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# Acoustic Calculation of Ventilation Systems

## A procedure for acoustic calculation of noise in

ventilation systems
Acoustic calculation of a ventilation system should follow a procedure similar to:
1. Sound pressure level criterion
Determine the sound pressure level criteria. This tables can be used but should be
checked against domestic rules.
In the example below Noise ating ! N"# ! is used as the criterion where the
N!values are entered in line \$.
2. Room and terminal effect
The sound pressure levels ! Lp ! are converted to sound power level ! Lw ! at the
terminals. The acoustic characteristics of the room as well as the number and
location of the terminals must be considered.
a% Determine the acoustic characteristics of the room. In the example an average
sound absorption for the room is used.
b% Determine whether the receiver are in the direct or reverberant field. In the
example the listener is aprox. \$.& m from the terminal.
c% 'ind the rooms absorption characteristics. In the example the absorption for
the walls( ceiling( floor( persons( curtains and their areas( is calculated to "# m
)

sabin. According
a%
and
c%
the attenuation is * d+.
d% Determine how many terminals the listener are influenced by. Note, emember
to include supply and return fans. In the example the listener are influenced by
two terminals. 'rom c% we subtract " d+.
The attenuation from the terminal to the room is & d+. The values are entered in
the example below.
3. Allowance for end reflection
In the example the duct dimension is )&# mm. Attenuation due to end reflection
is entered below.
4. Ductwork attenuation terminal to c!eckpoint
-alculate the attenuation in unlined and lined ducts. Note that the table and
diagrams list the attenuation in d+.m.
". #l\$ow attenuation terminal to c!eckpoint
-alculate the attenuation in the elbows.

%. &ower'level split \$ranc! to terminals
Determine the allowance for split ! branch to terminals.

(. &ower'level split main duct to \$ranc! duct
Determine the allowance for split ! main duct to branch.
*. /ound power level of fan ! L
w

