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Ath Ml Matar Gur Khlse Sigh j

k Likhayate
By Akali Nihang Dr Kamalroop Singh

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What is Ath Ml Matar Gur Khlse Sigh j k Likhayate?

This composition is found in the current Khalsa Nitnem by the Shiromani
Khalsa Panth Akali, Buddha Dal, Panjva Takht, Chakarvarti, Chalda Vahir,
Vishav, the central organisation of the Akali Nihang Singhs. It contains the
details of the first Khalsa initiation or khande-ki-pahul ceremony and
information about the Panj Piare and the Rahit of the Khalsa. The name
translates to the Now is Written the Root Mantra of the Singhs of the Guru
Khalsa. As the name suggests, it is the written history about how the
Khalsa came into being as recorded by scribes in the Gurus court.

For the benefit of the Sikh Sangat and scholars alike this composition has
been reproduced in the original Gurmukhi, translated and transliterated for
the first time.
What is its history?

According to the tradition it was said in the Court by the Tenth Guru, on the
Khalsa inauguration at Vaisakhi, and recorded by scribes. The Guru
ordered that the names of the Panj Piare and Panj Mukate to be
immortalized forever. Many old pothia and manuscripts from the period of
the Guru, and from slightly later, contain this composition. There are a
number of eighteenth century manuscripts with this composition, for an
example see Guru Nanak Dev ji University, Amritsar, MS 769 j, which is
from around 1722 AD/ 1779 VS.

The history of the Panj Mukate is not well known, the five (panj) liberated
ones (mukate), were the five Sikhs, who according to Bhai Daya Singh`s
Rahitnama, were the first after the Panj Piare to receive the Khalsa
initiation by the hands of Guru Gobind Singh on the historic Vaisakhi day.
They were the Panj Singhs who stood up after the Panj Piare when the Guru
asked for five Sikhs to offer their head. The Guru said only five were
required, but since you five have also stood up, you will be remembered as
the Panj Mukate. They were Ram Singh, Fateh Singh, Deva Singh, Tahil
Singh and Isar Singh. They are also said to have merged into divine light
through the repetition of Vahiguru. They are ceremonially represented by
the five Singhs with the Nishan Sahibs walking in front of the Panj Piare.

According to Bhai Chaupa Singh, the Hazuri Rahitnama, ascribed to him,
was first written in draft by the Panj Mukate:
The eternal and supreme Guru has declared, the gathered community
(sarabat sangat) is my Khalsa. All should observe the Guru's Rahit.'
[The injunctions of the Rahit were recorded] by Enlightened Sikhs
(mukate Sikh) in the presence of the eternal and supreme Master.
These devout Sikhs studiously compiled a rahit-nama so that
Gursikhs might act as the Guru has prescribed. The Sikh Rahit is as
follows: Pay heed to neither Brahma [the God of the Hindus] nor to
Muhammad [the Prophet of the Muslims]. Obey only the commands
of your own Gurus. If help be needed the Gurus will furnish it [to
those who accept] their testimony recorded in the Granth:
I praise and adore my Guru a hundred times a day, he who lifts
men to the ranks of the gods, swiftly, without delay.2
The Satguru will sustain [the Gursikh] both in this world and the
next. The Gursikh should therefore obey the Rahit. Chaupa Singh
Rahit-nama, W. H. McLeod, p. 251.
McLeod then quotes from Bhai Kesar Singh Chhibbar to elaborate on who
the Mukate were in his introduction:
The mukate Sikhs are those who shall remain after I have gone. The
Turks will issue ordinances against the Panth and pursue its
members in their attempt to destroy all. They who [in these times of
persecution] uphold their Sikh allegiance shall be known as mukate.
Striving always to sustain their faith as Sikhs. Chaupa Singh Rahit-
nama, W. H. McLeod, p. 46.
According to the The Encyclopaedia of Sikhism, an old manuscript of Bhai
Prahlad Singhs Rahitnama is said to contain a note associating Ram Singh
and Deva Singh with the village of Bughiana, in Lahore district, Tahil Singh
and Isar Singh with Dallvan, in present day Amritsar district and Fateh
Singh with Khurdpur Mangat, perhaps the same as Guru Mangat in Lahore
district. The name of Ram Singh also occurs among the twenty-five mukate
mentioned in Kuir Singh, Gurbilas Patshahi 10. According to Sarup Singh
Kaushish in Guru kian Sakhian, Deva Singh and Isar Singh fell as martyrs in
the battle of Chamkaur on 7 December 1705.

