de transferencia de un servomotor DC que relacin
posicin angular y tensin angular
( )
( ) ( )
( )
0
/
1/
o
a o
s
G s
V s s s
u t
t
I
= =
+

( ) s u Posicin angular en red
( )
0
V s Tensin de armadura
| | Voltio
0
I Ganancia del servomotor
0
t Constante de tiempo del servomotor
| |
seg
( ) ( )
0 0 0
0
0
1 1
; ; Re 0
1/ 1/
o o
G s s
s s s s
t t
t t t
( | | ( I
= = I >
( | (
+ +
\ .

1 0 0 0 0
( ) ; Re( ) 0 , ( ) ; Re( ) 0
1/ 1/
o o
G s s g t s
s s s s t t

( I I I I
= > = >
(
+ +


( )
1 1 0 0
/
0
( ) ; 0
1/
( ) 1 1( )
o
o
t
g t t
s s
g t e t
t
t

| | I I | |
= >
| |
+
\ .
\ .
= I

( ) ( )
0
0
/ /
0 0
0 0 0
( ) ( ) ; (0) 0; 0,1, 2, 3,
( ) 1 1( 1 ); (0) 0;
m m m
m o m o
T
m m
T T T
kT kT
m m
h kT g kT d h k
h kT e d d e d k T h
t t



= = =
(
(
= I = I =
(

(

}
} } }

( )
( )
( )
0
/ / / /
0 0 0 0
0
/ /
0 0
( ) 1( 1 ) 1( 1 )
( ) 1 1( 1 )
m
m m o m o m o m
m o m o
T
kT T T kT T T
m m m m m
kT T
m m m
h kT T e e d k T T e e k T
h kT T e e k T
t t t
t t
t
t

(
(
= I = I
(

(

(
= I

}

( )
( )
0
1 /
/
0
( ) 1 1( 1 )
m
m o
k T
T
m m o m
h kT T e e k T
t
t
t


(
= I
(


Supongamos que la entrada generada por un retenedor de orden cero
0 0
0 0
( ) 1( ) 1( 1 )
( ) 1( 1 ) 1( )
r m
m m m
U t U t t m T
U kT U k T k m T
(
= +

(
=


La salida del motor frente a esta entrada est dada por
( ) ( )* ( )
m m m
y kT h kT U kT =
( ) ( ) ( )
m m m
j
y kT y jT U k j T

=
=


( )
( )
( )
1 /
/
0
0
( ) 1 1( 1 )
1( ) 1( )
m o
m o
j T
T
m o m m
j
m o m m
y kT T e e j T
U kT U k j T k j m T
t
t
t



=
(
= I
(

(
=


( )
( )
0
1 /
/
0 0 0
1
1
( ) 1
m o
m o
k
j T
T
m m
j
k m
y kT U T e e
t
t
t


=
>


(
= I
`
(


)


( )
( ) ( )
( )
0 0
1 /
/
0 0 0
1 1
1 /
/
0 0 0
1 1
( ) 1 1( 1 ) 1( 1 )
1 1( 1 ) 1 1( 1 )
m o
m o
m o
m o
k k
j T
T
m m m m
j j
k m k m
j T
T
m m m
j j
y kT U T k T e e k T
T k m T e e k m T
t
t
t
t
t
t

= =

= =
| | | |

= I
| |
\ . \ .
| | | |

+
` | |
\ . \ . )



( )
( )
1
/
1
/ /
0 0 0 0
0
1
/
0 0 0
0
( ) 1( 1 ) 1 1( 1 ) ( )
1( 1 ) 1 1( 1 )
m o m o
i T
m o
m o
k
T iT
m m m m m
i
k m
T
m m
i
y kT U T k k T e e k T T k m
k m T T e e k m T
t
t t
t
t

=
| |
= I

|
\ .
| |
+
|
\ .


Dado que:
( ) ( )
( ) 1 / 1
/ / / /
/
0 0 0 0
1 1
;
1 1
m o
m o m o m o m o
m o
n T n n n n n
i i
iT T T T i
T
i i i i
p e
e e p p e e
p e
t
t t t t
t
+ +

= = = =

= = = = =



( ) ( ) {
( ) }
( )
{
( )
( )
}
0
0
0 0 0 0 0
/
0 0
0 0 0 0 0
/ /
0 0 0
( ) 1( 1 ) 1 1( 1 )( ) 1( 1 )
1 1( 1 )
( ) 1( 1 ) 1( 1 ) ( )1( 1 )
1 1( 1 ) 1 1( 1 )
m
m o
m o m o
kT
m m m m m m
km T
m
m m m m m m
km T kT
m m
y kT U kT k T e k T k m T k m T
e k m T
y kT U kT k T k m T m T k m T
e k T e k m T
t
t t
t
t
t t


= I +

(
= I + +

(
+


Desde el punto de vista del tiempo continuo tenemos que la salida del motor est
dada por:
( ) | |
/
0 0 0
( ) ( )* ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 1 1( ) 1( ) 1( )
o
m
y t g t U t g U t d
y t e U t t m T d
t

= =
= I
}
}

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
0
0
0
0
/ /
0 0
0 0
0
0
/ /
0 0 0 0 0 0
/ /
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
( ) 1 1
( ) 1 1( ) 1 1( )
( ) 1( ) 1 1( ) 1 1( ) 1 1(
m
o o
m
m o o
m o o
t m T
t
t
t m T
t m T t
m m
t m T t
m m m m
y t V e d e d
y t V t e t t m T e t m T
y t V t t t m T m T t m T e t e t m T
t t
t t
t t

t t
t t


>
>


= I
(
(
= I +


( = I + + + (

} }
{ }
)

