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BALLISTIC -AND -ENGINEERING DATA
TO)R'AMMUNITION
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
VOLUME 1 - 76-1-42 TO 105-1-314 INCL.
BRLH No. Paragraph Nos.
Shell, HE, 76-mm, M42A1 ................... 76-1-42 .......... -12
Projectile, APC, 76-mm (3-hich), M62AI ....... 76-1-62 .......... 1- 8
Shot, AP, 76-mm (3-inch), M'9............... 76-1-79 .......... 1- 8
Shot, HVAP, 76-rm, M93 .................. 76-1-93 .......... 1- 8
Shell, HE, 81-mm, M43 and M43A1 ............ 81-1-43 .......... 1- 7
Shell, HE, 81-mm, M56 ..................... 81-1-56 .......... 1- 9
Shell, Smoke, 81-rmm, M57 .................. 81-1-57 .......... 1- 8
Shot, AP, 90-ram, T33 ................... 90-1-T33 .......... 1- 8
Shell, HE, 90-mm, M58 and M58B1 ............ 90-1-58 .......... 1- 8
Shell, HE, 90-rmm, M71 ..................... 90-1-71 .......... 1-13
Shot, AP, 90-ram, M77 ..................... 90-1-77 .......... 1- 8
Projectile, APC, 90-mm, M82 .............. 90-1-82 .......... 1- 8
Shot, HVAP, 90-mm, M304 ................ 90-1-304 .......... 1- 8
Shell, HE, 105-rmm, Ml ..................... 105-1-1........... 1-12
Shell, HE, 105-mnn, T12 .................. 105-1-T12 ......... 1- 6
Shell, HEAT, 105-mm, M67 ................. 105-1-67 .......... 1- 9
Shell, Illuminating, 105-mm, M314 .......... 105-1-314 .......... 1- 8
/
Accesior' For
NTIS CRA&I
DTIC TAB 01
Unannotc.ed Ed
Jostlfic} :on,
By
A ~'~d C' Cdes
Ds fAv-,!. a."d or
Dist
j.;e':. a
ONNNUNCU
;
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I
BRLH 76-1-42
Ballistic Research Laboratories Bollistic Research Lab.
Handbook of Ballistic and Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Engineering Data for Ammunition, Maryland.
No. 76-1-42 2 February 1949
BALLISTIC AND EENGINEERING DATA
for
Shell, HE, 76-mm, M
4
2AI
with
Fuzes, ID, MIG, M48A1, M48A2 and M15lA4; TSQ,
M54 and M55A3; MT, M43A5; and CP, M?8
Sbction PLaragraphs
I General ------------------------------ 1
ITT Description ------------------------- 2- 4
Hm Interior balli3tic data --------------- 6 - 6
IV Exterior ballistic data --------------- 7 - 8
V Eftect data ------------------------- 9 - 12
(SECTI.GN I
GENERAL
ParagriPh
purpose ..........-...........-..--- ---------------------------- 1
1. Purpose. The purpose of this number ol the ua.dbook it to furnish a concise collection of infor-
mation regarding tha shape, dynamics, balfscics and effects of the 76-mm High Explcsive Shell M42A1 with
the Point Detonating Fuzes M48, M48A1, M48A2 and M51A4; the Time and Superquick Fuze M54; the Me.
chanical Time Fuze M43A5; and the Concrete Piercing Fuse h479. This information is collectrd from the
drawings, reports, firing tables, and technical manuals pertaining to this ammunition.
\.1
BRLH 76.1-42 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
"2
DIMENSIONS IN CALIBERS
I CAL 3.000"
-- 2.80 - -- 125
4.04
- i'lli 2.12 -
SH;_.L, HE, 76-MM, M42AI
FUZE, PD, M48, M48AI, M48A2 OR MSA4;
T SQ, M54; OR MT, M45A5
~~2.80 8
1.92 - ' *1.76
SHELL, HE, 76-MM, M42AI
FUZE, OP, M78
2
FOR SHELL. HE. 76-MM. M42AI BRLH 76-1-42
2-3
SECTION UI
DESCRIPTION
Paragraph
Drawings .........-... ...... ..---.- -.--------------------------- 2
Dimensions .........-... ... .....- -.- -.------------------------- 3
Physical "haracteristics - - - - - - -- --------------- 4
2. Drawbn.
Shell, M42AI: Metal parts assembly and details 75-18-33
Shell, M42B1: Metal parts assembly and details 75-16-37
Shell, M42B2: Metal parts assembly and details 75-18-38
Booster, M20A1: Assembly and details 73-2-112
Booster, M21A4: Assembly 73-2-154
Fuze, PD, M48, M48A1 and M48A2: Assembly 73-2-140
Fuze, PD, M51A4: Assembly 73-2-145
Fuze, TSQ, M54: Assembly 73-3-154
Fuze, MT, M43A5: Assembly and details 73-7-29
Fuze, CP, M78: Assembly and details 73-2-214
Note, The MT, PD, and TSQ Fuzes require one of the boosters; but the CP Fuze contains their work-
ing parts. The TSQ Fuze M54 and the Booster M21A4 are components of the TSQ Fuze M55A3, dwg 73-3-155.
3. Dimensions.
Band: Widtn 0.34 cal
Distance from base 0.40 cal
Cylindrical body: Length 1.92 cal
Ogive: Length 0.87 cal
Radius of arc 7.00 cal
Shell, unfuzed: Length 2.80 cal
Fuze, PD, TSQ or MT:
Outside length 1.25 cal
Shell and fuze 4.04 cal
Ogive and fuze 2.12 cal
Fuze, CP: Outside length 0.88 cal
Radius of ogival arc 2.67 cal
Shell and fuze 3.68 cal
Ogive and fuze 1.76 cal
4
BRLH 76.1-42 BALUSTIC tND ENGINEERING DATA
4-5
4. Physical characteristics. The weight, locatlon of center of gravity, and moments of inertia of the
HE Shell M42A1 with any of the PD, TS or MT Fuzes are apprcximately the same as those of the HE Sheit
M42 wi0 the MT Fuze M43A2. The phy's-zal characteristics of the HE Shell M42A1 with the CP Fuze is ap-
proximatei? Ihe same as those of the HE 1hli M42B2 with the inert Fuze T105 Type 6.
Shell M42 M42B2
Fuze M43A2 T105 Type 6
Mean weight: Marking U (Standard) lb 12.80 13.14
Marking [ [ lb 13.00 13.34
Mar!,ng U lb 13.20 13.54
Base to center f gi avity cal 2 1.540 1.546
Axial moment oi :nerza lb.R2 0.1105 0.1098
Transverse momert %: "nartia ib.ft 0.8092 0.8106
SECTION M
INTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Stresses ...........-..........----------------------- 5
Theoretical yaw in bore - -8--------------------------------------- 6
5. Stresses. The following table and the graphical rE presentation on page 5 show the longitudinal,
radial and tangential resultant stresses at each of three sections: (A) the rear corner of the band seat,
(B) the front of the band seat, and (C) immediately behind the bourrelet.
Gun 76-mm MIA2
Twist of rifling 1/32
Cross-sectional area of bore 7.2t76 sq in.
Rated maximum pressure 43,000 psi
Total weight of projectile 12,80 lb
Muzzle Vehcity 2,700 fps
Density of filler (TNT) 0.057 lb per cu in.
Resultant Stress* Section
I00 psi A B C
Longitudinal - 274 -736 -355
Radial + 630 + 87 + 59
Tangential -1086 +480 +212
* + denotes tension, - denotes compression
4
FOR SHELL HE. 76-MKL M42AI
BRLH 76.1-42
5
A B
C
SECTION
A B
C
+630 -1086
+87
+59
+400
LONGITUDINAL
AXES OF RESULTANT STRESS
"DIAGRAM OF RESUI.TANT STRESSES
- -
BRLHI 76.1-42 BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
6-7
6. Theoretical yaw in bore.
Minimum 7 min
Maximum 12 min
SECTION lV
EXTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Aerodynamic data .......- .............-..------------------ 7
Firing table data .......- .............-..------------------ 8
7. Aerodynamic data. The aerodynamic data obtained with any of the PD, TSQ and Mr Fuzes are
applicat le to all of them. The aerodynamic data obtained with the inert Fuze T105 Type 6 are applicable
to the CP Fuze M78. The form factor given in this paragraph for the PD Fuze M48 was determined from
resistance and range firings of the HE Sheil M42 with the PD Fuze M48 and the MT Fuze M43A2. BRL Re-
port No. 30, *Stability Factors of Projectiles" (Rev. Sep 1940) gives the stability factors and moment coef-
ficients that were determined for the HE Shell M42 with the MT Fuze M43. BRL Report No. 298, "Stability
and Resistance of 3-inch HE Snell M42A1 with PD Fuze T105 Type 6P, gives the form factor and stability
factor that were obtained in developing the CP Fuze. BRL Report No. 408, "Loss of Spin and Skin Friction
Drag of ProjectilEs", gives tae aial couple coefficient cbtained from firings of the HE Shell M42 with a
radio spin sonde in a dummy fuze having the same shape as the MT Fuze M43A2.
a. Drag.
Shell M42 M42AI
Fuze M48 T105 Type 6
Drag function G G6
Muzzle Velocity fps 2,700 2,680
Form factor 1.04 1.37
Ballistic coeffic.ent 1.368 1.066
Drag coefficient, KD 0.123 0.163
b. Stability.
Shell M42 M42A!
Fuze M43 T105 Type 6
Muzzle Velocity fps 2800 2600
Mach number 2,50 2.39
Moment coefficient, KM 0.991 0.79_4
Twist of rifling 1/32 1/40 1/32 1/40
Stability factor 2.03 1.30 2.45 1.57
6
FOR SHELL, HE, 76-MMK M42AI BRLH 76-1-42
7-8
c. Axial couple.
Shell M42
Fuze Radio sonde
Average velocity 1800 fps
Reynolds' number (based on 2.75 x
avg vel. and caliber)
Axial couple coefficient, KA 0.00585
Surface (without base) 96.5 sq in
Skin friction drag coefficient, 0.00218
DF
8. Firing table data. FT 76-C-I
FT 76-A-6 (Range-elevation tables and Aiming Data charts).
Gun, 76-mm, MlA2 on Medium Tank M4 or Gun Motor Carriage M18.
Twist of rifling: 1/32.
OCM item 18656 standardized the H Z Shell M42A1 for the 76-mm Gun M1. OCM item 25455 authorizAd
the use of a reduced charge to give a muzzle velocity of approximately 1550 fps; the normal charge gives ebout
2700 fps. The 76-mm Guns M1 and MIAl, whose twist of rifling is 1/40, are now obsolete. FT 3-W-1 gives
data for the 3-inch Gun M5, whose twist of rifling is 1/40, firing the HE Shell M42A1 at muzzle velocities of
1550 and 2800 fps.
7
4
BRLH 76-1-42 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
8
2V~ cLFORM -FACTOR -ELEVATION CURVESHj
(PROJ TYPE 6)
H T - - - I
i-t -t~ I t _;
- FUZE CHARGE MV- FPS CURVE 4~
PDQOR TSQ NORMAL 2700 1 i~
REDUCED 1550 2 P--
CP NORMAL 11680 3
REDUCED 1539 4 ~ --- ~
+-t+
ELEVATIN-MIL1A
0.9T
0 aoo400 60 80
8 ~ ,
FOR SHEL" i-F. 76-MM. M42AI
BRLH 76.1.42
~-~~-b.BALLISTIC
COEFFICIENT- ELEV~r1ON CURVES
t-
1.2~
I~-L I
-
4-- +1
I1 f I I I4
REUE33
4-
- 4-
ELVTITNMIL
4- 200 400 600r
it0
-4-
97 I
+
BRL476-1-42 BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
80
hit~' '-t-
~i~ii4~4- y4 1 0
I --*4--~ -4--
0 0
-4: _
> 1. * I -i*Ii1i t1i 4
00
0 10
FOR 3HELL, HE. 76-MMK M42AI
BRLH 7& 1-42
1<' 0
1- 44
.
(0 4.4
t ~-i4 J-i
0-
1(1)
ww
0-10
LL. 00
0
I 0f 0 0 0
00
111
BRLH 76-1-42
BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
..... .... ....
-4--- 41r1_11++
0
i-T
71
0
tt
1-4-
+
4- - i4,-4
+
4-- -
LU
W
FLLL
4
0
It
EL
_0
-4
CY
U)
_W -
I w in - ----- 0
55.
z
_j
--------
<
t z f I I 1 11111;
Ir - J I 1 1 1 Jill I 1 11 i.
LAj -
I I
T 0 . I I I i 1 1 1
7 111 Jill
-T-
t I it
_44-
11 1 1 1 F
0
7f. fill R
I -A im
_7 H H
Sd.4-A.UOO'13A *WNIV4831.L
0 0 0
8
9
a
12
FOR SHELL. HE. 76-MKM. 42A1
SORui' XC-1-42
48
4 4 4 - !T TjTj j 4 -t - 'f
4 V 4
+ -Ttt
4-0
11 fil3
BRLH 76-1-42
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
80
T
o~
- +1r
-1--
1 -44
00
F3R 9HF-IL Ps_ 76.N
4
M. 1A21.i
SRLH 76 1-42
4-
.
t-
0
1A
-. 0~
11!
t+1--
4T~ d 111~AJ3UV~
'V o.
T1
0
f~i~~.~
1
.~T
Ki4~tq991 -A
Liw a.
i..
Ii~
ow
0>0
i5r
BFZLH 76.!.42
BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
8
-0
'T
-0
I tt
0
cr -
uj
-0
_j
w
-0
z -
M Z ev W
0
0
0
0
I CIO
T) o
1 1 H I
Eli
U. CL ----
w
w
0
INA
0
I INI
fill
if if 04
I -.-I I LL ++ V H
TFFTF_
1 VA 1 1 H
SIONVA-103JA 39N
j+j- - -
'#
0
0 0 0 0
CID
16
FOR SHELL M 76-MK M42A] BRLH 76-1-42
TT
L
0
.0
0
Ow
fit
ui
7-
-- ----
- CL m
- U. LUL.
- ------
0
U.
uwj z
I I I IOD
I
A++F, "I
I I I I I I Ilk
I IN
I I KMJ I I
L 11 1714 1
4t
-----
S0HVA--W3iJ3 3eNViJ
H i HHHHH11
0
17
BRIM 76-1-42
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
8
If
t I t
---
0---
-
00
188
011
FOR sHELL HE 76-MK N142AI
BRL4 76,IA2
H+ -
lilt
4-H4+
TTr-'.
--t
F
I .
It I I I
-1` I LI
j
I f I NL
U)
lilt
10
lfw
w
-11 11
1
U . I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1
h I i I I
.11 1 t- t-4- -4
w
LL
C)
LL CLI
4- -----
I I it
-Tl F
lilt-
rT
1 11+
I if
7
lilt Hr4+
i t I
t il l 1 1 1 , 11
if I I I f i f .
11
i t I
I
I i f
t i l l 1
-5-1
1 1 1 l ilt
V
I If
I I %A1
I I It
ll -A
-7E " _L
7 -T7 _-i_.
_7E LL
0
BRLH M6.1.42 BALUSTI17C AND ENGINEERING DATA
8S
L0
110
2L
L
II
200
FOR SHELL HE, 76.MN. M42AI
BRLH 76-1-42
9
SECTION V
EFFECT DATA
Paragraph
Fragmentation .......- ..............-....------------------ 9
Effectiveness -.-.-.-- --- -I--------------------------------------10
Ricochet data -.-.-.----- -I-- - ----------------------------------- 11
Penetration - ------------------------------------------------
12
9. Fragmentation. The data on fragmentation of the 76-mm HE Shell M42A1 were taken from
TM9-1907, "Ballistic Data, Performance of Ammunition' (Sep 1944) and Vol. IMI of "Terminal Ballistic Data!'
(Sep 1945). The initial !ragment velon' - is 2,260 fps.
a. Casualties.
TABLE 40
CASUALTIES
Average For the lightest
Distance Total number number oi effective fragment
from burst of effective effective frag.- Weight Velocity
(ft) frag-ments ments per sq ft (oz) (fps)
r N B m v
20 547 0.109 3.026 1510
30 498 0,04iO 0C.33 1340
40 465 0.0231 0.040 1220
60 409 0.0090 0.055 1040
80 3"0 0.0046 0.067 943
100 331 0.0026 0.080 862
150 282 0.0010 0.108 742
200 244 0.0005 0.137 eb0
300 191 0.0002 G.197 549
400 149 0.0001 0.275 466
21
BRLH 76-4.42
BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
9
CASUALTIES
0-
6/,
-60"
60
-"600
0
GROUND

INCLINATION 00
HEIGHT OF BURST OFT
REMAINING VELOCITY 0 FPS
0
-. LINE OF 9 -.
* FIRE
00 GROUND 0
ATLEASTIHIT INCLINATION 300
PER 4 SOFT HEIGHTOF BURST OFT
AT LEAST IHIT
PER IOSOFT REMAINING VELOCITY 815 FPS
22
"FOR SHFLL. HE. 76-MK. M42AI
BRLH 76-1-42
9
CASUALTI Eb
500..i.
0
LINE OF
FIRE
6C
.60' ]
INCLINATION 300
HEIGHT OF BURST 3OFT
REMAINING VELOCITY 815FPS
SLINE OF
FIRE
ii
-60*
Ar LEAST I HIT -0 Gc R-OUND
-
~PER4STFT
INCLINATION
30-0
AT LEAST I HG
N
PER IOSQ FT HEIGHT OF BURST 60 FT
AT EASST 11 REMAINING
VELOCITY 815 FPS
P~ER 25 OFT
23
BRLH- 7&61-4' BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
9
SHELL DEN5I TY REQUIRED IN AREA FRIX
EXPECTED CASUALTIES: 50% OF PERSONNEL7
4 4 GUN, 3-INCH,M5. SHELL, HE, 3- INCH, M142A1 I
IT
W uWIDTH OF FRINGE AROUND TARIGEI AREA TO BE INCLUDED
-REDUCEDCI4AIN M 5FIRE AREA
00t 4108020 1601
24H
FOR SHEIi. HE. 76-MM. M42A1
BRLH 76-1-42
9
b. Perforation of 1/8-inch Mild Steel.
TAELE 41
P=EF ORATMN OF 1/8 IN. MILD STEEL
Average For the lightest
Distance Total number number of effective fragment
from burst of effective effective frag- Weight' Velocity
(ft) fragments ments per sq ft (oz) (fps)
r N B m v
20 284 0.0565 0.106 1,860
30 242 0.0214 0.139 1,740
40 205 0.0102 0.177 3,800
60 151 0.0033 0.270 1,400
80 113 0.0014 0.375 1,270
100 90 0.0007 0.480 1,180
130 64 0.0003 0.648 1,080
160 43 0.0C01 0.825 1,020
190 28 0.0001 1.01 963
25
BRLIH 76.1-42
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
9
PERFORATION
OF I/8-INCH MILD STEEL
30*
-300
6P
roo
GROUND
INCLINATION 00
HEIGHT OF BURST 0 FT
REMAINING VELOCITY 0 FPS
Oo
LINE OF 990
FIRE
ATLEASTIHIT
INCLINATION
300
PER 4 SQ FT HEIGHT OF BURST 0 FT
SAT LEASTI HIT
PERiOSO FT REMAINING VELOCITY 815 FPS
26
FOR SHELL HE. 76-M.4 M42AI BRLH &6-1.42
9
PERFORATION OF 1/8-INCH MILD STEEL
GROUND
iNCLINATION
30
HEIGHT
OF BURST
3OFT
REMAINING
VELOCITY
815 FPS
AT LEAST
I HIT PERII0SQNFT
AT LEAST I HIT PER 25 SQ FT
27
-ww~ -lI
BRU-I 76.1-42
BALUSTIC AND ELNGINEERING DATA
9
SHELL DENSITY REQUIRED IN AREA
JEXPECTED PERFORATIONS 1/8-INCH1 MILD STEEL:.
-50 %OF ELE MEN1TS 2 SO FT WNAM~A
GUN, 3-INCH, M5. SHELLHE,3-iNCHW,M2AI i-
0 J 400 800
120 1 16000-
+
-]-T
I; fi28
FOR SHELL HL. 76.MM M42A1 E-,LH 76-1-42
IC. 12
10. --1-ectiveness. The following data were taken from Vol. m of "Tirininal Ballistic Data!'. They
pertain to the 76-mm HE Shell M42A1 with a PD, TSQ or MT Fuze, fired at a muzzle velocity of 2,700 fps.
NUMBER OF ROUINDS REQUWED AGAINET ENEMY ARTILLERY FOR 90%
PROBABILITY OF AT LFAST ONE EFFECTIVE HIT IN AIMED FIRE
Range Type of 1'ire
yd Irmfat Tbe _ Time and Impact
2 00 6 270 13
5000 56 1-5 87
11. Ricochet Data. The follkwirZg data were Laken from Vol. III of "Terminal Ballistic Data". They
pertain to the 7T-mm HE Shell M42A1 with the PD Fuze M48 set for 0.05 sec delay, fired at a muzzle ve-
locity cf 2,700 fps (the PL, Fuze, M48A1, M48A2 and M51&4 have 0.15 sec delay).
TABLE 75
PE in
Ramge Angle of Angle of Impact Height Height
Fall P.,.covery to Burst of Burst of Burst
yd rails mils yd ft ft
1,000 8 20 40 3 0
2,000 20 35 33 4 1
3,000 38 60 26 5
4,000 65 100 21 6 i
5,000 106 150 16 7 1
6,000 J 63 210 12 7 2
7,000 233 260 9 7 2
8,000 315 300 6 6 1
9.0%0 407 315 4 4 1
12. Penetration. The daca on penetration of ccicrete by the HE Shell M42B1 with the CP Fuze M78
were taken from TM9-1907, "Ballistic Data, Performancf of Ammunitiord. The data on penetration into
medimn earth and logs by the HE Shell M42A1 with the DP or CP Fuze were taken frdm Vol. III of "Termi-
nal Ballistic Data".
