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BASIC

WELDING FILLER METAL


TECHNOLOGY
A Correspondence Course
LESSON VI
CARBON AND
LOW ALLOY STEEL
FILLER METALS
FOR THE GMAW, GTAW AND
SAW WELDING PROCESSES
ESAB
ESAB Welding &
Cutting Products
COPYRIGHT 2000 ESAB WELDING & CUTTING PROD





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
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Section Nr. Section Title Page
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LESSON VI
CARBON & LOW ALLOY STEEL FILLER
METALS FOR THE GMAW, GTAW, AND SAW
WELDING PROCESSES
6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 1
6.2 Manufacturing ......................................................................................... 2
6.3 Wire Selection for Gas Shielded Arc Welding ........................................ 3
6.4 AWS Specification A5.18-93
Carbon Steel Filler Metals for Gas Shielded Arc Welding ....................... 6
6.5 Individual Filler Metal Characteristics ..................................................... 8
6.5.1 ER70S-2 ................................................................................................. 8
6.5.2 ER70S-3 ................................................................................................. 8
6.5.3 ER70S-4 ................................................................................................. 8
6.5.4 ER70S-5 ................................................................................................. 8
6.5.6 ER70S-6 ................................................................................................. 8
6.5.6 ER70S-7 ................................................................................................. 9
6.5.7 ER70S-G ................................................................................................ 9
6.6 ESAB Bare Solid Carbon Steel Wires .................................................... 9
6.6.1 SPOOLARC 65 ....................................................................................... 9
6.6.2 SPOOLARC 29S .................................................................................... 10
6.6.3 SPOOLARC 85 ....................................................................................... 10
6.6.4 SPOOLARC 86 ...................................................................................... 11
6.6.5 SPOOLARC 87HP .................................................................................. 11
6.7 AWS Specification AWS A5.28-96
Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for Gas Shielded Arc Welding ................... 12
6.7.1 The Chromium-Molybdenum Types........................................................ 12
6.7.2 The Nickel Alloy Types ............................................................................ 13





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
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Section Nr. Section Title Page
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.7.3 The Manganese-Molybdenum Types ........................................................ 14
6.7.4 SPOOLARC 83 ....................................................................................... 15
6.7.5 SPOOLARC Hi-84 .................................................................................. 15
6.7.6 All Other Low Alloy Types ......................................................................... 16
6.7.7 SPOOLARC 95 and 120 ......................................................................... 17
6.8 Wires and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding of Carbon Steels ........... 18
6.8.1 Equipment............................................................................................... 18
6.8.2 Welding Filler Metals .............................................................................. 19
6.8.3 Fluxes for Carbon Steel Electrodes ........................................................ 19
6.9 AWS Specification A5.17-89
Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding ......... 21
6.10 ESAB Wires and Fluxes for Carbon Steel Submerged Arc Welding ...... 23
6.10.1 SPOOLARC 81 ....................................................................................... 23
6.10.2 SPOOLARC 29S .................................................................................... 23
6.10.3 SPOOLARC 80 ....................................................................................... 24
6.10.4 UNIONMELT 231 .................................................................................... 24
6.10.5 UNIONMELT 429 .................................................................................... 25
6.10.6 UNIONMELT 282 .................................................................................... 25
6.10.7 UNIONMELT 50 ...................................................................................... 26
6.10.8 UNIONMELT 80 ...................................................................................... 26
6.11 Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding of the
Low Alloy Steels ...................................................................................... 27
6.11.1 Electrodes and Fluxes for Welding the Alloys......................................... 27
6.12 AWS Specification A5.23-90
Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding ...... 28
6.12.1 Composition Requirements for Solid Low Alloy Electrodes .................... 29
6.13 Spoolarc Low Alloy Wires for Submerged Arc Welding .......................... 31
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LESSON VI - Con't.




Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
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Section Nr. Section Title Page
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.13.1 Manganese-Molybdenum Wires .............................................................. 31
6.13.2 Chromium-Molybdenum Wires ................................................................. 31
6.13.3 Nickel Wire .............................................................................................. 31
6.13.4 High Strength Wires................................................................................. 31
6.13.5 Special Purpose Wires ............................................................................ 31
6.14 Unionmelt Fluxes for Welding Low Alloy Steels ...................................... 32
6.14.1 Unionmelt 429......................................................................................... 32
6.14.2 Unionmelt 439......................................................................................... 32
6.14.3 Unionmelt 656......................................................................................... 32
6.15 Alloy Shield Composite Electrodes for Submerged Arc
Welding of the Low Alloy Steels .............................................................. 32
6.15.1 Alloy Shield B1S ..................................................................................... 32
6.15.2 Alloy Shield B2S ..................................................................................... 33
6.15.3 Alloy Shield B3S ..................................................................................... 34
6.15.4 Alloy Shield Ni1S .................................................................................... 34
6.15.5 Alloy Shield Ni2S .................................................................................... 35
6.15.6 Alloy Shield M2S..................................................................................... 35
6.15.7 Alloy Shield M3S..................................................................................... 36
6.15.8 Alloy Shield WS ...................................................................................... 36
6.15.9 Alloy Shield F2S ..................................................................................... 37
6.15.10 Alloy Shield 420SB ................................................................................. 37
Appendix A Glossary of Terms ................................................................................... 39
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LESSON VI - Con't.




Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
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COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
CARBON AND LOW ALLOY STEEL FILLER
METALS FOR THE GMAW, GTAW AND SAW
WELDING PROCESSES
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.1.0.1 During the early part of the 20th century, some welding was done using bare steel
wires or rods. The weld quality was poor because of the oxides and nitrides found in the weld
metal. Even after the advent of the extruded coated electrode in 1927, automated welding
using bare wires (or lightly coated wires) continued to be used, despite the poor qualities of
the welds, because this method allowed more rapid deposition of the weld metal. Critical
welds, however, were made with coated electrodes.
6.1.0.2 The advantages of using an inert gas to shield the arc were known during the 20s
and 30s, but the inert gases, such as helium and argon, were too expensive to produce.
6.1.0.3 In 1935, submerged arc welding (then known as submerged melt welding) was
introduced and provided a method of producing quality welds at greater welding speeds than
were obtainable with coated electrodes.
6.1.0.4 During World War II, the aircraft industry needed a reliable process for welding
magnesium engine parts and as a result, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), using a bare filler
wire and a helium gas shield, was developed.
6.1.0.5 Economical methods of producing the inert gases were ultimately developed,
leading to the use of solid wire with a helium or argon gas shield in the 1940s. This process
became known as metal inert gas (MIG) welding.
6.1.0.6 In the early 1950s, it was realized that a more economical shielding gas, such as
carbon dioxide, could be used if the wire chemistry was adjusted to neutralize the oxidizing
effect of this gas. Since carbon dioxide (CO
2
) is not an inert gas, the name MIG welding
actually did not apply to this process since CO
2
is a reactive gas. As a result, the American
Welding Society has standardized on the term GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) to include the
inert gases, active gases, and gas mixtures as covered in Lesson II. In Europe, the term MIG
(Metal Inert Gas) welding still applies to the process if an inert gas or mixtures of inert and
active gases are used, and the term MAG (Metal Active Gas) is used if straight CO
2
is em-
ployed as the shielding gas.





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
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COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.1.0.7 Although carbon steel, low alloy steels, stainless steels, magnesium, copper, copper
alloys, titanium and other metals may be welded by one or all of the processes described
above, this Lesson will be confined to the filler metals for welding mild or carbon steels, and
low alloy high strength steels with the GMAW and GTAW processes.
6.2 MANUFACTURING
6.2.0.1 The manufacture of solid welding wires for GMAW or GTAW differs from the manu-
facture of coated or flux cored electrodes in that the deoxidizers and alloying elements that
contribute to the purity and mechanical properties of the weld metal, must be included in the
wire chemistry rather than in the flux. Therefore, the raw material must be ordered from the
supplier to exact specifications. When received, a sample from both ends of each coil of the
hot rolled rod is analyzed by the manufacturer to ensure that the hot rod, as it is called, meets
these specifications.
6.2.0.2 The hot rod is cleaned to remove mill scale or rust and drawn to an intermediate
diameter. At this stage, the wire has work hardened which necessitates that it be annealed
before it is copper plated, drawn down to final size, spooled and packaged.
6.2.0.3 Close quality checks must be made throughout the manufacturing process to insure
that the end product is a smooth finished, uniform diameter wire, that will feed easily through
the end users wire feeding equipment and welding gun. The wire is copper plated and/or
otherwise coated to retard oxidation or rusting of the wire, to decrease contact tip wear, and to
assure good electrical conductivity. The plating or coating must not flake off or leave a residue
that will clog the wire feed cable or the welding gun. If copper coated, the layer of copper must
be kept to a low level to minimize copper welding fumes and flaking.





