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Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI

Lobby card, showing five main characters and the text "Penumpasan Pengkhianatan
G 30 S PKI" as well as a scene from the film
Lobby card
Directed by Arifin C. Noer
Produced by
G. Dwipayana
Written by
Arifin C. Noer
Nugroho Notosusanto
Amoroso Katamsi
Umar Kayam
Syubah Asa
Music by Embie C. Noer
Cinematography Hasan Basri
Edited by Supandi
Release dates
1984 (Indonesia)
Running time 271 minutes
Country Indonesia
Language Indonesian
Budget Rp. 800 million
Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI[a] ([pexianatan e tia pulh s pe ka i]; Indonesian for Trea
S/PKI) is a 1984 Indonesian docudrama written and directed by Arifin C. Noer, pr
oduced by G. Dwipayana, and starring Amoroso Katamsi, Umar Kayam, and Syubah Asa
. Produced over a period of two years with a budget of Rp. 800 million, the film
was sponsored by Suharto's New Order government. It was based on an official hi
story of the 30 September Movement (Gerakan 30 September, or G30S) coup in 1965
written by Nugroho Notosusanto and Ismail Saleh, which depicted the coup as bein
g orchestrated by the Communist Party of Indonesia (Partai Komunis Indonesia, or
The film depicts the period leading up to the coup and several days after it. In
a time of economic turmoil, six generals are kidnapped and killed by the PKI an
d Air Force, purportedly to pre-empt a coup against President Sukarno. General S
uharto destroys the coup and, afterwards urges the Indonesian populace to commem
orate those killed, and fight against all forms of communism. The film shows the
G30S leadership as ruthless and planning "every move to the last detail",[1] ta
king joy in using excessive violence and torturing the generals, depictions whic
h have been read as portraying "the state's enemies as outside the realm of the
The first commercially released domestic feature film to deal with the events of
1965,[3] Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI was a commercial and critical success. It was n
ominated for seven awards at the 1984 Indonesian Film Festival, winning one, and
reached record viewership numbers although in many cases audiences were require
d to see the film. It was used as a propaganda vehicle by the New Order governme
nt until its collapse, televised annually on 30 September and became mandatory v
iewing for students. Since the fall of Suharto in 1998, such use of the film has
become less common. Although the film's artistic aspects remain well-received,
its misrepresentation of history has been criticised.
Contents [hide]
1 Background
2 Plot
3 Production
4 Themes
5 Release
6 Propaganda use
7 Legacy
8 Awards
9 See also
10 Explanatory notes
11 References
12 Works cited
13 External links
Main article: 30 September Movement
Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI was based on the version of the coup endorsed by Suharto'
s New Order government, in which the 30 September Movement (Gerakan 30 September
, or G30S) coup was orchestrated by the Communist Party of Indonesia (Partai Kom
unis Indonesia, or PKI).[b][4] In the early 1960s the PKI and other leftist part
ies had the support of President Sukarno, giving them great political power. By
1965 the PKI claimed millions of members, a growing number influenced by hyperin
flation and widespread poverty.[5] The Army, however, was distrustful of the PKI
, a feeling which the PKI reciprocated.[6]
The well down which the generals' bodies were dumped, 2013
On the night of 30 September1 October 1965, a group of Indonesian National Armed
Forces members calling themselves the 30 September Movement captured and killed
six Army generals thought to belong to an anti-revolutionary "Generals' Council"
, including Commander of the Army Ahmad Yani; another target, Abdul Haris Nasuti
on, escaped.[7] The bodies, along with those of others captured by the G30S, wer
e dumped down a well at Lubang Buaya, Jakarta.[8] Later that morning, armed forc
es occupied Merdeka Square in central Jakarta. From the Radio Republik Indonesia
(RRI) office there, Lieutenant-Colonel Untung Syamsuri of the Presidential Guar
d announced that the movement had secured several key locations in the city in a
n attempt to forestall a coup by the Generals' Council. They also announced that
President Sukarno was under their power.[9] The movement's core leadership, lat