0nter the manufacturer1s sound power data or calculate the fan sound power.
). Safety factors
0nter safety factors ! recommended to !" d+.
1*. Silencer re+uirements
The silencer must be selected to provide the necessary attenuation. 'or this the
manufacturer1s data should be used.
#,ample ' Acoustic Calculation of -VAC Application
2rocedure
3ctave band center fre4uency( 56
7" \$)& )&# &## \$### )### 8### *###
\$. /ound pressure
level criterion
&9 8* 8# "8 "# ): )& )"
). oom and
terminal effect
& & & & & & & &
". Allowance for
end reflection
\$) * 8 \$ # # # #
8. Ductwork
attenuation(
terminal to
checkpoint
\$: \$: 9 & & & & &
&. 0lbow
attenuation(
terminal to
checkpoint
# # : \$& )& )& \$9 \$&
7. 2ower!level 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
split( branch to
terminals
:. 2ower!level
split( main duct to
branch duct
\$# \$# \$# \$# \$# \$# \$# \$#
Totals
\$#9 9\$ :* :" :* :& 7: 7\$
*. /ound power
level of fan ! Lw
\$#) 99 9* 9* 9: 9& *7 *\$
9. /afety factors " " " " " " " "
Total sound power
level of fan ! Lw
\$#& \$#) \$#\$ \$#\$ \$## 9* *9 *8
\$#. /ilencer
re4uirements
# * )# )& \$9 )# \$9 )#
Air Conditioner #fficiency
Air Conditioner efficiency list !ow many \$tu.!r are removed for eac! watt
of power it draws.
The cooling e4uipment systems used in residential and small commercial buildings
often express cooling system efficiency in terms of the 0nergy 0fficiency atio
;00% and.or /easonal 0nergy 0fficiency atio ;/00%.
These are defined by the cooling effect in +tu ;not in tons% divided by the power
use in watts ;not in k<% for the peak day ;00%( or the seasonal average day
;/00%.
'or room air conditioners( this efficiency rating is the
#ner/y #fficiency Ratio 0##R1
'or central air conditioners( it is the
Seasonal #ner/y #fficiency Ratio 0S##R1
These ratings are posted on an #ner/y 2uide 3a\$el( which shall be attached to
all new air conditioners.
/ome of the air conditioner manufacturers participate in the voluntary
#ner/yStar4 labeling program where 0nergy/tar!labeled appliances mean that
they have high 00 and /00 ratings.
#ner/y #fficiency Ratio ' ##R
oom air conditioners in general range from &(### +tu per hour to \$&(### +tu per
hour. /elect room air conditioners with 00 of at least 9.# for mild climates. In a
hot climates( select air conditioners with 00 over \$#.
Seasonal #ner/y #fficiency Ratio ' S##R
'or central air conditioners there is units with /00s reaching nearly \$:.
#,ample
A cooling unit operating at \$ k<.ton would have an 00 of \$)(### +tu divided by
\$### watts or \$). This is mathematically e4uivalent to multiplying the -32 by
".8\$". Therefore a small cooling unit operating at \$ k< ;\$### watts% per ton is
e4uivalent to a -32 of ".&\$7( or an 00 of \$).
Calculatin/ c!iller and coolin/ tower refri/eration in tons.
C!iller Refri/eration 5ons
A chiller refrigeration ton is defined as:
\$ refrigeration ton = \$)(### +tu.h = "(#)&.9 k -alories.h
Coolin/ 5ower 5ons
A cooling tower ton is defined as:
\$ cooling tower ton = \$&(### +tu.h = "(:*) k -alories.h
-eat 3oad and 6ater 7low
A water systems heat load in +tu.h can be calculated as:
h = 500 q dt ;\$%
where
h = heat load ;+tu.h%
q = water volume flow rate ;gal.min%
dt = temperature difference ;
o
'%
#,ample ' 6ater C!iller Coolin/
<ater flows with \$ gal.min and \$#
o
' temperature difference. The ton of cooling
load can be calculated as:
-ooling load = &## ;\$ gal.min% ;\$#
o
'% . \$)(###
= #.8) ton
-onverting between heat and energy units.
-onverting k<.tonn to -32 or 00.
Convertin/ k6.ton to C8& or ##R
-ow to convert \$etween k6.ton C8& and ##R.
The efficiency of chillers depends on the energy consumed. Absorption chillers
are rated in fuel consumption per ton cooling. 0lectric motor driven chillers are
rated in kilowatts per ton cooling.
><.ton = \$) . 00
><.ton = \$) . ;-32 x ".8\$)%
-32 = 00 . ".8\$)
-32 = \$) . ;><.ton% . ".8\$)
00 = \$) . ><.ton
00 = -32 x ".8\$)
If a chillers efficiency is rated at \$ ><.ton( the -32=".& and the 00=\$)
Coolin/ 3oad in ' k6.ton
The term k<.ton is common used for large commercial and industrial air!
conditioning( heat pump and refrigeration systems.
The term is defined as the ratio of the rate of energy consumption in k< to the
rate of heat removal in tons at the rated condition. The lower the k<.ton the
more efficient the system.
kW/ton = Pc / Er ;\$%
where
Pc = energy consumption ;k<%
Er = heat removed ;ton%
Coefficient of &erformance ' C8&
The -oefficient of 2erformance ! -32 ! is the basic unit less parameter used to
report the efficiency of refrigerant based systems.
The -oefficient of 2erformance ! -32 ! is the ratio between useful energy
ac4uired and energy applied and can be expressed as:
COP = Eu / Ea ;\$%
where
COP = coefficient of performance
Eu = useful energy ac4uired
Ea = energy applied
-32 can be used to define both cooling efficiency or heating efficiency as for a
heat pump.
'or cooling( -32 is defined as the ratio of the rate of heat removal to the
rate of energy input to the compressor.
'or heating( -32 is defined as the ratio of rate of heat delivered to the
rate of energy input to the compressor.
-32 can be used to define the efficiency at a single standard or non!standard
rated condition or a weighted average seasonal condition. The term may or may
not include the energy consumption of auxiliary systems such as indoor or
outdoor fans( chilled water pumps( or cooling tower systems. 'or purposes of
comparison( the higher the -32 the more efficient the system.
-32 can be treated as an efficiency where -32 of ).## = )##? efficient 'or
unitary heat pumps( ratings at two standard outdoor temperatures of 8:@' and
\$:@' ;*."@- and !*."@-% are typically used.
#ner/y #fficiency Ratio ' ##R
The 0nergy 0fficiency atio ! 00 ! is a term generally used to define the cooling
efficiency of unitary air!conditioning and heat pump systems.
The efficiency is determined at a single rated condition specified by the
appropriate e4uipment standard and is defined as the ratio of net cooling capacity
! or heat removed in +tu.h ! to the total input rate of electric energy applied ! in
watt hour. The units of 00 are +tu.w.h.
EER = Ec / Pa ;\$%
where
EER = energy efficient ratio ;+tu.w.h%
Ec = net cooling capacity ;+tu.h%
Pa = applied energy ;w.h%
This efficiency term typically includes the energy re4uirement of auxiliary
systems such as the indoor and outdoor fans and the higher the 00 the more
efficient is the system.
Determination of Coolin/ 3oads
3atent and sensi\$le !eat ..
A cooling load ;or heat gain% is the amount of heat engergy that must be removed from the house by
the 5AA- e4uipment to maintain the house at the indoor design temperature when the worst case
design temperature is being experienced outside. There are two types of cooling loads:
sensible and
latent
The sensible cooling load refers to the dry bulb temperature of the building and the latent cooling load
refers to the wet bulb temperature of the building. In the summer( humidity influence in the selection
of the 5AA- e4uipment and the latent load as well as the sensible load must be calculated.
7AC58RS 5-A5 9:73;#:C# 58 5-# S#:S9<3# C8839:2 38AD
Blass windows or doors
/unlight striking windows( skylights( or glass doors and heating the room
0xterior walls
2artitions ;that separate spaces of different temperatures%
-eilings under an attic
oofs
'loors over an open crawl space
Air infiltration through cracks in the building( doors( and windows
2eople in the building
04uipment and appliances operated in the summer
Cights
Notice that below grade walls( below grade floors( and floors on concrete slabs do not increase the
cooling load on the structure and are therefore ignored.
3ther sensible heat gains are taken care of by the 5AA- e4uipment before the air reaches the rooms
;system gains%. Two items that re4uire additional sensible cooling capacity from the 5AA- e4uipment
are:
Ductwork located in an unconditioned space
Aentilation air ;air that is mechanically introduced into the building%
7AC58RS 5-A5 9:73;#:C# 58 5-# 3A5#:5 C8839:2 38AD
Doisture is introduced into a structure through:
2eople
04uipment and appliances
Air infiltration through cracks in the building( doors( and windows
3ther latent heat gain is taken care of by the 5AA- e4uipment before the air reaches the rooms
;system gain%. The item that re4uires additional latent cooling capacity from the 5AA- e4uipment is
ventilation and infiltration air .
#+uivalent Rectan/ular and Round -VAC Duct Si=es
#+uivalent duct si=es for rectan/ular and circular duct deliverin/ air
airflows at different C7>.
C7>
0Cu\$ic 7eet per
>inute1
#+uivant
Rectan/ular Duct
Si=es
09nc!es1
#+uivant
Diameter
Round Duct
Si=es
09nc!es1
\$## " E 8 8
)##
" E :
8 E &
&
"##
8 E :
& E 7
7
8##
8 E 9
& E :
7 E 7
:
&## 7 E : *
:&#
& E \$)
7 E \$#
: E *
9
\$###
: E \$#
* E 9
\$#
\$)&#
* E \$#
9 E 9
\$#
\$&##
* E \$)
\$# E \$#
\$)
\$:&#
* E \$8
9 E \$)
\$# E \$\$
\$)
)###
* E \$&
\$# E \$)
\$)
)&##
\$# E \$8
\$) E \$)
\$8
"### \$) E \$8 \$8
"&## \$) E \$& \$&
8###
\$# E ))
\$8 E \$&
\$7
8&##
\$) E \$9
\$8 E \$7
\$:
&###
\$# E )&
\$) E )#
\$:
-eat 2ain from #lectrical >otors in Continuous 8peration
-eat transferred from t!e electrical motor to t!e room for different
locations of fan and motor.
0lectrical motors in air condition system contributes to the heat loads in air
condition systems and have influence on the cooling e4uipment dimensions.
Bained heat load from electrical motor and fans in different locations can be
estimated from the table below:
0lectrical
Dotor /haft
3utput
;k<%
0lectrical
Dotor
0fficiency
! -
?
Cocation of 'an and Dotor
Dotor and 'an in
the Inlet Air 'low
or in the oom
Dotor 3utside
the Air 'low or
3utside the
oom. The 'an
in the Inlet Air
'low or in the
oom
Dotor in the
oom. The 'an in
the 3utlet Air
'low.
#.#& 8# #.\$" #.#& #.#*
#.#: 87 #.\$& #.#: #.#*
#.\$# && #.\$* #.\$# #.#*
#.\$8 7# #.)" #.\$8 #.#9
#.)# 78 #."\$ #.)# #.\$\$
#.)* 77 #.8) #.)* #.\$8
#.8# :# #.7# #.8# #.)#
#.&7 :) #.:* #.&7 #.))
#.*# :7 \$.#& #.*# #.)&
\$.\$ *# \$."* \$.\$ #.)*
\$.7 *# ).# \$.7 #.8#
).& *\$ ".\$ ).& #.7#
8.# *) 8.9 8.# #.9#
&.7 *8 7.: &.7 \$.\$
*.# *8 9.& *.# \$.&
\$\$.) *7 \$".# \$\$.) \$.*
\$7 *: \$*.8 \$7 ).8
)# ** )).: )# ).:
)& *9 )*.# )& ".#
") *9 "7.# ") 8.#
8# *9 8&.# 8# &.#
&# 9# &7.# &# 7.#
7" 9# :#.# 7" :.#
*# 9# *9.# *# 9.#
\$## 9\$ \$\$#.# \$## \$#.#
-eat 2ain from 3i/!ts
-eat /ain from li/!t contri\$ute to !eat load and may !ave ma?or impact
on t!e air condition system.
The heat gained from lights in a modern office or production area may be of a
significant amount. The heat emitted to a room depends on the
preferred light level in the room
type of lights and their construction
location of the light e4uipment
3i/!t 3evel ' 9lluminance
The preferred light level in a room depends primarily on the type of activity. 'or
common office work the level may be in the range of &## ! \$### lux.
ecommended Cight Cevels in ooms
:ecessary 9nstalled #lectric &ower for 3i/!ts
The electric power to the light e4uipment is at the end converted to heat emitting
to the room ;unless special arrangements is used as local cooling or air outlets
through the lighting e4uipment%. 0lectric power to achieve a recommended light
level can be expressed as:
P = b / (e r l! ;\$%
where
P = installed electric power ;<.m
)
floor area%
b = recommended light level ;lux( lumen.m
)
%
e = light e4uipment efficiency
r = room lighting efficiency
l = emitted light from the source ;lumen.<%
#mitted 3i/!t 7rom Source ' l
s
The purpose of a lamp is to convert electrical power ;<atts% into light ;lumens%.
Different lamps do this with varying efficiencies and the light emitted from a
source depends on the type of source.
The typical efficiency of different lamp types can be found in the table below:
Camp Type
0mitted Cight from The
/ource
;lumen.<att%
Cifetime
;hours%
BC/ +ulbs \$# ! \$& \$(###
Cow Aoltage
5alogen
)# )(### ! &(###
Dercury Aapor 8# ! 7# ))(###
'luorescent &# ! 9#
more than
:(###
Detal 5alide :# ! 9#
more than
\$)(###
5igh 2ressure
/odium
9# ! \$)& )&(###
Cow 2ressure
/odium
\$)# ! )## )#(###
A typical incandescent BC/ light bulb emit approximately \$# lumen.<att.
A typical fluorescent tube emit up to approximately 7# lumen.<att.
3i/!t #+uipment #fficiency '
e
The light e4uipment efficiency express how much of the light is really emitted
from the light e4uipment to the room.
A bare fluorescent tube emits \$##? to the room. A shielded tube emit less !
between &#? to *#? is common.
Room 3i/!tin/ #fficiency '
r