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
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COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.3 WIRE SELECTION FOR GAS SHIELDED ARC
WELDING
6.3.0.1 When selecting the wire or filler metal for either the GMAW or GTAW process,
several things must be considered.
1. Mechanical Properties - The wire chosen must produce weld metal having approxi-
mately the same mechanical properties as the base metal whether it is carbon steel or
low alloy high tensile steel.
2. Shielding Gas - In Lesson II, we learned that the shielding gases used in GTAW of
carbon steel are pure argon or argon helium mixtures. In GMAW, shielding gases may
be pure CO
2
, or mixtures of argon, helium, CO
2
and oxygen. The gas mixtures contain-
ing oxygen or CO
2
will exhibit oxidizing characteristics which, if they combine with
carbon, will form carbon monoxide gas porosity in the weld metal.
a. The most common shielding gases used for welding mild and low alloy steels may
be classified in terms of their oxidizing effect as shown in Figure 1.
b. Each of the following variables should be considered when selecting the proper gas
for a specific job:
MATERIAL TYPES WELD METAL MECHANICAL
- Carbon, Stainless, Aluminum, etc. PROPERTIES
MATERIAL CONDITION JOB REQUIREMENT
- Rusty, Oily, Primed, etc. - Fit-Up
TYPES OF METAL TRANSFER - Penetration
- Short Circuit, Spray, Pulse, etc. - Spatter Levels
OXIDATION POTENTIAL OF COMMONLY USED SHIELDING GASES
FIGURE 1
Pure Argon or 98% Argon 75% Argon
Argon - Helium 2% O
2
25% CO
2
Pure CO
2
Mixtures
Process GTAW GMAW GMAW GMAW
Degree of Non- Slightly More Most
Oxidation Oxidizing Oxidizing Oxidizing Oxidizing





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
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COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
3. Wire Chemistry - In order to provide specific characteristics, it may be necessary to
have a filler metal that matches the base plate chemistry. The most common examples
are requirements to weld 1-1/4 Cr - 1/2 Mo steel with ER80S-B2(L) or 2-1/4 Cr - 1 Mo
steel with ER90S-B3(L) providing matching high temperature strength and scaling
resistance.
a. To minimize the oxidizing effect of the various shielding gases, elements that are
called deoxidizers are included in the wire in varying amounts. These deoxidizers,
usually silicon and manganese, and to a lesser extent titanium, aluminum, and zirco-
nium, will combine with the oxygen in preference to reacting with the carbon and will
form very small amounts of harmless glass-like slag islands on the weld surface.
b. In the case of GTAW of steels where inert gases such as argon or argon-helium
mixtures are used, there will be little or no loss of the deoxidizers.
c. In GMAW, where shielding gases of different mixtures are used and welds of the
highest quality are required, the filler wire must be selected to allow for the degree of
oxidation of the shielding gas. When welding carbon or low alloy steels with a 98%
argon - 2% oxygen mixture, wires containing low amounts of manganese and silicon
may be used. If welding carbon or low alloy steels with a 75% argon - 25% CO
2
shield-
ing gas, wires with a higher amount of deoxidizers may be necessary to maintain the
proper manganese and silicon content in the weld metal. When welding with straight
CO
2
as a shielding gas, wires with an even greater amount of deoxidizers may be
necessary.
4. Base Metal - The type of steel in the base metal will influence the type of wire selected.
Rimmed steel (see Lesson I), which involve the least oxidation during manufacture, will
require that the filler wire contain a higher level of deoxidizers than semi-killed steel that
is partially deoxidized. Killed steels that are fully deoxidized when manufactured may
be welded with wires with a lower deoxidizer content.
5. Rust and Mill Scale - which are actually iron oxide (FeO) are a further source of oxy-
gen that is detrimental to the weld metal unless a wire containing sufficient deoxidizers
is selected. Cold rolled steel, that is devoid of mill scale and is reasonably rust free,
may be welded with a wire having lower amounts of silicon and manganese. Hot rolled
steel, that is characterized by having some amount of mill scale on the surface, requires
a wire containing greater amounts of deoxidizers to produce sound welds.





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
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COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6. Bead Geometry - Bead geometry (or bead shape) is influenced by both the amount of
deoxidizers in the wire and by the specific selection of shielding gas. Increasing the
silicon and manganese content of the wire will produce flatter beads and better side
wall fusion (wetability) because the puddle is more fluid. See Figure 2.
a. The choice of shielding gas like-
wise influences bead shape. CO
2
produces more spatter and a higher
crown or more convex bead.
Argon-CO
2
and argon-O
2
gas mixtures
provide smoother metal transfer, less
spatter, and better bead appearance.
7. Welding Current - When welding at
high current for greater weld metal deposition, the weld puddle becomes larger, mean-
ing that more of the base metal has been melted and will stay molten for a longer pe-
riod, allowing more time for oxidation and resultant porosity to take place. Also, high
currents produce a greater amount of heat in the arc area and will cause greater
amounts of an oxidizing shielding gas to be dissociated, thereby releasing more oxy-
gen in the area of the molten pool. For these reasons, a wire with higher levels of
deoxidizing elements should be selected for high current operation.
6.3.0.2 To summarize, the above 7 factors must be properly considered in order to produce
top quality welds. The economics of your decision should never compromise the need to
deposit the highest weld metal integrity possible. The result of your decision will only lead to
most cost effective choice of welding materials. The following are economic considerations:
1. The cost of the wire increases with the percentage of deoxidizers and alloying elements
such as silicon, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, etc. in the welding wire.
2. The cost of pure carbon dioxide is approximately one-fourth that of argon and
argon-CO
2
or argon-O
2
mixtures.
3. The deposition efficiency of solid wires is very high, but it varies with the shielding gas
and welding current being used. Figure 3 shows the average efficiency when using the
more common shielding gases. The differences in efficiency are due to spatter loss,
and are proportional to the amount of argon in the gas mixture. CO
2
produces more
weld spatter and therefore a lower deposition efficiency.
SILICON-MANGANESE EFFECT ON BEAD SHAPE
Figure 2
LOW SILICON-
MANGANESE
CONTENT
HIGH SILICON-
MANGANESE
CONTENT





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
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COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
4. The deposition rate of solid wires is very high when compared to that of coated elec-
trodes, but is somewhat lower than the deposition rate of flux cored electrodes.
6.4 AWS SPECIFICATION A5.18-93
6.4.0.1 This AWS specification is entitled Specification for Carbon Steel Filler Metals for
Gas Shielded Arc Welding. It covers bare carbon steel solid wires for use with the GMAW
and GTAW processes. It differs from the AWS specifications in the previous lessons in that it
classifies the chemical composition of the wire rather than that of the weld metal. It does,
however, classify the mechanical properties of the weld metal in the as-welded condition using
the gas metal arc welding process.
6.4.0.2 The chemical composition requirements are based on the chemical analysis of the
as-manufactured wire or filler metal and include the elements in the coating or copper plating
applied by the manufacturer.
6.4.0.3 The letter-number designations
in this specification are shown in Figure 4.
For example, ER70S-3 indicates an
electrode or welding rod (ER) that will
produce weld metal of a minimum 70,000
psi tensile strength (70); is a solid bare
wire or welding rod (S); of a specific
chemical composition (3) as shown in
Figure 5. For a complete chemical
composition of these wires, see AWS A5.18-93.
ELECTRODE OR WELDING ROD
MIN. TENSILE STRENGTH X 1000 psi
E R X X S - X
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
BARE SOLID ELECTRODE OR ROD
LETTER - NUMBER DESIGNATIONS
CARBON AND LOW ALLOY STEEL WIRES
FIGURE 4
DEPOSITION EFFICIENCIES - GAS METAL ARC WELDING
CARBON AND LOW ALLOY STEEL WIRES
FIGURE 3
Shielding Gas Efficiency Range Average Efficiency
Pure CO
2
88% - 95% 93%
75% Ar - 94% - 98% 96%
25% CO
2
98% Ar - 2% O
2
97% - 98.5% 98%





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
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LESSON VI
MAJOR ALLOYING ELEMENTS - % BY WEIGHT
AWS CLASS CARBON MANGANESE SILICON TITANIUM ZIRCONIUM ALUMINUM
ER70S-2 0.07 0.90 - 1.40 0.40 - 0.70 0.05 - 0.15 0.02 - 0.12 0.05 - 0.15
ER70S-3 0.06 - 0.15 0.90 - 1.40 0.45 - 0.70
ER70S-4 0.07 - 0.15 1.00 - 1.50 0.65 - 0.85
ER70S-5 0.07 - 0.19 0.90 - 1.40 0.30 - 0.60 0.50 - 0.90
ER70S-6 0.07 - 0.15 1.40 - 1.85 0.80 - 1.15
ER70S-7 0.07 - 0.15 1.50 - 2.00 0.50 - 0.80
ER70S-G NO CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION - CARBON STEEL BARE WIRES
FIGURE 5
6.4.0.5 Tensile strength requirements of the weld metal produced by the filler metals in this
classification are shown in Figure 6.
Tensile Yield
Shielding Strength Strength Elongation
AWS Class Gas PSI PSI in 2" - % Min.
ER70S-2
ER70S-3
ER70S-4
ER70S-5 CO
2
72,000 60,000 22
ER70S-6
ER70S-7
ER70S-G * 72,000 60,000 22
* As agreed upon between supplier and purchaser
WELD METAL TENSILE REQUIREMENTS
FIGURE 6
}
Minimum
AWS Class Impact Properties
ER70S-2 20 ft-lb @ -20 F
ER70S-3 20 ft-lb @ 0 F
ER70S-4 Not Required
ER70S-5 Not Required
ER70S-6 20 ft-lb @ -20 F
ER70S-7 20 ft-lb @ -20 F
ER70S-G As agreed between
supplier & purchaser
WELD METAL IMPACT PROPERTIES
FIGURE 7
6.4.0.6 Although Figure 6 shows CO
2
as the shielding gas, the specification does not
restrict the use of argon-CO
2
or
argon-mixtures. It states that a filler metal
classified with CO
2
will also meet
specification requirements when used with
the above gas mixtures.
6.4.0.7 Impact properties, according to
the Charpy V-notch test as listed in the
specification, are shown in Figure 7.