Si muestreamos ( ) y t con periodo de muestreo
m
T obtendremos la seal
muestreada
( ) ( ) ( )
m m m
k
y t y kT t kT o

=
=


De la cual obtendremos el tren de muestras
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
{
( ) ( )}
( )
( )
( )
{
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )}
0
0
/
0 0 0 0 0 0
( ) /
0
0 0 0 0 0
/ ( ) /
0 0 0
( ) ) 1( )1 1 1 1
1 1
( ) ( ) 1( ) 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
m o
m o
m o m o
kT
m m m m m m m
k m T
m
m m m m m m
kT k m T
m m
y kT V kT kT k m T m T k m T e kT
e k m T
y kT V kT kT k m T m T k m T
e k T e k m T
t
t
t t
t
t t



(
= I +

+
(
= I +

+

En la figura siguiente se ilustra esta seal

FIGURA 6 Salida del servomotor a una entrada generada por medio de ZOH
Consideremos el caso en el que la planta o proceso posee un retardo de
transporte
( ) ( )
0
( ) ( )
m r
U kT U t
z H retardo g t y t


Sea
0
( ) si 0
( )
0 si 0
r
U t t
U t
t
u >
=
`
<
)

( ) ( ) * ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
d d d
y t g t U T dT g T U t T dT g t T U T dT


= = =
} }

Como ( ) g t

est definida para 0 t >


( ) ( ) ( )1
d r
U t U t t u u =
0
0
( ) ( ) ( ) ; 0
( ) ( ) ( )
t
r
t
r
y t g t T U T dT t
y t g t T U T dT
u
u
u

= >
=
}
}

Sea
' '
; t t t t u u = = +
'
0
( ) ( ) ( )
t
r
y t g t T U T dT
u
=
}

Dado que
0
( ) ( ) 1( ) 1( 1 )
r m m m
k
U T U kT t kT t k T

=
(
= +


Esto implica que
0
( ) ( ) 1 ;
r m m m
U T U kT si kT t k T k = s < + e
Supongamos que
0 0 0
; 0< <
m m
n T n T u u u = + A e A
Supongamos que
'
0 ( ) 0 t t y t u < < =
Si
'
0 0 ; 0 0
m m m
t T t T t T u s < s < s < +
( ) (0)
r
U t U =
' '
'

0 0

0
( ) ( ) (0) ( ) (0)
( ) ( ) (0); 0
t t
t
m
y t g t T U dT g t T dT U
y t g t T dT U t T u
(
= = (
(

(
= s < + (
(

} }
}

Si
'
2 ; 2
m m m m
T t T T t T u u s < + s < +
' '
'
'

0 0 0

'
0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
(0) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) (0) ( ) ( )
m m
m
m
m
m
T T t t
r r r
T
t
m
T
T t
m
T
y t g t T U T dT g t T U T dT g t T U T dT g t T dT
U g t T dT U T
y t g t T dT U g t T dT U T
(
= = + =
(
(

(
+ (
(

( (
= + ( (
( (

} } } }
}
} }

Si 2
m m
T t T u u + s < +
Si tenemos ahora 2 3
m m
T t T u u + s < +
' '
'
'
'
0
2

2
2

0 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) (0) ( ) ( ) ( ) (2 )
m
m
m m
m m
m m
T t
r r
T
T t
r r
T T
T T T
m m
T T
y t g t T dT U T dT g t T dT U T dT
g t T U T dT g t T U T dT
y t g t T dT U g t T dT U T g t T dT U T
(
= = (
(

+ +
( ( (
= + + ( ( (
( ( (

} }
} }
} } }

De forma inductiva tenemos que si
1
m m
iT t i T u u + s < + +
'
( 1)
1

0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1, 2, 3,
m
m m
j T t
i
m m
j
jT iT
y t g t T dT U jT g t T dT U iT i
+
=
=
( (
= + = ( (
( (

} }

Muestreando ( ) y t con periodo
m
T tendremos
( ) ( ) ( )
r m m
k
y t y kT t kT o

=
=


Tomando el tren de muestra
{ } ( )
m
y kT
( 1)
1
0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
m m
m m
j T kT
i
m m m m m
j
jT iT
m m m
y kT g kT T dT U jT g kT T dT U iT
iT kT i T
u
u u
u u
+

=
( (
= + ( (
( (

+ s < + +

} }

Dado que
0 m
n T u u = + A
( )
0 0
( ) 1
m m m
n i T kT n i T u u + +A s < + + +A
Tomando
( )
0
1 k n i = + +
( )
1
0
0 0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
m m
T k i T
i
m m m m m
j
y kT g k jT T dT U jT g k iT T dT U iT
u
u u

=
=
( (
= +
( (
( (

} }

( )
( )
( )
( )
0 0
1
0 0 0
0
0
( 1
0 0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1 ( 1 ) ( )
1 ( )
1 ( 1 ) ( )
1
m
m m
m
m
T
i
m m m m
j
n i iT n T
m m m
T
i
m m m
j
T
m
y n i T g n i jT n T T dT U jT
n i jT n T T dT U iT
y n i T g i j T T dT U jT
g i j T T dT
u
u
u
u
u
u

=
+ + A

=
A
(
+ + = + + A +
(
(

(
+ + A (
(

(
+ + = + A +
(
(

(
+ A
(

}
}

}
}
( )
m
U iT
(

Como
0 0
1; 1 k n i i k n = + + =
0
2
0 0
0
0 0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 1 )
m m
T T
k n
m m m m m
j
y kT g k jT T dT U jT g k j n T T dT U k n T
u
u u


=
( (
= + A
( (
( (

} }