er joined by the President, stayed at Halim Perdanakusuma Air Force Base.[10]
Major-General Suharto, the interim leader after Yani's death, became aware of th
e movement on the morning of 1 October. By evening he had convinced a G30S batta
lion in Merdeka Square and those occupying the RRI building to surrender, withou
t any bloodshed. Army loyalists under Suharto retook Halim Air Force Base early
the following morning. By that time the G30S leadership had escaped, while Sukar
no had withdrawn to his palace in Bogor.[11] In the years that followed, the Ind
onesian Army and general populace undertook a campaign of retribution, killing o
r capturing registered and suspected PKI members including most of the G30S lead
Indonesia is in turmoil. The populace lives in poverty, while the rich flaunt th
eir wealth. President Sukarno (Umar Kayam) is ill and may die. Meanwhile, his po
litical concept of Nasakom (nationalism, religion, and communism) has promoted a
n explosive growth in the PKI. The party, which staged a coup in 1948, has been
attacking and killing people throughout the country. The weakened president is a
lso being manipulated by the party. The PKI has manufactured a story, based on t
he forged Gilchrist Document, that a Generals' Council is preparing for a coup s
hould Sukarno die. Aidit (Syubah Asa), Syam, and the Communist Party leadership
secretly plan to use this as an excuse for their own coup. The rank and file mem
bers of the Party accept the leadership's explanation and, with the help of "for
ward-thinking" soldiers and officers (mostly from the Air Force), work to gather
the Party's forces. They plan to kidnap seven generals (said to be members of t
he Generals' Council), overtake the city, and secure Sukarno. The newly named G3
0S begins training. The rightist members of the Army are unaware of this upcomin
g coup, living happily with their families. By the time they realise that someth
ing is amiss, it is too late.
On the night of 30 September1 October, seven units are sent to kidnap the general
s associated with the Council. Nasution manages to escape over a wall, while his
attach Pierre Tendean comes running out, wielding a gun; Tendean is quickly capt
ured and, when asked where Nasution is, confesses himself to be the general. Yan
i, who fights back, is killed in his home; Major General M. T. Haryono meets a s
imilar fate. Chief Military Prosecutor Sutoyo Siswomiharjo, Major General Siswon
do Parman, and Lieutenant General Soeprapto are captured. Brigadier General D. I
. Pandjaitan goes willingly, but when he prays for too long before entering the
truck he is killed. The bodies and prisoners are taken to the G30S/PKI camp in L
ubang Buaya, where the survivors are tortured and killed. Their bodies are then
thrown into a well. Later that morning, members of the movement take over the RR
I office and force the staff there to read a speech by Untung (Bram Adrianto), w
hich states that the G30S has moved to forestall a coup by the Generals' Council
and announces the formation of a "Revolutionary Council". Other G30S/PKI men go
to the palace to secure the president but find that he has already left. At Hal
im, the president speaks with the G30S leaders and declares that he will take fu
ll control of the Army. Another radio speech is soon read, outlining the composi
tion of the new Revolutionary Council and announcing changes to Army hierarchy.
The G30S leaders begin planning their escape from Halim, to be done before midni
Suharto (Amoroso Katamsi), awoken early in the morning, denies Untung's announce
ment, stating explicitly that there is no Generals' Council and making an adjunc
t record notes on the true nature of G30S. As there is a power vacuum with Yani
dead, Suharto takes temporary control of the Army and begins planning a counter-
assault with his men; he is, however, unwilling to force a fight. He instead sta
tes that he will give a radio announcement, which is delivered after forces loya
l to him retake the RRI office; it outlines the situation, describes G30S as cou
nter-revolutionary, and states that the Army will deal with the coup. The G30S l
eaders flee Halim, and Suharto's troops retake the air base. Some time later, fo
rces under Suharto's leadership attack a G30S/PKI headquarters. While PKI-affili
ated soldiers fight, the Party leadership escapes and separates, planning to con
tinue their struggle underground.