4
BRU4 76-1-4; BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
aTTAL NUMBER OF ROUNDS NECESSARY TO OBTAIN 900/91 44
4.PROBABILITY OF AT LEAST ONE PERFORATION IN TARGETS I
OF GRADE A CONCRETE (5000 PSI)
3 :1 (1) GUN, 3-INCHI, M5. MV: 2800 FPS
1 00
z00
1000 000 300 400 800
300
THCNS EIH IT
FOR SHELL. HE, 7&NIK M42AI
BRLH 76-1-42
12
(2) GUNS 76-mm I M IA2. MV 2700 FPS Ti i-_
T f-T ,
r-
14000
-1 -7;
T,
A-L+
+
111.2000
It
vy t ill
7--
.......... ... ID+ 1000
am
0
00
r
p 00
0
0
A:
--A I I Yw/ Iff z
a lilt I
of
vil /11
h
=100
so
GRAPH TARGET DIMENSIONS-IFT
0
THICKNESS HEIGHT WIDTH
A 7 10 15 TO 30
40
5 46 7.5
4-
0 5 10 15 TO 30
41 1:4
-4- D 3 4.5 7.5
4- :qq
I I 1 1. 1 1 T -1 _T't T--'-T T__r -144 TT:f JII +
20
H-f- --
4-T T T_
1-4 -4 1 1
T RANNGE- RDS 4t
I 1_1 IT]
0
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
31
Lr~t~:-
EIRLH 76.1-42 BAL:JSTIC AND ENCINEER]NC. DATA
ETOTAL NUMBER OF ROUNDS NECESSARY TO OBTAIN 90%
PROBABILITY OF ENOUGH HIT S TO MAKE A BREACH
12 FT WIDE IN A CONCRETE WALL IOFT HIGH.
GUN, 3-tNCH,M5. MV=260OFPS
GUN,76-MM, MIA2. MV r 2700 FPS
RANG a 100 Y
*~~ll fill6- NI I~A IV I I IF1S
INCLINTIONO EMAKMN GRETE THAN ''I5
0 ~~~ 900 200 301000 50 6
10 FT 32
BRLH 76-1-62
Ballistic Research Laboratories Ballistic Research Lab.
Handbook of Ballistic, and
Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Engineering Data for mmunition, Maryland.
No. 76-1-62. 3 February 1949
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
for
Projectile, APC, 76-mm (3-inch), M62A1
with
Fuze, BD, M66A1
Section Paragraph
I General ----------------
II Description ------------ 2 - 4
III Interior ballistic data--- 5
IV Exterior ballistic data -- 6 - 7
V Effect data ------------ 8
SECTION I
GENERAL
Paragraph
Purpose ........- ................-.....------------------ I
1. Purpose. The purpose of this number of the handbook is to furnish a concise collection of infor-
mation regarding the shape, dynamics, ballistics, and effects of the 76-mm (3-inch) Armor-piercing Capped
Projectile M62AI with the Base Detonating Fuze M66A1, which contains a tracer composition. This infor-
mation is collected from the drawings, reports, firing tables, and technical manuals pertaining to this am-
munition.
BRLH 76&1.62 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
2
!I
w
- !
II.. j)0
r---H- --
al)
AI
FOR PROJEZTILE. APC. 76-MM. M62AI BRLH 76.1.62
2-4
SECTION II
DESCRIPTION
Paragraph
Drawings ........- ................-...------------------ 2
Dimensions - - ..........--------- ----- - --------------------- 3
Physical characteristics -.-.-.---------------------- ---------------- 4
2. Drawings.
Projectile: Metal parts assembly and details 75-2-292
Fuze: Assembly 73-2-178
Details 73-2-179
Details 73-2-180
3. Dimensions.
Fuze: Length (outside) 0.42 cal
Band: Distance from base 0.274 cal
Width 0.346 cal
Body: Cylindrical length 1.82 cal
Ogival length (outside) 0.25 cal
Radius of ogival arc 1.273 cal
Cap: Length (outside) 0.40 cal
'Radius of ogival arc 7.00 cal
"Windshield: Length 1.92 cal
Radius of ogival arc 7.00 cal
Length: Ogive 2.57 cal
Projectile without fuze 4.39 cal
Projectile and fuze 4.81 cal
4. Physical characteristics.
Wei Yht (standardM 15.40 lb
Base of projectile to center of gravity 1.404 cal
Axial moment of inertia 16.97 lb. in.
2
Transverse moment of inertia 104.8 lb. in.
2
3m
BRLH 76-1-62 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
5.6
SECTION m
INTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Theoretical yaw in bore - 5------- -----------------
5. Theoretical yaw in bore.
Minimum 8 miin
Maximum 13 min
SECTION TV
EXTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Aerodynamic data .......- ..........-..------------------ 6
Firing table data .......- .............-..------------------ 7
6. Aerodynamic data.
a. Drag. The following results were obtained from resistance firings.
Muzzle Drag Form Ballistic Drag
Velocity Function Factor Coefficient Coef.
fps I C KD
2000 G
6
1.052 1.627 0.157
2600 G6 1.052 1.627 0.129
b. Stability. Ballistic Research Laboratory Report No. 427, "Stability of 3-inch Armor-piercing
Projectiles", gives the results obtained from stability firings of the 3-inch APC Projectile M62 with BD
Fuze M66A1 from the 3-inch Antitank Gun M5, whose twist of rifling is 1/40. The 76-mm Tank Gun M1A2
has a twist of rifling of 1/32.
Muzzle Moment Stability Factor
Velocity Coefficient Twist of Rifling
fps KM 1/40 1/32
1600 1.48 1.09 1.70
2600 1.41 1.14 1.78
4
FOR PROJECTILE. APC, 76-MMK M62AI
BRLH 76-1.62
7
7. Firing table data.
Gun 76-mm M1A2 (Tank) 3-inch M5 (Antitank)
Twist of rifling 1/32 1/40
Muzzle Velocity 2600 fps 2600 fps
FT 76-C-1 3-W-1
OCM Item 16167 standardized the 3-inch AP Projectile M62, which was lat2r called an APC Pro-
jectile. OCM item 18656 authorized its use in the 76-mm Gun Ml. The 76-mm Guns Ml and MIAI, with
1/40 twist, are now obsolete.
5
BRLH 76-1-62
BALUS11C AND ENGINEERING DATA
7
-4-. a,-FORM FXTER -ELEVATION CURVES
(PROJ TYPE 6)
L;
4
- 3 INCH GUN
H
T T
1.10
4 4-'
f i l l i l l )
i+
-t-7t
4- 4-
4-4-1
fill
1.0 'L6
t
-44-
76-MM GUN
-T
+1
t F4,
1.00 44.
+ I
I t I I
T-r-, 7: tl'
2
ZI
Ulf
T
I r I I I
.4
_t4- ELEVATION-
MiILL
0.9
iii I if
50 100 150 200
I fi t
r
I II fill I II! III
.4 E
l i l t f i l l f i l l f i l l ; i f
I I f 1
I
7 ttT-
I L11-1- _J
t
j, b.BALLISTIC COEFFICIENT- ELEVATION CURVES.
IIL J
(PROJ TYPE 6) fit
1.8
4
fill
I i f I
_17
-4
L-L-
I I I If
76-MM G N
474
+
4
4
if
t"I I T
T-
l# t - -H i
-i-
4
M- 3 INCH WN"'
44-_H44
-4-
ELEVATION-MI
F
4
0 50 100 150 200
6
FOR PROJEGT1LE, APC. 76,MM. M62Ai
BRLH1 76.1.62
________________,ELEVATION
-RANGECUVS--.
#_ LL
Liz I J4++-
50W INC GU
2000 400 600 800t
f i t -4 -
lilt
4
l"01
-4 - -- -- -
- I, I. I - - - --
500W
-4-
RANGEGE.-ARS YARDS ~ -- ~t7
0 00 4000 6000 800OIitCI
4 - H-4- ++H-44H II I 14 -4 4. II I I7
rBRLH 76-1-62
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERLING DATA
3OO~ T~ I TERMINAL VELOCITY- R~ANGE C~URVES
4 1- ir
T-t-~-
1
-~~ -+41-j- +. 1---
- ~ ~ U)~ J7Vr
tL ;jjL
4-
FOR PROJECTILE. AMC 76.MP4 M62AI
BRLH 776-1-62
...... . . .. *DRIFT- RANGE CURVES:-..
=7
37 INCH -M GUN 4-t
I '14-
44
.AGEYAD -, I
:iil-PEFLEGTION EFFECT OF I MPH LATERAL WIND -
I-, __T
* ~ ~ ~ ~ . .... .. .7~ 7T P~ . . .. :
, J- 4-.* 4-- -
p -4i414i 1 -~4 li
u4l .6M t I GUN j+
_j I _TT
tLRANGE-YAO
0 2000 4000 6000 8000
BR~L 7& 1.62
BALUS1IC AND ENGWNEERING DATA
7
IJRANGE EFFECTS OF IIPS INCREASE 4,
-~I-N MUZZLE VELOCITY (26W FPS IS STANDARD) '
AND IOF INCREASE IN AIR TEMPERATURE 4
(590F IS STANDARD) fl
If 'T
4
-T-r~ -ti 4
RANGEi4PDS~f WMEFETS-I~ 76-MM -V-M GUN
0 ~~ 200 400
4O0 80
MV10ECS -IC U
_u4
FOR 1.ROJEC-11LE APQ_ 76-MM% M62A]
I3RLH- 76-1-62
7
ILAG EFC OF MPH REAR WIND 1
43-1146H GU'N'
* 4 -76-MM GUN 4-i-
44
4 -4
*w 4
___ j
-3OU 1 14
t144
L2-i'
_wl
_11
BRLH 76-1.62 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
8
SECTION V
EFFECT DATA
Paragraph
Penetration .......- ..............-......----------------- 8
8. Penetration.
a. Ballistic Limits of Armor Plate.
Plate Ballistic Limit Number
Type Thickness Obliquity in
inches degrees Type fps Average
Face 3 20 Navy 1742 26
Hardened 3 30 Navy 2027 1
Homo- 3 20 Army 1726 2
geneous 3 20 Navy 1852 2
4 30 Navy 2391 1
b. Vulnerability of German Tanks (Panzerkampfwagen)
MV: 2600 fps. These data were taken from TM9-1907, "Ballistic Data, Performance of Ammunition".
Maximum Vulnerable Range - yd.
Tank Model HI IV VI
Attack Angle - deg 0 25 0 25 0 25
Frontal Turret Sides 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 2880 720
Turret Rear ---- - -------- 2880 720
Turret Front 4020 2930 4220 3080 * *
Upper Hull Front 3230 1740 3300 1740 1020 *
Lower Hull Front 2600 1180 3040 1600 * *
Flank Turret Sides 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 5000 2880 720
Turret Rear 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 2880 720
Turret Front 4020 2930 4220 3080 * *
Upper Hull Sides 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 2880 720
Lower Hull Sides 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 3980 3000
Rear Turret Sides 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 2880 720
Turret Rear 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 2880 720
Turret Front 4020 2930 4220 3080 * *
Upper Hull Rear 3900 2860 5000+ 5000+ 2200 550
Lower Hull Rear 4220 3080 5000+ 5000+ 2200 550
*Not vulnerable.
12
Fu-ROEnLE. AMC 76-MM. M62A]
BRLH- 7& 1-62
RJR
POJ~c8
-~ ~-1 &P~ENETRAT ION -VELOCITY CURVES
HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR PLATE
NAVY CRITERION
FROM VOL.N OF "TERMINAL
BALLISTIC
DATA"
....
-44
-44
771-
IIf
4:..
-
-ANGLE OF INCI ENCE 0
1,F 71,
-7
444' - -4 -- tif-
3-1
12 45I' i ++
50 i
4
T - -4--
4
-4--1
-4
1+44
'713
BRLH 76-1-62
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
&PENETRATION-VELOGITY
CURVES fill Ill If j!f iIj I
FACE HARDENED ARMOR PLATE
NAVY CRITERION
i t i I I I
r
I f I I
FROM VOLT OF "TERMINAL BALLISTIC DArA"
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
I f I f 1 1 1- I f 1 14 1 if I I I
i f I f
__4 -------
Jill
F #
- - - - - - - - - - - - -
4- -4-
-4-
_T r4-
-4- 1 1 1 If
f i l l j ! if
-T-r7T-
ANGLE 0 INC-MVICE 0
+
t
if
I f 1
+
4+4+
4
30*
.4 1 4-
if I "I fit
3
14 __4
'444
if I ++
IV
I f j f
t 7 i IX I !1! 1 F If I fill
4 i f I I i f
IT, _4_Fj 1 , - 1, 1 1 4 4-
I 1
11 i f
IT - 14 1
if
tit
_A if
-4
b
-T- T_ _r
4 14- t'
T
+H. r
t +v, -T,
----------- .-W ___ 'f
# #fl I If
H+H
--- TTT7-
VELOCITY-FPS -L "--I
_L -1 f --- i
0
1000 1400 1800 2200 2600
14
FOR PROJECTILE, APC, 76-MM. M62AI
BRLH- 76- 1.1,2
8
j.TOTAL NUMBER OF ROUNDS NECESSARY
TO OBTAIN 90%/ PROBABILITY OF AT LEAST -
ONE PERFORATION IN TARGETS OF
GRADE A CONCRETE (5000 PSI)
FOR PROJECTILE, APC, 760-MM, M62AI f- 4 4000
1000 200 ~OO 400 00
I 15
BRLH 7& 1-62 BAWSTIC AND ENGINEEFUNG DATA
f. Total Number of Rounds Necessary to Obtain 90% Prob~ability of Enough Bits to Make a Breach
~:12 Ft Wide in a Concrete Wall 10 Ft High. From TM 9-1907, "Ballistic Data, Performance of Ammunition!'.
Mv 2600 fps
Range 1000 yd
Wall thickness 6 ft 10 ft
No. of rounds 100 180
BRLH 76-1-79
Ballistic Research Laboratories Ballistic Research Lab.
Handbook of Ballistic and Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Engineering Data for Ammunition, Maryland.
No. 76-1-79 4 February 1949
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
for
Shot, AP, 76-mm (3-inch), M79 with Tracer
Section Paragraph
I General ------------------- 1
IT Description ---------------- 2 - 4
III Interior ballistic data ------- 5
IV Exterior ballistic data ------ 6 - 7
V Effect data ----------------- 8
SECTION I
GENERAL
Paragraph
Purpose -- -I-------------------------------------------------1
1. Purpose. The purpose of this number of the handbook is to furnish a concise collection of infor-
matiorn regarding th. shape, dynamics, ballistic, and effects of the 76-mrm (3-inch) Armor-piercing Shot M79
with Tracer. This information is collected from the drawings, reports, and firing tables pertaining to this
ammunition.
SECTION 11
DESCRIPTION
Paragraph
Drawing . .. . . . ..- . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..-. . . ..----------------- 2
Dimensions .......- ......... .....-.. ...----------------- 3
Physical characteristics ......- ...........-..----------------- 4
S BRI.H 76j.-79 BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERII' G DATA
*I
-I
t1J
42
= S
FOR SHOT, AP., 76-MM, M79 BRLH 76-1-79
2-5
2. Drawing.
Shot: Metal parts assembly and details 75-18-45
3. Dimensions.
Band: Distance from base 0.257 cal
Width 0.336 cal
Cylindrical body: Lenglh 1.844 cal
Ogive: Lengtn 1.189 cal
Radius of arc 1.667 cal
Shot: ToLal Length 3.033 cal
4. Physical characteristics.
Weight (standard) 15.00 lb
Base to center of gravity* 1.33 cal 2
Axial moment of inertia* 15.90 lb.in
Transverse moment of inertia* 81.85 lb.in
2
*Estimated on the basis of measurements of the 37-mm AP Shot M80.
S.2CTIO1% MI
INTERIO , bALLUSTIC DATA
Paragraph
Theoretical yaw in bore - - ----- ----------------- 5
5. Theoretical yaw in bore.
Minimum 8 min
Maximum 12 min
SECTION IV
EXTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Aerodynamic data -.-.--.------- ----.- ------- 4 .........-.....----------- 6
Firing table data .......- .............-...------------------ 7
BRLH 76-1-79 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
6-7
6. Aerodynamic datz.
a. Drag. A form factor of 1.05 relative to Projectile Type 1 was determined from resistance firings
at a muzzle velocity of 2600 fps. The corresponding oallistic coefficient is 1.59 on the G
1
drag function. The
drag coefficient is 0.229 at 2600 fps.
b. Stability. No stability firings have been conducted with the 76-mm AP Shot 1M79. The stability
factor estimatea from that of the 37-mm Armor-piercing Shot M80 (Ballistic Research Laboratory Report
438, "Yaw and Drift of 37-mm Armor-piercing Shots") at a muzzle velocity of 2600 fps and a twist of rifling
of one turn in 40 calibers is 3.4.
7. Firing table data.
Gun 76-mm M1A2 (Tank) 3-inch M5 (Antitank)
Twist of rifling 1/32 1/40
Muzzle velocity 2600 fps 2600 fps
FT 76-A-6 (p. 18) 3-T-1 (Abridged)
OCM items 17458 and 17523 recommended and approved calssiflcation of the 3-inch AP Shot M79
as substitute standard (the APC Projectile M62, which is mlore difficult to manufacture, is standard). OCM
items 19052 and 19204 recommended and approved its use in the 76-mm Gun M1. The 76-mm Guns Ml and
MIAl, with 1/40 twist, are now obsolete.
a. Form factor (Projectile Type 1): lI = 1.05.
b. Ballistic coefficient (Projectile Type 1): C1 = 1.59.
4
FOR SHOT. AP., 76-MM, M79 BRLH 76-1-79
7
-ELEVATION - RANGE CUIRVE
(WITHOUJT CORRECTION rOR JUMP)TE
f i l I I II I I
4
f l
II I -
-v tT.
610.
40 I i
-i+ -i
20-
I I~ 4l
If
00
T
9-
BRLH 76-1-79
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
7
P-60 If I
if .1
T-F
-F-F-T-T TT 7
SLTERMINAL VELOCITY -RANGE CURVE
IN I I
2 4 0 if it 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 X i I I I I ] I I I ; i l l I -_...
I X1 I I I I I f i l l
ii
it
It I
__j 1
-4-
P.200
4+1+
I f
2000-7-
Iswo
lit
L
1600 N I I
i f 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 f i l l !
140 If
It
I l i t I
i t
I f 1 1
1 i f
1 1 i t
If
1P.0c
I fill
1000-1
it
l i t
I f
lit-
-4-
74GE - YARDS
-7-r
Soo.
-
I I I I 1
7. TT-
1) 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
FOR SHOT, AP. 76.MM. M79 BRLH 76.1-79
8
SECTION V
EFFECT DATA
Paragraph
Penetratiox ........--- .............- -..---- ------------------- 8
8. Penetration.
BALLISTIC LIMITS OF ARMOR PLATE
Homogeneous
Plate
Ballistic Limit
Number
Thickness Obliquity Type fps in
inches degrees Average
3 0 Army 1356 2
4 0 Army 1719 1
3 0 Navy 1512 2
4 0 Navy 1911 1
!'
BRLH 76-1-93
Ballistic Rebearch Laboratories Ballistic Research Lab.
Handbook of Ballistic and Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Engineering Data for Ammunition, Maryland.
No. 76-1-93. 3 February 1949
BALLISTIC ANrD ENGINEERING DATA
for
Shot, HVAP, 76-mm, M93 with Tracer
Secticn Paragraphs
I General ----------------- I
HI Description -------------- - 4
III Interior ballistic data ----- 5
SIV Exterior ballistic data ---- 6 - 7
V Effect dat.--------------- 8
SECTION I
GENERAL
Paragraph
Purpose -.-.-.-.-- ---.--.--.--- -, - .......... 1
1. purpose. The purpose of thik nlmber of the haildbook is to furnish a conc'se collection of infor-
mation regarding the shape, dynamics, ballistics ard effects of the 76-mm Hypervelocity Armor-pierciig
Shot M93 with Tracer. This information is collected from the drawlngE, reportz, and firing tables pertain-
ing to this aznmunition and to earller experimeltal models of the T4 series (the M93 Shot was designated
T4F20).
SECTION U
DESCRIPTION
Paragraph
Drawings ........- ...............-....------------------- 2
Dimensions- -.-.-.-------- ----- ------- ----- ------- ----- ---------- -3
Physical characteristics ------- ------- ------.-------.-- ------------- 4
LI
BRLH 76.1-93
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
[2
0Ito
400
z 00
00
I
n
to!
Oiil
+
t
-
4
_ .. -4
FOR SHOT. HVAP. 76-MK. M93
BRLH 76-1-93
2-5
2. Drawings.
Metal parts assembly 75-2-361
Metal parts details 75-2-362 and 363
3. Dimensions.
Band: Distance from base 0.40 cal
Width 0.37 cal
Base and body: Length of base 0.86 cal
Length of body and bourrelet 0.83 cal
Length of bourrelet ring 0.17 cal
Length of base, body and bourrelet 1.69 cal
Windshield: Length 1.96 cal
Radius of arc 0.83 cal
Vertical angle of cone 28.68 deg
Shot: Total length 3.65 cal
Core: Diameter, 1.50 in
4. Physical characteristics.
Weight of shot with tracer 9.31 lb
Weight of shot without tracer 9.30 lb
Weight of core 3.95 lb
Base to center of gravity* 1.178 cal
Axial moment of inertia* 8.54 lb. in
T-'ansvers.e moment of inertia*
44.2 lb. in
2
*Calculatad from the dimensions of the HVAP Shot T4E1, which is approximately the same shape as
the M93 Shot, but weighs 9.97 lb and has a 3.98-lb core.
SECTION III
INTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Theoretical yaw in bore -.-.- - - -------- ----- ------ - - --------- 5
5. Theoretical yaw in bore.
Minimum 8.5 min
Maximum 13.6 min
BRLH 76-1-93 BALiJSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
6.7
SECTON TIV
EXTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Aerodynamic data .......- ...........- -...-------------------- 6
Firing table data .......- ...........- -...-------------------- 7
6. Aerodynamic data.
a. Drag.
Shot T4E17 M93
Drag function G8 G8
Muzzle velocity 3400 fps 3400 fps
Form factor (18) 1.175 1.165
Ballistic.coefficient (C
8
) 0.879 0.888
Drag coefficient (KD) 0.111 0.110
b. Stability.
Shot T4E17
Muzzle Velocity 3440 fps
Moment coefficient (KM) 0.67
dun, 76-mm MIAl M1A2
Twist of rifling 1/40 1/32
Stability factor 1.44 2.25
7. Firing table data. FT 76-C-1. MV 3400 fps.
Gun, 76-mm, MIA2. Tw.ist of rifling: 1/32. The 76-mm Guns M1 and MIAl, with 1/40 twist, are now
obsolete.
Standardization of the 76-mm HVAP Shot M93 with Tracer was recommended by OCM item 26551 and
approved by OCM item 26841.
a. Form factor (Projectile Type 8)" i8 = 1.175
This value was determined by resist-.-ce firings of the AP Shot T4E17 with a mean instrumental ve-
locity of 3337 fps.
b. Ballistic coefficient (Proj Type 8): C
8
= 0.879.