The room lightning efficiency express how much of the light is absorbed by the
room before entering the activity area.
Cight 04uipment 0fficiency and oom Cightning 0fficiency influence each other.
-ommon values of the product e r are in the range #." ! #.7.
#,ample ' -eat 3oad from 3i/!ts
\$(### lux is recommended light level in a office where detailed drawing work is
performed. The room and lightning e4uipment efficiency an be set to #.&.
Fsing standard BC/ bulbs ! the electric power for lightning can be calculated as:
P = ;\$(### lumen.m
)
% . ;#.& ;\$# lumen.<%%
= )## <.m
)
Fsing standard fluorescent tubes ! the electric power for lightning can be
calculated as:
P = ;\$(### lumen.m
)
% . ;#.& ;7# lumen.<%%
= ""." <.m
)
Due to the high energy consumption an the maGor impact on the air conditions
system( standard BC/ bulbs is not an alternative for high illuminance
applications.
The table below shows the installed electrical effect at different light levels:
Installed effect ;<%
Illumination ! Cight Cevel ;lux%
)## 8## 7## *## \$###
Incandescent BC/ bulb lamp 8# *# \$)# \$7# )##
'luorescent tubes 7.: \$"." )# )7.: ""."
:ote@ Datasheets from manufacturers should always be consulted before detail
engineering. The numbers above will do for rough preliminary calculations.
-umidifyin/ Air ' S9 units
5!e amount of vapor ' k/ per cu\$ic meter ' in !umid air
The table below can be used to estimate the amount of vapor in an air volume of
\$## m
"
:
Aapor in Air
;kg per \$##
m
"
airflow%
elative 5umidity ;?%
Dry
Temperature
;
o
-%
\$## *& *# :& :# 7& 7# && &# 8& 8# "& "#
") "."9 ).*9 ).:) ).&& )."* ).\$9 ).#8 \$.9" \$.: \$.&" \$."7 \$.\$9 \$.#)
"\$ ".)) ).:" ).&: ).8\$ ).)& ).\$ \$.9" \$.:: \$.7\$ \$.8& \$.)9 \$.\$" #.9:
"# ".#& ).&9 ).88 ).)9 ).\$" \$.9: \$.*" \$.7: \$.&) \$.": \$.)) \$.#: #.9\$
)9 ).*9 ).8& )."\$ ).\$: ).#) \$.** \$.:" \$.&9 8.8& \$." \$.\$7 \$.#\$ #.*:
)* ).:" ).") ).\$9 ).#& \$.9\$ \$.:* \$.78 \$.& \$.": \$.)" \$.\$ #.97 #.*)
): ).&9 ).) ).#: \$.98 \$.*\$ \$.7* \$.&& \$.8) \$.)9 \$.\$7 \$.#" #.9\$ #.:*
)7 ).8& ).#* \$.97 \$.*" \$.:\$ \$.&9 \$.8: \$."8 \$.)) \$.\$ #.9: #.*7 #.:"
)& )."\$ \$.9: \$.*& \$.:" \$.7) \$.& \$."9 \$.): \$.\$7 \$.#8 #.9" #.*\$ #.79
)8 ).\$9 \$.*7 \$.:& \$.78 \$.&" \$.8) \$."\$ \$.) \$.#9 #.9* #.*: #.:: #.77
)" ).#7 \$.:7 \$.7" \$.&& \$.8& \$."8 \$.)8 \$.\$8 \$.#" #.9" #.*" #.:) #.7)
)) \$.9& \$.77 \$.&7 \$.87 \$."7 \$.): \$.\$: \$.#: #.9* #.** #.:* #.7* #.&9
)\$ \$.*8 \$.&7 \$.8: \$."* \$.)9 \$.) \$.\$ \$.#) #.9) #.*" #.:8 #.7: #.&&
)# \$.:8 \$.8* \$."9 \$." \$.)) \$.\$" \$.#8 #.9* #.*: #.:* #.79 #.7\$ #.&)
\$9 \$.7" \$."9 \$."\$ \$.)" \$.\$& \$.#7 #.9* #.9 #.*) #.:8 #.7& #.&: #.89
\$* \$.&8 \$."\$ \$.)8 \$.\$7 \$.#* \$ #.9" #.*& #.:: #.79 #.7) #.&8 #.87
\$: \$.8& \$.)8 \$.\$7 \$.#9 \$.#) #.98 #.*: #.* #.:" #.7& #.&9 #.&\$ #.88
\$& \$.)9 \$.\$ \$.#" #.9: #.9 #.*8 #.:: #.:\$ #.77 #.&* #.&) #.8& #."9
\$# #.98 #.* #.:7 #.:\$ #.77 #.7\$ #.&: #.&) #.8: #.8" #."* #."" #.)*
# #.89 #.8\$ #."9 #.": #."8 #.") #.)9 #.): #.)8 #.)) #.) #.\$: #.\$&
!& #."" #.)* #.)7 #.)& #.)" #.)\$ #.) #.\$* #.\$7 #.\$& #.\$" #.\$\$ #.\$
!\$# #.)) #.\$* #.\$: #.\$7 #.\$& #.\$8 #.\$" #.\$) #.\$\$ #.\$ #.#9 #.#* #.#7
:ote@ In psychrometric charts and Dollier diagram the amount of vapor is given
in kg.kg dry air. The values from the table above can be transformed dividing by
the air density at the actual temperature.
#,ample ' -umidifyin/ Air wit! Steam
Air at )#
o
- and "#? relative humidity are humidified to )#
o
- and *#? relative
humidity.
'rom a table above air at )#
o
- and "#? relative humidity contains #.&) kg water
vapor per \$## m
"
air flow. Air at )#
o
- and *#? relative humidity contains \$."9
kg per \$## m
"
air flow.
The amount of water vapor needed can be calculated as:
Amount of <ater Aapor = ;;\$."9 kg% ! ;#.&) kg%%
= #.*: kg is the amount of water vapor necessary for an air volume of \$## m
"
.
9ndoor Desi/n Conditions for 9ndustrial &roduct and
&roduction &rocesses
Recommended indoor temperature and !umidity for common industrial
product and production processes.
ecommended design conditions should provide employees with a comfortable
and healthy indoor work environment together with optimal condition for the
production process. Fnfortunately this is obvious not always possible. 3ften it
may be necessary to make special arrangements shielding the employees from
the production environment.
The table below can be used to indicate the design conditions ! temperature and
humidity ! for common production processes.
Industry 2rocess
Temperature
o
- min
Temperature
o
- max
Temperature
o
' min
Temperature
o
' max
elative
humidity
?
Abrasives Danufacturing )7 )7 :9 :9 &#
Ammunition )\$ )\$ :# :# 8#
+akery 'lour storage \$7 )7 7\$ :9 &&!7&
2roduction )" )7 :" :9 8#!:#
+illiard oom )" )8 :" :& 8#!&#
+owling -enter +owling alleys )" )8 :" :& &#! &&
+illiard rooms )" )8 :" :&
'lour and
powdered
storage
)\$ ): :# *# 7#
'ermentation ): ): *# *# :&
etarding of
Dough
# 8 ") 8# *&
'inal 2roof "& 89 9& \$)# *&!9#
-ounter flow
-ooling
)8 )8 :& :& *#!*&
+rewing 5op storage !) # )9 ") &#!7#
Heast culture
room
*#
-andy
-hocolate 2an
supply air
\$" \$: && 7) &&!8&
0nrobed room ): )9 *# *& "#!)&
-hocolate
-ooling Tunnel
supply air
8 : 8# 8& *&!:#
5and Dippers \$: \$: 7) 7) 8&
Dolded goods
cooling
8 : 8# 8& *&!:#
-hocolate \$* \$* 7& 7& &#
2acking room
-hocolate
finished stock
storage
\$* \$* 7& 7& &#
-enters
tempering
room
)8 ): :& *# "&!"#
Darshmallow
setting room
)8 )7 :& :* 8&!8#
Brained
marshmallows
drying
8" 8" \$\$# \$\$# 8#
Bum drying &) 77 \$)& \$&# )&!\$&
/anded Bum
drying
"* "* \$## \$## )&!8#
Bum finished
stock storage
\$# \$* &# 7& 7&
/ugar pan
supply air
)9 8\$ *& \$#& "#!)#
2olishing pan
supply air
)\$ ): :# *# &#!8#
2an rooms )8 ): :& *# "&!"#
Nonpareil 2an
supply air
"* 89 \$## \$)# )#
5ard candy
cooling tunnel
air
\$7 )\$ 7# :# &&!8#
5ard candy
packing
)\$ )8 :# :& 8#!"&
5ard candy
storage
\$# )\$ &# :# 8#
-aramel
rooms
)\$ ): :# *# 8#
-eramics efractory 8" 77 \$\$# \$&# &#!9#
Dolding room ): ): *# *# 7#!:#
-lay storage \$7 ): 7# *# "&!7&
Decalcomania
production
)8 ): :& *# &#
Decoration
room
)8 ): :& *# &#
-ereal 2ackaging )8 ): :& *# 8&!&#
-heese -uring -heddar : \$" 8& && *&!9#
/wiss \$7 \$7 7# 7# *#!*&
+lue 9 \$# 8* &# 9&
+rick \$7 \$* 7# 7& 9#
Cimburger \$7 \$* 7# 7& 9&
-amembert \$) \$& &" &9 9#
-lean rooms )\$ ): :# *# 8#!7#
Distilling Brain /torage \$7 \$7 7# 7# "&!8#
Beneral
Danufacturing
\$7 )8 7# :& 8&!7#
Aging \$* )) 7& :) &#!7#
'ruit /torage Apples !\$ 8 "# 8# 9#
Apricots !\$ # "\$ ") 9#!9&
Brapefruits
;-alifornia%
\$8 \$7 &* 7# *&!9#
Brapefruits
;'lorida%
\$# \$# &# &# *&!9#
Brapes
;0astern%
!\$ # "\$ ") *&
Brapes
;<estern%
!\$ !\$ "# "\$ 9#!9&
Cemons \$8 \$7 &* 7# *7!**
3ranges
;-alifornia%
8 : 8# 88 *&!9#
3ranges
;'lorida%
# \$ ") "8 *&!9#
2eaches and
Nectarines
!\$ !\$ "\$ "\$ 9#
2lums !\$ # "# ") 9#!9&
-itrus fruits " 8 "* 8# 9#!9&
'ur /torage !) 8 )* "9 )&!8#
Drying 8" 8" \$#9 \$#9
Bum Danufacturing )& )& :: :: ""
olling )# )# 7* 7* 7"
/tripping )) )) :) :) &"
+reaking )" )" :8 :8 8:
<rapping )" )" :8 :8 &*
5ospitals
3perating(
-ystoscopic
and fracture
rooms
)# )8 7* :7 &#
2atient rooms )8 )8 :& :& 8#!&#
Intensive care
unit
)8 )8 :& :& 8#
and service
areas
)\$ ): :# *# "#!&#
Ceather Drying )\$ 89 :# \$)# :&
/torage(
winter room
temperature
\$# \$7 &# 7# 8#!7#
Censes ;optical% 'using )8 )8 :& :& 8&
Brinding ): ): *# *# *#
Cibraries and
Duseums
Normal
viewing rooms
)\$ )" :# :8 8#!&#
are
manuscript
and /torage
Aaults
)\$ )) :# :) 8&
Art /torage
Areas
\$* )) 7& :) &#
Datches Danufacture )) )" :) :8 &#
Drying )\$ )8 :# :& 7#
/torage \$7 \$: 7# 7) &#!&&
Deat and fish +eef ;fresh% # \$ ") "8 **!9)
+eef ;fro6en% !)" !\$* !\$# 9#!9&
'ish ;fresh% \$ ) "" "& 9#!9&
'ish ;'ro6en% !)" !\$* !\$# 9#!9&
Camb and 2ork
;'resh%
# \$ ") "8 *&!9#
Camb and 2ork
;'ro6en%
!)" !\$* !\$# 9#!9&
Dushrooms
/weating out
period
89 7# \$)# \$8#
/pawn added \$7 )8 7# :& \$##
Browing
period
9 \$7 8* 7# *#
/torage # ) ") "& *#!*&
2aint
Applications
3il paint
spraying
\$7 ") 7# 9# *#
Drying oil
paints
\$& ") &9 9# )&!&#
+rush and
spray painting
\$& ): &9 *\$ )&!&#
2harmaceuticals
Danufactured
powder
storage and
packing area
)8 )8 :& :& "&
Dilling room )8 )8 :& :& "&
Tablet
compressing
and coating
)8 )8 :& :& "&
0ffervescent
tablets and
powders
)8 )8 :& :& )#
5ypodermic
tablets
)8 )8 :& :& "#
-olloids )\$ )\$ :# :# "#!&#
-aught drops ): ): *# *# 8#
Blandular
products
)8 )8 :7 :7 &!\$#
Ampoule
manufacturing
)8 )8 :& :& "&!&#
Belatin
-apsules
)8 )8 :7 :7 "&
-apsule
storage
)8 )8 :7 :7 "&
Dicroanalysis )8 )8 :7 :7 &#
+iological
manufacturing
)8 )8 :7 :7 "&
Civer extracts )8 )8 :7 :7 "&
/erums )8 )8 :7 :7 &#
Animal rooms )8 ): :& *# &#
/mall animal
rooms
)8 )7 :& :* &#
2aper
+inding(
cutting(
drying(
folding( gluing
\$& ): &9 *\$ )&!&#
/torage of
paper
\$& ): &9 *\$ "8!8&
/torage of
books
\$* )\$ 78 :# "*!&#
2lastics
Danufacturing
areas
thermosetting
molding
compounds
): ): *# *# )&!"#
-ellophane
wrapping
)8 ): :& *# 8&!7&
2hotographic
Development
of film
)\$ )8 :# :& 7#
Drying )8 ): :& *\$ &#
2rinting )\$ )\$ :# :# :#
-utting )) )) :) :) 7&
2lywood
5ot pressing(
resin
") ") 9# 9# 7#!:#
-old pressing ") ") 9# 9# \$&!)&
2rinting +inding )\$ )\$ :# :# 8&
'olding )& )& :: :: 7&
2ressing(
general
)8 )8 :& :& 7#!:*
2late making )8 ): :& *# max 8&
Cithographic
press room
)8 ): :7 *# 8"!8:
Cetterpress
and web offset
rooms
)\$ ): :# *# &#
2aper storage(
letterpress
)\$ ): :# *# 8"!8:
2aper storage(
multicolor
sheet feed
lithography
)8 ): :7 *# &#!&&
aw Daterial
/torage
Nuts( insect : : 8& 8& 7&!:&
Nuts( rancidity \$ " "8 "* 7&!:&
0ggs !\$ !\$ "# "# *&!9#
-hocolate(
flats
\$* \$* 7& 7& &#
+utter !: !: )# )#
Dates( figs 8 : 8# 8& :&!7&
-orn /yrup 9#!\$##
Ci4uid sugar )8 ): :& *# 7#!&#
ubber!dipped
goods
-ementing ): ): *# *# )&!"#
Dipping
surgical
articles
)8 ") :& 9# )&!"#
/torage prior
to
manufacture
\$7 )8 7# :& 8#!&#
Caboratory(
A/TD
standard
)8 )8 :& :& &#!&&
Textile
-otton(
carding
)8 ): :& *\$ &#
-otton(
spinning
\$& ): &9 *\$ 7#!:#
-otton(
weaving
)# )8 7* :& :#!*#
Nylon(
production
): ): *\$ *\$ &#!7#
ayon(
spinning
)\$ )\$ :# :# *&
ayon(
twisting
)\$ )\$ :# :# 7&
/ilk( spinning )8 ): :& *\$ 7&!:#
/ilk( weaving )8 ): :& *\$ 7#!:#
<ool( carding )8 ): :& *\$ 7&!:#
<ool( spinning )8 ): :& *\$ &&!7#
<ool( weaving )8 ): :& *\$ &#!&&
Tobacco
-igar and
cigarette
making
)\$ )8 :# :& &&!7&
/oftening ") ") 9# 9# *&
/temming and
strigging
)8 "# :& *7 :#
'iller tobacco
casing
conditioning
)8 )8 :& :& :&
'iller tobacco
storage and
preparation
)7 )7 :* :* :#
<rapper
tobacco
storage and
conditioning
)8
>et!ods of Air Conditionin/
Methods of cooling air
1. Spray washer
2. Surface type cooler
a) Indirect by heat exchange with water which has been cooled by a refrigerant.
b) Direct by heat exchanger in evaporator of a refrigerator system.
Methods of refrigeration
1. Compressed system
ot compressed air leaves a compressor and is li!uefied in a condenser by heat exchange
with cooling water or air. "he li!uid refrigerant then passes through an expansion valve and
the low pressure li!uid enters the evaporator. It absorbs heat from the medium to be cooled
and is vapourised. "he vapour enter the compressor and is raised to an higher pressure.
2. #bsorption system
\$ow pressure refrigerant is dissolved in water in a generator and vapour at high pressure is
driven out of the solution by heat. "he vapour is li!uefied in a condenser and expanded
through an expansion valve. "he low pressure li!uid enter the evaporator and absorbs the
heat from the medium to be cooled. It vapourises and returns to the cooler.
8ptimal Stora/e Conditions for 7ruits and Ve/eta\$les
8ptimal temperature and !umidity for common fruits and ve/eta\$les.
2roper storage conditions ! temperature and humidity ! are needed to lengthen
storage life and maintain 4uality of harvested fruits and vegetables.
'resh fruits need low temperature and high relative humidity to reduce the
respiration and slow down the metabolic process. The table below can be used as
an indication of optimal temperature and moisture condition for common fruits
and vegetables.
Product
Optimal
Storage
Temperature
Chill
Point
Freezing
Point
Optimal
Humidity
Top Ice
Accepted
1
!ater
Sprin"le
Accepted
#
\$thylene
Production
Sensiti%e
to
\$thylene
&
Appro'imate
Storage (ife