Suharto is soon called to the secondary palace in Bogor to speak with Sukarno. T
here, the president says that he has received assurances from Air Marshal Omar D
ani that the Air Force was not involved. Suharto refutes the statement, noting t
hat the movement's arms were like those of the Air Force. The meeting eventually
results in Suharto being confirmed as leader of the Army, working together with
Pranoto Reksosamodra. In their investigation of the events, the Army discovers
the camp at Lubang Buaya including the generals' bodies, which are recovered whi
le Suharto delivers a speech describing the coup and the PKI's role in it. The g
enerals are interred elsewhere and Suharto delivers a hagiographic eulogy, in wh
ich he condemns the G30S and PKI and urges the Indonesian people to continue the
fallen generals' struggle.
Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI was directed by Arifin C. Noer, a Citra Award-winning dir
ector with a background in theatre. He had previous experience in the genre, hav
ing made the war film Serangan Fajar (Dawn Attack; 1981), which emphasised Suhar
to's role in the National Revolution.[13] Noer was assigned to work on the film
by the state-owned National Film Production Company (Perum Produksi Film Negara,
or PPFN), which maintained a degree of control over the production. Professors
of Indonesian culture Krishna Sen and David T. Hill suggest that Noer's creative
input was minimal. Instead, "for all intents and purposes" the film was the wor
k of its producer, Brigadier-General Gufran Dwipayana, then the head of PPFN and
a member of the presidential staff.[14] However, Noer's wife Jajang C. Noer ins
ists that he had remained independent while making the film.[15]
The film was based on a report written by Nugroho Notosusanto (pictured) and Ism
ail Saleh. Only Notosusanto received credit.
The screenplay for Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI was based on a 1968 book by the milita
ry historian Nugroho Notosusanto and the investigator Ismail Saleh entitled The
Coup Attempt of the 30 September Movement in Indonesia. The book, which was mean
t to counter foreign theories about the coup, detailed the 30 September Movement
as the government viewed it.[16] Only Notosusanto, the higher-ranking of the tw
o authors, was credited for his contribution.[17] In adapting the book Noer read
much of the available literature (including court documents) and interviewed nu
merous eyewitnesses;[18] Jajang, in a 1998 interview, said that her husband had
not only read the official government version, but also the controversial Cornel
l Paper, which portrayed the coup as entirely an internal Army affair.[15] Durin
g filming the crew emphasised realism, "paying great attention to detail" and us
ing the generals' actual homes.[19]
Owing to the large number of roles including some 100 bit parts and more than 10
,000 extras[20] casting for Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI was difficult.[21] Noer attem
pted to cast actors who resembled the historical figures depicted; Rano Karno la
ter recalled that he was rejected for the role of Pierre Tendean as the latter d
id not have a mole on his face.[22] Ultimately the film starred Bram Adrianto as
Untung, Amoroso Katamsi as Suharto, Umar Kayam as Sukarno, and Syubah Asa as Ai
dit; other actors included Ade Irawan, Sofia W.D., Dani Marsuni, and Charlie Sah
etapy.[23] Kayam, then a lecturer at Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta, did n
ot have the time to research Sukarno's mannerisms from his books and speeches; i
nstead, he portrayed the president based on testimonials from the staff at the B
ogor palace. Katamsi, on the other hand, studied Suharto's role from books and,
by the time filming had commenced, felt as if "was Pak Harto, not an imitation o
f Pak Harto."[d][24] Sanusi, meanwhile, considered his own performance underwhel
Production of Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI, originally titled Sejarah Orde Baru (Histo
ry of the New Order), took nearly two years, spending four months in pre-product
ion and a year and half in filming.[15] It cost Rp. 800 million,[e][25] receivin
g funding from the government.[3] Cinematography was handled by Hasan Basri, wit
h music by Arifin's brother Embie C. Noer. Editing was done by Supandi.[26] Part
s of the film, particularly the final ten minutes, reused archival footage and n
ewspaper clippings contemporaneous to the events.[27]
Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI portrays the PKI and communism as inherently evil, with i
ts followers "beyond redemption",[28] while the G30S leadership are seen as cunn
ing and ruthless, plotting "every move to the last detail".[1] The historian Kat
herine McGregor finds this emphasised in the film's portrayal of the G30S leader
ship as gangsters, sitting in secret meetings amidst clouds of cigarette smoke.