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_11.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.5 INDIVIDUAL FILLER METAL CHARACTERISTICS
6.5.1 ER70S-2 - This classification covers filler metals that contain small amounts of
titanium, zirconium, and aluminum, in addition to the normal deoxidizing elements of manga-
nese and silicon. These wires are commonly referred to as triple deoxidized wires. They will
produce sound welds in all types of carbon or mild steels. They are especially suited for
welding carbon steels that are rusty or have mill scale on the surface. Weld integrity will vary
with the amount of oxides on the surface of the steel. They may be used with CO
2
, argon-CO
2
,
or argon-O
2
shielding gas mixtures. They work well in the short-circuiting mode for
out-of-position welding.
6.5.2 ER-70S-3 - Filler metals of this classification contain a relatively low percentage of
deoxidizing elements; however, they are one of the most widely used GMAW wires. They
produce welds of fair quality when used to weld rimmed steels (steels with high oxygen con-
tent) using argon-O
2
or argon-CO
2
as a shielding gas. The use of straight CO
2
is not recom-
mended when welding rimmed steels. Sound welds may be made when welding semi-killed
(low oxygen) and killed (fully deoxidized) steels using argon-O
2
, argon-CO
2
, or straight CO
2
.
6.5.2.1 Wires of this classification may be used for out-of-position welding in the
short-circuiting transfer mode using argon-CO
2
or CO
2
shielding gas.
6.5.2.2 When CO
2
shielding gas is used, high welding currents should be avoided because
welds produced may not meet the minimum tensile and yield strengths of this specification.
6.5.3 ER70S-4 - Containing slightly higher silicon and manganese contents than the
ER70S-3 type, these filler metals will produce weld metal of higher tensile strength. Primarily
used for CO
2
shielding gas applications where a higher degree of deoxidization is necessary.
6.5.4 ER70S-5 - The filler metals in this classification contain aluminum as well as silicon
and manganese as deoxidizers. The addition of aluminum allows these wires to be used at
higher welding currents with CO
2
as the shielding gas. Not used for out-of-position
short-circuiting type transfer because of high puddle fluidity. Can be used for welding rusty or
dirty steels with a slight loss of weld quality.
6.5.5 ER70S-6 - Wires in this classification contain the highest combination of deoxidiz-
ers in the form of silicon and manganese. This allows them to be used for welding all types of
carbon steel, even rimmed steels, using CO
2
as a shielding gas. They produce smooth, well
shaped beads, and are particularly well suited for welding sheet metal. This filler metal is also
useable for out-of-position welding with short-circuiting transfer. Moderately rusted or scaled





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_12.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
steels may be welded successfully with this wire. The weld quality depends on the degree of
surface impurities. This wire may be used for high current, high deposition welding using
argon mixed with 5-10% oxygen or carbon dioxide.
6.5.6 ER70S-7 - This wire is similar to the ER70S-3 classification, but it has a higher
manganese content which provides better wetting action and bead appearance. The tensile
and yield strengths are slightly higher, and welding speed may be increased compared to the
ER70S-3 type. This filler metal is usually recommended for use with argon-O
2
shielding gas
mixtures, although argon-CO
2
and straight CO
2
may be used. The weld metal will be slightly
harder than that of the ER70S-3 types, but not as hard as an ER70S-6 deposit.
6.5.7 ER70S-G - This classification may be applied to solid filler metals that do not fall
into any of the preceding classes. It has no specific chemical composition or shielding gas
requirements, but must meet all other requirements of the AWS A5.18-93 specification.
6.6 ESAB BARE SOLID CARBON STEEL WIRES
6.6.1 Spoolarc 65 (AWS Class ER70S-2) - Spoolarc 65 is a cut length electrode avail-
able for a variety of tig and oxy-fuel gas welding applications. In addition to the standard
deoxidizers, ER70S-2 also contains additional cleaners such as aluminum, titanium, and
zirconium. This electrode is often used on out-of-position welding of pipe joints. The ends of
the 36" electrode can be flag tagged for identification purposes.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Wire
Carbon 0.08% Phosphorus 0.011%
Manganese 1.00% Sulfur 0.009%
Silicon 0.40%
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties of the Weld Metal
As Welded Stress Relieved*
Yield Point, psi 67,500 62,500
Tensile Strength, psi 77,500 72,500
% Elongation (2") 31 33
% Reduction of Area 73 78
Charpy V-Notch Impacts
ft.-lbs. @-20F 170 160
* 8 hrs. at 1150F





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_13.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.6.2 Spoolarc 29S (AWS Class ER70S-3) - Spoolarc 29S is a copper coated wire for
general purpose welding with the gas-metal arc process. It contains sufficient deoxidizers to
produce sound welds on killed and semi-killed steels and adequate welds on rimmed steels.
Carbon dioxide or argon-CO
2
shielding gas mixtures may be used. The smaller diameters (up
to .045") are especially useful for welding light gauge mild steel in all positions. Among the
many applications for which Spoolarc 29S may be used are farm equipment, metal furniture,
iron work, trailers, truck bodies, metal fixtures, light vessels, and hoppers.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Wire
Carbon 0.08% Phosphorus 0.007%
Manganese 0.62% Sulfur 0.009%
Silicon 0.27%
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties of the Weld Metal Using CO
2
Shielding Gas
Yield Point, psi 60,100
Tensile Strength, psi 75,000
% Elongation (2") 32
Charpy V-Notch Impacts 95 ft.-lbs. @0F
6.6.3 Spoolarc 85 (AWS Class ER70S-4) - Spoolarc 85 is a copper plated gas-metal
arc welding wire. This wire contains more manganese and silicon for greater deoxidation than
ER70S-3 wire. The additional levels of deoxidizers provides more improved rust and mill
scale tolerance, while improving bead cosmetics.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Wire
Carbon 0.07% Phosphorus 0.004%
Manganese 0.75% Sulfur 0.012%
Silicon 0.39% Copper 0.16%
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties of the Weld Metal Using CO
2
Shielding Gas
Yield Point, psi 65,300
Tensile Strength, psi 78,900
% Elongation (2") 26





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_14.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.6.4 Spoolarc 86 (AWS Class ER70S-6) - Spoolarc 86 is a copper plated gas-metal
arc welding wire. Containing a high level of deoxidizers, it produces sound welds in all carbon
steels using CO
2
shielding gas, argon/CO
2
and argon/O
2
mixtures. The arc is quiet and very
stable. High speed, high deposition welds can be made with argon-oxygen gas mixtures.
Ideal for welding sheet metal where smooth weld beads with good wetting action are desir-
able. It may be used to weld carbon steels that have a moderate amount of rust or mill scale.
Spoolarc 86 can also be used for out-of-position welding with the short-circuit transfer method,
making it ideal for pipe welding. Other applications are for bridges, building construction,
boiler and pressure vessels, storage tanks, auto parts, and construction equipment.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Wire
Carbon 0.09% Phosphorus 0.012%
Manganese 1.18% Sulfur 0.011%
Silicon 0.57%
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties of the Weld Metal Using CO
2
Shielding Gas
Yield Point, psi 68,000
Tensile Strength, psi 81,600
% Elongation (2") 30
Charpy V-Notch Impacts 31 ft.-lbs. @-20F
6.6.5 Spoolarc 87HP (AWS Class ER70S-7) - Spoolarc 87HP is a high manganese
carbon steel wire. It features an optimized manganese to silicon ratio to produce excellent
appearing welds over a wide range of welding parameters. It also produces excellent weld
metal mechanical properties and welds over moderate amounts of rust and scale.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Wire
Carbon 0.11% Phosphorus 0.015%
Manganese 1.75% Sulfur 0.014%
Silicon 0.65%
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties of the Weld Metal Using 75% Ar/25% CO
2

Yield Point, psi 66,800
Tensile Strength, psi 79,100
% Elongation (2") 29
Charpy V-Notch Impacts 62 ft.-lbs. @-20F





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_15.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.7 AWS SPECIFICATION A5.28-96
6.7.0.1 This specification is entitled Specification for Low Alloy Steel Filler Metal for Gas
Shielded Arc Welding. It covers the solid bare wires for welding those steels commonly re-
ferred to as the chromium-molybdenum (chrome-molys), manganese-molybdenum
(manganese-molys), nickel alloy and other low alloy steels. The wires referred to in this lesson
are for use with the gas-metal arc welding process and also may be used as filler metals for
the GTAW process.
6.7.0.2 The letter-number designations have the same significance as those used in the
carbon steel specification shown in Figure 4. Using ER80S-B2 as an example, the letters ER
indicate that it is an electrode or a welding rod; will produce weld metal of 80,000 psi tensile
strength (80); is a solid bare wire (S) of a specific chemical composition (B2) as described in
Figure 8.
Major Alloying Elements - % By Weight
AWS Class Carbon Chromium Molybdenum
ER80S-B2L *0.05 1.20 - 1.50 0.40 - 0.65
ER80S-B2 0.07 - 0.12 1.20 - 1.50 0.40 - 0.65
ER80S-B3L 0.05 2.30 - 2.70 0.90 - 1.20
ER80S-B3 0.07 - 0.12 2.30 - 2.70 0.90 - 1.20
* Single figure denotes maximum
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CHROMIUM-MOLYBDENUM SOLID BARE WIRES
FIGURE 8
6.7.1 The Chromium-Molybdenum Types (Cr-Mo) - The letter B designates a Cr-Mo
wire to be used for welding the Cr-Mo pressure vessel steels, and the number that follows desig-
nates the chemical composition of the filler metal. If the last number is followed by an L, it
indicates that the wire has a low carbon content.
6.7.1.1 Figure 8 shows only the major chemical composition requirements for these filler
metals. For complete requirements, see AWS A5.28-96 Filler Metal Specification.
6.7.1.2 Figure 9 shows the mechanical property requirements for the Cr-Mo weld metal.
6.7.1.3 Filler metals of the preceding classifications are used to weld the 1/2 Cr-1/2 Mo, 1
Cr-1/2 Mo, 1-1/4 Cr-1/2 Mo, and 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo steels that are used in welding high tempera-
ture piping and pressure vessels. They provide a degree of corrosion resistance and are
used for welding dissimilar grades of Cr-Mo steels and carbon steels.