o
F
o
C
o
F
o
C
o
C )
#pples %&'(& '1'( 2).% )&')* +o +o igh ,es 1'12 months Chill
sensitive
stored at
%*'(& - .2'(
C)
#pricots %1'%2 '1'& %&.1 )&')* +o +o igh ,es 1'% wee/s
#rticho/es %2'%* &'2 )&')* ,es ,es +o +o
#rticho/es0
1erusalem
%1'%2 &'2 22.& )&')* +o +o +o +o ('* months
#sparagus %2'%* %&.) )*'1&& +o ,es +o ,es 2'% wee/s
#vocados0 ripe %2'(* %'3 %4 2 2*')* +o +o igh ,es
unripe
(*'*& 3'1& (* 3 2*')* +o +o \$ow ,es0 5ery 6eep away
from
ethylene
producing
fruits
7ananas0 green 42'3& 13'21 *4 1% 2*')* +o +o \$ow ,es
7ananas0 ripe *4'4& 1%'14 *( 12 2*')* +o +o 8edium +o
7asil *2'*) 11'1* *& 1& )&')* +o ,es +o ,es
7eans0 dry (&'*& (&'*& 4'1& months
7eans0 green or
snap
(&'(* %&.3 )* 3'1& days
7eans0 sprouts %2 & )*'1&& 3') days
7eans. \$ima %3'(1 & %1.& )* *'3 days
7eets %2'%* &'2 )&')* ,es ,es +o ,es
7eets0 bunched %2 & %1.% )2'1&& 1&'1( days
7eets0 topped %2 & %&.% )2'1&& ('4 months
7lac/berries %2'%% &'1 %&.* )&')* +o +o 5ery \$ow +o 2'% days
7lueberries %2'%* &'2 )&')* +o +o 5ery \$ow +o
7o/ Choy %2'%* &'2 )&')* +o ,es +o ,es
7roccoli %2 & %&.) )*'1&& ,es ,es +o ,es 1&'1( days
7russels
Sprouts
%2 & %&.* )&')* ,es ,es +o ,es %'* wee/s
7unched
9reens
%2 & )&')* ,es ,es +o ,es 7eets0
Chard0
9reen
Product
Optimal
Storage
Temperature
Chill
Point
Freezing
Point
Optimal
Humidity
Top Ice
Accepted
1
!ater
Sprin"le
Accepted
#
\$thylene
Production
Sensiti%e
to
\$thylene
&
Appro'imate
Storage (ife