She considers an opening scene, where the PKI attacks an Islamic school, as like
wise meant to show the "evil" nature of communists.[19]
The PKI are portrayed as enjoying violence, with the film heavily featuring "eye
-gouging women and decomposed, tortured bodies".[29] The generals are kidnapped,
and in several cases killed, in front of their families; later the captured gen
erals are tortured while the communists dance around a bonfire.[30] The sociolog
ist Adrian Vickers suggests that the film's violence was meant to portray "the s
tate's enemies as outside the realm of the human", similar to monsters in horror
films.[f][2] Yoseph Yapi Taum of Sanata Dharma University notes that members of
the leftist women's movement Gerwani are shown as part of a "crazy" Communist P
arty, dancing in the nude and cutting off the general's penises.[31] However, Vi
ckers considers these portrayals as ambiguous, suggesting that the New Order gov
ernment was allowed a monopoly on violence.[2] McGregor suggests that the violen
ce in once-tranquil homes shows the "'destruction' of the family".[30] Sen notes
the violence belies a "representation of chaos before order" which is common in
New Order films.[30]
Before its commercial release, Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI was pre-screened for high-
ranking military officers who had been involved in stopping the coup, including
Suharto and Sarwo Edhie Wibowo.[19] The film was released in 1984, the first com
mercially released domestic feature film to deal with the events of 1965.[g][32]
It was seen by 699,282 people in Jakarta by the end of 1984, a national record
which remained unbroken for over a decade.[h][4] However, not all audiences atte
nded of their own volition. The Indonesian sociologist Ariel Heryanto records st
udents as being "required to pay" to see the film during school hours, a fact no
t reflected in contemporary records.[33] A novelisation by popular writer Arswen
do Atmowiloto likewise helped promote the film.[34]
Dwipayana's influence ensured that contemporary reviews, especially synopses, re
peated the government's position on the G30S coup.[3] This is not to say all cri
tical reviews were positive. Marselli of Kompas, for instance, found that Pengkh
ianatan G30S/PKI was highly detailed, with extensive work and quality acting goi
ng to represent events accurately. He felt, however, that the film felt too long
and, as viewers knew instantly who the good and bad characters were, it became
"nothing but a black-and-white portrait without any complex issues", which ignor
ed the underlying problems which had sparked the G30S movement.[i][27]
Suharto, after viewing an early screening, stated that the story was unfinished
and suggested that a sequel was necessary.[35] Two sequels by PPFN, Operasi Tris
ula (Operation Trisula; 1987) and Djakarta 1966 (Jakarta 1966; 1988), followed.[
36] Operasi Trisula, directed by BZ Kadaryono, dealt with the extermination of G
30S and PKI members in Blitar, East Java.[37] Djakarta 1966, meanwhile, was dire
cted by Noer and showed the lead-up to the signing of Supersemar on 11 March 196
6, in which Sukarno gave Suharto authority to take whatever measures he "deemed
necessary"; Kayam and Katamsi reprised their roles for the latter film, which wo
n seven awards at the 1989 Bandung Film Festival.[38]
Propaganda use[edit]
Photograph of Suharto, from 1966
In September 1998, the Information Minister Yunus Yosfiah described the film as
an attempt to create a cult around Suharto (pictured in 1966).