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_16.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROUP, INC
LESSON VI
6.7.1.4 These filler metals may be used with all GMAW metal transfer modes. The AWS
mechanical properties and impact properties are established using argon plus 1-5% oxygen
as a shielding gas. Straight CO
2
and argon-CO
2
mixtures may be used. These mixtures will
produce welds with deeper penetration, although impact properties will be somewhat lower.
6.7.1.5 Welding low alloy high strength steels with the GMAW process requires that pre-
heat, interpass, and post-weld temperatures be closely controlled to prevent cracking. The low
carbon filler metals designated by the letter L will provide greater resistance to cracking, and
are more suitable when post-weld heat treatment is not practical or possible.
6.7.2 The Nickel Alloy Types (Ni) - The letters
Ni designate that the filler metal is a nickel alloy
wire for welding the nickel alloy steels. The number
following the letters designates the chemical
composition of the wire. Figure 10 shows only the
amount of nickel required in the wire under this
specification. For complete chemical
requirements, see AWS A5.28-96 Filler Metal
Specification.
6.7.2.2 Figure 11 shows the mechanical property requirements for nickel alloy weld metals.
Tensile Yield
Strength Strength Elongation Impact
AWS Class psi psi in 2", % Properties
ER80S-B2 80,000 68,000 19 Not Required
ER80S-B2L 80,000 68,000 19 Not Required
ER90S-B3 90,000 78,000 17 Not Required
ER90S-B3L 90,000 78,000 17 Not Required
All values are mininums
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Cr - Mo WELD METAL
FIGURE 9
Nickel
AWS Class % by Weight
ER80S-Ni1 0.80 - 1.10
ER80S-Ni2 2.00 - 2.75
ER80S-Ni3 3.00 - 3.75
NICKEL REQUIREMENTS
NICKEL ALLOY SOLID BARE WIRES
FIGURE 10
Tensile Yield
Strength Strength Elongation Impact
AWS Class psi psi in 2", Min. Properties
ER80S-Ni1 20 ft-lb @ -50F
ER80S-Ni2 80,000 68,000 24 20 ft-lb @ -80F
ER90S-Ni3 20 ft-lb @ -100F
All values are mininums
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF NICKEL ALLOY WELD METALS
FIGURE 11
}





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_17.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.7.2.3 Nickel alloy wires are used for welding the nickel alloy steels that are employed in
applications requiring 80,000 psi tensile strength and good toughness at low temperatures.
The ER80S-Ni1 wire deposits weld metal containing a nominal 1% nickel, similar to an
E8018C3 coated electrode. The ER80S-Ni2 deposits weld metal containing a nominal 2-1/
2% nickel, similar to an E8018C1 coated electrode and the ER80S-Ni3 deposits weld metal
containing a nominal 3-1/2% nickel, similar to an E8018C2 coated electrode.
6.7.2.4 The weld metal deposit will have a chemical composition similar to the chemical
composition of the wire when argon-O
2
shielding gas is used. If CO
2
is used as a shielding
gas, the deoxidizing elements, such as manganese and silicon, will be considerably reduced
in the weld metal. The recommended shielding gas is argon plus 1.0 to 5.0% oxygen. Weld-
ing the nickel alloy steels usually requires that the weldment be preheated before welding, and
the interpass temperature controlled. It may also be necessary to subject the weldment to post
weld heat treatment, depending on the alloy and thickness of the material.
6.7.3 The Manganese-Molybdenum Types Mn-Mo - The suffix letter D designates
a manganese-molybdenum wire to be used for welding the manganese-molybdenum steels.
The number that follows designates the chemical composition of the wire.
6.7.3.1 There is only one manganese-moly wire in this classification. It is designated as
ER80S-D2 and was formerly classified as E70S-1B in AWS Specification A5.18-89 (since
updated to A5.18-93).
A. Chemical Composition Requirements for ER80S-D2 Bare Solid Wire
Carbon 0.07-0.12% Nickel 0.15% max.
Manganese 1.60-2.10% Copper 0.50% max.
Silicon 0.50-0.80% Phosphorus0.025% max.
Molybdenum 0.40-0.60% Sulfur 0.025% max.
B.
Mechanical Property Requirements ER80S-D2 Weld Metal
Yield Strength, psi 60,000
Tensile Strength, psi 80,000
% Elongation (2") 17
Charpy V-Notch Impacts 20 ft.-lbs. @-20F





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_18.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.7.3.2 This wire is suitable for welding a large variety of low alloy and carbon steels. It is
excellent for out-of-position work and contains molybdenum for increased strength. Argon-O
2
and argon-CO
2
gas mixtures are recommended for maximum mechanical properties, but
welds made with CO
2
shielding gas will still deliver mechanical properties within the specifica-
tion limits due to the high level of manganese and silicon in the wire. The high level of deoxi-
dizers allows this wire to be used over moderate amounts of rust and mill scale.
6.7.4 Spoolarc 83 (AWS Class ER80S-D2) - Spoolarc 83 is a small diameter copper
coated solid wire for gas metal arc welding. Because of the additional alloys, manganese,
and molybdenum, the deposit is adequate for high strength low alloy steels. In addition, the
higher levels of deoxidizers provide improved rust and mill scale tolerance, as well as
out-of-position capabilities. This wire is most commonly used on pressure vessel and gas
transmission line applications.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Wire
Carbon 0.10% Phosphorus 0.005%
Manganese 1.07% Sulfur 0.012%
Silicon 0.27% Molybdenum 0.38%
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties of the Weld MetalUsing CO
2
Shielding Gas
Yield Strength, psi 77,000
Tensile Strength, psi 92,000
% Elongation (2") 23
% Reduction of Area 66.8
Charpy V-Notch Impacts 44 ft.-lbs. @-20F
6.7.5 Spoolarc Hi-84 (AWS Class ER80S-D2) - Spoolarc Hi-84 is a 1/2% Mo wire that
has been microalloyed to produce exceptional impact toughness at temperatures as low as
-50F. The weld metal deposit produces a high strength weld with good tolerance of rust and
mill scale.
A. Typical Chemical Analysis of the Wire
Carbon 0.11% Nickel 0.15%
Manganese 1.90% Chromium 0.08%
Silicon 0.60% Ti and Zr 0.017%
Molybdenum 0.50%





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
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12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_19.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROUP, INC
LESSON VI
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties of the Weld MetalUsing 98% Ar/2% O
2
Shielding Gas
Yield Strength, psi 99,000
Tensile Strength, psi 111,500
% Elongation (2") 20
Charpy V-Notch Impacts 65 ft.-lbs. @-20F
51 ft.-lbs. @-50F
6.7.6 All Other Low Alloy Types
6.7.6.1 Solid wires for welding the low alloy high tensile steels that do not fit into the com-
mon Cr-Mo, Ni alloys and Mn-Mo types, fall into the all other category. They produce welds
with very high strength and very good notch toughness. These alloys are designated by the
numbers 1, 2, or "G" as shown in Figure 12.
6.7.6.2 Only the major alloying elements for these wires are shown above. For complete
chemical composition requirements, see AWS Filler Metal Specification A5.28-96.
Major Alloying Elements - % By Weight
AWS Class Carbon Manganese Nickel Chromium Molybdenum
ER100S-1 0.08* 1.25 - 1.80 1.40 - 2.10 0.30 0.25 - 0.55
ER100S-2 0.12 1.25 - 1.80 0.80 - 1.25 0.30 0.20 - 0.55
ER110S-1 0.09 1.40 - 1.80 1.90 - 2.60 0.50 0.25 - 0.55
ER120S-1 0.10 1.40 - 1.80 2.00 - 2.80 0.60 0.30 - 0.65
ERXXS-G As agreed between supplier and purchaser
*Single values are maximums.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION - OTHER LOW ALLOYS - SOLID BARE WIRE
FIGURE 12
Tensile Yield
Strength Strength Elongation Impact
AWS Class psi psi in 2", Min. Properties
ER100S-1 100,000 88,000 - 102,000 16
ER100S-2 100,000 88,000 - 102,000 16
ER110S-1 110,000 95,000 - 107,000 15
ER120S-1 120,000 105,000 - 122,000 14
ERXXS-G * As agreed between supplier and purchaser
* Ultimate tensile strength must meet value placed after "ER"
WELD METAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES REQUIREMENTS - OTHER LOW ALLOYS
FIGURE 13
}
50 ft-lb @ -60F
6.7.6.3 The mechanical requirements for the weld metal deposited in this classification are
shown in Figure 13.





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_20.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.7.6.4 The wires in this category were originally developed for the high strength steels in
military applications. Today, they are used in structural and other applications requiring tensile
strengths in excess of 100,000 psi and toughness at low temperatures. Common types of
steels welded with these wires are the T-1, HY-80, HY-100, NAXtra100 and others.
6.7.7 Spoolarc 95 and 120 (AWS Class ER100S-1 and ER120S-1) - Spoolarc 95 and
120 are Military grade high strength wires designed for welding HY-80 and HY-100 steels.
Both wires produce excellent mechanical properties and low temperature toughness. They
can be used for nonmilitary applications requiring high strength and low temperature tough-
ness.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Wire
Spoolarc 95 Spoolarc 120
Carbon 0.07% 0.07%
Manganese 1.40% 1.30%
Silicon 0.35% 0.35%
Molybdenum 0.35% 0.45%
Chromium 0.20% 0.40%
Nickel 1.80% 2.60%
B. Typical Mechanical Properties of the Weld Metal Using 98% Ar/
2% O
2
Shielding Gas
Spoolarc 95 Spoolarc 120
Yield Strength, psi 95,000 112,000
Tensile Strength, psi 105,000 123,000
% Elongation (2") 23 19
Charpy V-Notch Impacts
ft.-lbs. @-0F 93 100
ft.-lbs. @-60F 65 75
The suffix letter G applies to solid wire electrodes and welding rods that do not fall into any of
the other classes in this specification. They must have at least one of the following: 0.50%
nickel, 0.30% chromium, or 0.20% molybdenum. They must pass the radiographic soundness
test for porosity or inclusions, and also the weld metal tensile tests that are spelled out in detail
in this specification.





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_21.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.8 WIRES AND FLUXES FOR SUBMERGED ARC
WELDING OF CARBON STEELS
6.8.0.1 In submerged arc welding (SAW), the weld metal quality, mechanical properties and
bead shape are the result of the electrode* (or wire) and flux combination used in a particular
application. Unlike coated electrodes, where the core wire and flux coating are inseparable,
various fluxes may be used with a given wire to produce the desired results. The weld area is
shielded by this blanket of flux. When molten, the flux forms a protective layer above the molten
weld metal that not only provides for specific mechanical properties, but also gives the bead
some shape.
Note - * The American Welding Society has standardized on the term electrode when referring to the wires used in
SAW since these wires always carry the welding current. In this Lesson, the terms wire and electrode will be used
interchangeably and will have the same meaning.
6.8.0.2 The advantages for using SAW are numerous. They include:
a. High rates of travel.
b. High deposition rates.
c. Superior weld metal integrity.
d. Reduce edge preparations.
e. Improved operator comfort and safety.
6.8.1 Equipment - The SAW process can utilize either an AC or DC power supply. DC is
most often chosen because it provides the following advantages:
a. Good control over bead shape and penetration.
b. Best arc starting characteristics on either electrode positive (+) or
electrode negative (-).
c. DCEN offers 10-15% higher deposition rates than AC.
d. DCEP offers better bead shape control and deeper penetration.
e. Lowest cost to purchase.
6.8.1.1 AC, on the other hand, provides features as well. They include:
a. Reduced arc blow (especially when amperage exceeds 800 amps or when
welding on heavy sections).
b. Increased flexibility when used in combination with multiple wires (DC-AC,
AC-AC, or AC-AC-AC).