4
FOR SHOT, HVAP, 76-MM. M93
BRLH 76.1-93
7
i-
4
-
I I
IL
IC l il I
t i t IL
-t I i fI
~~II
4- +
-T- -T
tI A l
14 =I At II, I I I
tC I I I . l l i i l i l 1 1 f l
RANG -YARDS
-44 10 0020 L500 00 30
Z5
RIF,!
BRLH 76.1-93 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
7
-17 F IT! I I I I I I I I I I- I r 1- 1' T'T-TT r T__T_ I 1-r-I
ITERMINAL VELOCITY - RANGE
AND
------ TIME OF FLIGHT - RANGE CURVES
I ll i t
----------
4+
,4
I T
5
lilt
+
LI
3500
4- -
w
3000
t I
1 0, -3
---- vl t
lilt
U.,
+
U.
P.Boc
0
_j
_W
>
_j
TII
w
RANG YA
150
LH7 I I 1 0
0; 5 00 1000 1500 2000 2500 3-300
FOR SHOT, HVAP, 76-MM, M93 BRLH 76-1-93
8
SECTION V
EFFECT DATA
Paragraph
Penetration ........- ..............-....------------------ 8
8. Penetration. The chart on page 8 was taken from Ballistic Research Laboratory Report No. 533,
"Penetration of Armor by 76-mm and 90-mm HVAP Projectiles".
BRLH 76-1-93
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEEWNG DATA
BALLIST. IC LIMIT OF 4-LB Ib-INCH
TUNGSTEN CARBIDE CORE.
HOMOGENEOUS CLASS B ARMOR PLATE
BRINELL HARDNESS 220 TO 240
OBLIQUITY OF LATE
I I I I f i l l I ! t ! l l l 1 1 1 .1
fl - I I .
i I I -
# -0
r3o*-- WO -_50* 450-- 400-- 3
I [A-
4000--
7 -
yl
0t
/
14-
3000
-
, J,
J
I I if I I 1 .1 A
7
if
....
.......
I vi
t ]
.......
:r, 7
L _.( -------
4
2000
r T--
I
1
14-
If 7-7 T T-T 177- IT -1, ti 1-1-14-
THICKNESS OF PLATE- INCHES
Ill 1111ril
0 2 4 6 e 10 12 14
8
[IuF iIjw L!. TjJ'i1I3 ___
BRLH 81-1.43
I
Ballistic Research Laboratories Ballistic Research Lab.
Handbook of Ballistic and Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Engineering Data for Ammunition, Maryland
No. 81-1-43 4 February 1949
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEE,.ING DATA
for
Shell, HE, 81-mm, M43 and M43A1
with
Fuze, PD, M45, M52 and M52A1
Section Paragraph
I General -------------------- 1
I1 Description ----------------- 2 - 4
III Exterior ballistic data -------- 5 - 6
IV Effect data ------------------ 7
SECTION I
GENERAL
Paragraph
Purpose ........- ...............-.....-------------------- 1
1. Purpose. The purpose of this number of the handbook is to furnish a concise collection of Infor-
mation regarding the shape, dynamics, ballistics and effects of the 81--mm High Explosive Shell M43 with the
Point Detonating Fuze M45 and the 81-n:mm High Explosive Shell M43A1 with the Point Detonating Fuze M52
or M52A1. This information is collected from the drawings, reports, firing tables, and technical manuals
pertaining to this ammunition.
SECTION 11
DESCRIPTION
Paragraph
Drawings ........- ..............-......------------------ 2
Dimensions .......- ..............-...-------------------- 3
Physical characteristics -- -------------- ----- ------- ----- ----- 4
BRLH 81-1-43
BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
2
rf)w
,i a
-J
2~. 2
FOR SHELL HF. 81-MM M43 AND M43AI BRLH 81-1-43
2-4
2. Drawings.
Complete round, HE Shell M43 with PD Fuze M45:
Assembly and marking diagrain 75-1-47
Complete round, HE Shell M43A1 with PD Fuze M52:
Assembly and marking diagram 75-1-88
Shell: Metal parts assembly and details 75-2-261
Fins: Assembly and details 75-2-262
PD Fuze M45: Assembly 73-1-143
PD Fuze M52 or M52AI: Assembly and details 73-1-161
3. Dimensions.
Fins: Number 6
Length (omitting front slope) 0.66 cal
Length of assembly (outside) 0.96 cal
Shell: Radius of arc behind bourrelet 8.78 cal
Radius of arc in front of bourrelet 1.33 cal
Length of rear part 1.64 cal
Length of bourrelet 0.32 cal
Length of front part 0.36 cal
Length of adapter (outside) 0.10 cal
Total length 2.42 cal
Fuze: M45, outside length 0.73 cal
M52, outside length 0.74 cal
Length: Shell and fin assembly 3.38 cal
Shell, fin assembly, and fuze M45 4.11 cal
Shell, fin assembly, and fuze M52 4.12 cal
4. Physical characteristics.
Weight (standard) 6.92 lb
Center of gravity to point of fuze 1.92 cal 2
Transverse moment of inertia 68.97"lb.in
SECTION m
EXTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Aerodynamic data .......- .........-..------------------ 5
Firing table data - -8------------------ ----------------- --------- 6
\3
ORLH 81-143
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
5
0
w
2
w ___
4 z
4
fFOR SHELL HE. 81-MK. M43 AND M43AI BRLH 81-1-43
5
/0
41 i -- I~ hi T- ~FT T T I -- 4.1 1 ,I 0
UHT
I f 1
Tj 0
0 71
BRLH 81-1-43
BAW.STMC AND &N NEE~RING DATbA
-tt44
I~~i -----------
I6
0t
FOP SHELL HE, 81-MIN MA3 AND M43AI BRLH 81-1-43
6
6. Firing table data.
FT 81-B-P 3ri FT 81 -B-4 (abridged).
Mortars, 8l-mm, M1 and M21; Mortar, Trench, 3-Lnch, Mark IA2. Smooth bore: muzzle loading.
Projectile weight: 6.87 lb. OCM items 9909 end 10024 recommended and approvetd standardization of the
HE Shell 143 for the 81-mm Mortar MI. OCM items 11703 and 11767 recommended and approved standardi-
zatio.a of the NE Shell !443 for the 3-.ich Trench Mortar Mark IA2 with charges 0 to 4, but not with the
largar charges. OCM ittam 28162 and 238812 reccmmend&-d and approved standardization of the HE Shell
M4J .or the 81, mm Mortar M21; OCM item 31408 restandaraized it after further development of the mortar.
FT 81-R-1 (abridged) is a range-elevation table for the 81-mm Mortar T27, which is the M21 Mortar with-
oi'- he Z tenl-on Tube and is us d with charges 0 to 3 at short ranges.
a. Form factor data, The following form facto.rs relative to Projectile Type 1 were determined
L-zLi the ranges tabulated in FT 81-B-2 for an elevatic- of 450.
CEhge Muzzle Velocity Form Factor
0 235 .55
1 332 .69
2 419 .78
3 499 .72
4 572 .75
5 638 .77
6 700 .84
b. Ballistic coefficient data. The following ballistic coefficients relative to Projectile Type 1 were
determined from the ranges tabulated in FT 81-B-2 for an elevation of 450.
Charge Muzzle Velocity Ballistic Coefficient
fps C!
0 235 1.230
1 332 0.984
2 419 0.861
3 499 0.944
4 572 0.906
5 638 0.881
6 700 0.802
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIiiiiiiiiiiim
gill
BRLH 8 1- 1.43 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
6
ELEVATION -RANGE CURVES
-T-TFF
-4+-H CHARGE mv -it I it
0 235FPS
1 332 FPS
90-
2 419 FPS I it
I L I
3
499 FPS
572 PS
X1 rk
5 638FPS
%it
6 700FPS
I It
1 fl+H-+
1 1 1 1 l i t I I I
I A l I
x I
I I X
IX
lu 1 11
l1v I I
60 w
5
NI I
Us 11
41
2
7#
-- T I i
I I I t
I I It IN! 1
1 Ml
50 z
AM
u I
>
-
w
w
40
RANGE-YAROS J
30 ----
ti
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
8
FOR SHELL HE. 81-MM. M43 AND M43AI BRU-I 81.1-43
6
d.TIMEO RAFLGE- YARDSCU
0o~~~~fl 500 10010 20 50 00 30
.4 11 F A
T9
CHRE
M
BRLH 81.1-43 BALI.STIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
7
SECTION IV
EFFECT DATA
Paragraph
Fragmentation -.- - - ----------------.---- ----------------------- 7
7. Fragmentation. The data on fragmentation of 81--mm HE Shell M43A1 were taken from "Terminal
Ballistic Data", Vol. MI. The initial fragment velocity is 3,930 fps.
a. Casualties.
TABLE 42
CASUALTIES
Average For the lightest
Distance Total nmber number of effective fragment
from burst of effective effective frag- Weight Velocity
(ft) fragments ments per sq ft (oz) (fps)
N B m v
20 818 0.163 0.009 2570
30 695 0.0615 0.014 2060
50 645 0.0321 0.017 1870
60 541 0.0120 0.027 1480
80 459 0.0057 0.038 1250
100 384 0.0031 0.051 1080
150 267 0.0009 0.077 880
200 169 0.0003 0.104 758
300 76 0.0001 0.159 611
4
10
FOR SHELI_ HE 81-MK M43 AND M43AI
BRLH 81.1-43
7
SHELL DENSITY REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
1 -41
MtR
EXPECTED GASUALTIES:
50% OF PERSONNEL
if 111 11-1--
UPEROUICK GROUND BURSTS -NO SHIELDING
+ -7.
I-tttTrt-t--t-t 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
11-ttl -4-Fi-t-t+
WIDTH OF FRINGE AROUND TARGET AREA TO BE INMIMD IN FIRE AREA- 35FT
L 1 1 : 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - i f i l l -
fi l l II I I
I l i I I I f il l I M
CHARGE MV
44TF -
FTT_1 -
0 235FPS ----
i f f i l l
If I I I I
I 332FK ------
If
a
419 FPS
--- ---
3 499FPS
4 572FPS
If
5 638FPS
6 700FPS
3 -------
- 4
5
of
I I -------
1.6 1 1 1 IA I I . If Il ____
i v i-
I I I It I . .
I I I It] I IF I I I A I
I I I I I I I I fill I A 11 1
U)
f I I It I I i 11
I I I IF
I I A
0-
IF I
+ 11 1 1 1 1 1 11 1
1. 4 uo* I I 'A I I p I I
I I I f I
I I A
I IF
I lit I I It
A I I I
CL
IF I I I I I
A I I I I I
_j
1. J
If 1111
1.0 z F I 1 10'
I I
A I
60, 1 11
I v
ppl- f i l l I
RANGE-YARD'24,
0.611
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - . - _W
IIIIIIII
III
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
BRLH 81.1.43-
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
7
b. Perforation of 1/8-inch mild steel
TABLE 43
PERFORATION OF 1/8 IN. MILD STEEL
Average For the lightest
Distance Total number number of effective fragment
from burst of effective effective frag- Weight Velocity
(ft) fragments ments per sq ft (oz) (fps)
r N B In v
20 541 0.108 0.027 2970
30 413 0.0418 0.036 2670
40 407 0.0202 0.047 2430
60 282 0.0062 0.073 2090
80 164 0.0020 0.105 1870
100 88 0.0007 0.146 1720
120 58 0.0003 0.197 1530
140 40 0.0002 0.258 1420
180 23 0.0001 0.399 1240
12
FOR SHELL. HE. 81-MM. M43 AND M43AI BRLH 81-1-43
7
SHELL DENSITY REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
EXPECTED PERFORATIONS OF 118-114W. MILD STEEL-. I
50% OF ELEMENTS 2 SQOFT IN AREA
SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS - NO SHIELDING
WIDTH OF FR!NGE AROUr'7 TARGET AREA 10) BE INCLUDED IN FIRE AREA: 21 IFT
0 500 ICOO 500 200 250 300A380
------- -- ---
BRLH 8 1- 1-43
BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
7
5Q" OF ELEMENTS 2 SQ9.T IN AREA
SUPERQUICK GAVUND BURSTS- NO SHIELDING
DTh OF FRINGE AROW*D TARGET AREA TO BE INCLUDED IN FIRE AREA*. IIFt
t ' I I I I I I I I I I I I I I , I l l l i t 1
t i l l i I i , I I I 1i
BRLi 81-1-56
Ballistic Research Laboratories Ballistic Research Lab.
Handbook of Ballistic and Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Engineering Data for Ammunition, Maryland
No. 81-1-56 4 February 1949
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
for
Shell, HE, 81-mm, M56
with
Fuze, PD, M53, M53A1 or M52A1, and Fuze, TSQ, M77
Section Paragraphs
I General -----------------..- 1
U1 Description ------------------ 2 - 4
.rI Exterior ballistic data -------- 5 - 7
IV Effect data ------------------ 8-9
SECTION I
GENERAL
Paragraph
Purpose --- -I-----------------------------------------------
1. Purpose. The purpose of this number of the handbook is to furnish a concise collection of infor-
mation regarding the shape, dynamics, ballistics and effects of the 81-ram High Explosive Shell M56 with
the Point Detonating Fuze M53, M53A1 or M52A1, and with the Time and Superquick Fuze M77. This infor-
mation is collected from the drawings, reports, firing tables, and technical manuals pertaining to this
ammunition.
SECTION II
DESCRIPTION
Paragraph
Drawings - -.------------------------------------ - -.-.- -.--.-- 2
Dimensions ........- ..............-.....------------------ 3
Physical characteristics --.-.-.---.-------------------- -"- - - -- - - 4
BRLH 81.1.56
BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
2
-7.157
6.417- - -7"40
1.693-- 4.539
3&855 -- .684
-. 5491.196-L .304 1,
8 5
SHELL, HE, 81-MM, M56
FUZE, PD, M53
T.637
1.693- 54.539
! .18-"
SHELL,HE, 81-MM, M56
FUZE, T SQ, M77
ALL DIMENSIONS IN CALIBERS
I CALIBER a 3.189"
FOR SHELL HE. 81-MKt M56 BRLH 81-1.56
2-4
2. Drawings.
Shell: Metal parts assembly and details 75-2-283
Fins: Assembly and details 75-2-277
Increment, Propellant M2 or M2A1, and Holder:
Assembly and details 71-12-16
Fuze M53 or M53Al: Assembly and details 73-) -165
Fuze M52Al: Assembly and details 73-1-161
Fuze M77: Assembly 73-3-171
Complete Round: Assembly and marking diagram,
With Fuze M53 75-1-97
With Fuze M77 75-1-97
Rirg for adapting shell to Fuze M77 73-3-175M
3. Dimensions.
Fins: Number 12
Length 0.549 cal
Length of assembly (outside) 1.693 cal
Shell: Length of rear part 1.196 cal
Length of rear bourrelet 0.395 cal
Length of front bourrelet 0.304 cal
Length of ogival part 0.684 cal
Radius of ogival arc 1.997 cal
Total length 4.539 cal
Adapter: Length (outside) 0.185 cal
Ring: Length 0.217 cal
Fuze: Length (outside) of M53 0.740 cal
M5SA1 0.737 cal
M52A1 0.753 cal
M77 1.188 cal
Length: Shell, adapter, and fin assembly 6.417 cal
Same with Fuze M53 7.157 cal
Same with Fuze M77 7.637 cal
4. ")hysical characteristics.
S
With Fuze M53: Weight (standard) 10.62 lb
CG to juncture of adapter and fuze 2.324 cal*
With Fuze M77: Weight (standard) 11.62 lb
*The National Bureau of Standards located the center of gravity of a projectile filled with carbon
tetrachloride, whose specific gravity is 1.61 at 22
0
C (Lyman J. Briggs, "Report on Aerodynamic characteristics
of the 60-mm Mortar Projectile M49A2 and the 81-mm Mortar Projectile M56f', N.B. of S. VI-4/64, 1942).
3
BP11i 81-1-56
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
5
PROJECTILE,
TRENCH MORTAR, 81-MM
U
t
OP., CENTER OF PRESSURE TO JUNCTURE OF ADAPTER AND FUZE
7 -17
44+
it I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1
I _T I I
It
06
P
L1111CROSSWIND
FORCE
COUVOENT
NT KM u MOMENT COEFFICIE
I _TT I I I I I I l l . 1 1
L
LL
tE
YAW DES
It I
0
10
lilt
id-
I t I I I
Kos DRAG GOEFFiCIEN
JT -IT
TFFIT-Tr7
--------
.25
It
ft-
K
;00;7
-toq
'D
I too
HLHJ-
-
YAW
fQUARED
-DEG:!
k)0 200 300 'f"00
4
FOR SHELL HE. 81-MM. M56 BRLH 81.1.56
5-6
SECTICN II
EXTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Aerodynamic data .......- .............-...------------------ 5
Firing table data: PD Fuzes ......- .........---...--------------- 6
Firing table data: TSQ Fuze ......- .......- -.--------------- 7
5. Ae-odynamic data. The aerodynamic coefficients shown graphically on page 4 were computed
from the forces and torques measured by the Bureau of Standards in a wind tunnel at a velocity of 100 fps
(see par. 4).
6. Firing table data: PD Fuzes.
FT 81-C-2. (Part I).
Mortars, 81-mm, Ml and M21; Smooth bore: Muzzle loading. Projectile weight: 10.62 lb. OCM
items 15627 and 15674 recommended and approved standardization of the HE Shell M56 with PD Fuze M53
for the 81-mm Mortar Ml. 0CM items 28162 and 78822 recommended and approved standardization of this
ammunition foi the 81-mm Mortar M21; OCM item 31408 restandardized it after further development of the
mortar., FT 81-Q-2 (abridged) is a range-elevation table for the 81-mm Mortar T27, which is the M21
Mortar without the Extension Tube and is used with charges 1 and 2 at short ranges. OCM items 24288 and
24598 recommended and approved the classification of the PD Fuze M52A1 as suustitute standard for the
HE Shell M56.
5
BRLH 81-1-56
BALL1511C AND ENGINEEFUNG DATA
6
1.30 4-4
6
F 0 M FACTOR
-ELEVATION
CURVES
T-
(PROJ TYPE 1)
-4
4
Ll
#
t-t-
1-1- -71
1.20
++ -
-1 t I -I
4-
+H4-
-::r_
I fill
444+
Fr
4
1.10
i If
I NL I
1.00
a
IN
l i l t
s
fill
I I if t
-4+4-
0.9
tHl
------- ELEVATION DE(
0.6 to -
30 40 50 60 70 so 90
H 4PI 'r+H I I I Ill
BALLISTIC COEFFICIENT- ELEVATION CURVES I lilt
1.20
IE
,'PROJ
TYPE
1)
-
71
I i l l f i l l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I t f i l l I ly I I I
1.10
L
-4-
lo
C,
1.00-
I f I f
17-1 11
!-4-T
4
OL90
TT
it
ELEVATION-DEG
0.8
30 4-0 50 60 6 70 so 90
FOR SHELI- HE 8 I-MK M56 BRLH 81-1-56
6
-T
-++
90
zELEVATION-
RANGE CURVES
t
+
41T
I t i l l
I I I L i
i if
bo I N4 I I if
CHARM MV
I Ilk I I
3MFM
0 ----- -
2 412 FPS
3 502FPS
60 -
4 583FPS
IN
. . I i ! i
i ittttti
W .
V i
11 f i l l I
f i l l ?
lif
2- 74 !:1
-f I I f i l l I l i f
I IiIIN I 1 1 1 ) I l l I
T illw !i
4
1 1 IOD11
ME OF FLIGHIT- RANGE CUR S-
4-
-TF-77'
I ( I f 1
Af- -
fill
4
20
If
10 w
-+4- - - ---- --
J-
P
-
- ----- ------ :DZI
41
RANGE YARDS -1j- -j- -
66)
15 g!,OOO, 2500 3" 30
0 1000 00
BRLH 81-1-56 BALUSTIC AND, ENGINEERING DATA
7
T FIRING TABLE DATA; T. SO. FUZE. FT 81-S- I (ABRIDGED)
MORTARS 181 - MM, M I AND M21
9 # 0CM ITEMS 24288 AND 24598 RECOMMENDED AND APPROVED STANDARDO riON
-tt- OF FUZE, T SO, M77 FOR SHELL, HE, 81ii-MM, M56. PROJ WEIGHT 11. 62 L
. . . . . .
-T--j
-T
t
4 1' -14
80 J-
&6ELEVATION-RANGE CURVES
-f-
COMPUTED BY EMPIRICAL FORMULAS
14
I I 'ILI
70
CHARGE MV
ID FPS
1 300
2 399FPS
3 482FPS
6
0
0 Z
L A- - - 4 557FPS
5
.4
RANGE-YARDS-
40-
-4
500 1000 15W 2000 25 0
-1177777-1
41-1
JTIME OF FLIGHT- RANGE CURV S
40
ILI
U)
:3
30 -IL
w
T- -F IT +
4
2
L 1-1-
4141-
1 Fi-
RANGE
S
NARE
o 500 1000 1500 8 20co 2500
FOR SHELL HE. 81-MKt M56
BRLH 81-1-56
8
SECTION r;
EFFECT DATA
Paragraph
Fragmentation .......- .. ...... .... ..-....------------------
8
Penetration - ----------------------------------------------
9
8, Fragmentation. The data on fragmentation of the 81-mm HE Shell M56 were taken from TM9-1907,
"Ballistic Data, Performance of Ammunition' (Sep 1944) and Vol. III of "Terminal Ballistic Data!' (Sep 1945".
The initial fragment velocity is 6,180 fps.
a. Casualties.
TABLE 44
CASUALTIES
Average For the lightest
Distance Total number number of effective fragment
from burst of effective effective frag- Weight Velocity
(ft) fragments ments per sq 0 (oz) (fps)
r N B m v
20 2580 0.513 0.004 3860
3C 2060 0.182 0.006 3150
40 1680 0.0836 0.008 2720
60 906 0.0200 0.014 2060
1-0 614 0.0076 0.021 1680
100 412 0.0033 0.029 1/30
150 170 0,0006 0.056 1030
200 112 0.0002 0.080 862
300 63 0.0001 0.128 682
BRLIJ 81-1-56 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
CASUALTIES
INCLINATION O0
S~HEIGHT OF BURST O FT
REMAINING VELOCITY FPS
SLINE OF_,
SFIRE
00 GROUND 0
INCLINATION 69
AT LEASTI HIT HEIGHT OF BURST 0 FT
PER 4 SQ.FT. REMAINING VELOCITY 459FPS
AT LEAST IHIT
PER IOSQ. FT.