Beginning in 1984 the New Order government used Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI as a prop
aganda vehicle, showing it annually on 30 September. The film was broadcast by t
he state-owned network TVRI, and later on private television stations after they
were established.[39] It was also shown at schools and government institutions;
[40] students would be taken to open fields to view the film in a group.[41] Bec
ause of this use, Sen and Hill suggest that Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI is the most-b
roadcast and most-watched Indonesian film of all time.[40] A 2000 survey by the
Indonesian magazine Tempo found 97 per cent of the 1,101 students surveyed had s
een the film; 87 per cent of them had seen it more than once.[42]
During the remainder of the 1980s and early 1990s the historical accuracy of Pen
gkhianatan G30S/PKI was little disputed,[43] and the film became representative
of canonical history;[44] its version of the 1965 events was the only one allowe
d in open discourse.[16] By the mid-1990s, however, anonymous internet communiti
es and small publications had begun questioning the movie's contents; one online
message, sent anonymously through a mailing list, asked "If only a small sectio
n of the PKI leadership and military agents knew about [the coup, as in the film
], how is it that over a million people were killed and thousands of people who
knew nothing had to be imprisoned, exiled, and lost their civil rights?"[43] Her
yanto suggests that this resulted from an unintended polyphony in the film,[45]
while Sen and Hill opine that Noer may have been aware of the government's inten
ts for propaganda and thus made the film's political message "obviously contradi
In September 1998, four months after the fall of Suharto, the Information Minist
er Yunus Yosfiah declared that the film would no longer be compulsory viewing ma
terial, reasoning that it was an attempt to manipulate history and create a cult
with Suharto in the centre. Tempo reported in 2012 that Saleh Basarah of the Ai
r Force had influenced this decree. The magazine stated that Basarah had called
the Education Minister Juwono Sudarsono and asked him to not screen Pengkhianata
n G30S/PKI, as it was damaging to the Air Force. Two other films, Janur Kuning (
Yellow Coconut Leaves; 1979) and Serangan Fajar, were likewise affected by the d
ecree;[47] Janur Kuning portrayed Suharto as the hero behind the 1 March 1949 Ge
neral Assault while Serangan Fajar showed him as a major hero of the revolution.
[48] At the time it was suggested that TVRI was attempting to distance itself fr
om the former president.[15] This occurred in a period of desanctifying symbols
related to the events, and by the early 2000s non-government versions of the G30
S coup were easily available in Indonesia.[49]
Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI has proven Noer's most controversial film,[50] although u
ntil his death in 1995 the director remained publicly ambivalent.[51] The film's
visuals have generally received positive reviews, but its use for propaganda an
d historical accuracy have been widely condemned.[52] The Indonesian director Ha
nung Bramantyo praised the film's style, stating that close-up shots of men smok
ing were "brilliant" and that, at times, he felt "it's not a film. But real!"[j]
[53] The director Monty Tiwa likewise praised the film's shots, citing a scene w
here Pandjaitan's daughter cries hysterically as her father is shot as "full of
drama and using a shot [he had] never seen before in an Indonesian film".[k][53]
Sen and Hill, however, find "none of the aesthetic hallmarks" of the director's
other works.[46]
Hilmar Farid, an Indonesian historian, called the film propaganda mixed with "so
me [of the New Order's] fantasies".[l][54] The reporter Hendro Subroto, who reco
rded the retrieval of the generals' bodies from Lubang Buaya, criticised the fil
m's accuracy in 2001; he stated that the bodies did not show any evidence of tor
ture.[52] The former Lekra writer Putu Oka Sukanta, meanwhile, described the fil
m as underplaying the suffering of PKI members and other leftists in the events
following the G30S coup, thus becoming "a lie to the people".[m][55] The histori
an John Roosa contrasts the portrayal of the G30S leadership with a document by
Brigadier General M.A. Supardjo, which portrays the coup led by "flummoxed, inde
cisive, and disorganized" men as largely defeating itself.[1]