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_22.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.8.2 Welding Filler Metals - A continuous bare electrode is fed into a blanket of granular
flux that covers the weld joint. Once current is applied to the electrode, usually ranging in size
from 1/16" to 1/4" diameter, an arc is established and the base metal, the electrode, and the
flux melt to form a molten puddle. The solid electrode is usually copper coated, except for
certain nuclear applications, to minimize contact tip wear and assure good current transfer to
the wire. The molten flux flows to the surface to form a slag while the metallic components
create a weld.
6.8.2.1 Since high currents are usually applied to the electrode, extremely high deposition
rates are possible with SAW. The current and voltage ranges reflected in Figure 14 will pro-
vide information on the deposition capability of SAW.
Deposition Rate*
Wire Diameter Current Ranges Volts lbs./hr.
1/16" (1.6 mm) 150 - 500 19 - 27 5-17 (2.27- 7.71 Kg)
5/64" (2.0 mm) 200 - 600 20 - 28 6-22 (2.72- 9.98 Kg)
3/32" (2.4 mm) 250 - 700 22 - 30 8-24 (3.63-10.89 Kg)
1/8" (3.2 mm) 300 - 900 23 - 32 8-28 (3.63-12.70 Kg)
5/32" (4.0 mm) 400 - 1000 25 - 34 9-30 (4.08-13.61 Kg)
3/16" (4.8 mm) 500 - 1100 27 - 36 12-34 (5.44-15.42 Kg)
7/32" (5.6 mm) 600 - 1200 30 - 37 20-44 (9.07-19.96 Kg)
1/4" (6.4 mm) 700 - 1600 30 - 38 18-56 (8.16-25.40 Kg)
OPERATING RANGES AND DEPOSITION RATES
(DCEP - ESO AVERAGE 8 X WIRE DIAMETER)
FIGURE 14
6.8.2.2 Composite submerged electrodes, as described in Lesson II, are not normally used
for welding carbon steel. They are, however, used in welding low alloy high strength materials.
Current and voltage ranges will differ, along with their respective deposition rates. These
electrodes will be discussed late in this lesson.
6.8.3 Fluxes for Carbon Steel Electrodes - The granular powder, referred to as flux,
under which the welding takes place, shields the molten puddle from the atmosphere, cleans
the weld metal, and influences the mechanical properties and shape of the weld bead. The flux
also acts as a barrier preventing the heat from escaping, permitting the desired depth of
penetration (this can vary with current and polarity). Fluxes differ as a result of the method
used to manufacture them.





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_23.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.8.3.1 Fluxes are classified as either bonded or fused based on the manufacturing
methods. When manufacturing a bonded flux, fine particles of various ingredients are dry
mixed and bonded together with a sodium silicate or other similar compound. The wet
bonded mix is pelletized and baked at relatively low temperatures. The pellets are then broken
into smaller pieces and screened into proper sizes and packaged for shipment.
6.8.3.2 The advantages of bonded fluxes are that additional deoxidizers and alloying
elements can be added. Secondly, this type of flux generally has a lower consumption rate.
The major disadvantage of a bonded flux is their inherent moisture pick-up, especially when
opened, bags are allowed to remain exposed to the atmosphere.
6.8.3.3 Fused fluxes are manufactured under different conditions. The raw materials are
mixed together and then melted at very high temperatures in a furnace. The molten mixture is
cooled either by pouring it onto a chill table and allowed to cool, or shooting the molten mixture
with a stream of water. The glass-like material is crushed, then screened to a particular par-
ticle size and packaged for shipment.
6.8.3.4 Fused fluxes offer several advantages to the user, including much less moisture
pick-up than bonded fluxes. Secondly, the user has better control of weld metal properties
after recycling used flux. The major disadvantage with fused fluxes is the inability to add
additional deoxidizers and alloys during manufacturing.
6.8.3.5 Fluxes are also described as active or neutral, depending on the amount of
alloying elements or deoxidizers (especially manganese or silicon) that are transferred to the
weld metal.
a. Active Fluxes - contain manganese and silicon. Active fluxes are readily trans-
ferred to the weld metal. The amount transferred depends on the amount of flux consumed per
unit of wire. Excessively high manganese and silicon transferred to the weld can cause weld
metal cracking. Active fluxes are recommended for single pass or limited multipass welding
applications. Changes in arc voltage can greatly effect the flux consumption per unit of wire
and the weld metal properties. It is, therefore, crucial to adhere to the manufacturers sug-
gested welding parameters.
b. Neutral Fluxes - produce little significant change in weld metal properties as a
result of arc voltage. The primary purpose for neutral fluxes is that they can be used on multi-
pass weldments, especially those that exceed one inch thickness. The disadvantage for
neutral fluxes is their low tolerance to rust and mill scale. Generally speaking, active fluxes are
used with carbon steel electrodes, while neutral fluxes are recommended for both carbon and
low alloy steels.





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_24.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
Costs
6.9 AWS SPECIFICATION A5.17-89
6.9.0.1 This AWS specification is entitled Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and
Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding. It classifies the electrodes on the basis of their chemical
composition as shown in Figure 15A. The fluxes are classified on the basis of the mechanical
properties of the weld metal they deposit with a particular classification of electrode as shown
in Figure 15B.
Electrode
When Used, Indicates Electrode Made
From Silicon-Killed (Deoxidized) Steel.
E X X X K
Percent
Carbon
By Weight
8 = 0.10 Max.
12 = 0.05 - 0.15
13 = 0.07 - 0.19
14 =
15 =
}0.10 - 0.20
Percent
Manganese
By Weight
L = 0.25 - 0.60
M = 0.80 - 1.40
H = 1.70 - 2.20
ELECTRODE DESIGNATIONS FOR SUBMERGED ARC WELDING CARBON STEEL
FIGURE 15A
F X X X
A = As Welded
P = Postweld Heat Treatment
1150 for 1 Hour
Flux
F6XX F7XX
Tensile 60,000 70,000
Strength to to
psi 80,000 95,000
Yield
Strength 48,000 58,000
psi Min. Min.
Elongation 22 22
% in 2" Min. Min.
FLUX DESIGNATIONS FOR SUBMERGED ARC WELDING CARBON STEEL
FIGURE 15B
Impact Requirements
Charpy V-Notch
Z No Requirement
0 0 F
2 -20 F
4 -40 F
5 -50 F
6 -60 F
8 -80 F
}
20 ft-lbs @





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_25.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.9.0.2 For example, when a manufacturer assigns the AWS classification EM12K to a
given wire or electrode, he certifies that his product is an electrode (E); containing a medium
manganese content of 0.80 to 1.40% (M); containing a carbon content of 0.05 to 0.15% (12);
and is made from a heat of silicon-killed steel (K).
6.9.0.3 When classifying a flux as to mechanical properties, it is necessary to also specify
the electrode or wire with which these properties are obtained. As an example, the classifica-
tion F7P6-EM12K certifies that the product is a submerged arc flux (F); will provide weld metal
of 70,000 to 95,000 psi tensile strength, a minimum of 58,000 psi yield strength and a mini-
mum of 22% elongation in two inches after the weldment has been subjected to a postweld
heat treatment of 1150F for one hour (P); and will have a minimum charpy V-notch impact of
20 ft.-lbs. at -60F when used with an EM12K wire.
6.9.0.4 The eleven types of carbon steel electrodes listed in AWS A5.17-89 are as follows:
A. Low Manganese Steel Electrodes
1) EL8
2) EL8K
3) EL12
B.
Medium Manganese Steel Electrodes
1) EM12
2) EM12K
3) EM13K
4) EM14K
5) EM15K
C. High Manganese Steel Electrodes
1) EH11K
2) EH12K
3) EH14
6.9.0.5 The carbon and manganese content of these wires are shown in Figure 15. For
complete chemical composition of these wires, see AWS Filler Metal Specification A5.17-89.





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_26.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.10 ESAB WIRES AND FLUXES FOR CARBON STEEL
SUBMERGED ARC WELDING
6.10.1 Spoolarc 81 (AWS Class EM12K) - Spoolarc 81 is a general purpose submerged
arc wire for moderately clean material. Applications include low and medium structural carbon
steel, longitudinal and circumferential welds on low to medium strength pressure vessel steels
and some offshore and ship fabrication.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Wire
Carbon 0.11% Phosphorus 0.006%
Manganese 0.956% Sulfur 0.008%
Silicon 0.22% Copper 0.34%
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties (* See note following Unionmelt 80)
Weld UTS YS

% CVN (ft-lbs)

AWS/ASME
Flux Cond. (ksi) (ksi) Elong.

@-20F SFA 5.17 Class
231 AW 82-90 75-80 25-29 24-29 F7A2-EM12K
429 AW 75-82 65-72 25-30 35-45 F7A2-EM12K
SR(a) 70-75 58-64 25-30 35-45 @-40F F7P4-EM12K
80 AW 70-75 60-65 27-31 35-45 F6A2, F7A2-EM12K
(a) Stress-Relieved @1150F - 1 hr.
6.10.2 Spoolarc 29S (AWS Class EM13K) - Spoolarc 29S has increased amounts of sili-
con for both improved puddle fluidity and rust and mill scale tolerance. This wire is not recom-
mended for material greater than 1" thickness. Applications include single pass high speed
fillets on both low and medium carbon steels.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Wire
Carbon 0.09% Phosphorus 0.008%
Manganese 0.98% Sulfur 0.012%
Silicon 0.52% Copper 0.28%
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties (* See note following Unionmelt 80)
Weld UTS YS

% CVN (ft-lbs)

AWS/ASME
Flux Cond. (ksi) (ksi) Elong.