What does it contain?

It contains the names of the first Panj Piare and their previous incarnations,
as Bhagats whose Bani is recorded in the Adi Guru Granth Sahib, their
respective castes and where they were born. This is to show that all the
different castes drank from the same bowl or batta, hence breaking the
Khalsa out of the Brahmanic caste system. It also shows that as the Gurus
light came again in the form of different Gurus, similarly the Bhagats were
avatar also. It records that the Guru stood in front of these five and
requested Amrit, and the names of the Panj Mukate. The author then gives
the instructions of not meeting reprobate groups, killers of daughters, and
clean shaved ones. It also talks about Singhs not killing other Singhs (bans
ghat). The importance of the Gurmantra is stressed and the avoidance of
those who do not do it, and to stand at the door to get the darshan of those
that do.
Why and when do we do it?

The Mul Mantra of the Guru Khalsa is very important for all Sikhs, and to
recite it daily is important for all Khalsa Sikhs, in fact Nihang Singhs read
this as a part of their amritvela Nitnem. There are spiritual reasons why it is
read and one has to go to a recognised teacher from within the Nihang
Singh Khalsa to learn about this.

Also see my articles on the Nitnem and Arti-Arta also available on scribd.
With the blessings of the Jathedars of Buddha Dal

In memory of the last head of the Shiromani Khalsa Panth Akali Buddha Dal
Panjva Takht Chalda Vahir Chakarvarti, Vishav, Singh Sahib 96 Crori
Jathedar Akali Baba Surjit Singh Nihang Singh. Who is did Akal chalana in
jail, in circumstances where the SGPC and Akali Dal making their own
puppet leader Balbir Singh. Please visit to
spread awareness about this injustice. This is what the Chinese government
have done to his holiness the Dalai Lama and the Pancham Lama. We
cannot allow this to happen to the head of the Khalsa Panth.

The new head is Akali Nihang 96 Crori Jathedar Baba Prem Singh of Mata
Sahib Kaurs Tap Asthan at Sachkhand Sri Hazur Sahib.

While Baba Surjit Singh was is in jail, Singh Sahib Jathedar Akali Baba
Joginder Singh a respected and enlightened Mahapurush took over
ceremonial duties of the Shiromani Khalsa Panth Akali Buddha Dal Panjwa
Takht Chalda Vahir Chakrvarti, Vishav. Please visit Baba ji at Gurdwara Dam
Dama Sahib, Rakhba.
About the Author

My name is Dr. Kamalroop Singh, I am a Sikh and a member of the Khalsa,
and belong to the Nihang Singh order, under the leadership of the late 96
Crori Singh Sahib Jathedar Akali Baba Surjit Singh Nihang. I began my
journey back in 1995, when I met some inspirational Sikhs. I have been
reading about and practising as a Sikh from a young age, I took initiation
into the Khalsa in 1999. I have travelled around India and stayed with the
Nihang Singhs and Sants, and I also took basic santhia from the Dam Dami
Taksal in Amritsar. After finishing my degree in Chemistry I completed an
MPhil and PhD in Sikh Studies. My chosen subject was the Dasam Granth
Sahib, my thesis was titled Dasam Granth Re-examined. A book titled
Dasam Granth Questions and Answers has been published which was
written with a colleague, please see it at A
number of my chapters have been published, one about Gatka in the
Handbook of Sikh Studies, Oxford University Press, 2014. I am a linguist
and have worked for the Crown Prosecution Services and taught languages
at the School of African and Oriental Studies. I have been a consultant to a
number of museums and galleries around the world, and I regularly travel
and teach about related subjects.