In a 2012 interview, Katamsi admitted the film was in part overacted and that it
had been a potent way to spread and indoctrinate viewers in the New Order's ide
ology.[56] The Tempo survey suggested that it was effective propaganda, leading
viewers to "reject all that smelled of the PKI and communism".[n][54] Although i
t is no longer broadcast on 30 September, the film remains available. A video CD
edition was released by Virgo in 2001[36] and the G30S/PKI museum at Lubang Bua
ya offers regular screenings in an on-site cinema.[57] Both a 35 mm and VHS copy
are stored at Sinematek Indonesia in Jakarta.[4]
Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI received seven nominations at the 1984 Indonesian Film Fe
stival (Festival Film Indonesia, or FFI), winning one Citra Award for Best Scree
nplay.[58] It was beaten in four categories, for Best Director, Best Cinematogra
phy, Best Leading Actor, and Best Musical Direction, by Sjumandjaja's Budak Nafs
u (Slave to Passion),[59] while Slamet Rahardjo's Ponirah Terpidana (Ponirah Con
victed) took Best Artistic Direction.[60] At the 1985 FFI Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI
received an Antemas Award as the best-selling film of the preceding calendar ye
ar.[58] The film scholar Thomas Barker suggests that the film's awards were, in
part, a conjunction of state and FFI interests: both were focused on promoting a
united national culture.[61]
Award Year Category Recipient Result
Indonesian Film Festival 1984 Best Film Nominated
Best Director Arifin C. Noer Nominated
Best Screenplay Arifin C. Noer Won
Best Cinematography Hasan Basri Nominated
Best Artistic Direction Farraz Effendy Nominated
Best Musical Direction Embie C. Noer Nominated
Best Leading Actor Amoroso Katamsi Nominated
1985 Best-Selling Film Won
See also[edit]
The Year of Living Dangerously, a 1982 Australian film framed around the G30S co
Puisi Tak Terkuburkan, a 2000 Indonesian film following a poet who is wrongly ar
rested for being a communist
The Act of Killing, a 2012 documentary about the killings of communists after th
e coup
Explanatory notes[edit]
Jump up ^ Also written Pengkhianatan G 30 S/PKI and Pengkhianatan G-30-S/PKI, al
so known as Penumpasan Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI
Jump up ^ Several alternative theories have been put forward. McGlynn & Sulistyo
(2007, pp. 68), for example, record four alternative theories which render the c
oup as an internal Army affair, or masterminded by Sukarno, Suharto, or Indonesi
an intelligence.
Jump up ^ Most estimates put the total at 500,000 dead, although numbers vary an
d the actual total may never be known (Ricklefs 1993, pp. 288290).
Jump up ^ Original: "... sebagai Pak Harto, bukan imitasi Pak Harto." Pak is an
honorific which literally translates as "father", but can also mean "mister".
Jump up ^ Roughly equivalent to US$1,000,000 in March 1984. When Pengkhianatan G
30S/PKI was produced the rupiah was on a managed float but depreciating; in Marc
h 1983 the value was Rp. 970 to the US$, but by September 1986 it was Rp. 1,664
to the US$ (CUHK 2000, Historial Exchange Rate).
Jump up ^ This, Vickers (2012, pp. 6364) suggests, links the "individual horror"
in horror films to wider social issues like communism.
Jump up ^ Sen (1994, p. 81) records an earlier domestic production regarding the
G30S coup entitled Operasi (Operation; 1968), but it never saw commercial relea
Jump up ^ At the time, any film with more than 200,000 viewers was considered a
"top box office" hit ("sangat laris"); seven films produced in 1984 reached this
benchmark (Kompas 1984, 'Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI').
Jump up ^ Original: "... hanyalah lukisan hitam-putih tanpa persoalan kompleks."
Jump up ^ Original: "... itu bukan film. Tapi real!"
Jump up ^ Original: "... (efel) [sic] dramatis yang tinggi dan shot yang belum p
ernah saya lihat dalam film Indonesia."
Jump up ^ Original: "... sejumlah fantasi."
Jump up ^ Original: " ... pembohongan pada masyarakat ..."
Jump up ^ Original: "... menolak semua yang berbau PKI dan komunis."
^ Jump up to: a b c Roosa 2006, p. 98.
^ Jump up to: a b c Vickers 2012, pp. 6364.
^ Jump up to: a b c Sen & Hill 2006, p. 147.
^ Jump up to: a b c, Pengkhianatan G-30-S PKI.
Jump up ^ Ricklefs 1993, pp. 230260.
Jump up ^ Dahm 1971, p. 225.
Jump up ^ Roosa 2006, p. 36; Dahm 1971, p. 230.
Jump up ^ Roosa 2006, p. 40.
Jump up ^ Dahm 1971, p. 232.
Jump up ^ Roosa 2006, p. 37.