@-20F SFA 5.17 Class
231(a) AW 85-94 77-83 25-29 25-30 @ 0F. F7A0-EM13K
429 AW 80-85 66-73 25-30 28-35 @-20F. F7A2-EM13K
(a) This combination of flux and wire is only recommended for single pass welding.





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_27.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.10.3 Spoolarc 80 (AWS Class EL12) - Spoolarc 80 has the least amount of manganese
and silicon and is therefore intended for clean material. The major advantage of this wire is the
improved ductility, ease of machining and improved crack resistance. Applications include high
speed fillets on axle housings and wheel rims and thick heavy sections on highly restrained
multipass weldments.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Wire
Carbon 0.10% Phosphorus 0.003%
Manganese 0.44% Sulfur 0.014%
Silicon 0.04% Copper 0.16%
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties
Weld UTS YS

% CVN (ft-lbs)

AWS/ASME
Flux Cond. (ksi) (ksi) Elong.

@-20F SFA 5.17 Class
231(a) AW 71-77 60-69 26-31 15-25 @ 0F. F7AZ-EL12
429 AW 64-69 55-60 26-32 45-55 @-20F. F6A2-EL12
(a) This combination of flux and wire is only recommended for single pass welding.
6.10.4 Unionmelt 231 - Unionmelt Flux 231 is an active flux that is limited to a maximum
plate thickness of one inch or less and operated at less than 36 volts. Applications include single
and multipass flat and horizontal fillets over rust and mill scale. This flux can be used with Spoolarc
81, 29S and 80.
A.
Typical Deposit Chemistry
AWS/ASME
Wire Material C Mn Si Cu

SFA 5.17
81 A516 0.08 1.20 0.55 0.11 F7A2-EM12K
29S(a) A285 0.08 1.30 0.70 0.10 F7A0-EM13K
80 A36 0.07 0.90 0.40 0.11 F7AZ-EL12
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties (* See note following Unionmelt 80)
Spoolarc Weld UTS YS % CVN
Material Wire Condition (ksi) (ksi) Elong. (ft.-lbs.)
A516 81 AW 82-90 75-80 25-29 24-29 @-20F
A285 29S(a) AW 85-94 77-83 25-29 25-30 @ 0F
A36 80 AW 71-77 60-69 26-31 15-25 @ 0F
(a) Unionmelt Flux 231 and Spoolarc 29S are recommended for single pass welding only.





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_28.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.10.5 Unionmelt 429 - Unionmelt Flux 429 is a neutral bonded flux designed for multipass
welding. Weld metal chemistries are excellent both as-welded and stress-relieved. Applica-
tions include deep groove multipass welds found on pressure vessels and offshore oil fabrica-
tion. Commonly used with hand-held semi-automatic equipment. This flux can be used with
Spoolarc 81 and 29S.
A.
Typical Deposit Chemistry
AWS/ASME
Wire Material C Mn Si Cu SFA 5.17
81 A36 0.07 1.25 0.50 0.14 F7A2-EM12K
29S A285 0.06 1.28 0.70 0.12 F7A2-EM13K
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties (* See note following Unionmelt 80)
Spoolarc Weld UTS YS % CVN
Material Wire Condition (ksi) (ksi) Elong. (ft.-lbs.)
A36 81 AW 75-90 75-80 25-29 24-29 @-20F
SR(a) 70-75 58-64 25-30 35-45 @-40F
A285 29S AW 80-85 66-73 25-30 28-35 @-20F
(a) Stress-Relieved @1150F - 1 hr.
6.10.6 Unionmelt 282 - Unionmelt Flux 282 is an active bonded flux designed for high speed
single pass welding on thin gauge material. The weld metal fluidity and high travel speeds make
this flux extremely versatile. Applications include longitudinal welds on structural steel, as well as
circumferential seams on spiral pipe. This flux is best used with Spoolarc 81 and 29S.
A.
Typical Mechanical Properties (* See note following Unionmelt 80)
Spoolarc Wire Tested Per AWS A5.17-89
Spoolarc 81 Conforms to F7A0-EM12K (20 ft.-lbs. @ 0F)
Spoolarc 29SConforms to F7A0-EM13K (20 ft.-lbs. @ 0F)





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_29.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.10.7 Unionmelt 50 - Unionmelt Flux 50 is a neutral fused flux developed for high speed
welding of thin gauge material (usable on relatively clean steel only). In addition, this flux works
equally well for surfacing and build-up applications. Because this flux is a fused type, it is particu-
larly resistant to moisture pick-up. Applications include propane cylinders and hot water tanks.
This flux can be used with Spoolarc 81 and 80.
A.
Typical Deposit Chemistry
Spoolarc AWS/ASME
Material Wire C Mn Si SFA 5.17
A36 81 0.05 0.93 0.30 F7A2-EM12K
Stress-Relieved F6P4-EM12K
A36 80 0.05 1.17 0.42 F6A2-EL12
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties (* See note following Unionmelt 80)
Spoolarc Weld UTS YS % CVN
Material Wire Condition (ksi) (ksi) Elong. (ft.-lbs.)
A36 81 AW 70-75 60-65 24-28 25-40 @-20F
SR(a) 65-70 50-55 25-29 75-80 @-20F
A36 80 AW 65-70 55-60 24-28 30-40 @-20F
(a) Stress-Relieved @1150F - 8 hrs.
6.10.8 Unionmelt 80 - Unionmelt Flux 80 is a neutral fused flux for multipass, heavy plate
welding applications. Superior mechanical properties on clean material is available in both
as-welded and stress-relieved conditions. The low moisture pick-up of this flux helps reduce the
handling and storage casts. Applications include carbon and low alloy steels used to fabricate
pressure vessels. This flux can be used with Spoolarc 81 and 80.
A.
Typical Deposit Chemistry
Spoolarc

AWS/ASME
Material Wire C Mn Si

SFA 5.17
A36 81 0.06 1.0 0.50 F6A2, F7A2-EM12K
A36 80 0.05 0.60 0.40 F6A2-EL12
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties *
Spoolarc Weld UTS YS % CVN
Material Wire Condition (ksi) (ksi) Elong. (ft.-lbs.)
A36 81 AW 70-75 60-65 26-30 35-45 @-20F
A36 80 AW 65-70 55-60 26-30 45-55 @-20F
* NOTE:
The data listed for both the deposit chemistry and mechanical properties are based on laboratory tests.
Results may vary according to your specific welding parameters or base metal conditions. It is,
therefore, important that the user run tests that closely duplicate their actual production conditions.





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_30.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.11 ELECTRODES AND FLUXES FOR SUBMERGED ARC
WELDING OF THE LOW ALLOY STEELS
6.11.0.1 In an earlier lesson, we learned that most low alloy coated electrodes have a mild or
carbon steel core wire, and the alloying elements, that produce the higher tensile strengths or
improved impact properties, are in the electrode coating. In the case of stainless steel coated
electrodes, a stainless steel core wire is used, and the elements that determine the specific
analysis of the weld metal are included in the coating. In submerged arc welding, the choice
exists as to the wire-flux combination that will produce the required end result.
6.11.1 Electrodes and Fluxes for Welding the Alloys - Electrodes for welding the low
alloy steels are available as low alloy solid wires or composite electrodes. Composite elec-
trodes are similar to flux cored electrodes, but since they are used with a granular flux, the core
contains mostly the necessary alloying elements. The outer sheath may be a carbon or alloy
steel. Submerged arc wires are available in diameters ranging from 1/16" to 1/4" diameter.
6.11.1.1 Welding the low alloy steels with the submerged arc process may be accomplished
in several different manners. They are:
a. A solid wire that has a sufficient amount of alloying elements included in the chemistry
of the wire as manufactured, and a neutral flux that shields the weld and influences bead
shape, but has a minimal affect on weld metal chemistry.
b. A composite wire that contains the necessary alloying elements in the core and/or the
steel sheath, used in conjunction with a neutral flux.
c. A solid carbon steel wire may be used, such as an EM12K type, in combination with a
flux that contains the necessary alloying elements to produce the desired low alloy weld
metal.





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_31.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GRO
LESSON VI
6.12 AWS SPECIFICATION A5.23-90
6.12.0.1 This AWS specification is entitled Specification for Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and
Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding. Since there are two types of welding wires, solid and
composite, each must be considered in a different manner. Solid wires are classified by their
as manufactured chemical analysis, but this is not possible with composite wires because the
outer steel sheath and the core ingredients combine to produce the resultant weld metal.
Therefore, composite wires are classified as to the weld metal chemical composition as are
coated electrodes.
6.12.0.2 The fluxes for welding low alloys with the submerged arc process are classified by
the weld metal mechanical properties they produce with a given wire or electrode. Figure 16
shows the classification of fluxes and electrodes under this specification.
Impact Requirements
Charpy V-Notch
Z No Requirement
0 0 F
2 -20 F
4 -40 F
5 -50 F
6 -60 F
8 -80 F
10 -100 F
15 -150 F
}
20 ft-lbs @
Tensile Yield
Strength Strength Elongation
psi psi % in 2"
F7XX 70,000 - 95,000 58,000 22
F8XX 80,000 - 100,000 68,000 20
F9XX 90,000 - 110,000 78,000 17
F10XX 100,000 - 120,000 88,000 16
F11XX 110,000 - 130,000 98,000 15
F12XX 120,000 - 140,000 108,000 14
F X X X
Flux
A = As Welded
P = Postweld Heat Treatment
Time & Temp. per AWS A5.17-89
FLUX DESIGNATIONS
ELECTRODE DESIGNATIONS
FLUX AND ELECTRODE DESIGNATIONS FOR SUBMERGED ARC WELDING - LOW ALLOY STEELS
FIGURE 16
Indicates Composite Electrode.
Omission Indicates Solid Wire
Electrode
Classification of Electrode -
2, 3, or 4 Numbers or Letters.
Chemical Composition of Weld Metal -
1, 2, or 3 Numbers or Letters
Optional Diffusable
Hydrogen Designator
Used Only for Some Nuclear Requirements
E C X X X N - X N H X
1 or 2 Digits