o
F
o
C
o
F
o
C
o
C )
:nions0
8ustard0
;arsley0
Spinach0
"urnip
Cabbage0
Chinese
%2 & )*'1&& +o +o +o ,es 2'% months
Cabbage0 early %2 & %&.( )2'1&& ,es ,es +o ,es %'4 wee/s
Cabbage0 late %2 & %&.( )2'1&& *'4 months
Cantaloupe %4'%2 2'% %( 1 )&')* +o +o 8edium ,es
Carrots0
bunched
%2 & )*'1&& ,es ,es +o ,es 2 wee/s =thylene
may cause
a bitter
flavor
Carrots0
immature
%2 & 2).* )2'1&& ('4 wee/s
Carrots0 mature %2 & 2).* )2'1&& 3') months
Cauliflower %2 & %&.4 )*')2 %'( wee/s
Cauliflower %2'%* &'2 )&')* +o +o +o ,es
Celery %2 & %1.1 )2'1&& ,es ,es +o ,es 2'% months
Celeriac %2 & %&.% )3')) 4'2 months
Chard %2 & )*'1&& 1&'1( days
Cherries %2'%* &'2 )&')* +o +o 5ery \$ow +o
Cherries0 sour %2 & 2).& )&')* %'3 days
Cherries0 sweet %&'%1 22.2 )&')* 2'% wee/s
Chicory %2'%* &'2 )&')* ,es ,es +o +o
Chicory0 witloof %2 & )*'1&& 2'( wee/s
Chinese ;ea
;ods
%2'%* &'2 )&')* +o +o +o +o
Coconuts **'4& 1%'14 2&'2* +o +o +o +o =xtended
storage %2'
%* - .&'2 C)
Collards %2 & %&.4 )*'1&& 1&'1( days
Corn0 sweet %2 & %&.) )*')2 ,es ,es +o +o *'2 days
Cranberries %2'(2 %'4 %4 2 )&')* ,es +o +o +o
Cucumbers *&'** (& ( %1.1 )* +o +o 5ery \$ow ,es 1&'1( days
Currants %1'%2 %&.2 )&')* 1'( wee/s
=ggplant (4'*( (* 3 %&.4 )&')* +o +o +o ,es 1 wee/
=lderberries %1'%2 )&')* 1'2 wee/s
=ndive %2 & %1.) )*'1&& ,es ,es +o +o 2'% wee/s
=scarole %2'%* &'2 )&')* ,es ,es +o +o
=scarole %2 & %1.) )*'1&& 2'% wee/s
-igs %2'%* &'2 )&')* +o +o \$ow +o
9arlic %2 & %&.* 4*'3& +o +o +o +o 4'3 months 8ay be
stored at
**'3& - .1%'
21 C) for
Product
Optimal
Storage
Temperature
Chill
Point
Freezing
Point
Optimal
Humidity
Top Ice
Accepted
1
!ater
Sprin"le
Accepted
#
\$thylene
Production
Sensiti%e
to
\$thylene
&
Appro'imate
Storage (ife

o
F
o
C
o
F
o
C
o
C )
shorter
periods
9inger <oot 4&'4* 14'12 ** 1% 4*'3& +o +o +o +o
9ooseberries %1'%2 %&.& )&')* %'( wee/s
9rapefruit **'4& 1%'14 *& 1& )&')* +o +o 5ery \$ow +o
9rapes %1'%2 2).3 2* +o +o 5ery \$ow ,es 2'2 wee/s
9reen 7eans (&'(* ('3 %2 % )&')* +o +o +o ,es
9reen ;eas %2'%* &'2 )&')* +o +o +o ,es
9reens0 leafy %2 & )*'1&& 1&'1( days
9uavas (*'*& 3'1& (& ( )&')* +o +o 8edium ,es
erbs %2'%* &'2 )&')* +o ,es +o ,es
orseradish %&'%2 22.3 )2'1&& 1&'12 months
1icama **'4* 4*'3& 1'2 months
6ale %2 %1.1 )*'1&& 2'% wee/s
6iwi0 ripe %2'%* &'2 )&')* +o +o igh ,es
6iwi0 unripe %2'%* &'2 )&')* +e +o \$ow ,es0 5ery
6ohlrabi %2 & %&.2 )2'1&& ,es ,es +o +o 2'% months
\$ee/s %2 & %&.3 )*'1&& ,es ,es +o ,es 2'% months
\$emons *2'** 11'1% *& 1& )&')* +o +o 5ery \$ow +o
\$ettuce %2 & %1.3 )2'1&& +o ,es +o ,es 2'% wee/s
\$imes (2'** )'1% (* 3 )&')* +o +o 5ery \$ow +o
\$ychees (&'(* ('3 %4 2 )&')* +o +o 5ery \$ow +o
8angos *&'** 1&'1% *& 1& 2*')* +o +o 8edium ,es
8elons0
Casaba>;ersian
*&'** 1&'1% (* 3 2*')* +o +o 5ery \$ow ,es <iper
melons may
be stored at
(*'*& - .3'
1& C)
8elons0
Crenshaw
*&'** 1&'1% (* 3 2*')* +o +o \$ow ,es <iper
melons may
be stored at
(*'*& - .3'
1& C)
8elons0 oney
Dew
*&'** 1&'1% (1 * 2*')* +o +o 8edium ,es <iper
melons may
be stored at
(*'*& - .3'
1& C)
8ushrooms %2 & %&.( )* +o ,es +o ,es %'( days
+apa %2'%* &'2 )&')* +o +o +o ,es
+ectarines %1'%2 %&.( )&')* +o +o igh +o 2'( wee/s
:/ra (*'*& (* 3 22.3 )&')* +o +o 5ery \$ow ,es 3'1& days
:nions %2'%* &'2 4*'3* +o +o +o +o 8ay be
stored at
**'3& - .1%'
21 C) for
shorter
period
Product
Optimal
Storage
Temperature
Chill
Point
Freezing
Point
Optimal
Humidity
Top Ice
Accepted
1
!ater
Sprin"le
Accepted
#
\$thylene
Production
Sensiti%e
to
\$thylene
&
Appro'imate
Storage (ife