10
*00
F
FOR SHELI, HF- 8I.MK IM56
BRLJ1 81.1-56
8
SHELL DENSITY REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
EXPECTED GASUALTIES. 5001o OF PERSONNEL
SUPERQUICK GROUK", BLIRSTS-t4O SHIELDING
1111111 11111] 111 till 111111 1 111111
WiDT14 6F FRINGE AROUND TARGET AREA TO BE INrLUJDFJD IN FIRE AREA 36,
7-7r7r
I III It I I it 11 -i I-]- it
It
_4
I I I It I 1 11
------ I I it 1 1 1
lilt I I I
2mm My
7 1 306 FOS
Il It
a 412 FFPS -4
-LL j
lilt
I
502FPS
4 5 83FPS
I I FT-FT
11 111 l i ft -1 -I t 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 i t ]
H + I III till IIljj1- IjIj yj
lilt
3 , III M4:F4T
l i l t I I I lilt I I I lilt I I _7
I
It F f I I I I
+; I -F H -L
x"
I .- I-F) r
1 1 A 1 1-1
1 01
lit
it
T-vr-
+ IT ------
-H -- Ll,!!f
p'
- - - - - -
-U.
oo
- - - - - - - - - ----------
- - - - - -
-- - - - - --- ------- -
/I IA I
0.9---
lilt
I I I oli ----------
i7T-
TI
----------
44+::F
I V Il- ---------
oir
I
0.8---
4+4--
I I I FT-
I-FI I -- It
RANGE- YARDS
IIIIII I -M
0
500
1000
1500 2000
2500
3000
BRLU- 81.1-56 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
8
: b. Perforation of 1/8-inch mild steel.
TABLE 45
PERFORATION OF 1/8 IN. MILD STEEL
Average For the lightest
Distance Total number number of effective fragment
from burst of effective effective frag- Weight Velocity
(ft) fragments ments per sq ft (oz) (fps)
r N B m v
20 1040 0.208 0.012 4060
30 762 0.0674 0.017 3580
40 583 0.0290 0.022 3200
60 314 0.0069 0.035 2700
80 193 0.0024 0.051 2360
100 130 0.0010 0.071 2110
120 76 0.0004 0.097 1900
140 63 0.0003 0.128 1780
170 40 0.0001 0.188 1560
1
12
0
FOR SHELL HE. 81.MK. M56 BRLH 81-1-56
8
PERFORATION OF 1/8-INCH MLD STEEL
00
60"04
3v* -3v~
a, GRU"
0 GROUND
INCLINATION 0O
HEIGHT OF BURST 0 FT
REMAINING VELOCITY OFPS
00
60 -600
_.,LINE OF ._1
FIRE
00.
00 GROUND 0
INCLINATION 64*
HEIGHT OF BURST 0 FT
PER 4ASOIHFT REMAINING VELOCITY 459 FPS
IAT LEAST"I HIT
PER 10 SQ FT
13
BRLH 811-.56
BALUSTI7C AND ENGINEERING DATA
I SHEnrLL DENSITY REQUIRED IN AREA FMR
EXPECTED PERFORATIONS OF I/B-INCH MILD STEEL'~2
50% OF ELEMENTS 2 SQ FT IN AREA
* ~SUPEROUlOK GR~OUND BURSTS-NO SHIELDING X
WIDTH OF FRINGE AROUND TARGET AnFEA To BE INCLUDED IN FIRE AREA; 22 FT
+z4+iI f
I0 J l
o1 5001 00
116001 200 50 30
14f llI
fil
FOR SHELL HE. 81-MM. M56
BRL-14 811-156
'I ~ PERFORATIONS OF 1/-INH MIL SEL
_7 SHELL DENSITY REQUIRED IN AREA F IRE
HEXPECTED PER FOR~ATIONS OF V4I/4~iN MILD STEEL.
50% OF ELEMENTS 2 SO FIT IN AREA
SUPERQUIOK GROUND BURSTS -NO SHIELDING j
WIMT OF FRINGE AROUND TARGET AREA TO BE tINCWDED IN FIRE AREA: It FT
4U,,.U
151
BRLH- 8 1.1-56
BALUJSTC AND ENGINEERING DATA
9
''
ADO~~~~9 PENETRATIONITOARHCVRN(FNYTO-
_
PENETRATIONIT WO UIN PRORAESCL$L
0 P
2 4M2 PS
+HH16
BRLH 81-1-57
Ballistic Research Laboratories Ballistic Research Lab.
Handbook of Ballistic and Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Engineering Data for Ammunition, Maryland
No. 81-1-57 8 February 1949
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
for
Shell, Smoke, 81-mm, M57
with
Fuze, PD, M52 or M52A1, and Fuze, TSQ, M77
Section Paragraphs
I General --------------------- 1
H1 Description ----------------- 2 - 4
III Exterior ballistic data -------- 5 - 8
SECTION I
GENERAL
Paragraph
Purpose -.-.-.-.-.---- ----------- --------- ------------.------- 1
1. Purpose. The purpose of this number of the handbook is to furnish a concisc cnllection of infor-
mation regarding the shape, dynamics and ballistics of the 81--mm Smoke Shell M57 with the Point Detonating
Fuze M52 or M52A1 and with the Time and Superquick Fuze M77. This informaticn is collected from the
drawings, reports, and firing tables pertaining to this ammunition.
SECTION II
DESCRIPTION
Ppregraph
Drawings . . . . . . ..- . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..-. . . ..------------------- 2
Dimensions . . . .. ...- ... . . .. .... ...-.. . ..------------------ 3
Physical characteristics ......- ...........---..---------------- 4
BRLH 81-1.57
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
2
-"~~' 7157 ..
"_ _.417
=_
-
.7406"1
- 1.6934.3
3.855
81
-. 549 1.196 --. 395
SHELL,SMOKE, 81-MM,M57
FUZE ,PD, M52
-
b7.637
- 1.693 -. 4.539 -- ______
3.855 68
SHELL ,SMOKE, 81- MM, M 57
FUZE,T SQ., M77
ALL DIMENSIONS IN CALIBERS
I CALIBER a 3.189"
2
FOR SHELL SMOKE 81-MM. M57 BRLH 81-1.57
2-4
"2. Drawings.
Shell: Metal parts assembly and detalls 75-2-284
'Fins: Assembly and detaili 75-2-277
Increment, Propellant, M2 or M2A1, and Hold.~r:
Assembly and details 71-12-16
Fuze: Assembly and details 73-.? -161
Complete Rounds: Assembly and marking diagram,
With Fuze M52 and FS 75-1-94
With Fuze M52 and WP 75-1-93
With Fuze M77 and FS 75-1i-198
With Fuze M77 and WP 75-3 -199
Ring for adapting shell to Fuze M77 73-S3-175M
3. DImenslons.
Fins: Number 12
Length 0.549 cal
Length of assembly (outside) 1.693 cal
Shell: Length of rear part 1.196 cal
Length of rear bourrelet 0.395 cal
Length of front bourrelet 0.304 cal
Length of ogival part 0.684 cal
Radius of ogival arc 1.997 cal
Total length 4.539 cal
Adapter: Length (outside) 0.185 cal
Ring: Length 0.217 cal
Fuze: Length (outside) of M52 0.740 cal
M52A1 0.753 cal
M77 1.188 cal
Length: Shell, adapter, and fin assembly 6,417 cal
Same with Fuze M52 7.157 cal
Same with Fuze M77 7.637 cal
4. Dhysical characteristics.
a. Chemtical charges.
(1. Fuming Spray: A liquid, which turns to smoke when released.
(2) White Phosphorus: A pale yellow solid. A layer of 1/8 inch of water is included in th= charge.
When released, this forms a white smoke, which is poisonous.
b. Weights. The standard weights of the fuzed projectiles are:
Charge Fuze M52 Fuze M177
FS 11.86 lb 13.03 lb
WP 11.36 lb 12.53 lb
3
_ BIR4L 81-.157 BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERUNG DATA
5-6
SECTION MI
EXTERIOR B3ALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Aerodynamic data 5
Firing table data (FS) PD Fuze .......-... ..---------- - - - ------- 6
Firing table data (WP): PD Fuze .....- --...---.-.------ - --------- 7
Firing table data (WP): TSQ Fuze- - -------------------- 8
5. Aerodynamic data. Since the Smoke Shell M57 has the same shape as the High Explosive Shell
;A56, its drag coefficient and cross wind force coefficient should be the same. These are given in OH 81-1-56.
The position of the center of gravity and consequently the moment coefficient may be different with the chemi-
cal charges from what they are with the high explosive charge; they have not been measured with the chemical
charges.
6. firing table data (FS): PD Fuze.
FT 81-C-2 (Part. 2)
Mortars, 81-mm, Ml and M21. Smooth bore: muzzle loading. Projectile weight: 11.86 lb. OCM
items 15627 and 15674 recommended and approved standardization of the Smoke Shell M57 with PD Fuze
M52 for the 81-rnm Mortar Ml. 0CM Items 28162 and 28822 recommended and approved standardization
of this ammunition for the 81-mm Mortar M21; OCM item 31408 restandardized it after further development
of the mortar. FT 81-Q-2 (abridged) has a range-elevation table for the 81-mm Mortar T27, which is the
M21 Mortar without the Extension Tube and is used with charges 1 and 2 at short ranges.
4
OR 9HELL SM')KE, 8.-MKM. 57
BRLH- 81-1-57
6
aORM FAC7G LZlfWE
----
- (PROJ TYPE 1)
f I
-00
7.11
3
tf
1.001
*ELEVATION - O
11kBALLISTIG GOEm ~aNT-ELEATION CURVES I
. . . . . . .
H44+ It
4-VT~~
-
14 ! 0 60 5 0 80s 90
BRLH 81.1-57 BALUSTIC AND ENCINEEMNIC DATA
6
ELEVATION- RANGE CURVES
tt FS: PD FUZE
T
9
t4
..... ..... fi
TT-1 -144 L
CHARGE
so
:p
291 FPS
IV
2 390FPS
I I It IN
3 472FPS
A
4- 4 544FPS =t-
T- 4-
I I I V
IN
4f Tv-
t N I 1
44
0- X I
+4
44-
fit ILI L
I
60-
w
4-
4 -i-
4 - t
i H
it t LIL- -L41 3
t
40
4- 4-
4 A--,'
C.)
-W ITIME OF FL*HT RANGE CURVES
fit FS: PD FUZE
4: +
-44
30
+
73
+
H
ILL
0
J-
+
ti
4-
+
------
2
7
tf- tt
t
-41
10
4-- r 4-4- 4-
T- Tt -T-
IT
GE-'
J
YARDS H I
fit I f t 4 -1
%10 500 1000 15000 2000 2500
FOR SHELL SMOKE. 81-MM. M57
BRU-I 81-1-57
7
13FF FIRNG ABLE I~A(wt: PuL /_L1
IFT 81-C-2 (PARTl) 44
1 -+ V PROJECTILE WEIGHT: 11.361 P~..-
~-rT-- j. f (FOR MORTARS AND OCM1v1 TEMS, SEE PAR.6)
4- ,FORM rACTOR -ELEVATION GLIRVES(PRO~j 1YE )
tt}I -4 di
1.0~~~:- T9FPS!i-
t,
~
t4 4+
~~XI
3r-r
I--s
41.100
3 44484FPS~P
ELEVATION - DEG4*
40 9Ds0eos
tlIH7l
BALUSnC AND ENGINEEMNG DATt-
BRLH 81.1-57
7
Q ELEVATION - RANGE CURV r'S
r 1-
90 WP; PD FU7.E
If
ml Tltlrt_ it
-T
if I
--Tit III
i t I i t i t I I I I
tl
I if T--
w . +_ - .-
70
-Z
-if;-
CHARGE
mv
297 FIW_-
_j
399FPS.
60 t ----------
If
484FPS
4 560FPS
4-
4
if 'If
5
ri
-4
j
44 44Z
It
40
-4-T
L L4,
_T
fL.TIME 7UFI'-'LfGRT
IqWRGE:c CU VES
L
WP: FD FUZE
Tr
30
1+
U.
4-
20
2
-4
+
t
L
if + 1 1
i4l
RANGE YAR
f j__ it
T
L
0 500 ow 15co 2000 2500
8
FOR SHELL. SMOKE. 8I-'AM. M57
BRLH 81-1-57
1-4
87TT:; NG TABLE
T.WP1SQ.FZ
FT ef-S-1 (ABR1DG7EED1 PROJ WEIGHT 12.45LB
MORTARS, SI-MM, MI AND M21
DOM ITEMS 4288 AND 24598 RIECOMMENDED AND APPROVED SMANDARC)IZAT30ONl
OF FUZE, T.SQ.M77 FOR SHELL, SMOKE, SI1-MM, M57.
f
d
CO1 PUED BY EMPIRICAL FORMULA 7
4-4
- ~'i~ tiCHARGE MV 4t~
~~ 3 8 1GFPS t~
3 44FP
I II
LIt
ii-'
4 4
0 001w 00 20
T_9
- ~--T - - -- _= --- -
BRLH 90. I-T33
Ballistic Research Laboratories Ballstic Research Lab.
Handbook of Ballistic and Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Engineering Data for Ammunition, Maryland.
No. 90-1 -T33 '1 February 1949
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEZRI-NG DATA
for
"Shot, AP, 90-mir, T33
with
Tracer
Section Paragrap.x
I General -------------------- 1
IT Description ----------------- 2 -4
IHI Interior ballistic data -------- 5
IV Exterior ballistic data ------- 6 - 7
V Effect data ------------------- 8
SECTION I
GENERAL
Paragraph
Purpose .... . ...- .. .. . .. . . . . .. . ..-. . .. ..------------------ I
1. Purpose. The purpose of th's number of the handbook is to furnish a concise collection of LIfor-
mation regarding the shape, dynarnics, ballistics, and effects of the 90-mm Armor-piercing Shot T33 with
Trace;. This information it collected irom the drawings, reports, firing tables, and technical manuals
pertaining to this ammunition.
BRLH
90.I-T33
BALUSTIC
AND
ENGINEERING
DATA
II
00
C
D
So
-J-
20
4C
I
FOR SHOT. AR. 90.MMK T33 BRLH 90-I.T33
2-5
SECTION II
DESCRIPTION
Paragraph
Drawings .. .. ....- . . . . .. .. ... . . . ..-.. ..------------------ 2
Dimnt-nsions . . . . . ...- . . . .. .. ... . . ..-. . . ..------------------ 3
Physical characteristics ......- ...........---..---------------- 4
2. Drawings.
Shot: Metal parts assembly and details 75-2-388
Body 75-18-44A
Windshield 75-18-51A
3. Dimensions.
Band: Distance from base 0.282 cal
Width 0.336 cal
Body: Cylindrical length 1.951 cal
Ogival length 0.829 cal
Radius of ogival arc 1.496 cal
Windshield: Length 1.946 cal
Radius of ogival arc 9.0] 5 cal
Length: Ogive 2.207 cal
Shot 4.158 cal
4. Physical characteristics.
Weight (standard) 24.06 lb
Base to center of gravity 1.241 cal 2
Axial moment of inertia 35.64 lb.in
Transverse moment of inertia 191.4 lb.in
2
SECTION Im
INTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
P -agraph
Theoretical yaw in bore- - ----- ------------------- 5
5. Theoretical yaw in bore.
Minimum 3.0 min
Maximum 5.5 min
BRLH 90-1.T33 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
6.7
SECTION IV
EXTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Aerodynamic data .......- ...........- -....------------------- 6
Firing table data .......- ...........- -....------------------- 7
6. Aerodynamic data.
a. Drag. The followhng data were obtained by resistance firings (see Ballistic Research Laboratory
Memorandum Reports 336, "Ballistics of 90-mm AP Shot T33", and 347D, "Stability Factor of 90-mm Shot
T30E15, and Form Factors of 90-mm Shot T30E15, APC Projectile M82, and AP Shot T33").
Velocity Drag Form Ballistic Drag
fps Function Factor Coefficient Coefficient
2666 G6 1.01 1.90 .121
3029 G
7
1.81 1.81 .J08
b. Stability. Ballistic Research Laboratory Memorandum Report 336, "Ballistics of 90-mm AP
Shot T33", gives the results obtained from stability firings of this projectile from the 90-mm Cuan M1
Muzzle velocity 2700 fps
Moment coefficient 1.24
Twist of rifling 1/32
Stab-iity factor 2.12
7. Firing table data. FT 90-F-i
Guns, 90-mm, M1, MIAI, M2, M3 and M26.
Twist of rifling: 1/32.
Muzzle velocity: 2800 fps.
Projectile Weight: 24.0 lb.
OCM item 29999 recommended that the AP Shot T33 be classified as limited standard; by item 30181,
it was made limited procurement type.
a. Form factor (Proj Type 7). i, = 0.97.
b. Ballistic coefficient (Proj '.ype '7): C
7
= 1.98.
4
FOR SHOT, AP. 90-NMM. T33 8RLH 90.1-T33
7
- :zt :~ .ELEVATION-RANGE CURVE-
+44
- - - - - - -
4-I
w4
7T r~I I
....
...
... .z:j ....
t
...
7...
U ~iL ~yij~i~i- RAGE -YARDS - 1
0 20yj 400 600 800
L
r BRLH 90-1-T33 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
7
* *~. ITERMINAL VELOCITY - RANGE CUJRVE AD---
ZT;IJTIME OF FLiGHT- RANGE CURVE
280
0-0
FOR SHOT. AR, 90-MM, T33 BRLH 90-I.T33
8
SECTION V
EFFECT DATA
Paragraph
Penetration ........- ..............-.....------------------ 8
8. Penetration. According to OCM item 26320, the 9)0-mm AP Shot T33 with a muzzle velocity of
2800 fps will penetrate the front glacis plate of the German 'Panther' Ta:.k (Panzerkampfwagen V). The
armor plate penetraticn - velocity curves, taken from Vol. MII of "Terminal Ballistic Data", are shown on
the next page.
BRLH 90-1-T33 BALLISMi AND ENGINEERINGJ DATA
8
& 8PENETRATION - VELOCITY CURVES
HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR PLATE
H-
L
tt4"
Z., --Z -:.
Tz-..- ... PEETATO.I :7 __ 7
55
- I
Ballistic Research Labcratories Ballistic Research Lab.
Tian0book of Ballistic and Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Enginecring Data for Anrnnnurtiou, Maryland.
No. 90-1-58 8 Februexy 1949
BALL"STIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
!or
Shell, 22, 90-mram, M58 and M58BI
wlth
Fuze, MT, M43A5
Section Paragraphs
I General ---------------------- 1
II Description ------------------ 2 - 4
III Interior ballistic data --------- 5 - 6
IV Exterior ballistic data -------- 7 - 8
SECTION I
GENERAL
E~aj!raph
Purpose --- -------------------------------------------------
1. Purpose. The purpose of this number of the handbook is to furnish a concise collection of infor-
mation regarding the shape, dynamics and ballistics of the 90-mm High Explosive Shcll M58 and M58BI
with the Mechanical Time Fuze M43A5. This information is collected from the drawing3, reports a:d firtng
tables pertaining to this ammuniton.
B3LHO~I-5OBALLISTI AND ENCINEERING DATA
*1o
to
0:
~~ If
FOR SHELL HE. 90-MM. M58
BRLH 90-1-58
2-4
SECTION U
DESCRIPTION
Paragraph
Drawings -. - . . . . .- . .- . .- . .- . .- . .- . .- . .- . .- . . ..- . .- . .- . - 2
D im ensio s . . . . . . ..- . . . . . . . . . . . . ..-. . . ..------ - - - - - - - - - - - - 3
Physical characteristics ......- ...........---..---------------- 4
2. Drawings.
Shell: Metal parts assembly and details 75-18-39
Booster M20: Assembly and details 73-2-112
Fuze: Assembly and details 73-7-29
3. Dimensions.
B oattail: Angle 70005
Length 0.50 cal
Band: Width
0.34 cal
Distance from base 0.74 cal
Distance from boattail 0.24 cal
Cylindrical body: Length 1.73 cal
Ogive: Length
1.30 cal
Radius of arc 8.95 cal
Fuze: Outside length 1.05 cal
Length: Shell 3.53 cal
Shell and fuze 4.58 cal
Ogive and fuze 2.35 cal
4. Physical characteristics.
Mean weight: Marking U 20.67 lb
Marking f (Standard) 21.00 lb
Marking EU [ 21.33 lb
Base to center of gravity* 1.789 cal
Axial moment of inertia* 0.2528 lb.
2
Transverse moment of inertia* 2.499 lb. ft
*From Ballistic Research Laboratory Report No. 165.
3
BRLH 90.1-58
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
5
A B
SECTION
A 8
-910
-208y
- 512
+515
-J
//LONGITUDINAL,
AXES OF RESULTANT STRESS
DIAGRAM OF RESJLTANT STRESSES
FOR SHELL. HE, 90-MMK M58
BRLH 90-1-58
5.6
INTERIOR BALLISTIC PATA
Paragraph
Stresses - ------ ----- ----- ------- ----- ------- ----- ----- --- 5
Theoretical yaw in bore ---.---- ------- ------- --- ..- ------- 6
5. Stresses. The following table and the graphical rep-esentatic!. or. page 4 show the longitudinal,
radial and tangential resultant stress at each of two sections: (A, the rear corner of the band seat and
(B) the front of the band seat.
Guns, 90-mm MI, M1Al, M2
Twist of rifling 1/32
Cross-sectional area of bore 10.114 sq in.
Rated maximum pressure 38,000 psi
Total weight of projectile 21.00 lb
Muzzle velocity 2,800 fps
Density of filler (TNT) 0.057 lb per cu in,
Resultant Stress* Section
100 psi B
Longitudinal -256 -512
Radiel -r521 - 56
Tangential -910 +515
* + denotes tension, - denotes compression.
6. Theoretical yaw in bore.
Minimum 3 min
Maximum 5 rnin
SECTION IV
EXTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Aerodynamic data .......- ...........- -....------------------- 7
Firing table data .......- .............-.....------------------ 8
5
7-U4 9o-!-58 ALLMSTIC AND ENGIN.ERIN4G DATA
S1-.8
7. Aerodynamic data.
a. Drag. The trajectories for the 90-mm Guns MI, MIAl and M2, on antiaircraft mounts, were based
on the G
2
drag function. The form facors, determined fror. range firings, are given in paragraph 8a.
b. StablUty. Ballistic Research Laboratories Report No. 165, "Stability of 90-mm Shell 1", gives
the results of stability firings of the HE Shell M58 (T3) with inert F'uze M48 from the 90-ram Gun T2, which
was rifled with a twist of one turn in 30 calibers. From these results, the foll, ving data were calculated for
the HE Shell M58, with MT Fuze M43, fired frcm the 90-mm Guns 141, MIAl and M2:
Muzzle VeW ocity 2800 fps
Twist of rifling 1/32
Stability fector 1.33
Moment coeffizient, KM 1.10
c. Drift. The defection due to drift, for a muzzle velocity of 2700 fps and a twist of' -. _'ag of one
turn in 32 clibes, is tabulated in :WT 90AA-A-1, Part 2. Tabias C-I and C-2.