Das, Kamalroop Singh.

+Hl3IJ HlU
Ik oakr satigur prasdi.
One Universal Creator realized by the grace of the True Guru.
o H" H3J IJ "H lH= H| l"3

aT ml matar gur khlase siG j k liKayate.
Now is Written the Root Mantra of the Singhs of the Guru Khalsa.

=H| HJ H| "H J oU lHJHJ
UlUo lH H| Hl3IJ JH3 HU lHJ J
vs saB sr Kls pur anad siramr.
dai siD sr satigur basat sad jih Qr.1.
The holy Khalsa is a resident of the supreme City of Bliss Anandpur Sahib.
The ocean of compassion the holy Guru is ever present at this place.1.

=H| "JJ l= UlUo lH= HJ3| 3J H JH lJ o=3J|
HlJJ lH= J| lUH U Hl o=3J lJ Hl3 J|
lJH3 lH= J| HI JJ J Hl3 HJ|
H JH lJ o=3J H| JH lH= HJ HJ J|
vs lahr viK dai siG soBat Cataru so bas biK avatr.
shib siG pur disu daCaN sNi avatr kahi mati Dr.
himatu siG pur jaganT prab PaDak ho mati sr.
Dan su bas biK avatru sr Daram siG mah suB kr.2.
A resident from Lahore Daya Singh who took manifestation (avatar) in the
noble Sobhati Kshatriya caste.
Sahib Singh was from Puri from the Southern Country, who was the
manifestion of Sain, of great wisdom.
Himmat Singh was from Jagannath Puri from the East [with net], of great
The manifestation of Dhanna was Sri Dharam Singh of great noble deeds.2.

UH HJH lH= H| H U= o=3J
olU J H| "H H3 HH HJ=
U= lH= l JH lH= lJ" lH= Hl3 |J
U|HJ lH= JJ l3J lH= lUJ U H3 JJJ|Je
pacam mohakam siG j nm dev avatru.
di rp sr Kls jnat janam suDru.3.
dev siG funi rm siG qahil siG mati Dr.
shar siG bar fatih siG ih pace mukate barabr.4.
The fifth was Mohkam Singh Ji, the manifestation of Namdev.
Know them to be the primal form of the holy Khalsa, by which your life is
Deva Singh, then Ram Singh, Tahil Singh with great wisdom.
Ishar Singh then Fateh Singh, are the five liberated ones and great

oU3 olU o3 H HUJ H3 J lHJ HJJU|
H3 oH 3J J|3lJ JH3 J lHJ | lJ3U|
H| H 3 J"3 J HlJ olH3 UJ HJ lH" JU|
cut di anaMtu su sudar Kojat h jih ko surar.
st ks patran Btari rjat h jih k praBit.
rjan id gajid raNcal sr gur gobid siG praB suKad.
sr muK te kaCu bolat h mohi amrit dehu saB milu B.5.
The infallible, primal, infinite, very beautiful lotus feet, who is the King of
In the seven heavens, worlds, the ruler the Lord is praised.
The King of the Indras, Chief of Elephant Battalions, the one who never
retreats from battle Sri Guru Gobind Singh the Lord and giver of happiness.
From his Holy mouth the Guru briefly spoke, my brothers all of you
together give me amrit.5.

|U H3 JH JlJ 3lJ JlJ H l=H
UU U HJ J| HI HlJ lJ " o JH3 Hl IH
3 U H Jl" 3 H H3 JU JJ JH
ncan jt ke ham brik tohi karuNkari kse nivje.
kacan Be manrahu te jam dik ke saB h war Bje.
c pe saB h jag mahi kari l yuD basat maDi gje.
t pad pakaj ke bali te jan jat Be Kaw BraT rje.6.
I am of low caste, and am Your child, you are the compassionate one where
I have taken shelter.
When gold is purified then the grim reaper and others, all of these fears run
In the entire world the highest is to put on the armour of war and roar in
At Your holy feet lays all strength for all men and people, for every king in
this realm of India [Bharat].6.