o
F
o
C
o
F
o
C
o
C )
:ranges (&'(* ('3 %2 % )&')* +o +o 5ery \$ow +o
:ranges %2'%* &'2 )&')* +o +o 5ery \$ow ,es
;apayas *&'** 1&'1% (* 3 2*')* +o +o 8edium ,es
;arsley %2 & %&.& )*'1&& 2'% months
;arsnips %2 & %&.( )2'1&& ,es ,es +o ,es ('4 months
;eaches %1'%2 %&.% )&')* +o +o igh ,es 2'( wee/s
;ears 2)'%1 2).2 )&')* +o +o igh ,es 2'3 months
;eas0 green %2 & %&.) )*')2 1'2 wee/s
;eas0 southern (&'(1 )* 4'2 days
;eppers0 hot
chili
%2'*& 4&'3& +o +o +o ,es 4 months
;eppers0 sweet (*'** 3'1& (2 4 %&.3 )&')* +o +o +o +o 2'% wee/s
;ersimmons %2'%* &'2 )&')* +o +o +o ,es0 5ery
;ineapples *&'** 1&'1% (* 3 2*')* +o +o 5ery \$ow +o :dor may
influence
;lums %1'%2 %&.* )&')* +o +o igh ,es 2'* wee/s
;omegranates (1'*& *'1& (1 * )&')* +o +o +o +o
;otatoes (*'*& 3'1& %2 % )&')* +o +o +o ,es
;recut -ruit %2'%4 &'2 )&')* +o +o \$ow +o
;recut
5egetables
%2'%4 &'2 )&')* +o +o +o ,es
;runes %1'%2 %&.* )&')* +o +o igh ,es 2'* wee/s
;ump/ins *&'** *& 1& %&.* 4*'3& +o +o +o ,es 2'% months
?uinces %1'%2 22.( )& 2'% months
?uinces %2'%* &'2 )&')* +o +o igh ,es
<adishes0 spring %2 & %&.3 )*'1&& ,es ,es +o ,es %'( wee/s
<adishes0 winter %2 )*'1&& 2'( months
<aspberries %1'%2 %&.& )&')* +o +o 5ery \$ow +o 2'% days
<hubarb %2 & %&.% )*'1&& +o ,es +o +o 2'( wee/s
<utabagas %2 & %&.& )2'1&& ,es ,es +o ,es ('4 months
Salad 8ixes %2'%* &'2 )&')* +o ,es +o ,es
Salsify %2 %&.& )*')2 2'( months
Spinach %2 %1.* )*'1&& 1&'1( days
Sprouts %2'%* &'2 )&')* +o +o +o ,es
S!uashes0
summer
(1'*& (& ( %1.1 )* +o +o +o ,es 1'2 wee/s
S!uashes0
winter
*& %&.* *&'3& +o +o +o ,es 1'4 months
Strawberries %2 & %&.4 )&')* +o +o 5ery \$ow +o %'3 days
Sweet ;otatoes **'4& *( 12 2).3 2*')& +o +o +o ,es ('3 months
"angerines %2'%* &'2 )&')* +o +o 5ery \$ow +o
"angerines (&'(* ('3 %2 % )&')* +o +o 5ery \$ow +o
Product
Optimal
Storage
Temperature
Chill
Point
Freezing
Point
Optimal
Humidity
Top Ice
Accepted
1
!ater
Sprin"le
Accepted
#
\$thylene
Production
Sensiti%e
to
\$thylene
&
Appro'imate
Storage (ife