8. Firize table data. FT 90CJ&.-A-I
Guns, 9C-nrm, Ml. MvAt anv6 M. oa antiaircraft mount.
of Irrg: uniform 1/32.
Muzzie velocity: 2700 1ps.
,CM item 15646 standardized the 90-mm HE Shell M58 for the 90-mm Gun MI, OCM item 15at
standardized the complete round, includii.g the HE Shell M58 ant the Cartridge Case M19, for the 90-mm Gun
Ml. Reclassification of the BE Siell M58 as 11mited standard was recoinrt.aded by OCM IAtem 16844 and ap-
proved by OCM item 16962. 7he characterlstics of the 90-mm Guns MIAl and M2 are the s,me as those of
the 90-mm Gun 1ol.
a. TraJectory data. 'r,.jectory and fy._, uecter curves ir,- a muzzle velocity of 2700 fps are gitren on
TC 90AA-A-1. With the rize sat 'soafe ,
Maximum horizczmtal rarge 17,590 yrI
Maximum ord.-4I 12,376 yd
g.8
FOR SHELL HE. 90-MK. M58 BRH9--8
-It
0
rJ
0
W0
I tU + 11 114 11--0
TA0
0 4
7L
BRLH 90-1-58
BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
fill
I I I A I
11-4
.1 I f IfI I I
1 1 I f
I A I I I
If I I if
10
I
w cn-
0
cm
fill co
W
CL
LL
I fill
a.
I It
Z
0
w
10
it
S2 I r I
LL
U- <> 12-8
w x
I I i IF
0 Sn
fill
I
I I
J ill I
If.
i f i l l if
If ------ - >
i f ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 If
: if
0
co
if if
4 1 I t -t i !it
CO f il l I
J-1 1 1
f i t ff i t
j ! J i J 11 i f I t
I t I I II I ! I
I f I If I f I I I l l i t
: 1 1 1 1 ! 1 ! ! I J I t ;
1 1 f i l l I ! , , i ; 1 I I ! t i ! l f
I I i t i l l i t i ' t
It ; III I i ! I I
I f I i t
i f , I
I I it I : I If I I I I ! ' '
.11 !j ilt-4 -
it
it f it i l l
tttttt f i t
Ij
f i l l I t I I I I[ ,
i i ) ' f i t I I I - I
Ilt,
I f I
11,
20 -. LN3101:1:1300 OUSI
4+1 i 1
too
BRLH 90.1-71
Ballistic Research Laboratcries Ballistic Research Lab.
Handbook of Ballistic and Aberdeen Proving ,,und,
Engineering Data for Ammunition, Maryland.
* No. 90-1-71 8 February 1949
BALLISTC AND ENGINEERING DATA
for
Shell, HE, 90-mm, M71
with
Fuzes, MT, M43A5; PD, M48, IvI48Al, IvI48A2,
and M51A4; TSQ, M51 and M55A3; and CP, M78
Section Paragraphs
I General -------------------- I
II Description ------------------ 2 - 4
III Interior ballistic data --------- 5 - 6
IV Exterior ballistic data -------- 7 - 9
V Effect data ------------------ 10 - 13
SECTION I
GENERAL
Pararr.Luh
Putrpose --- -------------------------------------------------
1. Purpose. 7he purpose of this number of the handbook is to furnish a concise ?clleLz::n f .nf:r-
mation regarding tne shape, dynamics, ballistics and effects of the 90-mm High Explhsive 31.ell _
the Mechanical Time Fuze M43A5, the Point Detonating Fuze M48, M48A1, M48A2 or lJ1IA4, th.e i, ant
Superquick Fuze M54, and tihe Concrete Piercing Fuze M78. This information is collected fr-nm the draw-
ings, reports, firing tables, and technical manuals pertaining to this ammuniticn.
[1
BRLH 90-1-71
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
2
r- - --- 4.58 -
-- 1.732.35
7~!
.5- 2 0.74".-
S "1'-- -1.30- 1.05
3.53
SHELL, HE, 90MM, M71
FUZE, MT, M43A5; PD, M48, M48AI OR M48A2; OR TSQ,M54
458
1.73 2"05-
,3.53 -
SHELL, HE, 90MM, M71
FUZE, GP, M78
ALL DIMENSIONS IN CALIBERS
I CALIBER 3.543"
FOR SHELL HE. 90-MM M71
BRLH 90-1-71
2-3
SECTION IU
DESCRIPTION
Pa-agraph
Drawings . . . . . . ..- . . . . . . . . . . . . ..-. . . . . ..------------------ 2
Dimensions .. . . . ..- . .. . ... . . . . . ..-....-------------------- 3
Physical characteristics- - ----- ------------------ 4
2. Drawings.
Shell: Metal parts assembly 75-18-42
Booster, M20A1: Assembly and details 73-2-112
Booster, M21A4: Assembly 73-2-154
Fuze, MT, M43A5: Assembly and details 73-7-29
Fuze, PD, M48, M48A1 and M48A2: Assembly 73-2-140
Fuze, PD, M51A4: Assembly 73-2-145
Fuze, TSQ, M54: Assembly 73-3-154
Fuze, CP, M78: Assembly and details 73-2-214
Note: The MT, PD, and TSQ Fuzes require one of the Boosters; but the CP Fuze contains their
working parts. The TSQ Fuze M54 and the Booster M21A4 are components of the TSQ Fuze M55A3, dwg
73-3-155.
3. Dimensions.
Boattall: Angle
700'
Length
0.50 cal
Band: Distance from boattall 0.24 cal
Distance from base 0.74 cal
Width 0.34 cal
Cylindrical body: Length 1.73 cal
Ogive: Length 1.30 cal
Radius of arc 8.95 cal
Shell, unfuzed: Length 3.53 cal
Fuze, MT, Mt3A5; PD, M48, M48A1, M48A2 or
M51A4; or TSQ, M54:
Outside length 1.05 cal
Ogive and fuze 2.35 cal
Shell and fuze 4.58 cal
Fuze, CP, M78: Outside length 0.75 cal
Radius cf arc 2.26 cal
Ogive and fuze 2.05 cal
Shell and fuze 4.28 cal
BRLH 90.1.71 BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERNG DATA
4-5
4. Physical characteristics.
a. MT, PD and TSQ Fuzes. The weight, location of center of gravity, and moments of inertia of the
HE Shell M71 with any of these fuzes are approximately the same as those of the Shell lbr1 (TS) with the
MT Fuze M43, which arE tabulated below.
Mean weight: Marking a 23.07 lb
Marking a] a (standard) 23.40 lb
SMarking U U 0 23.73 lb
Base to center of gravity 1.742 cal
Axial moment of inertia 0.2753 lb.ft
Transverse moment of Inertia 2.627 ib.ft
2
b. CP Fuze. The HE Shell M71 with the CP Fuze weighs 0.34 lb more than with the other fuzes.
Its other characteristki.s would also be slightly different, but have not been measured.
SECTION III
INTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Stresses ..........-..............------ ----------------- 5
Theoretical yaw in bore ......- ...........---..---------------- 6
5. Stresses. The following table and the graphical representation on page 5 show the longitudinal,
radial and tangential resultant stresses at each of three sections: (A) the rear corner of the band seat,
(B) the front of the -rod seat, and (C) immediately behind the bourrelet.
Guns, 90-mm Ml, MIAl, M2, M3
Twist of rifling 1/32
Cross-sectional area of bore 10.114 sq in.
Rated maximum pressure 38,000 psi
Total weight of projectile 23.40 lb
Muzzle velocity 2,700 fps
Density of filler (TNT) 0.057 lb per cu in.
Resultant Stress* Section
100 psi A B C
Longitudinal -192 -345 -310
Radial +328 - 53 - 19
Tangential -625 +354 +291
* + denotes tension, - denotes compression.
4
FOR SHELL HE. 90-MM. M71
BRLH 90.1.71
5
SECTION
A B C
_192Y-625
+ 328
-3457 -310"-9
+354 +-91
LONGIUINAL
AXES OF RESULTANT STRESS
DIAGRAM OF RESULTANT STRESSES
BRLH 90-1.71
BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
6.7
6. Theoretical yaw in bore.
Minimum 3 min
Maximum 5 min
SECTION IV
EXTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Aerodynamic data ......-...........- -...- -.----------------- 7
Antiaircraft firing table data -.-.- -- ------------ - --------------.----. 6
Ground firing table data ............-...........-------- - - --------- 9
7. Aerodynamic data.
a. Drag.
(1) The antiaircraft trajectories were computed witn 'he drag coefficient shown on page 7, which was
determined by AA range firings of the HE Shell M71 with the MT Fuze M43A3 as explained in BRL Report
No. 507, "The Experimental Basis and Computing Methods used in the Preparation of Firing Table FT
90AA-B-3". The form factor relative to this drag coefficient is 1.000; hence the ballistic coefficient is 1.864.
(2) The trajectories for the HE Shell M71 with the PD and TSQ Fuzes were based on the G
2
drag
function. The form factor and ballistic coefficient are shown in par. 9a and b; at the muzzle:
Velocity 2700 fps
Ballistic Coef. C
2
1.79
Form Factor, i
2
1.041
Drag Coef. KD 0.109
(3) Comparative firings at 30 elevation showed that the range-elevation relatiom for the HE Shell
M71 with the CP Fuze M78 could be obtained from that with the PD Fuze M48 by decreasing the muzzle
velocity 27 fps and applying an effect equal to that of an increase of 12.16 per cent in air density. The
numerical average of the effects due tc an increase and a decrease in density (see par. 9n) was used for
this purpose.
6
FOR SHELL, HE 90-W M71
ERLH 90-1-71
7
DRAG COEFFIC4 ENT VS MACH NUMBER
SHELL, HE, 90-MM, M71; FLCLE, MT, MOA3
+
If
7t TT-1
tt
1-7
Aw
T'T_ E -4 -4-
I if
4-
If
.140 ill If if X
k
.120
D
T-1 H
io
cf4
TE
11!1, fit 1 11111 - f il'illil 1 1 1 1111i i.t = 7 7
ttt 4-17
-OK
p I
mis
1 1 t tt t I
i I if
F
T_
44-L
410 71 7- if
t if 1-T
M
44
if i
4++4
.0W-
I-L
.00 .40 .80 1.20 1.60 2.00 2.40 zoo
7
BRLH 90-1-71 BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
7-9
b. Stability. BRL Report No. 236, "Stability of 90-mm Shell T8", gives the results .btained from
stability firings of inert-loaded Shell M71 (T8) with the MT Fuze M43 from the 90-mm Gun Ml:
Muzzle Velocity 2700 fps
Moment coef. KM 1.25
Twist of rifling 1/32
Stability factor 1.32
c. Axial couple. BRL Report No. 408, "Loss of Spin and Skin Friction Drag of Projectiles", gives
the results obtained from firings of a 90-mm HE Shell M7 I with a radio spin sonde in a dummy fuze having
the same shape as the MT Fuze M43:
Average velocity 1640 fps
Reynolds' number (based on avg vel. and caliber) 2.95 x 106
Axial couple coefficient, KA 0.0059
Surface (without base) 149.3 sq in.
Skin friction drag coefficient, C' 0.00198
DF
8. Antiaircraft firing table data. FT 90AA-B-3.
Guns, 90-mm, Ml, M1Al and M2 on AA Mounts.
Twist of rifling: 1/32
Muzzle velocity: 2700 fps
Fuze: MT M43A5
OCM items 16844 and 16962 recommended and approved standardization of the HE
Shell M71.
a. Form factor. i = 1.000 relative to the drag coefficient for the 90-mm HE Sheli M71 (see p. 7).
b. Ballstic coefficient. C = 1.864 relative to the drag coefficient for the 90-mm HE Shell M71
(see p. 7).
c. Trajectory data. A Trajectory and Fuze Setter Chart is included with the fii ing table., With the
fuze set 'safe':
Maximum horizontal range 19,560 yd
Maximum vertical range 13,426 yd
9. Ground firing table data.
FT 90AA-B-3, FT 90-C-3, and FT 90-F-I.
Guns, 90-mm, M1, MIA!, M2, M3 and M26 on AA Mounts, Gun Motor Carriages, or Tanks.
Twist of rifling: 1/32.
Muzzle Velocity: 2705 fps
Fuzes: PD, M48, M.dAl, M48A2 and M51A4; TZQ, M54: and CP, M78 (except as noted, the data
in this paragraph do not pertain to the CP fuze).
OCM items 18696 and 18930 recommended and approved authorization of the HE Shell M71 with
the PD Fuze M48 for use with the 90-mm Gun Ml on a self-propelled mount.
8
FOR SHELL- HE. 90-MM. M71 BRLH 90.1-71
1.05 __ cL.FOFRM ATMTi 9- rLEVATION GURVE (6
2
)
200 400 600 800 1000
b BLLITICCOEFFICIENT- ELEVATION CURVE(G
2
)
4.
ELEVATION-MILS
___________t ----
_ ____--------_
__ __
020 400 600 800 1000
9
BRLH 90-1-71 BALLISTIC AND ENGINfEERING DATA
- 9
aam
0 0 0
0 10
FOR SHELL HE. 90-MM. M71
BRUI 90.1-71
9
T~~FTNT :4 4-
0
0
____ fill! 10
4o
040
BMH- 90-1-71
BALUSTIC AND ENGINE.EP1NG DATA
-- - - -~ -----
- -4 1--- ----- ~ -
Z7 h. . ....
LZ. .- . ...
00
-7 2
FOR SHELL HF. 90-MM M71
BRL.H 90-1-71
9
0
R7
41
7r
T-4,
00
.. .............
4- T-
L
T ;z---
I X
I I I I 1 0
I I I t t 1 1111 1 i
t I i i I t 1 1
TT'
U- 777
0
cu
4
0
-T,-T
fit
441
t 1=7
7 4-i
w 0
0
Its;
0
-7
4
4
1IT-1
0
to
-77
L17-
14471-
r-4 -
T
fit t "-4 0
T-1 I
0
If
S11W N0143-6M
rBRLH 90.1-71 BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
9
It I
FOR SHELL HE. 90.MM. M71 BRLH 90.1.71
9
6 0
0
ifh
I ! ! I I
TwUU
Iw
1D 0
(z Il 2i
I if I I 0
I iI I I' --- A I
I I fi l l ! i
if I I i
I X I 1
15
I
BRLH 90-1-71
BALLISTIC AND ENGINZERING DATA
9
0,11
Ir
if
it
lilt
f i l l I I I I I :
If I I
AI
it I
lilt I I it 1
z
if i
I if I I
If
IRE
A
it
LL If I I ILI
w
0
tilt
offf
P.-
Zvo 011=
U) W
fill
4t
0
I i
z
0-
I tt
Jill
f i l l t j I I I
t
I I It
/1 1 fill ;
It
lilt
I If
I
0
i t 1 1 I t 1 1 [ I l l i l !
CY
I f i t I i t 1 . 1 1 1 1
,till
11
-LL
C)44-43 39WH 4- 1--4-,+ 4
I I I I I M I l l i l l f i l l I l l i l-I ! 1-[-
0
0
0
0
0
In 8
16
FOR SHELL HE. 90-MMI. 1071
BRH90-7
1- 7 T 7
t-
8
L
7-f4 077
Z; I I
0 H-~-m-
L44
-44--
w 0 -0
,I--
I if
L
0
J kiI 1 If T
BRLI- 90.1-71
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
9
rT
0 4-'-r4
7-- - 0
7j7&+,
4-.- F-4-7
7-8
FOR SHELL HF- 90-MM. M71 BRLH 90.1-71
9
I
+S
-oo
w
ILD
w
HT
4 84E
BRLH 90-1-71 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEXPUNG DATA
I0
SECTION V
EFFECT DATA
Fragmentation - ------ ------- ----- ----- ------- ---------------- 10
Effectiveness - ----------------------------------------------- 11
R icochet data - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ie
Penetration -. - . . . . .- . .- . .- . .- . .- . .- . .- . .- . . ..- . .- . .- . - 13
10. Fragmentation. The data on fragmentation of the 90-mm HE Shell M71. were t, ,en fr-rm TY9-,9C'7,
"B llistic Data, Periol mance of Ammunition!' (Sep 1944) and Vol. III of "Term'inel Baflistic Tata" (Sep 1945).
The initial fragment velocity is 2900 fps.
a. Casualties.
TABLE 46
CASUALTIES
Averago For the lightest
Distance Total numbei number of effective fragment
from burst of effective effective frag- Weight Velocity
(ft) fragments ments per sq ft (oz) (fps)
r N B V V
20 668 0.133 0.0i5 1990
3u 594 0.0525 0.022 1640
40 547 0.0272 0.328 t460
60 474 0.01 05 0.041 1210
80 0.0053 0.055 1040
100 398 0.0032 0.30? 943
i50 347 0.0012 0.094 796
200 319 0.0006 0.120 705
300 264 0.0002 0.180 35T
500 208 0.0001 0.340 418
20
FOR SHELL HE 90-MM. M71
ERIi 90-1.71
10
I
CASUALT IES
6C
30*
INGLINATION 00
HEIGHT OF BURST 0 FT
REMAINING VELOCITY 0 FPS
00
UNE Of -- "
Ar LEAST
I 14T
INOLINATION
300
PER4SQFT HEIGHT OF BURST 0 FT
Al 4 SOREMAINING
VELOCITY
947 FPS
IAT LEAST! WI
PER I0 SOFT
21
BRLH 90 1.71 BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
10
CASUA LTIlES
INCLINATION 300
HEIGHT OF B3URST 30 FT
REMAINING VELOCITY 947 FPS
AT LEAST I MIT
-34r00
PER 4SQ PT
00A
AT LEAST I HI1T INCLINATION 30-60
pER 10 o F HEIGHT OF BURST 60FT
4 ~ ~ WATLEAt NITREMAINING VELOCITYROW
AT~ LE S I 947 FPS 0
PER 2 SO22
FOR SHELL HE. 90-MM. M71
BRLH 9C-1-71
10
00
I~ ~ lSI~-O Ii~ IiI4
I0 NN JillH
tillO
*
2S0
BRLH 9C.-.71
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
to
b. Perforation of 1/8-inch Mild Steel.
TABLE 47
PERFORATION OF 1/8 IN. MILD STEEL
Distance Total number Average For the lightest
from burst of effective number of effective fragment
(ft) fragments effective frag- Weight Velocity
ments per sq ft (oz) (fps)
r N B m v
20 424 0.0844 0.057 2,270
30 380 0.0336 0.075 2,080
40 345 0.0172 0.095 1,920
60 288 0.0064 0.147 1,710
80 243 0.0030 0.210 1,500
100 222 0.0018 0.287 1,370
120 203 0.0011 0.377 1,260
150 163 0.0006 0.519 1,150
200 113 0.0002 0.772 1,040
275 59 0.0001 1.16 935
24
FOR SHELL. HE. 90-1MM. M71
BRLH 904-71
I0
PERFORATION 1/8-INCH MILD STEEL
o"
30-309
60 "60
60 -60"
INCLINATION 00
HEIGHT OF BURST OPiT
REMAINING VELOCITY OFPS
Ot
30-300
600
U
AT LEAST
I HIT
INCLINATION
300
PER 4SQFT HEIGHT OF BURST OFT
AT LEAST I HIT REMAINING VELOCITY 947 FPS
PER I0 SQFT
25
BRLH4 90-1.71
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
10
PERFORATION OF 1/8-1NCH MILD STEEL
0*
3I0LINATION 33
HEIGHT OF BURST 3OFT
REMAINING VELOCITY 94TFPS
0 0
A T N30T
PLINE OF
"RTo
FIRENVE I 4F
e "WO
n AT LEAST I HIT
00 t
PER 4SO FT' 00
AT LEAST I HiT INCLINATION 300*0
PER IOq.e QFT HEIGHT OF BURST 6OFT60
AT EAS I ITREMAINING VELOGITY 947FPS GON
i PER 25 SO FT
26
FOR SHELL HE. 90.MM. M71
BRLH 90.1-71
10
LL DENsVIV hEQUIRED IN AREA FIRE -
-EXPECTED PEPFORATIONS OF i/8-INCH MILD STEEL
50% OF ELEMENTS 2SQ FT IN AREA
e-zJua : NORMALcGHARGE - .
SUPERQUIGK GROUND BURSS- NO SHIELDING -- .
0 -- WIDTH OF FRINGE AROUND TARGET AREA TO BE -.-
3o- _r
INCLUDED IN FIRE AREA --
. - ... _ ...
. . . . .
- RANGE YARDS
S=000 o000 r=00 120 o 16000 18000 20000
27
BRLH" 90-1-71 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
t1-13
11. Effectiveness. The following data were taken from Vol. III of "Terminal Ballistic Data", They
pertain to the 90-mm HE Shell M71 with an MT, PD or TSQ Fuze, fired at a muzzle velocity of 2700 fps.
NUMBER OF ROUNDS REQUIRED AGAINST ENEMY ARTILLERY FOR 90%
PROBABILITY OF AT LEAST ONE EFFECTIVE Hrr IN AIMED FIRE
Range Type of Fire
yd Impact Time Time and impact
2,000 3 260 7
5,000 42 360 68
10,000 770 1400 730
12. Ricochet Data. The following data were taken from Vol. II of "Terminal Ballistic Data". They
pertain to the 90-mm HE Shell MA71 with the PD Fuze M48 set for 0.05 sec delay, fired at a muzzle velocity
of 2700 Los (the PD Fuzes M48A1, M48A2 avnd MS1A4 have 0.15 sec delay).
TABLE 76
PE In
Range Angle of Angle of impact Height Height
Fall Recovery to Burst of Burst of Burst
yd mils mils yd ft
1,006 7 20 41 2 0
2,000 17 30 36 3 1
3,000 3C 50 32 5 1
4,000 47 7.5 28 6 1
5,000 69 105 23 7 1
6,000 98 140 19 8 2
7,000 136 180 15 8 2
8,000 187 230 12 8 2
9,000 249 270 9 8 2
10,000 334 300 7 e 2
13. Penetration. The data on penetration of concrete by the HE Shell M71 with tle CP Fuze M78,
fired at a muzzle volocity of 2700 fps, were taken from TM 9-1907, "Ballistic Data, Performance of Am-
munition". The data on penetration into medium earth and logs by the HE Shell M71 with any DP or CP
Fuze, fired at a muzzle velocity of 2M00 fps, were taken from Vol. III of "Terminal Ballistic Data".