Jump up ^ Dahm 1971, pp. 234238.
Jump up ^ Ricklefs 1993, pp. 288290.
Jump up ^, Pengkhianatan G-30-S PKI; Tempo 2012, Sosok 'Dala
ng'; Heider 1991, p. 101.
Jump up ^ Sen & Hill 2006, p. 147;, Pengkhianatan G-30-S PKI
; McGregor 2007, pp. 9697
^ Jump up to: a b c d Merdeka 1998, Menyoal Pencabutan.
^ Jump up to: a b Heryanto 2006, p. 13.
Jump up ^ Heryanto 2006, p. 13;, Kredit.
Jump up ^ Tempo 2012, Sosok 'Dalang'; Kompas 1993, Film-film Sejarah Kontemporer
^ Jump up to: a b c McGregor 2007, pp. 9697.
Jump up ^ Tempo 2012, Sosok 'Dalang'.
Jump up ^ Tempo 2012, Proses Arifin C. Noer.
Jump up ^ Kompas 1993, Rano Karno.
Jump up ^, Kredit.
^ Jump up to: a b Tempo 2012, 3 Pemeran Sentral.
Jump up ^, Pengkhianatan G-30-S PKI; Fathiyah 2012, Film Pen
gkhianatan G30S/PKI.
Jump up ^, Kredit; Republika 1997, Satu Perempuan.
^ Jump up to: a b Marselli 1984, Film Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI.
Jump up ^ Mulligan 2005, p. 135.
Jump up ^ Paramadhita 2011, Questions.
^ Jump up to: a b c McGregor 2007, pp. 98100.
Jump up ^ Taum 2008, p. 29.
Jump up ^ Sen & Hill 2006, p. 147; Tempo 2012, Komentar Soeharto.
Jump up ^ Heryanto 2006, p. 7.
Jump up ^ Heryanto 2006, p. 6.
Jump up ^ Tempo 2012, Komentar Soeharto.
^ Jump up to: a b Heryanto 2006, pp. 198199.
Jump up ^, Penumpasan.
Jump up ^, Djakarta 1966;, Penghargaan D
jakarta 1966
Jump up ^ Indrietta 2012, Film Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI 2; Sen & Hill 2006, p. 148
^ Jump up to: a b Sen & Hill 2006, p. 148.
Jump up ^ Prijosusilo 2007, G30S.
Jump up ^ Heryanto 2006, pp. 5051.
^ Jump up to: a b Sen & Hill 2006, p. 149.
Jump up ^ Heryanto 2006, p. 8.
Jump up ^ Heryanto 2006, p. 14.
^ Jump up to: a b Sen & Hill 2006, p. 162.
Jump up ^, Pengkhianatan G-30-S PKI; Rini and Evan 2012, Tok
oh di Balik Penghentian
Jump up ^, Janur Kuning;, Serangan Fajar
Jump up ^ Sijabat 2003, Indonesia.
Jump up ^ Fathiyah 2012, Film Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI.
Jump up ^ Tempo 2012, Sosok 'Dalang'; Sen & Hill 2006, p. 148.
^ Jump up to: a b Indrietta 2012, Film Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI 2.
^ Jump up to: a b Indrietta 2012, Film Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI 1.
^ Jump up to: a b Sari 2012, Film Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI.
Jump up ^ Revianur 2012, Korban 65.
Jump up ^ Fathiyah 2012, Film Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI; Sari 2012, Film Pengkhiana
tan G30S/PKI.
Jump up ^ Dwiharti & Mulyani 2011, p. 241.
^ Jump up to: a b, Penghargaan.
Jump up ^, Penghargaan Budak Nafsu.
Jump up ^, Penghargaan Ponirah Terpidana.
Jump up ^ Barker 2011, pp. 1819.
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External links[edit]
Pengkhianatan G 30 S/PKI at the Internet Movie Database
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of Indonesia.svgIndonesia portal
Categories: 1984 filmsIndonesian-language filmsDocudramasFilms directed by Arifi
n C. NoerFilms set in IndonesiaIndonesian propaganda filmsWorks about coups d'tat
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