o
F
o
C
o
F
o
C
o
C )
"omatoes0
mature green
**'3& %1.& )&')* +o +o \$ow ,es 1'% wee/s <iping can
be delayed
by storing at
**'4& - .1%'
14 C)
"omatoes0 ripe **'3& %1.1 )&')* +o +o 8edium +o ('3 days
"urnip greens %2 %1.3 )*'1&& 1&'1( days
"urnips %2 & %&.1 )* ,es ,es +o ,es ('* months
@atercress %2 %1.( )*'1&& 2'% wee/s
@atermelon **'3& 1%'21 *& 1& 2*')* +o +o +o ,es0 5ery 6eep away
from
ethylene
producing
fruits
\$%
Top icing the products may be very effective keeping the temperature low and
the product surface close to \$##? humidity.
)%
/praying with water may be effective by keeping the temperature low
;evaporative cooling% and the surface \$##? humid.
"%
2roducts sensitive to ethylene should not be stored together with products
producing ethylene. 0xposure to ethylene may soften the flesh( adding bitter
taste to the product or.and accelerate ripening.
&eople and -eat 2ain
Appro,imate -eat 2ain from 8ccupants in Air Conditioned Spaces ' in
\$tu.!r
The table below can be used to estimate the sensible and latent heat from people.
The values can be used to calculate the heat load handled by the air condition
system.
Typical Application
/ensible 5eat
;btu.hr%
Catent 5eat
;btu.hr%
Theater!Datinee )## \$"#
Theater!0vening )\$& \$"&
3ffices( 5otels( Apartments )\$& \$*&
etail I Department /tores ))# )"#
Drug /tore ))# )*#
+ank ))# )*#
estaurant )8# "\$#
'actory )8# &\$#
Dance 5all ):# &*#
'actory ""# 7:#
+owling Alley &\$# 98#
'actory &\$# 98#
Tabulated values are based on :*
o
' for dry!bulb temperature.
AdGusted total heat value for sedentary work( restaurant( includes 7# +tu.hr for food per
individual ;"# +tu.h sensible and "# +tu. latent heat%.
'or bowling figure one person per alley actually bowling( and all others as sitting ;8## +tu.h%
or standing ;&&# +tu.h%.
5eat gain from people ! watts
&erformance and #fficiency 5erminol/y
Desi/n and season related performance and efficiency terminol/y related
to !eat pumps and air condition systems.
8peratin/ >ode Desi/n Rated Conditions Seasonal Avera/e Conditions
-ooling -32
00
k<.ton
-32
I2C
/00
5eating -32
0c
0t
A'F0
-32
5/2'
Seasonal #ner/y #fficiency Ratio 0S##R1: The term /00 is used to define the
average annual cooling efficiency of an air!conditioning or heat pump system. The
term /00 is similar to the term 00 but is related to a typical ;hypothetical%
season rather than for a single rated condition. The /00 is a weighted average of
00s over a range of rated outside air conditions following a specific standard test
method. The term is generally applied to systems less than 7#(### +tu.h. The
units of /00 are +tu.<Jh. It is important to note that this efficiency term
typically includes the energy re4uirements of auxiliary systems such as the indoor
and outdoor fans. 'or purposes of comparison( the higher the /00 the more
efficient the system. Although /00s and 00s cannot be directly compared( the
/00s usually range from #.& to \$.# higher than corresponding 00s.
-32
00
k<.t
9nte/rated &art'3oad Value 09&3V1: The term I2CA is used to signify the
cooling efficiency related to a typical ;hypothetical% season rather than a single
rated condition. The I2CA is calculated by determining the weighted average
efficiency at part!load capacities specified by an accepted standard. It is also
important to note that I2CAs are typically calculated using the same
condensing temperature for each part!load condition and I2CAs do not include
cycling or load.unload losses. The units of I2CA are not consistent in the literatureK
therefore( it is important to confirm which units are implied when the term I2CA is
used. A/5A0 /tandard 9#.\$ ;using AI reference standards% uses the term I2CA
to report seasonal cooling efficiencies for both seasonal -32s ;unitless% and
seasonal 00s ;+tu.wJh%( depending on the e4uipment capacity categoryK and
most chillers manufacturers report seasonal efficiencies for large chillers as I2CA
using units of k<.ton. Depending on how a cooling system loads and unloads ;or
cycles%( the I2CA can be between & and &#? higher than the 00 at the standard
rated condition.
Com\$ustion #fficiency 0nc or #c1: 'or fuel!fired systems( this efficiency term is
defined as the ratio of the fuel energy input minus the flue gas losses ;dry flue
gas( incomplete combustion and moisture formed by combustion of hydrogen% to
the fuel energy input. In the F./.( fuel!fired efficiencies are reported based on the
higher heating value of the fuel. 3ther countries report fuel!fired efficiencies based
on the lower heating value of the fuel. The combustion efficiency is calculated by
determining the fuel gas losses as a percent of fuel burned. L0c = \$ ! flue gas
lossesM
5!ermal #fficiency 0nt or #t1: This efficiency term is generally defined as the
ratio of the heat absorbed by the water ;or the water and steam% to the heat value
of the energy consumed. The combustion efficiency of a fuel!fired system will be
higher than its thermal efficiency. /ee A/D0 2ower Test -ode 8.\$ for more details
on determining the thermal efficiency of boilers and other fuel!fired systems. In
the F./.( fuel!fired efficiencies are typically reported based on the higher heating
value of the fuel. 3ther countries typically report fuel!fired efficiencies based on
the fuelNs lower heating value. The difference between a fuelNs higher heating value
and its lower heating value is the latent energy contained in the water vapor ;in
the exhaust gas% which results when hydrogen ;from the fuel% is burned. The
efficiency of a system based on a fuelNs lower heating value can be \$# to \$&?
higher than its efficiency based on a fuelNs higher heating value.
-eatin/ Seasonal &erformance 7actor 0-S&71: The term 5/2' is similar to
the term /00( except it is used to signify the seasonal heating efficiency of heat
pumps. The 5/2' is a weighted average efficiency over a range of outside air
conditions following a specific standard test method. The term is generally applied
to heat pump systems less than 7#(### +tu.h ;rated cooling capacity.% The units
of 5/2' are +tu.w!h. It is important to note that this efficiency term typically
includes the energy re4uirement of auxiliary systems such as the indoor and
outdoor fans. 'or purposes of comparison( the higher the 5/2' the more efficient
the system.
&ersons and >eta\$olic -eat 2ain
Appro,imate meta\$olic !eat /ain from occupants in air conditioned
spaces at different de/rees of activities ' in watts
The table below can be used to estimate the sensible and latent heat from people.
The values can be used to calculate the heat load handled by the air condition
system.
Degree of
Activity
Typical
Application
Average
Detabolic
rate !
male
oom Dry +ulb Temperature ;
o
-%
)* ): )7 )8 )) )#
/ens. Cat. /ens. Cat. /ens. Cat. /ens. Cat. /ens. Cat. /ens. Cat.
/eated at
rest
-inema(
theatre(
school
\$## &# &# && 8& 7# 8# 7: "" :) )* :9 )\$
/eated(
very light
-omputer
working
\$)# &# :# && 7& 7# 7# :# &# 8:* 8) *8 "7
work
3ffice
work
5otel
reception(
cashier
\$"# &# *# &7 :8 7# :# :# 7# :* &) *7 88
/tanding(
walking
slowly
Caboratory
work
\$"# &# *# &7 :8 7# :# :# 7# :* &) *7 88
<alking(
seated
\$&# &" 9: &* 9) 78 *7 :7 :8 *8 77 9# 7#
Doderate
work
/ervant(
hair
dresser
\$7# && \$#& 7# \$## 7* 9) *# *# 9# :# 9* 7)
Cight
bench
work
Dechanical
production
))# && \$7& &) \$&* :# \$&# *& \$"& \$## \$)# \$\$& \$#&
Doderate
Dancing
2arty )&# 7) \$** :# \$*# :* \$:) 98 \$&7 \$\$# \$8# \$)& \$)&
'ast
walking
Dountain
walking
"## *# ))# ** )\$) 97 )#8 \$\$# \$9# \$"# \$:# \$8& \$&&
5eavy
work
Athletics 8"# \$") )9* \$"* )9) \$88 )*7 \$&8 ):7 \$:# )7# \$** )8)
5eat gain from people ! btu.h
&ressure and 5emperature C!art for Ammonia :-3
A temperature 0de/ 71 and pressure 0psia psi/1 for Ammonia :-3.
TEMP. PRESSURE
@' 2/IA 2/IB
!7# &.7 18.6
!&* &.9 17.8
!&: 7.\$ 17.4
!&7 7." 17.0
!&& 7.& 16.6
!&8 7.* 16.2
!&" :.# 15.7
!&) :.) 15.3
!&\$ :.8 14.8
!&# :.: 14.3
!89 :.9 13.8
!8* *.) 13.3
!8: *.8 12.8
!87 *.: 12.2
!8& 9.# 11.7
!88 9.) 11.1
!8" 9.& 10.6
!8) 9.* 10.0
!8\$ \$#.\$ 9.3
!8# \$#.8 8.7
!"9 \$#.: 8.1
!"* \$\$.# 7.4
!": \$\$.8 6.8
!"7 \$\$.: 6.1
!"& \$).\$ 5.4
!"8 \$).8 4.7
!"" \$).* 3.9
!") \$".\$ 3.2
!"\$ \$".& 2.4
!"# \$".9 1.6
!)9 \$8." 0.8
!)* \$8.: 0.0
!): \$&.\$ #.8
!)7 \$&.7 #.*
!)& \$7.# \$."
!)8 \$7.8 \$.:
!)" \$7.9 ).)
&roperties of Refri/erant 22
Refri/erant 22 properties of saturated li+uid and saturated vapour.
TEMPERATURE
F
PRESSURE
PSIA
DENSITY,
LB/FT
LIQUID
VOLUME,
FT/LB
VAPOR
ENTHALPY,
BTU/LB
ENTROPY,
BTU/LB F
LIQUID VAPOUR LIQUID VAPOUR
-130.00 0.696 96.46 58.544 -23.150 89.864 -0.06198 0.28082
-120.00 1.080 95.53 38.833 -20.594 91.040 -0.05435 0.27430
-110.00 1.626 94.60 26.494 -18.038 92.218 -0.04694 0.26838
-100.00 2.384 93.66 18.540 -15.481 93.397 -0.03973 0.26298
-90.00 3.413 92.71 13.275 -12.921 94.572 -0.03271 0.25807
-80.00 4.778 91.75 9.7044 -10.355 95.741 -0.02587 0.25357
-70.00 6.555 90.79 7.2285 -7.783 96.901 -0.01919 0.24945
-60.00 8.830 89.81 5.4766 -5.201 98.049 -0.01266 0.24567
-50.00 11.696 88.83 4.2138 -2.608 99.182 -0.00627 0.24220
-45.00 13.383 88.33 3.7160 -1.306 99.742 -0.00312 0.24056
-41.44b 14.696 87.97 3.4048 -0.377 100.138 -0.00090 0.23944
-40.00 15.255 87.82 3.2880 0.000 100.296 0.00000 0.23899
-35.00 17.329 87.32 2.9185 1.310 100.847 0.00309 0.23748
-30.00 19.617 86.81 2.5984 2.624 101.391 0.00616 0.23602
-25.00 22.136 86.29 2.3202 3.944 101.928 0.00920 0.23462
-20.00 24.899 85.77 2.0774 5.268 102.461 0.01222 0.23327
-15.00 27.924 85.25 1.8650 6.598 102.986 0.01521 0.23197
-10.00 31.226 84.72 1.6784 7.934 103.503 0.01818 0.23071
-5.00 34.821 84.18 1.5142 9.276 104.013 0.02113 0.22949
0.00 38.726 83.64 1.3691 10.624 104.515 0.02406 0.22832
5.00 42.960 83.09 1.2406 11.979 105.009 0.02697 0.22718
10.00 47.538 82.54 1.1265 13.342 105.493 0.02987 0.22607
15.00 52.480 81.98 1.0250 14.712 105.968 0.03275 0.22500
20.00 57.803 81.41 0.9343 16.090 106.434 0.03561 0.22395
25.00 63.526 80.84 0.8532 17.476 106.891 0.03846 0.22294
30.00 69.667 80.26 0.7804 18.871 107.336 0.04129 0.22195
35.00 76.245 79.67 0.7150 20.275 107.769 0.04411 0.22098
40.00 83.280 79.07 0.6561 21.688 108.191 0.04692 0.22004
45.00 90.791 78.46 0.6029 23.111 108.600 0.04972 0.21912
50.00 98.799 77.84 0.5548 24.544 108.997 0.05251 0.21821
55.00 107.32 77.22 0.5111 25.988 109.379 0.05529 0.21732
60.00 116.38 76.58 0.4715 27.443 109.748 0.05806 0.21644
65.00 126.00 75.93 0.4355 28.909 110.103 0.06082 0.21557
Refri/erants
Some common coolin/ refri/erants and t!eir properties
efrigerant 'ormula
+oiling
temperature
;
o
-%
-ritical
temperature
;
o
-%
2roperties Applications
Ammonia N5" !"" \$""
2enetrating
odor( soluble
in water.
harmless in
concentration
up to \$."#?(
non
flammable(
explosive
Carge
industrial
plants
\$)
Dichlorodifluoromethane
--l)') !)9.* \$\$)
Cittle odor(
colorless gas
or li4uid( non
flammable(
non corrosive
of ordinary
metals( stable
/mall plants
with
reciprocating
compressors.
Automotive(
Dedium
Temperature
efrigeration
\$\$ --l"' *.9 \$9*
Non
flammable(
non corrosive
non toxic(
stable
-ommercial
plants with
centrifugal
compressors.
))
-hlorodifluoromethane
-5-l') !8#.* 97
Cittle odor(
colorless as
gas or li4uid(
non toxic(
non irritating(
non
flammable(
non
corrosive(
stable
2ackaged air!
conditioning
units where
si6e of
e4uipment
and economy
are
important. Air
-onditioning(
Cow and
Dedium
Temperature
efrigeration
!\$"8a
\$(\$(\$()!
tetrafluoroethane
-5)'-'"
Automotive
replacement
for !\$)(
/tationary
A.-(
Dedium Temp
efrigeration
&##
--l)')
;:"(*?%
-5" -5
!""
/imilar to
\$)
3ffers aprox.
)#? more
refrigeration
')
;)7.)?%
capacity than
\$) for same
compressor.
&#)
--l ')
;8*(*?%
--l
')!-'"
;&\$.)?%
!8&.7 9#.\$
Non
flammable(
non toxic(
non
corrosive(
stable
-apacity
comparable
to )).