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_32.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.12.1 Composition Requirements for Solid Low Alloy Electrodes - The listing in
Figure 17 indicates only the major alloying elements of each electrode type. For complete
chemical composition requirements, see AWS A5.23-90.
C = Carbon Ni = Nickel
Mn = Manganese Mo = Molybdenum
Cr = Chromium
ELECTRODE
CLASSIFICATION C Mn Cr Ni Mo Si
Carbon Steel
EL12 0.04 - 0.14 0.25 - 0.60 0.10
EM12K 0.05 - 0.15 0.80 - 1.25 0.10 - 0.35
Carbon-Molybdenum
EA1 0.07 - 0.17 0.65 - 1.00 0.45 - 0.65 0.20
EA2 0.07 - 0.17 0.95 - 1.35 0.45 - 0.65 0.20
EA3 0.10 - 0.18 1.65 - 2.15 0.45 - 0.65 0.20
EA3K 0.07 - 0.12 1.60 - 2.10 0.40 - 0.60 0.50 - 0.80
EA4 0.07 - 0.17 1.20 - 1.70 0.45 - 0.65 0.20
Chromium Molybdenum
EB1 0.10 0.40 - 0.80 0.40 - 0.75 0.45 - 0.65 0.05 - 0.30
EB2 0.07 - 0.15 0.45 - 0.80 1.00 - 1.75 0.45 - 0.65 0.05 - 0.30
EB2H 0.28 - 0.33 0.45 - 0.65 1.00 - 1.50 0.40 - 0.65 0.55 - 0.75
EB3 0.05 - 0.30 0.40 - 0.80 2.25 - 3.00 0.90 - 1.10 0.05 - 0.30
EB5 0.18 - 0.23 0.40 - 0.70 0.45 - 0.65 0.90 - 1.20 0.40 - 0.60
EB6 0.10 0.35 - 0.70 4.50 - 6.50 0.45 - 0.65 0.05 - 0.50
EB6H 0.25 - 0.40 0.75 - 1.00 4.80 - 6.00 0.45 - 0.65 0.25 - 0.50
EB8 0.10 0.30 - 0.65 8.00 - 10.50 0.05 - 0.50
Nickel Steel
ENi1 0.12 0.75 - 1.25 0.15 0.85 - 1.25 0.30 0.05 - 0.30
ENi2 0.12 0.75 - 1.25 2.10 - 2.90 0.05 - 0.30
ENi3 0.13 0.60 - 1.20 0.15 3.10 - 3.80 0.05 - 0.30
ENi4 0.12 - 0.19 0.60 - 1.00 1.60 - 2.10 0.10 - 0.30 0.10 - 0.30
ENi1K 0.12 0.80 - 1.40 0.75 - 1.25 0.40 - 0.80
Other Low Alloy Steel
EF1 0.07 - 0.15 0.90 - 1.70 0.95 - 1.60 0.25 - 0.55 0.15 - 0.35
EF2 0.10 - 0.18 1.70 - 2.40 0.40 - 0.80 0.40 - 0.65 0.20
EF3 0.10 - 0.18 1.70 - 2.40 0.70 - 1.10 0.45 - 0.65 0.30
EF4 0.16 - 0.23 0.60 - 0.90 0.40 - 0.60 0.40 - 0.80 0.15 - 0.30 0.15 - 0.35
EF5 0.10 - 0.17 1.70 - 2.20 0.25 - 0.50 2.30 - 2.80 0.45 - 0.65 0.20
EF6 0.07 - 0.15 1.45 - 1.90 0.20 - 0.55 1.75 - 2.25 0.40 - 0.65 0.10 - 0.30
EM2 0.10 1.25 - 1.80 0.30 1.40 - 2.10 0.25 - 0.55 0.20 - 0.60
EM3 0.10 1.40 - 1.80 0.55 1.90 - 2.60 0.25 - 0.65 0.20 - 0.60
EM4 0.10 1.40 - 1.80 0.60 2.00 - 2.80 0.30 - 0.65 0.20 - 0.60
EW 0.12 0.35 - 0.65 0.50 - 0.80 0.40 - 0.80 0.20 - 0.35
EG No Requirements
Single Figures are Maximums
MAJOR CHEMICAL COMPOSITION REQUIREMENTS
SOLID WIRE SUBMERGED ARC WELDING ELECTRODES. AWS A5.23-90
FIGURE 17





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_33.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.12.1.1 Figure 17 lists two carbon steel wires (EL12 and EM12K) that are the same as
those listed in AWS A5.17-89, the specification for mild and carbon steels. They appear here
only because they can be used with fluxes that contain sufficient alloying elements to deposit a
low alloy weld metal.
6.12.1.2 Although all of the low alloy electrodes in AWS Specification A5.23-90 are listed
here, a complete knowledge of their uses and applications are beyond the scope of this
course. They are presented here so that you will be familiar with the various AWS designa-
tions.
6.12.1.3 As an example, a manufacturer of a solid wire electrode may assign the AWS
classification EB3. Under this specification, he certifies that this wire is an electrode (E), the
chemical composition is a chrome-moly type (B) containing a nominal 2-1/2% chromium and
1% molybdenum, and it meets the other chemical requirements (3).
6.12.1.4 The specification also lists the chemical composition of the weld metal which differs
slightly from the chemical requirements for the wire. The same designations are used for the
weld metal as for the electrode classification in Figure 17 except that the letter E is deleted.
For example, the weld metal is designated as A2, B3, Ni2, F2, N3, etc. Since classification of
the composite electrodes is based on the weld metal composition, the letters EC are placed
before the weld metal classification and the electrode designation for composite electrodes
would be ECA2, ECB3, ECNi2, etc.
6.12.1.5 An example of a complete flux electrode designation would be as follows:
F8P10-ECNi2-Ni2. This designation refers to a flux (F) that will produce weld metal of a
minimum 80,000 psi tensile strength (8), when postweld heat treated (P), and satisfies a
charpy V-notch impact strength test of at least 20 ft.-lbs. at -100F (10) when used with a
composite electrode (EC) of a nickel type (Ni) containing a nominal 2-1/2% nickel (2) and will
produce weld metal of the chemical composition specified under Ni2 in AWS Specification
A5.23-90 (Ni2).





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_34.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.13 SPOOLARC LOW ALLOY WIRES FOR SUBMERGED ARC WELDING
6.13.1 Manganese-Molybdenum Wires
6.13.1.1
Spoolarc 40A, 40B, and 40 (AWS Class EA1, EA2, and EA3) - These (Mn-Mo)
wires are designed for pressure vessel fabrication requiring postweld heat treatment and weld
metal tensile strength of 60 ksi, 70 ksi, and 80 ksi. They are generally used with Unionmelt 80,
124, and 429 fluxes.
6.13.2 Chromium-Molybdenum Wires
6.13.2.1
Spoolarc U515 and U521 (AWS Class EB2 and EB3) - Spoolarc U515 and
U521 wires are designed for welding 1-1/4% Cr - 1/2% Mo and 2-1/2% Cr - 1% Mo pressure
vessels. They can be used with Unionmelt 80, 124, and 709-5 fluxes.
6.13.3 Nickel Wire
6.13.3.1
Spoolarc ENi4 (AWS Class ENi4) - Spoolarc ENi4 is designed for single or
multipass welding on high strength steels and produces good low temperature toughness. It is
usable with Unionmelt 429, 439, 709-5, and 656 flux.
6.13.4 High Strength Wires
6.13.4.1
Spoolarc 44 (AWS Class EF2) - Spoolarc 44 is designed for single or multipass
welding on high strength steels of 80 ksi. The addition of nickel helps it produce good low
temperature toughness. It is usable with Unionmelt 709-5 and 656 fluxes.
6.13.4.2
Spoolarc 95, 100, and 120 wires (AWS Class EM2, EM5, and EF4) - Spoolarc
95, 100, and 120 are military grade, high strength, low temperature impact wires designed for
welding HY-80 and HY-100 steels. They are usable with Unionmelt 709-5 and 656 fluxes.
6.13.5 Special Purpose Wires
6.13.5.1
Spoolarc WS (AWS Class EW) - Spoolarc WS is designed for single and multi-
pass welding on weathering grade steels such as A588 and Cor-Ten. The weld chemistry
produces good color match, weathering resistance, and meets fracture critical code re-
quirements. It is usable with Unionmelt 429, 439, 709-5, and 656 fluxes.





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_35.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.14 UNIONMELT FLUXES FOR WELDING LOW
ALLOY STEELS
6.14.1 Unionmelt 429 Flux - Unionmelt 429 flux is a bonded flux developed for single or
multipass butt and fillet welding on pressure vessel and structural steel fabrication. It operates
on either AC or DC, single or multiple wire operation. It has good performance in the as
welded or stress relieved condition on carbon and low alloy steels.
6.14.2 Unionmelt 439 Flux - Unionmelt 439 flux has similar performance to 429 flux but
will give higher toughness properties.
6.14.3 Unionmelt 656 Flux - Unionmelt 656 operates similar to 439 flux, but has less
tolerance for rust. It should be used on clean material. It will produce excellent low tempera-
ture toughness, better than 439 flux.
6.15 ALLOY SHIELD COMPOSITE ELECTRODES FOR
SUBMERGED ARC WELDING OF THE LOW ALLOY STEELS
6.15.0.1 ESAB produces a line of composite electrodes for welding several varieties of the
low alloy steels. These electrodes carry the brand name Alloy Shield and are used with a
neutral flux since the alloying elements are in the electrode core.
6.15.0.2 Alloy Shield electrodes are available in 3/32" - 5/32" diameters. Each size is
available on 60 lb. coils and for maximum productivity, 500 lb. pay-off packs.
6.15.1 Alloy Shield B1S (No AWS Class) - Alloy Shield B1S is an electrode for welding
the 1/2% Chrome - 1/2% Molybdenum steels. These steels are used principally in power
piping, boiler work and other moderately high temperature applications. Recommended flux is
Unionmelt Flux 80. If other fluxes are used, the weld deposit analysis may vary.