HlH HJlH lUH lHH lHH H3 J lHJ oH 3J|
lHl H| Hl JU H HU3 J JJ " JJ|
lJ H JHI JJ H=3 J lHJ lH JJ|
H IJ J olH3 HI3 "H oIJ lJU J HJ|
sesi suresi dinesu nisesu pisesu Kojat h jih ko aj tor.
siDi mun muni nrad se jcat h bar lK karor.
kinar jaCh Bujag DarDar sevat h jih ko nis Bor.
so gur pran amrit mgat Klase agar Kariu kar jor.7.
Sheshnag, Angels, Sun, Moon, Demons seek You, and praise is Yours today.
The siddha yogis, silent sages, rishis, Narad, are Your slaves many millions of
The kinars, jacch, snakes, sheshnag, are your servants, and praise You
The true complete Guru asked the Khalsa for amrit, with hands folded in front
of them.7.

|J HH HU IJ J "" J3 JJ lHJ HJ|
olH3 HH|J l I I3| l J|
lJl H lHl UJ UJ JH lHJ | lI | JH HJ|
H IJ J olH3 HI3 3 H3 "lU H HJ|\
Kr samn sad gur pran ll ratan Bare jih mh.
amrit Den sas Daru koqiku kN gaN gaNat kiCu nh.
riDi so siDi padraT cr base jih k pagi k raj shh.
so gur pran amrit mgat ktak sat laKio man mh.8.
Like the Eternal ocean of ambrosia full of true rubies and jewels is the Guru,
whose praises are throughout.
The giver of amrit to the wearer of the moon (Shiva) and millions of others,
who cannot know Your worth, it is beyond count.
The supernatural powers and wealth, the four boons, are with You at the dust of
Your kingly feet.
The true Guru asked for amrit this divine play was written [witnessed] by the
saints in their minds.8.

"|o U
kuwal Cada.
A metre called coiled like the snake, the first two being couplets, and the
others beings a rola, with forty matras, with the visram on the 11
, and

o3JHH| HJ J HlJ lJl H JJ
U= J l" HlJ "|o o=3J \
atarajm mor praB saBi biDi jnaNahra.
paT upvan kraNe kali mahi l avatru.9.
My Lord is the knower of hearts, and knows all ways.
Who manifested the Panth in kaliyug and took avatar.9.

l" HlJ "|o o=3J U| J UlUo" HoH|
H|o | HJJ HI" =l o3JHH|O
kali mahi l avatru dn praB dail sum.
j k jnaNahr sagal Gaqi atarajm.10.
In kaliyug he took Avatar, the Lord of the humble, the merciful Master.
Who knows all about each living being, the inner knower of the heart.10.

"| HI| " lH Jl" JIl3 HU|
H loJ HlI H lJ l3 HU|
lne sag nl jin rali Bagati kam.
paj pire sagi nm kahi tin sun.11.
With his companions with whom he mingled and accumulated the wealth of
devotion to Akal Purakh.
The Five Beloved ones whose names were then said.11.

lH IJ IlJU lH= H=| lHJ HH
"|o o=3J JJJ oUJ H
priTam gur gobid siG soW jih jm.
paqane l avatr bahur anadapur Dm.12.
First Guru Gobind Singh the son of the (solar) Sodhi.
Who took avatar in Patna Sahib, and then made Anandpur Sahib his abode.12

UlUo lH= HJ3| 3J| J| "U HH "|o lHH
JH| "= o=3J JH lJU J lHH=
dai siG soBat Chatar pur la janam l jisu.
hs lav avatru rm pakario h jisu.13.
Daya Singh who took birth in the noble Sobhati Kshatriya caste in Loh
In which came Lav avatar after Ram who took hold of it.13.