Relative -umidity in &roduction and &rocess #nvironments
Recommended Relative -umidity ' R- ' for production and process
environments as li\$raries \$reweries stora/es and more.
To avoid damage of the product( or to achieve proper process conditions( its often
important to keep the environment and indoor climate within certain limits. It
may be avoided that a low relative humidity dries up the product in the
production process( or that a high relative humidity increases the water activity
and creates mould.
The table below can be used as a guide to recommended elative 5umidity ! 5 !
for some common production and process environments.
2roduction and 2rocess
0nvironment
ecommended elative
5umidity ! 5 ;?%
/ugar /torage )#!"&?
+reweries "&!8&?
-offee 2owder "#!8#?
Dilk 2owder /torage )#!"&?
/eed /torage "&!8&?
Fnpacked Dedicine )#!"&?
Transformer <inding \$&!"#?
/emiconductors "#!&#?
+ooks and 2aper
Archive
8#!&&?
2aper /torage "&!8&?
2reventing ust and
-orrosion
below &&?(
O 8#? for no rust
Cibrary &#!&&?
/pray 2aint "#!&#?
Caboratory electronics 8&!7#?
2lastic 2allets &!"#?
-omputer 2eripherals &#!7#?
ust esistance +elow 8#?
Dedical /yrups "#!8#?
-apsule /torage "#!8&?
2owder /torage "#!8&?
<ood Drying )&!"&?
0xplosives
"&!&#?
:ote@ lower 5 may
cause static electricity
and sparks ignition
Normal /torage &#!&&?
Dusical Instrument 8&!&&?
Ceather 2roduct 8#!&&?
-able <rapping \$&!)&?
-hemical Caboratory "#!8&?
elative 5umidity and 2sychrometric Terms
The 2sychrometric -hart ! The Dollier diagram
5!ermodynamic &roperties of R'22
Vapour volume ent!alpy and entropy for R'22 at different pressure and
temperatures.
TEMPERATURE
F
PRESSURE = 30 PSIA
SAT. TEMP. = -11.85F
PRESSURE = 60 PSIA
SAT. TEMP. = 21.94F
" H S " # /
-10 1.760 103.92 0.2325
30 1.943 109.92 0.2453 0.9271 108.35 0.2271
60 2.078 114.55 0.2545 1.001 113.17 0.2367
100 2.255 120.92 0.2663 1.096 119.74 0.2488
150 2.473 129.17 0.2804 1.212 128.19 0.2633

TEMPERATURE
F
PRESSURE = 75 PSIA
SAT. TEMP. = 34.06F
PRESSURE = 90 PSIA
SAT. TEMP. = 44.47F
" H S " # /
30 0.7851 107.81 0.2229
60 0.7847 112.45 0.2306 0.6401 111.69 0.2253
100 0.8639 119.13 0.2429 0.7088 118.50 0.2379
150 0.9591 127.69 0.2576 0.7906 127.18 0.2528

TEMPERATURE
F
PRESSURE = 135 PSIA
SAT. TEMP. = 69.39F
PRESSURE = 180 PSIA
SAT. TEMP. = 88.72F
" H S " # /
100 0.4492 116.50 0.2260 0.3177 114.29 0.2164
150 0.5092 125.59 0.2416 0.3678 123.90 0.2329
200 0.5655 134.79 0.2561 0.4132 133.45 0.2479
250 0.6193 144.20 0.2698 0.4558 143.10 0.2620
300 0.6713 153.84 0.2829 0.4965 152.93 0.2754

TEMPERATURE
F
PRESSURE = 200 PSIA
SAT. TEMP. = 96.17F
PRESSURE = 220 PSIA
SAT. TEMP. = 103.09F
" H S " # /
100 0.2776 113.22 0.2126
150 0.3251 123.11 0.2295 0.2900 122.30 0.2263
200 0.3674 132.83 0.2448 0.3299 132.20 0.2419
250 0.4067 142.60 0.2591 0.3666 142.09 0.2564
300 0.4441 152.52 0.2726 0.4012 152.10 0.2700

TEMPERATURE
F
PRESSURE = 240 PSIA
SAT. TEMP. = 109.57F
PRESSURE = 260 PSIA
SAT. TEMP. = 115.66F
" H S " # /
150 0.2606 121.45 0.2232 0.2356 120.58 0.2203
200 0.2985 131.56 0.2392 0.2720 130.90 0.2366
250 0.3330 141.58 0.2538 0.3046 141.06 0.2514
300 0.3654 151.69 0.2676 0.3351 151.27 0.2653
V A vapour volume0 ftB>lb h A enthalpy0 7tu>lb s A entropy0 7tu>lbCD-
;S Desi/n 8utdoor 5emperature and Relative -umidity ' 6inter
and Summer
8utdoor temperatures and relative !umidityAs in different ;S states and cities
summer and winter.
The table below can be used as an indication of the design conditions in F./ cities
summer and winter.
/tate -ity
Panuary Puly
Dry +ulb
Temperature
;
o
'%
Normal elative
5umidity ;?%
Dry +ulb
Temperature
;
o
'%
Normal elative
5umidity ;?%
::"#
am.
\$:"#
pm.
::"#
pm.
::"#
am.
\$:"#
pm.
::"#
pm.
Alabama
+irmingham \$# *\$ 7\$ 77 9& *8 &7 7*
Dobile \$# 9& 9# 78 :*
Ari6ona
'lagstaff !\$# *" &* 9# :: "7
2hoenix )& :& 8: "9 \$## &" "\$ )"
Huma "# &7 ": ): \$#& &\$ "\$ )"
Arkansas Cittle ock & *# 7: 7* \$\$# *& && &9
-alifornia
0ureka "# *: :: 9& 9) *#
'resno )& 9" *# 77 9# 7\$ "7 )#
Cos Angeles "& 7" 87 &\$ \$#& *& &# &8
/acramento "# 9# *) :# 9# :7 87 )*
/an Diego "& :7 &* 7# \$## *7 7* 7&
/an
'rancisco
"& *8 79 :# *& 9) :& :*
Denver !\$# &8 ": 8\$ *& && ): "#
Brand
Punction
!\$& :: 78 78 9& 8* ): ))
2ueblo !)# 7: 88 8* 9& :" "8 "&
-onnecticut New 5aven # :& 7& 79 9& :: 78 :8
Delaware <ilmington # :: 7) :# 9& *# &) 79
District of
-olumbia
<ashington # :" &7 78 9& :* &) 78
'lorida
Packsonville )& *9 &7 :& 9& *& &: :7
Diami "& *: &9 :& 9\$ *" 78 :7
Beorgia
Atlanta \$# *# 78 79 9& *" &: 7*
Augusta \$# *8 &9 79 9* *" && 79
/avannah )# *" &* :) 9& *& 7\$ *#
Idaho
+oise !\$# *) :& :8 9& &8 "8 )"
Cewiston !& :9 :" :\$ 9& 78 ": )&
Illinois
-airo # *\$ 79 9* *" &:
-hicago !\$# *\$ :# :& 9& :* &\$ &&
2eoria !\$# :" :) :: 97 *\$ &" &*
Indiana
'ort <ayne !\$# *8 :& *\$ 9& *8 &" &*
Indianapolis !\$# *" :) :* 9& *8 &8 7#
Terre 5aute # *) :# :7 9& :: &# &7
Iowa
Davenport !\$& 9&
/ioux -ity !)# :* 7: :) 9& *7 && &8
>ansas
Dodge -ity !\$# :* &: 7\$ 9& :: 8& &)
Topeka !\$# :* 78 7: \$## *& &8 &8
>entucky Couisville # :* 7* 79 9& :: &) &:
Couisiana
New 3rleans )# *& 7: :" 9& *8 78 :)
/hreveport )# *" 7: 77 \$## *7 &7 7)
Daine 2ortland !& *\$ 7& :8 9# :* &* :7
Daryland +altimore # :) 7* &7 9& :\$ &) 7&
Dassachusetts +oston # :) &9 7: 9) :) && :#
Dichigan
Detroit !\$# *) :\$ :: 9& :8 &# &7
Brand
apids
!\$# *& :* *# 9& :7 &\$ &8
Dinnesota
Deluth !)& :* :8 :8 9" *: 7\$ 77
Dinneapolis !)# *) :) :& 9& *) &8 &8
Dississippi Aicksburg \$# *) 7& 7: 9& *: 7\$ :#
Dissouri
>ansas -ity !\$# :* 78 77 \$## :7 8* 8:
/t. Couis # :: 7& 7* 9& :" &# &&
Dontana
+illings !)& 7: :" 7# 9# 7& 8# ""
+utte !)# :7 :# :\$ 9& *) "7 ""
Nebraska North 2latte !)# *# 7) 77 *& *8 &# 87