28
FOR SHELL- HE. 90-MM. M71
BRLH 90.1- 71
13
RA .rOTAL NUMBER OF ROUNDS NECESSARY
'
TO OBTAIN 90% PROBABILITY OF AT LEAST ONE
-~ PERFORATION IN TARGETS
1000-
- -+- -r ---
- - - -~ - - T .. I
P-00L
-
10001130
3ow 445 7.51-
LUL. j7,
RANGE N YARD
229
BRLI- 90-1-71 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
13
b. TTLNMBER OF ROUNDS NECESSARY i
TO OBTAIN 90%.PROBABILITY OF ENOUGH HITS
TO MAKE A BREACH 12 FT WIDE IN A CONCRETE WALL
Boo
lOFT HIGH
40010 00 00 40
1330
FOR SHELL. HF_ 90-MM. M71I BRLH 90-1.71
13
SHARD WO(AKil EOONY,61MAHOGANY)
- M~EDIUM HARD WOOD (PINE, SPRUCE)
hF EARTH OR SOFT WOOD WPALK4
'H IH -H41-
44-4
_
NERAIO -- ]E
A-A-
4-- _j 4
r i i
t31
BRLH 90.1.77
Ballistic Research Laboratories Ballistic Research Lab.
Handbook of Ballistic and Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Engineering Data for Amnmunition, Maryland.
No. 90-1-77
10 February 1949
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
for
Shot, AP, 90-mm, M77
with Tr-acer
Section Paragraph
I Genera ---------------------- 1
II Description ------------------ 2 - 4
III Interior ballistic data ---------- 5
IV Exterior ballistic data -------- 6 - 7
V Effect data ------------------ 8
SECTION I
GENERAL
Paragraph
Purpose - -I--------------------------------------------------1
1. purpose. The purpose of this number of the handbook is to furnish a concise collection of infor-
mation regarding the shape, dynamics, ballistics, and effects of the 90-mm Armor-piercing Shot M77 with
Tracer. This information is collected from the drawings, reports, and Airing tables pertaining to this am-
munition.
SECTION H
DESCRIPTION
Paragraph
Drawings --- ---------------------------------------- ------ - - 2
Dimensions ........- ...............-.....----------------- 3
Physical characteristics ......- ...........-...--.-------------- 4
BR~i I-77BALUSTI- AND ENGINEERING DATA
Ii
I OR
uN0
FOR SHOT, AP. 90-MM. M77 DRLH 90-1-77
2-5
2. Drawings.
Shot: Metal parts assembly and details 7,-18-K4
3. Dimensions.
Band: Distance from base 0.282 ca,
Width 0.33l cal
Cylindrical body: Levgth 1.051 cal
Ogive: Length 0.629 cal
Radius of arc. 1.496 cal
Shot: Tota! lengi.h 2,780 cal
4. Physical char-,tte-stics.
Weight (standard, 23.40 lb
Base to center of gravity* 1.22 cal
Axial moment of inertia*
34.6 lbJn
Transverre moment of inertia* 152 lb.in2
*Estimated on the basis of measurements of the 37-rm AP Shot MS0.
SECTION I
INTERIOR BALLIS717C DATA
Paragrapa
Theoref el yaw in bore -.-.--------------- --------.-- - --------------- 5
6. Theoretical yaw in bore.
Minimnu. 3.0 min
Maximum 5.b min
BRL14 90.1-77 BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
6-7
SECTION IV
EXTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Aeroaynamic data .......- .............-...------------------ 6
Flirinc table data .......- .............-...------------------ 7
6. Aerodynamic data.
a. Diag. The form factor relative to Projectile Type 1, determined from resistance firings, is 1.19.
The corrasponding ballistic coefficient is 1.564 on the G
1
drag function. The drag coefficient is 0.256 at a
velocity of S/00 fps.
b. Stability. No stability firings have been done with this projectile. The stability factor, estimatod
from that of the 3
7
-rnm Armor-piercing Shot M80 (Ballistic Research Laboratory Report 438), at a muzzle
velocity of 2700 fps and a twist of rifling of one turn in 32 calibers, is 6.4.
7. Firiag table data. FT 90-D-2 (Abridged).
Guns, 90-mm, Ml, MIAI, M2, M3 and M26.
Twist of rifling; 1/32.
M'uzzle velocity: 2700 fps.
This Shot was standardized by CCM item 17528; its designation was changed from Semi-armor-
piercing to Armor-pierdirg by OCM item 17699.
a. Form factor (Proj Type 1). iI = 1.19.
h. Ballistic coeffcict (Proj Type 1). C1 = 1.564.
4
77
FOR SHOT., AP, 90-MK M77
BRLH 90-1-77
7
4+ 0. L VATWIN- RANUE (;UHVF__
MUZZLE VELOCfTY 2700 FPS -
---------- ------------
-----------------
I F-1-FT-F
_T TF _LL
T
------ --- -- -- =j
q 4--Ft-
T_
-1-T I
7-T!
+
14H
fill,
it
---
----------
J --- -----
-
40--
---------
ORI I I V 14H
30
t
-ti
-7-
0100
20
4-
10-
4+
1: 1 1! 1.7
H-H+
RANGE-YARDS
0
500
"low
1500
2000
00 -Nm
'_-777 7_
BRLH 90-1-77
BALUS*nC AND ENGINEERING DATA
7
i f 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
I I I fill d.TIME UF FLIGHT RANGE CMVE
IL If - i LLI -
I If 1111 TERMtNAL VELOCITY- RANGE CURVE
MUZZLE VELOCITYlic 2700 FPS
_44*_
I L
. I . . . I I . I .........-
f i l l 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 f it
f i l l I I
I I I [ A
f i l l I I I I I I I I
f i l l I I I I
I t I ff
I f I I I I
lilt
-4-
[it
8
MIMI
14,
-02500
i f 1 1 1
4
40 --- 1
W _ 01 fill III
4 if -2000
F
_j
W.
W.
z
W_ If
2-1500
cr -
W,
If I I
M-T
TI
RANGE -- I I I i LLLI
-YARDS
0
1000
0 500 1coo 1500 2r,00 2500 30 3500
6
Fh
i
FOR SHOT, AP. 90.MM, M77 BRIM 90-1-77
8
SECTION V
EFFECT DATA
Paragraph
Penetration - ------- ------- ----- ------- ------- ----- ----- --- 8
8. Penetration.
Homogeneous Plate Ballistic Limit Number
Thickness Brinnell Obliquity in
inches Number degrees Type fps Average
3 270 0 Army 1166 2
4 0 Army 1679 2
4
0 lgavy 1763 2
7
BRLH 90.1.82
Ballistic Research Laboratories Ballistic Research Lab.
Handbook of Ballistic and Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Engineering Data for Ammunition, Maryland.
No. 90-1-82
10 February 1949
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
for
Projectile, APC, 90-mm, M82
with
Fuze, BD, M68
Section Paragraph
I General --------------------- 1
II Description ----------------- 2 -4
III Interior ballistic data 5
IV Exterior ballistic data --------- 6 -- 7
V Effect data ---------- 8
SECTION I
GENERAL
Paragraph
Purpose . . . . . . ..- . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..-. . . . ..------------------- 1
1. Purpose. The purpose of this number of the handbook is to furnish a concise collection of infor-
mation regarding the shape, dynamics, ballistics, and effects of the 90-mm Armor-piercing Capped Pro-
jectile M82 with the Base Detonating Fuze M68, which contains a tracer composition. This information is
collected from the drawings, reports, firing tables, and technical manuals pertaining to this ammunition.
BRLH 90.1-"2 BALLUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
hi2
0
00
N _
0~ci
r
i"m
Z
00
CQ2
FOR PROJECTILE, APK. 90-MM. M82
BRLH 90-1-82
2-3
SECTION U
DESC RUPTION
Paragraph
Drawings -.-.-.----------------------------------------
------------ 2
Dimensions . . .. .. ..- . . .. . ... .. . .. ..-. ...----------------- 3
Physical characteristics ......- ...........---..---------------- 4
2,. Drawings.
Projectile: Metal parts aosembly 75-18-46
Details 75-18-47
Details 75-18-51
Fuze: Assembly 73-2-181
Details 73-2-132
3. Dimensions.
Fuze: Length (outside) 0.178 cal
Band: Distance from base 0.278 cal
Width 0.355 cal
Body: Cylindrical length 1.017 cal
Ogival length (outs'de) 0.124 cal
Radius of ogival are
1
.296 cal
Cap- length (outr-ide) 0.651 cal
Windshield: Length 1.$46 cal
Radius of ogival arc 9.015 cal
Length: Ogive
2.721 cal
Projectile without fuze 4.338 cal
Projectfle and fuze 4.516 cal
BRLH 90-1.82
BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
4.6
4. Physical characteristics.
Weight (standard)
24.11 lb
Base to center of gravity* 1.145 cal 2
Axial moment of inertia* 35.9 1b. in
Transverse moment of inertia*
198 lb.in
2
*Estimated on the basis of measurements of the 3-Inch Armor-piercing Capped Projectile M62 with
Base Detonating Fuze M66A!.
SECTION IMI
INTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Theoretical yaw in bore ......- ...........---...------------------ 5
5. Theoretical ylw i, bore.
Minimum 4 min
Maxim= 7 min
SECTION IV
EXTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Aerodynamic data .-.-------------------------
6
FirLng table data .......- ...........- -...- -.----------------- 7
6. Aerodyaamic data.
a. Drag. A fo,-m factor of 0.90 relative to the --
6
drag function was determined from resistance
firings at velocities from 2000 to 2660 fps. The corresponding ballistic coefficient is 2.134. The drag coef-
ficient is 0.135 at 2000 fps and 0.108 at the standard muzzle velocity of 2670 fps.
4
FOR PROJECTILE. APC, 90-MM. M82
BRLH 90-1-82
6-7
b. Stability. No stability firings have been done with the 90-mm APC Projectile M82. The stability
factor, estimated from that of the 3-inch Armor-piercing Capped Projectile M62 with Base Detonating Fuze
M66A1 at a muzzle velocity of 2600 fps (Ballistic Research Laboratory Report 427), for a twist of rifling of
one turn in 32 calibers is 1.58.
7. Firing table data. FT 90-F-1
Guns, 90-mm, Ml, M1Al, M2, MW and M26.
Twist of rifling: 1/32.
Muzzle velocity: 2670 fps and 2800 fps. Projective Weight: 24.06 lb
Standardization of the APC Projectile M62 with the BD Fuze M68 was recommended by OCM item
18386 and approved by OCM item 18496.
5
BRLH 90-1-82 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
7
IJ I IIII I l i l [
_44
&FOR BALLISTR C-FCENTL~EEVATION CURVESS
(PROJ.TYPE 6)
2.tiLl I
.W t-MV
260 F 6
FOR PROJZ:CTILE. APC, 90-MM.482
BRLH 90-1-82
7
a ~ ELEVATI ON -RAN GE CURVES
-7 7
4-.i
.4- . .. .. .
444
ti44-
6 40
T!
S e t .... .. ..
MV 2440
7t -~44 1
4 ##
40 m* ?Ac
02000 4000 6000 8000
S.
BRLH4 90-1-82,
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
.... ........
MV27IP
MV7 2F 0FS -4
4+
+144 H-'
U.t
:; 4
i
44+-
!- 4-
44.4-
-
? . RANGE -YARDS
-O2000 -0-00 6000 8000
8
FOR PROJEC7lLE AMC 90.MM. M82
BRLH 90.1-82
2 ~
___7
-- = .- -
---
NA- .4180
12000
E -- AG-A
09
BRLH 90-1-82 BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING. DATA
7
-f IME OF FLIGHT- RANGE CURVES IH _
Lh-I- I
71
--- E---
_1
Z- -ji4
RNE- I:;S
0) 2000 4000 6000 8000
10
FOR PRO1ECI1LE. AMC 90-MM, M82 B'RLH 901-6~2
{DRIF - RANGE CURVES K-
.. ..... . .7 i
;;
-,
H,
- 77
7- Z:-,+,
- h LCTO EFFECT OF I MPH LATERAI WiND
W - ~ -
tap
.- , - - p
0.r
., p
~~TMV 2670
7: 4 r
-'.4- - -- H 4 'P.
t_-_ RA-6E-Y.
C) 2000 4000 6000 801-1O
BRI It40-1-82
BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
- I.RANE EFFECT OF I FPS NOCREAEIV V K
ttiE4EZ:MUZZLE VELDOITY
12670FPS
m-9 - ZM-wo
1U.
aooc ~ +t 400 0+ 80
#1
FOR PROJECTILE. APr, 90-MK~ M82
BRLH 90.1-82
7
kRANGE EFFECT OF I MPH REAR IWINDjT
mv 2670FP
II
I-f
2If
w
F
RANGE-YARDS
0-
----
00 6000400 www
Jill RANGE EFFECT OF 1%. INCREASE IN
AIR DENSITY
--
fill (100% IS STANDARD)
-f I
10-
O
m M2 7FPS
-20- -N
-T+
-RANGE-YARDS
*2000
4000 6000 8000
13
BRLH 90-.182 BALIUSTC AND ENGINEERING DATA
8
SECTION V
EFFECT DATA
Paragraph
Penetration -.......-...............-....----------------- 8
8. Penetration.
a. Ballistic Limits of Armor Plate.
Plate Ballistic Limit Number
Thickness Obliquity in
Type inches degrees Type fps Average
Face
Hardened 3 20 Navy 1770 2
Homogeneous 1.5 55 Navy 1775 1
2.5 45 Navy 1981 1
2.5 55 Navy 2504 1
3 45 Navy 2519 2
b. Vulnerability of German Tanks (Panzerkampfwagen)
Muzzle Velocity: 2670 fps. These data were taken from TM9-1907, "Ballistic Data, Performance of
Ammunition".
Maximum Vulnerable Range - yards
Tank Model III IV VI
Attack Angle - deg 0 25 0 25 0 25
Frontal Turret Sides 5000+ 5000 5000+ 5000+ 4800 2680
Turret Rear ---- ---- ---- ---- 4800 2680
Turret Front 5000+ 4660 5000+ 4840 * *
Upper Hull Front 4300 3250 4300 3250 2900 1200
Lower Hull Front 3600 2600 4080 3100 1880 *
Flank Turret Sides 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 4800 2680
Turret Rear 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 4800 2680
Turret Front
5nn0+ 466 0+ 44..
. . . .u
5 0 0 0+w
4 8 4 0
Upper Hull Sides 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 4800 2680
Lower Hull Sides 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 4180
Rear Turret Sides 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 4800 2680
Turret Rear 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 5000+ 4800 2680
Turret Front 5000+ 4660 5000+ 4840 * *
Upper Hull Rear 5000+ 4580 5000+ 5000+ 4320 2600
Lower Hull Rear 5000+ 4840 5000+ 5000+ 4320 2600
*Not vulnerable.
14
FOR PROJECTILE. AMC 90-MM. M82
BRLH 90-1-82
~~ WN cFENETRATION - VELOCITY tURVES I
HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR PLATE[
NAVY CRITERION
F~ -r-'r-:1-F------1-r-T-rzr--L-
-FROM VOL.11 OF 'TERMINAL BALLISTIC DATA! .. ......
.~I v
00
40
55
BRLH 90-1-82
SALUSTIC AND ENGNEER.PN'Q DATA
8
FROM VOLIJ OF "
M
TERMINAL BALLISTIC AA
ANGLEOF INCIDE.,E
0
1600 eOQO ~ -E 01Q0
6 z ... . 16
F~OR PROJEZr1LE, AMc 90-MM. W2 BRLH 90.1.82
8
a.TOTAL NUMBER OF ROUNDS NECESSARY
- - TO OBTAIN 90% PROBABILITY OF AT LEAST
-~ - ONE PERFORATtON IN TARGETS
* ~~OF GRZiE A COINRETE (5000PSI) -
AV 2670OFPS t1
"UBALLISTIC DATA, PERFORMANcE OF AMMUNITION
-= W oo
-7o
w 6W
I if
110
BRLH 90-1-82
BALUSTr AND ENGINEERING DATA
8
OCTAL NUMeER OF ROUNDS
NECESSARY
TO OBTAIN
90% PROBABILITY
600
OF ENOUGH HITS TO MAKE A BREACH
I2FT WIDE IN A C"JONGRETE WALL IOFT HIGH
400
MV 2670 FPS
I H I I N i i i i i i i
OM T109-1907,
I I I I tT
*BALLISTIC DC.AjPERFORMANGE OFAMMUNITION*
200
T I
4- -
ic
rVI
0 100
...............
0
A ---
80
60
GRAPH WALL THICKNESS
A 6FT
zz
8 10FT
I I I ] I I f I
t
fill
If
--- ---
_=_d2o
............
Z=
I T
4t- -
RANGE-YAR -- - - -- -- - - - -T r-I I
10
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
BRLH 90.1-304
Ballistic Research Laboratories Ballistic Research Lab.
Handbook of Ballistic and Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Engineering Data for Ammunition, Mary1lnd.
No. 90-1-304 11 February 1949
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
for
Shot, HVAP, 90-mm, M304
with
Tracer
Section Paragraph
I General --------------------- 1
IT Description ------------------ 2 - 4
Ifl Int,rior ballistic data ---------- 5
IV Exterior ballistic data --------- 6 - 7
V Effect data -------------------- 8
SECTION I
GENERAL
Paragraph
Purpose - -i--------------------------------------------------1
1. Purpose. The purpose of this number of the handbook Is to furnish a concise collection of infor-
mation regarding the shape, dynamics, ballistics, and effects of the 90-mm High Velocity Armor-piercing
Shot M304 with Tracer. This information is collected from the drawings, reports, firing tables, and
technical manuals pertaining to this ammunition.
BRLH 90.1.304 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
2
J
I
O
4-01
(fl)
0
1~
- 1"
w _
w4
0Y
d LE
___
___-A.
OD
- -2
L0-
FOR SHOT, H"AP, 90-MM. M304 BRLH 90-1-304
2-4
SECTION n1
DESCRIPTION
Paragraph
Drawings . . . . . . ..- . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..-. . . . ..----------------- 2
Dimensions .......- ..............-......----------------- 3
Physical characteristics ......- ...........---...---------------- 4
2. Drawings.
Metal parts assembly 75-2-375
Details 75-2-376
Details 75-2-377
3. Dimensions.
Band: Distance from base 0.28 cal
Width 0.34 cal
Cylindrical parts: Bourrelet ring 0.17 cal
Body and ring 0.92 cal
Base 0.84 cal
Base, body and ring 1.76 cal
Windshield: Length 1.95 cal
Radius of ogival arc 0.71 cal
Conical angle 28041'
Shot: Length 3.71 cal
4. Physical characteristics. The position of the center' of gravity and the moments of inertia
tabulated below pertain to the HVAP Shot T30E15, which is slightly different from the ,VAP Shot M304
'T30EI6).
Weight (Standard) 16,80 lb
Base to center of gravity 1.168 cal 2
Axial moment of inertia 20.01 lb.in
Transverse moment of inertia 93.89 lb.in
2
$3
4
BRLH 90.1.304 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
5.7
SECTION M
INTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Theoretical yaw in bore - ------ ----------------- 5
5. Theoretical yaw in bore.
Minimum 3.3 min
Maximum 6.1 mim
SECTION IV
EXTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Aerodynamic data--------- ---- ---------------- 6
Firing table data--------- ---- ---------------- 7
6. Aerodynamic data.
a. Drag. A form factor of 1.16 relative to the G
8
drag function was determined from tUme-of-flight
firings to a vertical target at - range of 1500 yards. The ballistic coefficient is 1.15. The drag coefficient
is 0.113 at the average muzzle velocity of 3262 fps obtained in these firings, and 0.111 at the standard muzzle
velocity of 3350 fps.
b. Stability. Ballistic, Researcb Laboratory Memorandum Report 347D gives the following results
obtained wi 'he HVAP Shot T30E1S, whioh is siightly different from the HVAP Shlot M304 (T30E16):
Velocity 3325 fps
Twist of rifling 1/32
Stability factor 1.7
Moment coefficient 1.0
7. Firing table data. FT 90-F-i
Guns, 90-inn, M/,, MIAl, M2, M3 and M26.
Twi.-t of r-fling" 1/32.
Muzzle veiocity. 3350 fps.
Projectile Weight: 16.7 lb.
Standardization of the HVAP Shot M304 was recommended by 0CM item 28147 and approved by
CCM item 28461.
a. Form Factor (Proj Type 71:i
7
= 1.475.
b. Ballistic Coefficient (Proj Type 7): C7 = 1.109.,
FOR SHOT. H-VAP,. 90-MM. M304
13RLH 90-1-304
7
1 , 4
714 F+o-c.ELEVATION-RANGE
CURVE
--- t-1t
4I-I-L
~~- - - --- . - - .-- . . .
.. ....
RANGE-YARDS
~
1)500 1000 1500 20t0o 2500 30 5D
d.TERMINAL VELOCITY -RANGE CURVE
7
-TIME OF FLIGHT- RANGE CUR E :
.... .... .. . . .
2500
-
200. -- h-
.~ i7I~iVRANGE-YARDI
i
C50)0 1000 1500 2000 2500 Z0000 3500
BRLH 901- 1304
BALUSTIC AND ENGINEEKEN DAA
.i..~i ~ HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR PLATE
ThTFROM
VOL.Z OF "TERMINAL
BALLISTIC DATA!
7 t ~f ~ L. -ANGLE OF INCIDENCE it---~-
T
1
-43
-~ - 7A
11
FF
F--: '450
.4L7F
- 04
-
---- --- ---
,
+
VEO IT FP 7
01500 e0o0 P-500 3000 3500
BFH '05.1.1
I
Baillstic Rasear&h Laboraturies Ballistic Research Lab.
Handbook of BBDistlc and Aberdeen Proving Grounu
Eng~neelng Data for Ammrunition, Maryland.
No. !05-1 -1 11 F&eruary 1949
BALL]T7iC ANDT ENGINEERRIG DATA
for
Shell, HE, 105-mm, Ml
witn
Fuzes, PD, M4SA2 aria M5IA4; TSQ, M55APs; apd CP, M78
Section Paragraph
I Gener ..---------------------- 1
II Description ------------------ 2 - 4
MI Interior ballistic data --------- 5 - 6
IV Exterior ballistic data --------- 7 - 8
V Effect data ------------------- 9 - 12
SECTION I
GENERAL
Paragraph
Purpose ........- ................-.....------------------ 1
1. Purpose. The purpose of thbs number of the handbook is to furnish a concise collection of infor-
mation regarding the shape, dyriamics, ballist.cs and effects of the 105-mm High Explosive Shell M1 with
the Point Detonating Fuze M48A2 or M51A4, the Time and Superquick Fuze M55A3, or the Concrete-piercing
Fuze M78. This information is collected from the drawings, reports, firing tables, and technical manuals
pertaining to this ammunition.