HJH lH= | U=J=3| lHJ H
HU= H| U3J H3 H=J He
mohakam siG Chp davravat jih Dm.
nmadev j utare sat savran kma.14.
Mohkam Singh was a printer and resident from Dvaravati.
He was the avatar of Namdev to aid the Saints.14.

JH| U| lH Hl " H
shib siG shahd bidar tisu janam paCno.
hs n siK sNi ke laChaN jno.15.
Sahib Singh the martyr, know his birth as being at Bidur.
Know him to be a barber who had the habits of Sain.15.

JH lH= J|" H J|o
JH3 J HH H H|o
Daram siG haQl jq baKn.
hasatan pur k janam so Dan jn.16.
Dharam Singh the farmer described with strong hands.
Whose birth was in Hastanapur, know him as Dhanna.16.

lJH3 lH= lJI lH= |=J H
lU U U l lU 3 "|U HH
himat siG nihag siG Jvar PaDaku jna.
in pacan ko day k Puni in te lu sujnu.17.
Know Himmat Singh the Nihang Singh the fisherman with a net. [In the
country of Himmat Singh, Jagganath Puri, the name Nihang Singh is used in
their language]. According to Akali Baba Santa Singh ancient temples in this
area have either paintings or carvings of beings who looked like Nihang
Singhs. Also see my document on the Arti-Arta.


JH JU|U |J H"|U lU lHU Hl" H\
sir gume mNe masade jNa.
rm re Dr male in siu meli n mn.18.
Know the shaved headed ones, the Minas, the Masands;
[and] The followers of Ram Rai and Dhir Mal, do not meet or respect

H H IJ H3J J| HJ H |o HJ
lU HI Hl" |HU| lUJ o| J3J\
jo jo gur ke matar hN muh mune Da mra.
in sag meli n kj ih K karatr.19.
Those who are without the Gurmantra, shave their faces, and kill their
You should not meet them at all, thus has spoken the Creator.19.

IJlH | lJ" H=| IJ H3J J U|l3
JH =3 J J| lUJ lH= | J|l3O
gurasiK k qahil kamvan gur matar raKaN cti.
bas Gt karan nah ih siGan k rti.20.
Gain merit by serving the Sikhs of the Guru and remember the Gurmantra in
your heart.
Do not kill others in your clan, this is the way of the Singhs. [i. e. Singhs do not
kill other Singhs]

l3H JlJ 5 JU o UoJ
jo jo gur ke matar ko rKa hirad Dri.
tisu ko bhi pakaR k rKau paNe dur.1.
Whosoever keeps the Gurmantra inside their heart.
Hold onto their arm and keep at their door.21.

H" H3J IJ "H lH= H| H H lJo HlU
lUJ H" H3J H 5 H H J| HlH lJ HlJ
ml matar gur Klase siG j k so m kahi suNi.
ih ml matar jo paR suN so nh jami puri jhi.
This is the Root Formula of the Singhs of the Guru Khalsa, whosoever speaks
or listen to it.
This root formula when read or heard saves one from the abode of death.

The end.
vhigur j k Klas vhigur j k Patahi.
=lJIJ H| "H, =lJIJ H| | 3lJ
The Khalsa belongs to the Wonderous Guru, the Wonderous Guru is always

Bhai Gurdas, Vr.
Adi Sri Guru Granth Sahib
Sri Dasam Granth Sahib
Sri Sarbloh Granth Sahib
Bhai Bala Janam Skh
Tankhnmah Bhai Nand Lal
C. Shackle, An Introduction to the Sacred Language of the Sikhs.