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_36.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Weld Metal
Carbon 0.05% Phosphorus 0.018%
Manganese 1.03% Chromium 0.50%
Silicon 0.39% Molybdenum 0.53%
Sulfur 0.025%
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties of the Weld Metal
Stress Relieved 1 Hr. @1275F
Yield Point, psi 70,000
Tensile Strength, psi 83,000
% Elongation (2") 24
Charpy V-Notch Impacts 30 ft.-lbs. @72F
20 ft.-lbs. @32F
6.15.2 Alloy Shield B2S (AWS A5.23 F8PZ-ECB2-B2) - Alloy Shield B2S is an electrode
for welding the 1% chromium - 1/2% molybdenum and the 1-1/4% chromium - 1/2% molybde-
num steels for high temperature applications such as power piping, boiler work and tubes,
plate forgings and castings covering a wide variety of ASTM steels. Recommended flux is
Unionmelt Flux 80. If other fluxes are used, weld deposit analysis may vary.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Weld Metal
Carbon 0.04% Phosphorus 0.017%
Manganese 0.96% Chromium 1.25%
Silicon 0.37% Molybdenum 0.55%
Sulfur 0.024%
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties of the Weld Metal
Stress Relieved 1 Hr. @1150F
Yield Point, psi 75,000
Tensile Strength, psi 90,000
% Elongation (2") 22
Charpy V-Notch Impacts 22 ft.-lbs. @70F
16 ft.-lbs. @30F





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_37.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.15.3 Alloy Shield B3S (AWS A5.23 F9PZ-ECB3-B3) - Alloy Shield B3S is an electrode
for welding 1% chromium - 1% molybdenum and the 2-1/4% chromium - 1% molybdenum
steels. Used for welding in high strength, high temperature applications, such as power pip-
ing, boiler, and turbine work. Recommended flux is Unionmelt Flux 80. If other fluxes are used,
weld deposit analysis may vary.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Weld Metal
Carbon 0.10% Phosphorus 0.014%
Manganese 1.03% Chromium 2.28%
Silicon 0.50% Molybdenum 1.08%
Sulfur 0.023%
B. Typical Mechanical Properties of the Weld Metal
Stress Relieved 1 Hr. @1275F
Yield Point, psi 88,000
Tensile Strength, psi 101,000
% Elongation (2") 20
Charpy V-Notch Impacts 30 ft.-lbs. @70F
20 ft.-lbs. @32F
6.15.4 Alloy Shield Ni1S (AWS Class A5.23 F7A6-ECNi1-Ni1) - Alloy Shield Ni1S is an
electrode for nominal 1% Ni weld metal where notch toughness is required in the weld deposit.
Recommended flux is Unionmelt Flux 651VF. If other fluxes are used, weld deposit analysis
may vary.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Weld Metal
Carbon 0.06% Sulfur 0.019%
Manganese 1.18% Phosphorus 0.024%
Silicon 0.34% Nickel 0.86%
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties of the Weld Metal
As Welded
Yield Point, psi 68,000
Tensile Strength, psi 80,000
% Elongation (2") 30
Charpy V-Notch Impacts 90 ft.-lbs. @-20F
60 ft.-lbs. @-40F
57 ft.-lbs. @-60F





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_38.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.15.5 Alloy Shield Ni2S (AWS 5.23 F8A6, F8P10-ECNi2-Ni2) - Alloy Shield Ni2S is a
nickel alloy electrode for applications where good impact properties are necessary at tem-
peratures as low as -100F. The weld deposit contains 2-1/2% nickel. Recommended flux is
Unionmelt Flux 651VF. If other fluxes are used, weld metal analysis may vary.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Weld Metal
Carbon 0.07% Sulfur 0.021%
Manganese 0.96% Phosphorus 0.025%
Silicon 0.28% Nickel 2.65%
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties of the Weld Metal
As Welded
Yield Point, psi 68,000 74,000
Tensile Strength, psi 80,000 83,500
% Elongation (2") 30 28
Charpy V-Notch Impacts
88 ft.-lbs. @ -40F 92 ft.-lbs. @ -40F
65 ft.-lbs. @ -60F 72 ft.-lbs. @ -60F
35 ft.-lbs. @-100F 50 ft.-lbs. @-100F
6.15.6 Alloy Shield M2S (AWS A5.23 F11A6-ECM2-M2) - Alloy Shield M2S is an elec-
trode for welding the T-1 and other similar high strength steels. Despite its high strength, the
weld metal has good impact properties. Recommended flux is Unionmelt Flux 651VF. If other
fluxes are used, the weld metal analysis may vary.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Weld Metal
Carbon 0.06% Phosphorus 0.016%
Manganese 1.6% Nickel 1.83%
Silicon 0.64% Molybdenum 0.49%
Sulfur 0.014%
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties of the Weld Metal
As Welded
Yield Point, psi 103,000
Tensile Strength, psi 115,000
% Elongation (2") 23
Charpy V-Notch Impacts 62 ft.-lbs. @ 0F
27 ft.-lbs. @-60F





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_39.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.15.7 Alloy Shield M3S (AWS A5.23 F11A4-ECM3-M3) - Alloy Shield M3S is an elec-
trode for welding T-1 and other similar high strength steels requiring tensile strengths of
110,000 to 120,000 psi. It produces good low temperature impacts and is approved by the
American Bureau of Shipping. Recommended flux is Unionmelt Flux 651VF. If other fluxes are
used, the weld metal analysis may vary.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Weld Metal
Carbon 0.06% Phosphorus 0.020%
Manganese 1.10% Chromium 0.40%
Silicon 0.39% Nickel 2.63%
Sulfur 0.017% Molybdenum 0.61%
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties of the Weld Metal
As Welded
Yield Point, psi 104,000
Tensile Strength, psi 116,000
% Elongation (2") 22
Charpy V-Notch Impacts 44 ft.-lbs. @-40F
37 ft.-lbs. @-60F
6.15.8 Alloy Shield WS (AWS Class A5.23 F7A2-ECW-W) - Alloy Shield WS is for
welding weathering grade steels. Weld deposit will color match to the weathering steel after
exposure to the atmosphere. Recommended flux is Unionmelt Flux 651VF. If other fluxes are
used, the weld metal analysis may vary.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Weld Metal
Carbon 0.06% Phosphorus 0.017%
Manganese 0.76% Chromium 0.54%
Silicon 0.31% Nickel 0.68%
Sulfur 0.013% Copper 0.49%
B.
Typical Mechanical Properties of the Weld Metal
As Welded
Yield Point, psi 65,000
Tensile Strength, psi 77,000
% Elongation (2") 28
Charpy V-Notch Impacts 91 ft.-lbs. @ 72F
32 ft.-lbs. @-20F





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_40.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
6.15.9 Alloy Shield F2S (AWS A5.23 F10P2-ECF2-F2) - Alloy Shield F2S wire devel-
oped for welding SAE 4130 and similar hardenable steels. Retains excellent properties after
stress relieving or quench and tempering. Good choice for oil field equipment requiring less
than 1% nickel. Recommended flux is Unionmelt Flux 709-5. If other fluxes are used, the weld
metal analysis may vary.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Weld Metal
Carbon 0.11% Phosphorus 0.016%
Manganese 1.63% Nickel 0.69%
Silicon 0.52% Molybdenum 0.55%
Sulfur 0.012%
B. Typical Mechanical Properties of the Weld Metal
Stress-Relieved 12 hrs. @1150F.
Yield Point, psi 89,000
Tensile Strength, psi 101,000
% Elongation (2") 24
Charpy V-Notch Impacts 67 ft.-lbs. @ 32F
35 ft.-lbs. @-20F
6.15.10 Alloy Shield 420SB (No AWS Class) - Alloy Shield 420SB was specially devel-
oped to match the analysis for continuous caster roll found in the steel making industry. Rec-
ommended flux is Unionmelt Flux S-420SB. If other fluxes are used, the weld metal analysis
may vary.
A.
Typical Chemical Analysis of the Weld Metal
Carbon 0.28% Sulfur 0.010%
Manganese 1.20% Phosphorus 0.006%
Silicon 0.20% Chromium 11.70%
B.
Hardness of Deposited Weld Metal
1 Layer on 1045 Steel - 54 Rockwell C
2 Layers on 1045 Steel - 51 Rockwell C





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_41.htm
COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROU
LESSON VI
APPENDIX A
LESSON VI - GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Composite
Electrode
- A filler metal electrode used in arc welding, consisting of more than one metal
component combined mechanically. It may or may not include materials which
protect the molten metal from the atmosphere, improve the properties of the
weld metal or stabilize the arc.
Work Harden - The development of hardness in metals as a result of cold working such as
forming, bending, or drawing.
Anneal - The process of heating a metal to a temperature below the critical range,
followed by a relatively slow cooling cycle to induce softness and remove
stresses.
Deoxidizers - Elements, such as manganese, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and zirconium,
used in welding electrodes and wires to prevent oxygen from forming harmful
oxides and porosity in weld metal.
Flux - Material used to prevent, dissolve, or facilitate removal of oxides and other
undesirable substances in welding, soldering, or brazing. In submerged arc
welding, the flux shields the molten puddle from the atmosphere which helps
to influence the mechanical weld metal deposit.
Bonded
Fluxes
- Bonded fluxes are manufactured by binding an assortment of powder together
and then baking at a low temperature. The major advantage is that addi-
tional alloying ingredients can be added to the mixture.
Fused
Fluxes
- Fused fluxes are melted ingredients which have been chilled and ground to a
particular particle size. The advantage of this type flux is the low moisture
pick-up and improved recycling capabilities.





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc
Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding
Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes
for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes
for Welding Low
Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals
for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc
Electrodes Carbon
Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing
Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating &
Comparing Weld
Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding
Filler Metals
Page 1 of 1 Lesson 6 - Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals for the GMAW, GTAW and SAW Welding Pr...
12/2/03 http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/AWTC/Lesson6_42.htm