-I
ILPJH 103-1-1
BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
ALL DIMENSIONS IN CALIBERS
I CAL=: 4.134 IN
1 4.675
-~3.77
1.84- 2.345 -
SHELL HEI 105-MM m)MI
FUZE, PD. M48A2 OR M5A4. OR T S0, M55A3
-4.41
3.77
6
-0.4942512-. 0-91.44
1.84 - - -2.08 -
SHELL, HE, 10 M I I
FUZE, OP, M78
2
FOR SHELL HE, 105-Mh M1
BRLH 105.1.1
2-3
SECTION 11
DESCRIPTION
Paragraph
Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Diffiensions ........- ..............-......------------------ 3
Physical characteristics ......- ...........---..---------------- 4
2. Drawings.
Shell: Metal parts shipping assembly, marking
diagram and details 75-4-75
Booster, M20AI: Assembly and details 73-2-112
Booster, M21A4: Assembly 73-2-154
Fuze, PD, M48A2: Assembly 73-2-140
Fuze, PD, M51A4: Assembly 73-2-145
Fuze, TSQ, M54: Assembly 73-3-154
Fuze, TSQ, M55A3: Assembly 13-3-155
Fuze, CP, M78: Assembly and details 73-2-214
Note: The PD fuzes require one of the boosters. The TSQ Fuze M55A3 is the :,,54 Fuze wih tY
M21A4 booster. The CP fuze contains the working parts of the boosters.
3. Dimensions.
Boattail: Angle 9000,
Length 0.49 cal
Band: Distance from boattail 0.25 cal
Distance from base 0.74 cal
Width 0.19 cal
Cylindrical body: Length 1.84 cal
Ogive: Length 1.44 cal
Radius of arc 6.17 cal
Shell, unfuzed: Length 3.77 cal
Fuze, PD, M48A2 or M51A4, or TSQ, M55A3:
Outside length 0.905 cal
Ogive and fuze 2.345 cal
Shell anri fuze 4.675 cal
Fuze, CP, M78:
Outside length 0.64 cal
Radius of arc 1.935 cal
Ogive and fuze 2.08 cal
Shell and fuze 4.41 cal
3
BRLH I05.1.I
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
4-5
4. Physical characteristics.
Mean Weight Base to Moments of Inertia
lb Center of lb.ft
2
Marking Gravity
Fuze a an naU cal Axial Transverse
TSQ M55 32.4 33.0 33.6 1.739 0.554 5.345
Dummy M59 32.4 33.0 33.6 1.749 0.5506 5.399
CP M78 33.0 33.6 34.2
Note: The physical characteristics with all modifications of the PD and TSQ fuzes are approximately
the same as with the TSQ Fuze M55. The Dummy Fuze M59 has the same contour as the TSQ Fuze M55.
SECTION III
WTh'T_1OR n A T T TOnI,' r% A IA
Paragraph
Stresses . . . . . . ..- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..-. . ..------------------ 5
Theoretical yaw in bore ......- ...........-....---------------- 6
5. Stresses. The following table and the graphical representation on page 5 show the longitudinal,
radial and tangential resultant stresses at each of two sections: (A) the rear corner of the band seat and
(B) the front of the band seat.
Howitzers M2A1, M3, M4
Twist of rifling 1/20
Cross-sectional area of bore 13.65 sq in.
Rated maximum, pressure 28,000 psi**
Total weight of projectile 33.00 lb
Muzzle Velocity 1550 fps
Density of filler (TNT) 0.057 lb per cu in.
Resultant Stress* Section
I00 psi A B
Longitudinal -101 -320
Radial +300 - 89
Tangential -603 +400
* + denotes tension, - denotes compression.
** Since these stresses were calculated, the rated maximum pressure has been increased
to 30,000 psi (OCM item 17072)
4
FOR SHELL. HE. 105-MM, MI BRLH 105-1-1
5
A B
SECTION
MA B
-603
+300
-101 -
+400
4" AXES OF RESULTANT STRESS
DIA(GRAM OF RESULTANT STRESSES
BRIM- 105-1.1 BALLSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
6.7
6. Theoretical yaw in bore.
Minimum 2.7 mrin
Maximum 5.0 min
SECTION TV
EXTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Aerodynamic data .......- .............-...------------------ 7
Firing table data .......- .............-...------------------ 8
7. Aerodynamic data.
a. Drag. The graph of drag coefficient vs. Mich number (p. 7) was determined by resistance fla ings
of the HE Shell M1 with the PD Fuze M48. The graph of drag coefficient vs. yaw (p. 8) was determined by
measurements of a wooden model of the same projectile, made by the Bureau of Standards in an air stream
with a speed of 45 fps. The form factor of the HE Shell M1 with the CP Fuze M78, determined by resistance
firings, is 0.93 relative to G
5
at a velocity of 1519 fps; the corresponding drag coefficient is 0.161.
b. Stability. The graph of moment coefficient vs. yaw (p. 9) was deteemined by measurements of a
wooden model of the HE Shell M1 with the PD Fuze M48, made by the Bureau of Standards in an air stream
with a speed of 45 fps. The data tabulated below were determined by stability firings of the HE Shell M1
with the Dummy Fuze M59, fired from the 105-mm Howitzer M2A1 (see BRL Memorandum Report No. 265,
"Stability of 105-rmm HE Shell MV"), and with the TSQ Fuze M55, fired from the 105-mm AA Gun T4.
Fuze Dummy M59 TSQ M55
Muzzle Velocity 1550 fps 2675 fps
Moment coef. KM 1.41 1.28
Twist of rifling 1/20 1/30
Staoility factor 2.69 1.35
C. Drift. FT 100-H-3 and FT I05-L-2 give the drift for the 105-mm howitzers firing the HE Shell
M.i with !D and TSQ fuzes. The graph of cross wind force coefficient vs. yaw (p.10) was determined by
measurements of a wooden model -f tne shell with P. fuze, made by he ureau of Standards in an air
stream with a speed of 45 fps.
6
FOR SHELL HE. 105-MM. MI BRLH 105.1-1
7
-~~ DRAG GOEFFICIENT VS. MACH NUMBE
SHELL, HE, 105-mm, ml
_ ___ ~~FUZE, PD, M&%4Y2 ---
.161
7-t 7 -4 - --- --- ---- -
.08 -
*.06
.0
.4.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4 2.8
7
BRULH 105.1-1
BALLISTIC AND ENCUNEERINZ DATA
70
f i f f i l l III I
! f i
[II . f i t
1/ 1 t
I~i I I * I 1
I I [ i t I I1
T I I T T I T I I I I i
I 0 -0
oJ~
0
it I u -8
FOR SHELL HE., 105-MM. MI BRLH 1051-1.
- 0
-10
0
4
0
0
00
44 C4D,
C
9
BRU-t 105- 1.1 BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
7
1 1 i~--fi l l 1 ! 1 '
f If i
111 ft 1 i l I
If t i l 1 , N I
11 - l *i~ i
4-L.
0
IfI
l i I l i
0 I~ 0
Z=II
t If
1 1I I II I
I t i l f i l ; 1 1 1 . f Ift l
IIf
NI I Ii
II I If +I I
0 0 00
10
FOR SHELL. HE. 105-MM. MI BRLH 105-1.1
8
8. Firing table data.
FT 105-H-3 with C8 contains data for 105-mm Howitzer MWAI on Carriage M2, firing HE Shell
MI with PD and TSQ fuzes, and FT 105-L-2 with C4, for 105-mm Howvitzer M3 on Carriage M3, firing HE
Shell M! with PD and TSQ fuzes. FT 105-H-3 is also applicable to the 105-mm Howitzer M2A1 on Carriage
M2A2 or Motor Carriage M7 or M7B1, and the Howitzer M4 in Medium Tank M4 or M4A3 or Motor Car-
riage T76, providing the corrections listed in C8 be applied to the elevation and drift. These tables may
be used for the HE Shell M1 with the CP Fuze M78 providing corrections be made for weight and air re-
sistance: the weight of the shell with the CP fuze is greater than that of one with the PD fuze with the same
marking by the amount indicated by a difference of one square; the increase in air resistance is equivrltnt
to one percent increase in air density.
The twist of rifling of all these howitzers is 1/20.
The semi-fixed rounds are assembled with charges to give the following muzzle velocities:
Charge Howitzer M2A1 or M4 Howitzer M3
Round for How Round for
No. M2AI M3 How M3
1 650 695 650
2 710 755 710
3 780 825 780
4 875 925 875
5 1020 1080 1020
6 1235
7 1550
OCM item 11871 approved the recommendation by item 11820 that the HE Shell M1 be standardized
for the 105-mm Howitzer M2 (later superseded by M2AI). OCM item 19910 approved the recommendations
by item 19684 that the 105-mm Howitzer M3 and Carriage M3 be standardized, and that the HE Shell MI with
PD Fuze M48A1 be assembled as a semi-fixed round capable of being fired in this howitzer at the first five
zone velocities of the M2A1 Howitzer. OCM item 23702 approved the recommendations by item 23180 that
the semi-fixed round for the M3 Howitzer be made substitute standard for the M2 and M2A1 Howitzers, and
that the round for the M2 and M2AI Howitzers be not used in the M3 Hoa-,,tzer except under conditions of
extreme emergency, in which event only charges 1, 2 and 3 may be use 1. OCM item 22131 approved the
recommendation of item 21869 that the 105-mm Howitzer M4 be standardized for use in the Medium Tank
M4 or M4A3 (the ballistics of this howitzer are the same as those of the M2Ai Howitzer).
11
M14 105-1-1
BALUSTICAND ENGINEERM DATA
+7
fill
fill &FORM FACTOR -ELEVATION CURVES
I l i l t
1 1 l i l t
i I I I I I !
1, AT
fill
t 1 11 f i l l ! I i f I I I ! I l i t : i I
I .....
I l l l i l t I 1 1 f I I i t i t I f i t I l l 1 ! 1 1 ; ! 1 - 1 I t
f i l l I I I l i l t I l l I I I I I I I I i f I t I I l l
i I I I I I I I t i l l I I I l l I I i I I I I I I I I I 1 4
I I I I I I I I t i l l i t I t I i I l i t I f
t I l i l t I I
I f i l l i l i f i l l 1 1 1 1 1 i t 1 1 1 , 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
I
I I l i t ! 1 1
t`7
I If
l i l t I f i t I
_z:
E51 E,
i l l ! ' l i t I ' l l I l t I t .! ! ! 1 Ill I i t
1 : 1 1 i t 1 i t ! -f i l l i t l i l t 1 : 1 1
i t I t
l i t I 1 1 1
;24_7
1 , .01
.90
7-
7 %PU
.65
-4-
4w
.80
go,
PAN.,
.
II.W
CNA
PIS 4 ELEVATION MILS
t I i f 1 1 1 1 1 1 ; i t
0 200 400 600 Goo 1000 1200 KOO
12
FOR SHELL. HM 105-MM. MI
BRL.H 105-1-1
8
2.4
2.6
2.4'
Ili
P-33
BRU-I 105-1-1
BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
8
-
___~~ I I cELEVATION - RANGE CURVES
0c inK
-j
-
0
ICA - -- I
~7 -
; 0 000 _
_
-) -----
- ----- - -
z
600
400 -A.
00400 000 6000 8000 1030,0 12000 14G0M
14
FOR SHELL HE, 105-MM Ml
BRLH-8 105-1-1
CL~ANGLE OF FALL - RANGE CURVES -
~41,
oI U- o__
CJ J_
60Cto-to - - - -
1400A
1005
BRL14 105-1-1 BALUSTIC AND ENIGINEEWNG DATA
7- -7--F--
I H
-RANGE CURVES
a.TERMINAL VELOCrrY I
I ! ! l i t
It
=1 14 -
I I t I I
i
LEE
HE
Irsoo t i
I l i . l i t
4
140
i I i
12,00
it
I it I
CHARGE: 7 MV 1550 FPS
1000
l i t , t 1 1
4H,
I t I l i
C-MRSE 6 MV 1235 FPS
Soo >r-777
lit!
lilt
OWGE 5 MV 1020 FPS
CMRW 4 W 875 F
7 7.
GWOE 3 MV TSO FPS 777--
600 6: -7 CH .. E2 MV 710 FPS it
U.
t
ONARM I MV 650 FPS
400
it
4-L-+
I t i t
it
44-11- 44 H
11 It _44-!
RANGE YARDS
it 1 1 1_:
-4-4-L --1-4-+'
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
000
FOR SHELL HE. 105-M4 MI fiL Im. L
48
E.TIME OF FUJGM{T RANGE WRE 7-7
GHAFWE T MV 155,0 FPS
-717
707
IWE6M P
BR~L 1051-1- BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
-RF -A- __M GUMS
JC4
-"r-4---
120- -- .- -
1018
FOR SHELL HE. lOS-MM. MI BRLH- 105-1-1
8
hLDEFLECTION EFFECT OF I1MPH LATERAL WiNIJ
I q _lJ- I I
W- IYA ws
2000000 800 i0000 L3000 14000
BRLH 105- 1.1
BALUiSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATIA
LCOMPL-'~MENTARY ANGLE OF ST
(4FRAGE FOR t IMIL ANGLE OF SITE)
ANGLE OF COMPLEMENTARY
IELEVATION SITE ANGLE OF SITE
HIH
06
[FOR SHELL HE. 105-MiM. MI BRU-I 105-1-1
8
-- -* _j. RANGE EFFECT OF I ZONE INCREASE T
-4- IN WEIGHT OF PROJECTILE
(o (C IS STANDARD) i7
-~~~ 0.1--~i
2 -1 -FPS
4 21
BRLH 105-1-1
BALUSTIC AND ENCINEERING DATA
kRANGGE EFFECT OF I FPS INCREASE
4 -4.
I J i l l.
IN MUZZLE VELOCITY
T_;
4-1-1-4-H +4 41 1
CHARGE mv
2 TIO FPS
) I ! I i ! I J i l l
3 780FPS
4 875FPS
li I I ! J i ll
4 -
4
5 1020FPS
-7
6 1235FM
3
7 1550 FPS
Z
5
i
OF
-L4
10
w
w z
6
-7
7L
-7
I
4
1,: Jill
T.
RANGE-YARDS
0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000
22
A
BRUi 105-1-1
FOR SHELL HE, 105-MK MI
8
LRANGE EFFECT OF I*F INCREASE .......
IN AIR TEMPERATURE
Jill (599F IS STANDARD)
I t I I I I I I i
T
6
l i t ' i t J i l l I I i t I I ; I
J 1 1 1 1 i t
.. t i ll 1
! 1 1 i t I l i t
t i l l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
I ! I I I I i 1 11
J i l l 1 1 ! 1 1 i I 1 1 1 I t
i l t i l l i 1 1 1
it
t I Loo
4-
I t 41l
-1
"o
'4
lit.
I
if,
AOO
3
H
f
le
w
U. 777
w
0
1
z
I t 1 1 L I
lt!t
Lor,
;o,- it i I I it
CHARGE MV
7
3 780 FPS
I t i I
4 875FPS
4
_T-T
5 MO FPS
-4-
6 1235 FPS
it
I lit
7 1550 FPS
it!
RANGE-YARDS
-fill
0 2000 4000 6000 $000 10000 12000 14000
23
BRLH4 105-.1- BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
8
* 'TRANGE EFFECT OF IMPH REAR WIND ~
0r
200 00 600 800 1000 1207140
42
- ------
FOR SHELL HE. 105-MM. MI BRLH 105 -1.
8
(10 IS STANDARD)
FI lt
' I i l i t I
-F FT +i it
I I J
F5 P
Ii t I F
2 710 FP
3 8F F
0-
500 40 00 8000 102000 400
253FF
BRLH 105-1-1 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
44-
I il
1TO
SWF2S
FOR SHELL HE, 105.MM. MI
BRLH 105-1.1
9
SECTION V
EFFECT DATA
Paragraph
Fragmentation .......- .............- -...--------------------
9
EffectiveLess --- -0----------- ----- ------- ----- ----- ------- ---
Ricochet data - ------- ------- ----- ------- ----- ----- ------- --- 11
Penetration - ----- ----- ------- ----- ----- ------- ----- --------- 12
9. Fragmentation. The data on fragmentation of the 105-mm HE Shell Ml were taken from TM9-1907
"Ballistic Data, Performance of Ammunition': (Sep 1944) and Vol. M of "Terminal Ballistic Data!' (Sep 1945).
The initial fragment velocity is 3500 fps.
a. Casualties.
TABLE 48
CASUALTIES
Distance Total number Average For the lightest
from burst of effective number of effective fragment
(ft) fragments effective frag- Weight Velocity
ments per sq ft (oz) (fps)
r N B m v
20 1,160 0.231 0.010 2,440
30 1,115 0.0986 0.014 2,060
40 1,072 0.0533 0.019 1,770
60 996 0.0220 0.030 1,410
80 9032 0.0220 0.030 1,410
100 875 0.0070 0.055 1,040
150 7"5 0.0026 0.083 846
200 642 0.0013 0.109 738
300 513 0.0004 0.166 598
400 423 0.0002 0.232 507
500 358 0.0001 0.312 438
27
0
BRLH 105. I-I
BALLISTIC" AND EiGINEERING DATA
CASUALTIES
0O0 GROUND 0
INCLINATION W'
MEIGHT OF BURST O FT
REMAINING VELOCITY OFPS
I6
0
0.LINE OF 1 0
! ~FIRE
600
00 (]ROUNDv
INGLINATION W
I f LEMS IRIT
PER 4 SO FT HEIGHT OF BURST 0 FT
SLEAsr HrT REMAININJG VELOCITY 800FPS
I PER 10 SQ FT
28
FOR SHELL HE. 105.MM. MI
BRLH 910,-5-I
CASUALTIES
00
FIP
-- u
INCUNATION 30'
HEIGKT OF BURST 3OFT
REMAINING VELOCITY 8O0FPS
030
FIRE
' .
600
AT LEAST IHIT
PER 4SQ FT INCLINATION 30"
AT LEAST I HIT HEIGHT OF BURST 60 FT
PER 10OSO FT
PAT LEAST REMAINING VELOCITY 800FPS
25. S FT
BRLH 105-I-i
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DA'TA
9
.. V - HLL' DENSITY REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE i
EXPECTED CASUALTIES: 50% OF PERSONNEL __
AIR BURSTS AT OPTIMUM MEAN HEIGHT (SEE P 31)
12 FUZE,T.SQMM5A3 .. - -
"SHIELDING EQUIVALENTTO OFOXHOLE
_._,- - - /_ . I ...-. _ _ -
CHARGE -OMV -
' '
5 6502FPS
.7
2 710FPS
5 63 780FPS
c
4 875 FPS
6
1235
FPS
I
7
,155FPS
WIDTH OF FRINGE AROUND TARGET AREA TO BE IN-U
_ IN FIRE AREAt MEAN HEIGHT OF BURST -lOFT
RANGE- YARDS
I I : _ _ _ _ _ . .. .
S3HI.ELDtNG EQLUVALENT TO 0 FOXHOLE
12
0
I
.7- -..
U.
0
_ _-_:- _ I. . 5
CHARG I-
_:_ : i: ; : _ = :._ ;-_t:I::-
30
FOR SHELL, HE. 105-MM, Ml BRLH 1051-1-
P.
SHIELOVNG EXOiVALENT Mro 3 FOXHOLE
-. t; --
(I) 20M 400 60 so
OPTMU MEA Wrof ---- I -
90
- . z Z 6 z
---- A
:- WlANGE-YARD
2000 4000 6000 8000 100 12D-
31
BkLli Mo.-i- BALUS1iC AND LNICINEERING DATA
9
+ SHE..L IJENSrTY REQUIRED 14 AREA FIRE ~-4t-7 -
EXPE1CTED CASUALTIES: 501/ OF'PERSONNa. L
_3 -_iSLPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS-NO SHIELDIN~G it
WIDTH OF FRiNGE AROUND TARG-ET AREA TO SE iNGLUDED IN F'IRE AREA: 58F'
CHARGE mv
_4 875 FPS
~f7 -550FP
-44-
A
* ------ ~ ~---- -0.-94
~~Z2L~~~~1 RANE-yis-- ~.--,
0zLztu.
JILL-
C)u C 0X 0( Q0 00 20 4C
03
FOR SHELL. HF. 105-MM. MI
BRII-I 105-1-1
b. perforation of 1/8-Anch Mild Steel.
TABLE 49
PERFORATION OF 1/8 IN. MILD STEEL
Distance Total n'mber Average For the lightest
from burst of effective number of effective fragment
(ft) fragments effective frag- Weight Velocity
ments per sq ft (oz) kfps)
r N B m v
20 975 0.194 0.035 ,2, 700
30 923 0.0816 0.047 2,430
40 853 0.0424 0.061 2,220
60 700 0.0155 0.095 1,920
80 570 0.0071 0.137 1,750
.100 470 0.0037 0.192 1,550
120 403 0.0022 0.255 1,420
140 341 0.0014 0.326 1,320
170 262 0.0007 0.448 1,200
200 210 0.0004 0.580 1,320
300 88 0.0001 1.05 955
33
BRLH 105.1.1 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
q
PERFORATION OF I/8-INCH MILD STEEL
00
QO GRQLNO
INCLINATION 0*
HEIGHT OF BURST 0 FT
REMAINING VELOCITY 0 FPS
00
SLINE
OE
, , 900
SFIRE
AT LEASTI HIT INCLINATION 30*
PER 4 SQ FT
* AT LEAST I HIT HEIGHT OF BURST OFT
PER 1O SQFT REMAINING VELOCITY 800 FPS
34
FOR SHELL HE. 105-MM. MI
BRLH 105-1.1
9
PERFORATION OF I/8-INCH MILD STEEL
LINE OF
-c
FIRE
GROUN
a
INCLINATION 300
HEIGHT OF BURST 30 FT
REMAINING VELOCITY 800 FPS
0"0
6
do LINE OF 9 0-90
I FIRE
T LEAST
I MIT
30
GR
UN
SPER
4SQ FT
00
GROUND
-- 1I ATLEAST I HIT INCLINATION 30*
PER 1OSFT HEIGHT OF BURST 6OFT
[ AT LEAST I HIT
SPER
25SQ FT REMAINING VELOCITY 800 FPS
35
BRLH 1'351-1. BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
9
SH-ELL DENSITY REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
EXPECTED PERFORATIONS OF V8-INCH MILD STEEL.
50% OF ELEENS 2SO FT IN ARE
L4 .1
SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS- NO SHIELDING <K
WIDTH~ ~ ~ OF78OFPSOUDARE AE
6 6250FPS
71 FP
2000 4000 6000 800 1000 200 FP00
3.30
FOR SHELL HE. 105-MM. MI
BRLH 105-1-1
9
SHELL DENSrTY REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE '
EXPECTED PERFORATION OF A~-INCH MILD STEEL.:.
507oOF ELEMENTS2 SO FT INAREA
SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS- NO SIILDINI6
WIDTH OF FRINE AROUND 1ARGET AREA TrO BE
INCLUDED IN FIRE AREA; 19FT
-CHARGE MV
I 6WOP
3 78OFPS
7
1020FPS
6 13550P
6
0 '
IRANGE-:YARDS~
77
0 00 40 00 80 00 20 40
BRLK 105-1-1 BALLISTIC AND ENGINEEPJNG DATA
10-Il
10. Effectiveness. The following data were taken from Vol. III of "Terminal Ballistic Data". They
pertain to the 105-mm HE Shell Ml with a PD or TSQ Fuze.
NUMBER OF ROUNDS REQUIRED AGAINST ENEMY ARTILLERY FOR 90%
PROBABILITY OF AT LEAST ONE EFFECTIVE HIT IN AIMED FIRE
MV Range Type of Fire
fps yd Impact Time Time and Impact
1020 2000 24 250 41
5000 460 820 430
1550 2000 6 270 13
5000 91 450 130
11. Ricochet Data. The following data were taken from Vol. III of "Terminal Ballistic Data". They
pertain to the 105-mm HE Shell Ml with the PD Fuzes M48A2 and M51A4, which have 0.15-sec delay.
38
FOR SHELL HE. 105-MM. MI BRLH 105.1.1
11.12
TABLE 77
PE In
Range Angle of Angle of Impact Height Height
Fall Recovery to Burst of Burst of Burst
yd mils mils yd ft ft
Charge 1
W1 650 fps 1,000 126 170 24 12 2
2,000 272 285 15 13 3
Charge 2
MV 710 fps 1,000 104 145 27 12 2
2,000 226 260 19 15 3
3,000 376 315 10 10 3
Charge 3
MV 780 fps 1,000 87 125 31 12 2
2,000 188 230 23 16 3
3,000 304 295 15 14 3
Charge 4
MV 875 fps 1,000 69 105 36 11 2
2,000 147 195 29 17 3
3,000 237 265 21 17 4
4,000 343 305 14 13 3
"Charge 5
MV 1,020 fps 1,000 51 80 44 10 2
2,000 109 155 37 17 3
3,000 174 220 30 20 4
4,000 247 270 23 19 4
5,000 331 305 17 15 4
6,000 430 315 10 9 3
Charge 6
MV 1,235 fps 1,000 39 65 51 10 2
2,000 86 125 43 17 3
.3,000 138 185 36 20 4
4,000 198 235 30 21 4
5,000 265 280 24 20 4
6,000 339 305 17 16 4
7,000 422 315 10 10 4
Charge 7
MV 1,500 fps 1,000 25 45 65 8 2
2,000 60 95 54 15 3
3,000 104 145 44 19 4
4,000 156 200 37 22 4
5,000 214 250 29 22 5
6,000 278 285 23 20 5
7,000 348 310 17 16 4
8,000 423 315 10 10 4
12. Penetration. The data on penetration of concrete by the HE Shell Ml with the CP Fuze M78 were
taken from TM9-1907, "Ballistic Data, Performance of Ammunition". The data on penetration Into medium
earth and logs by the HE Shell Ml with any DP or CP faze were taken from Vol. III of "Terminal Ballistic
Data".
39
BRLH 103-1-1 BALLISTIC AND ENGINEEFING DATA
MV 15 5 07F5
GRAH TRGE DIENINST
0
AG-AD
Ar LLL0L[5TO30
0 a00 200 30700 0 500000
400
BRL.H 105-1-1
rOR SHELL HE. 105-MK MI
12
b6TOTAL NUMBER OF ROUNDS NECESSARY TO OYMIN M-RMM600
90% PROBABIUTY OF ENOUGHNITS TO MAKE A BREUACMli
12 FT WIDE IN A COMORE I WALL 10 FT RM
D
-400
cr
too
A ------ --
Itoo
----
v
so
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G o
. . . . . . . . . . . .
GRAM MV WALL TICKNESS
.40
FPS FT
A 1550 6
a two to
0 402-00 6
D 1020 10
20
::T
RANGE-
0
500
1000
150C
2000
2500
3000
10
41
BRL1 1051-1BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
_ L SPENETRATION INWO MEIUM EART "N LOGS __
ANY POOR CPFUZE1
7 II 1
-INCLINATION OF EMBANKMENT GREATER THAN M5
LOG WMALS VERTICAL.
------ ADD PENETRATION INTO EARTH (IFANNflTO PENETRArKIJi
I INTO WOOD (USING APPROPRIATE SCALES) j-
__w 0- - Z+~
*~f US ---
*-
0-
4
f3 ----
- - --
zi-=
*RANGE- YARDS T
0 mw00 4000 6000 8000
42
BRLH 105.1-T12
hi I
Ballistic Research Laboratories Ballistic Research Lab.
Handbook of Ballistic and Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Engineering Data for Ammunition, Maryland.
No. 105-1-T12 15 February 1949
BALLISTIC AND EVNGINEERING DATA
for
Shell, HE, 105-mm, T12
with
Fuze, MT, M61A1
Section Paragraphs
I General -------------------- 1
II Description ------------------ 2 - 4
III Interior ballistic data -------- 5
IV Exterior ballistic data -------- 6
SECTION I
GENERAL
Paragraph
Purpose - -I----- -------------------------------------------- 1
1. Purpose. The purpose of this niunber of the handbook is to furnish a concise collection of infor-
mation regarding the shape, dynamics and allistics of the 105-mm High Explosive Shell T12 with the Me-
chanical Time Fuze M'1A1. This information is collected from the drawings, reports and firing tables per-
taining to this ammunition.
0
B.LJJ 1051.T12
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
2
,
4 2
-' N
4 -
Os
"IV'I
FOR SHELl. HE, 105-MM. TI2 BRLH2 105-1-T12
2-5
SECTION 31
DESCRJPTION
Paragraph
Drawings ........- ...............-.....------------------- 2
Dimensions ........- ..............-.....------------------ 3
Physical characteristics - - - --------------------- 4
2. Drawings.
Shell: Metal parts assembly and details GA 2127
Fuze: Assembly 73-7-71
Details 73-7-72,
74,75,76
3. Dimensions.
B oattall: Angle 7000'
Length
0.455 cal
Band: Width 0.343 cal
Distance from base 0.709 cal
Distance from boattall 0.254 cal
Cylindrical body: Length 1925 cal
Ogive: Length 1.221 cal
Radius of arc 10.159 cal
Fuze: Outside length 1.857 cal
Length: Shell 2.e01 cal
Shell and fuze 5.458 cal
Ogie and fuze 3.078 cal
4. Physical characteristics.
Mean weight 38 lb
SECTION III
INTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Theoretical yaw in bore ......- .........---...-..--------------- 5
5. Theoretical yaw in bore.
Minimum 2.7 min
Maximum 5.0 min
3
BRLH 105.I-Til LAU.ISTVC AND FWCINE-.PJNr, DATA
6
SECTION IV
EITER'(OR BEALLIStIIC DATA
Paragraph
Cam data ........- ...............-.....------------------- 6
6. Cam da.a.
Gun, 105-mm, T4 on antiaircraft mcun%.
Twist of riflirg- 1/30.
Muzzle velocity: 3000 fpW.
Projectile weight: 31E Xob.
a. Form factor (Proj Type '): 12 ' 0.882.
b. Ba.lstic coeffizieut (Proj Type 2): C
9
2 2.52.
4
FOR SH" HF- 105-MK T12 BRLM 105.1-TI2
iT L _JLl
VATI
ON - RANGE
CURVES
i
W-
if
4 ELE
T
1_2
1600
. .........
ETTT
l+
4-
t4OO
S
-H- -11
ttl
1144+1
4 Ar
I it
_14 4. 14
NP
144
1200
1 i N
ALTITUDE-
YDS
1000
Itooo
I-T 'l I I I t
I I I I I I I I t
Sh
1-11 --------
--
co
Soo J. J
a I
9000
0
600-
hl,
w
r
----------
400
+
200
-Hf
T, _41 .....
+
T.
L
NGE- YARDS, 1-1-
IT
0 4000 8000 12000 16000
5
r
BRLH 105.1-TI2
BALUS71C AND ENUNEERING DATA
4-J A.
OF FUMT
- RANGE
CURVES
j
4 4#
__144+4
ALTITUDE-YDS
if i
-t -1-t-t -14-
V
#
+
1 00.
Soot) 4000
__ .
I ; I I I A I I I r T 1T
1200 ill I I I L IT"-
+
I I if
Al
1
11
g4
I
t ill
It-
I t y I I
Ila.
7--
P.4
11 A-
H ill
it
10 g
I I A
i f 1 1 1
4-
I i f
_T_
_TT_
+LA
T_
i i till m Mtu-
...... .......
T-4
ti
I 4i
A. Ll I L_
-YARDS
E
R.PAiN4'
-1 'E
0
T - rl
0 4( =1 8000 12000 16000
BRLH 105.1-67
Ballistic Research Laboratories Ballistic Research Lab.
lHan6book of Balliotic and Aberdeen Proving Ground.
Engineering Data for Ammunition, Maryland
No. 105-1-67 14 February 1949
BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
for
Shell, HEAT, 105-mm, M67
with
Fuze, BD, M62
Section Paragraphs
I General ---------------------- 1
II Description ------------------ 2 - 4
InI Interior ballistic data --------- 5 - 6
IV Exterior ballistic data --------- 7 - 8
V Effect data ------------------- 9
SECTION I
GENERAL
Paragraph
Purpose ........- ...............-......------------------- 1
1. Purpose. The purpose of this number of the handbook is to furnish a concise collection of infor-
mation regarding the shape, dynamics, ballistics and effects of the 105-mm High Explosive Antitank Shell
M67 with the Base Detonating Fuze M62. This information is collected from the drawings, reports, and
firing tables pertaining to this ammunition.
SECTION 11
DESCRIPTION
Darag~aph
Drawings ........- ...............-.....------------------- 2
Dimensions ........- ..............-....-------------------- 3
Physical characteristics ......- .........---...-..--------------- 4
BRLH- 105-1-67
BALUSTIC AND ENC!NEERINC DATA
1004
0u 00
Zw
-JD
1
1
FOR SHELL HEAT. IUS-MM. M67
BRLH 105.1.67
2-4
2. Drawings.
Shell: Assembly
75-14-352
Metal parts details 75-4-106
Ogivw and unibn assembly 75-4-107
Fuze: Assembly
73-2-168
Details 73-2-169
Details
73-2-170
Details 73-2-171
3. Dimensions.
Boattail: Angle
9000
Length
0.49 cal
Band: Distance from boattail
0.25 cal
Distance from base 0.74 cal
Width
0.19 cal
Body: Length of cylindrical part 1.84 cal
Lenth of ogival part 0.34 cal
Radius of arc
6.17 cal
Uiion: Length
0.14 cal
Ogive: Length
1.86 cal
Angle
21030'
Length: Body
2.67 cal
Ogive and union 2.00 cal
Shell
4.67 cal
Ogive, union and ogival part of body 2.34 cal
NOTE: Fuze is entirely inside of shell body.
4. Physical characteristics.
Weight (standard')
29.29 lb
Base to ?enter of gravity 1.497 cal 2
Axii - -.-nent of inertia
0.515 lb.ft
2
Tran. se moment of inertia
4.18 Ib.ft
2
.1-67-~
~ -~--
-M M67
BRLH 105.16
FOR S~HELL. HEAT. 105MMM6
SECTIONS
A
BC
-64
+ 395
j3
-17 9
- 4 1 50
- 2 6 6 -*
a:
LONGITUDINAL
AXSO EULATMSE
DIAXRAS OF RESULTANT STRESSES
4
]FOR SHELL. HEAT. 105.MM. M67
BRLH 105-1-67
SECTION M
INTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Stresses .............---------- ----- ----------------- 5
Theoretical yaw in bore ......- .........---...-..--------------- 6
5. Stresses. The following table and the graphical representation on page 4 show the longitudinal,
radial and tangential resultant stresses at each of three sections: (A) the rear corner of the band seat,
(B) the front of the band seat, and (C) immediately behind the bourrelet.
Howitzer
105-mm M2
Twist of rifling 1/20
Cross-sectional area of bore 13.65 sq in.
Rated maximum pressure 30,000 psi
Total weight of projectile 29.29 lb
Muzzle Velocity 1250 fps
Density of filler (pentolite) 0.0574 lb per cu in.
Resultant Stress* SECTION
100 psi A B C
Longitudinal -179 -415 -266
Radial +395 0 + 23
Tangential -694 +342 +198
* + denotes tension, - denotes compression.
6. Theoretical yaw in bore.
Minimum 2.7 min
Maximum 5.0 min
SECTION IV
EXTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Aerodynamic data .......- .............-...------------------
7
Firing table data .......- .............-...------------------
8
BRLH 105.1.67 BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
7-8
7. Aerodynamic data.
a. Drag. A form factor of 1.26 relative to the G
2
drag function was determined from resistance
firings at 1250 fps with short coil distances. Later, more accurate measurements were made, ard a form
factor of 1.06 determined by resistance firings at both 1020 and 1250 fps. This value has been confirmed
by comparative firings with the HEAT Shell M67 and the HE Shell Ml against a vertical target at a muzzle
velocity of 1020 fps. For the standard weight of 29.29 lb, the ballistic coefficient is 1.62 on G
2
. The drag
coefficient is tabulated below.
Velocity Drag Coefficient
fps %D
1020 .078b
1250 .170
b. Stability. The stability factor of the HEAT Shell M67 bas not been determined. However, it
should be approximately the same as that of the 75-mm HEAT Shell M66, which is about 2.07 for a twist
of rifling of 1/20 at a muzzle velocity of 1000 fps.
8. Firing table data.
Howitzer Firing MV Weight Twist of
105-mm Table fps lb Rifling
M2A1 105-H-3, C8 1250 28.8 1/20
M3 105-L-1 1020 28.8 1/20
The terminal velocity was taken from Ballistic Research Laboratory Memorandum Report 296,
"Tables of Impact Velocities for Mobile Artillery Weapons". The HEAT Shell M67 was standardized by
OCM item 17639.
FOR SHELL. HEAT, 105-MM. M67
BRLH 105.-.67
-------- 8
I IIj-I-
--
1-1 1 1 I fIO
I i l
1.I I IM _
1.20
0 I0 I00 300 400
I I 7
BRL14 103-1-67
BALUSTIC AND ENGINEERINC DATA
H111111,111 if 11
LLISTIC COEFFICIENT -RANGE CLRVES
BA (PROJ.TYPE2)
---
LLI I I I
l i l t
H I l l [
----- --
lilt[
------ aTT7
1.60 NOW. M3 MV3102opm --- it;
441 it I Ill It Ill I if I
I f i l l f i l l
if
------------
-i L 1
------ ----------- T_ _F -1-T
L50-
----------
P2
W;wi I i 4
lilt
[Ill KI : IF RIF IT IT
fill I -------- -- If
5 1 1 1.0
-A I ---- --
LOT V -A I I I fill
if
Y1 I I
-- it F_
- -------------
-- --------
-
i t I t
-----------
-- ---------
-------------
-- - ---------
I I-TI --------- -- - -------- ---
- ---------
------------
-------------
------ --------
L
-----------
----------------
--+4+ _:T
-
----------
it
------------------ ------ --------------
-----------
---- ---- 4 -
___7 -------- __ - ____ -
1.35 4TM ------ ---------
---------------
I I fill ---------- -------
fill -------
-------------------- ---- --- __FTI I I if
----------------
----- --- --- LL
------
---
---
------------------------
J7
---
------------ ------
1.30 1 1 1 If
------ -
fill -------
L
-::Fr-FP
--------
-=EITT-
#
-------------
RANM-YAJW
I I Ill?
1000 2000
4000
8
FOR SHELL. HEAT. 105.MM. M67
BLH1516
[ ~ ELEVATION -RANGE CURVES
'75
I5I
IiIt
f i l I
bto
f5l fi
25f
449
BRUi 105-1-67
BALUSMC AND ENGINEERINQ DATA
j+ T 41
&TERMINAL VELDOITY-RANGE CURVES
---------
.....
IF ------- ------
-----------------
- ----------
- ------------ - -- ---------------
---------------
---------
----- ----------------
--------------
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--------
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11 --- ----------
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1300 --------- - ----------- -------- -
- ---------
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4441 -----------
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RANGE-YARDS
'1
4 1
700 fil
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
10
FOR SHELL HEAT, 105-MM. M67 BRLH 105-1-67
_48
7 -TIME OF FLIGHT - RANGE CURVES 7
4-4
-H -t 11 - 1 1
BRLH 105.1.67 BALLISTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
9
SECTION V
EFFECT DATA
Paragraph
Penetration ........- ............-..--- - ------------------ 9
9. Penetration. The average penetration into homogenecus armor plat.e is 4.5 inches.
12
L
BRLH- 105.1.314
Ballistic Research Laboratoriec Ballistic Research Lab.
HIandbook of Ballistic and Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Engineering Data for Amniunition, Maryland.
No. 105-1-314 15 February 1949
BALLISTTC AND ENGINEERING DATA
for
Shell, Illuminating, 105-min, M314
with
Fuze, TSQ, M54
Section Paragraphs
I General --------------------- 1
HI Description ------------------ 2 - 4
III Interior ballistic data --------- 5
IV Exterior ballistic data ----------. - 7
V Effect data ------------------- 8
( /SECTJON I
GENERAL
Paragrapbs
SPurpose ........- ................-......------------------ 1
1. Purpose. The parpose of this number of the handbook is to furnish a copcise collection of infor-
mation regarding the shape, dynamics, b3llistics and effects of the 105-mm Illuminating Shell M314 with
the 'fime and Superquick Fuze M54. This Information U collected from the drawings, reports, firing
tables and firing records pertaining to this ammunition.
SECTION U
DESCRIPTION
Drawings -.-.--.-.----------.------ ----- - --------------.------ 2
Dimensions ........- ..............-.....------------------ 3
Physical characteristics ......- ...........-....---------------- 4
ff
N BRI.4 105.1-514 BALLIST1C AND ENGINEERING DATA
4x
"
I
z
An
zoo
Wt
Zs/
, _ _ I
r FOR SHELL I.LUMINATING, 105.MM. M314 BRUi 105-1.314
2-5
2. Drawings.
Shell: Metal parts assembly 75-4-128
Details 75-4-129
Fuze: Assembly 73-3-154
3. Dimensions.
Band: Width 0.196 cal
Distance from base 0.399 cal
Body: Length of base piece 0.145 cal
Length of cylindrical part 2.900 cal
Length of ogival part 0.835 cal
Radius of ogival arc 2.782 cal
Length of shell 3.735 cal
Fuze: Length (outside) 0.914 cal
Length of shell and fuze 4.649 cal
Length of ogive and fuze 1.749 cal
4. Phycical characteristics.
Weight (standard) 36.60 lb
Base to center of gravity 1.180 cal
Axial moment of inertia 0.286 lb.ft
2
Transverse moment of inertia 1.416 lb.ft
2
SECTIM flT
INTERIOR BA-,USW1C DATA
Paragraph
Theoretical yaw in bore -.-.-.-.-.-------- --- ----------------------- 5
5. Theoretical yaw in bore.
Minimum 8 min
Maximum 15 min
3
BRLLI 105-1.314 BALLtSTIC AND ENGINEERING DATA
6.7
SECTION IV
EXTERIOR BALLISTIC DATA
Paragraph
Aerodynamic data .......- ..... ........-...------------------
6
Firing table data .......- .........-..------------------
7
6. Aerodynamic data.
a. Dragi The following drag coefficients were computed from the ballistic coefficients tabulated
in paragraph 6, which were determined by range firings.
Velocity KD
fps
620 .0881
674 .0881
738 .0885
825 .0899
958 .0950
1158 .1829
1453 .1892
b. Stability.
Muzzle Velocity
1226 fps
Moment coefficient, KM 1.37
Twist of rifling
1/20
Stability factor
3.60
7. Firing table data. FT 105-H-3 (C-il)
105-mm Howitzer M2AI and M4. Twist of rifling: 1/20.
OCM items 28809 and 29657 recommended and approved standardization of the flluminating Shell M314.
a. Form Factor and Ballistic Coefficient.
The following form factors and ballistic coefficients on the drag function G6.
1
were determined by
range firings and are independent of elevation.
Charge MV Form Ballistic
No. fps Factor Coefficient
1 620 1.050 2.007
2 674 1.055 1.996
3 738 1.063 1.981
4 825 1.075 1.959
5 958 1.101 1.914
6 1158 1.135 1.856
7 1453 1.097 1.920
4
FOR SHELL ILLUNGNAMNQ 105-MK M314
EIRLE 105-1-314
7
T
EVATION
RANGE CU ES
fill
900 '-T-T III I I
It
I f
CHARGE I -MVr. 620 FPS
800- CHARGE2-MVs674FPS
I TTT-r-r-7 I r-. -- T7- 1 1 r-r-" I I j
HARGE3-MV-738F
----- -----
- -I I I I t
it
700
-It
-
d bii4iGE 4 MV 825 FPS
600
lilt
III I I Ifl
i t I
f i l l I
f i l l I
If!
5WWO
F
4
CHARGE 6 MVr1158 FPS
t
:4:44
7
400
CHARGE 7 MV= 1453 FPS
if v A I i t I
Z_ :Vr
4-1
+ -r-444
T
300
4
-4
4 4
t
-j_ jj
t4-
1 4
+1
4
_T
200
004,
4,-i 4
-Tt
A.
4
H 14 -
T
1 44 4 4-
t -
14
100- 1 y
-4 4 4 4 -- 4-
4 4 1 1
14--!-- t-t-4
fill
YARDS
H A -f-t-fl+
0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000
5
BRIH 105.1-314
BALUMlC AND ENGNEERING DATA
S
SECTION V
EFFECT DATA
Paragraph
Illumination ........- ... ... ...- -.- -.-----------------------
8
8. Iluminatiom. When the fuze functions, the candle and parachute are released. A few seconds
later, the parachute opens and slowly lowers the candle to the ground. In the functioning tests of this am-
munition, the candles burned from 38 to 57 'econds.
I
I8