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AS5210: AERODYNAMIC DESIGN

DESIGN OF RC AIRCRAFT
Submitted by,
GROUP - M4
1. Debolina Dasgupta

(AE12M002)

2. Dharamendr Kumar Bhardwaj

(AE12M004)

3. Jadhav Krishna Balu

(AE12M005)

4. Jijo Unni K

(AE12M007)

5. Jitendra Kumar

(AE12M008)

Submitted to,
Dr Luoyi Tao, Dr. G. Rajesh
Department of Aerospace Engineering
In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements of
AS5210 Aerodynamic Design
Jan-May 2013
IIT Madras, Chennai

Contents
LIST OF FIGURES............................................................................................ ix
LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................. xi
LIST OF SYMBOLS ..........................................................................................xii
CHAPTER 1: GOAL DETERMINATION AND MISSION SPECIFICATIONS ............. 1
1.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 GOAL DETERMINATION................................................................................................................. 1
1.3 MISSION PROFILE .......................................................................................................................... 2
1.4 PRELIMINARY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ..................................................................................... 3

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE SURVEY AND FIRST WEIGHT ESTIMATE ................... 4


2.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 4
2.2 DATA COLLECTION ........................................................................................................................ 4
2.3 FIRST WEIGHT ESTIMATE .............................................................................................................. 6
2.4 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................. 7

CHAPTER 3: SECOND WEIGHT ESTIMATE........................................................ 9


3.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 9
3.2 AIRFOIL .......................................................................................................................................... 9
3.2.1 Airfoil Data Collection ............................................................................................................ 9
3.2.2 Airfoil Selection .................................................................................................................... 10
3.2.3 Airfoil Operational Characteristics ....................................................................................... 11
3.3 WING DESIGN.............................................................................................................................. 12
3.3.1 Aspect ratio .......................................................................................................................... 12
3.3.2 Wing area (S) ........................................................................................................................ 14
3.3.3 Span Length (b) .................................................................................................................... 14
3.4 SECOND WEIGHT ESTIMATE ....................................................................................................... 15
3.4.1 Payload Weight Calculation ................................................................................................. 15
3.4.2 Power plant Weight Calculation .......................................................................................... 16
3.4.3 Weight Calculation ............................................................................................................... 21
3.5 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................... 21

CHAPTER 4: WING LOADING AND THRUST-TO-WEIGHT RATIO..................... 22


4.1 WING LOADING ........................................................................................................................... 22
4.1.1 Wing Loading for Stall Conditions ........................................................................................ 22
4.1.2 Wing Loading for Landing .................................................................................................... 23

4.1.3 Wing loading for Cruise conditions ...................................................................................... 25


4.1.4 Wing Loading for Loiter........................................................................................................ 26
4.2 WING LOADING SELECTION ........................................................................................................ 26
4.3 THRUST-TO-WEIGHT RATIO CALCULATION ................................................................................ 27
4.3.1. Thrust-to-Weight ratio for Take-Off conditions.................................................................. 27
4.3.2. Thrust-to-Weight calculation for Climb .............................................................................. 29
4.3.3. Thrust-to-Weight calculation for Vmax .............................................................................. 30
4.3.4. Thrust-to-Weight calculation for turning............................................................................ 31
4.4 SUMMARY OF THRUST-TO-WEIGHT AND SELECTION ................................................................ 31
4.5 WING LOADING FOR SEGMENTS DEPENDENT ON (T/W) ........................................................... 32
4.5.1. Wing Loading for Take-Off conditions ................................................................................ 32
4.5.2. Wing Loading calculation for Climb .................................................................................... 33
4.5.3 Wing Loading for Vmax ........................................................................................................ 33
4.5.4 Wing Loading for turning ..................................................................................................... 34
4.6 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................... 34
4.7 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................ 34

CHAPTER 5: THIRD WEIGHT ESTIMATE AND INITIAL SIZING.......................... 35


5.1 THIRD WEIGHT ESTIMATE ........................................................................................................... 35
5.1.1 Material Selection ................................................................................................................ 35
5.1.2 Weight of the Wing .............................................................................................................. 36
5.1.3 Weight of the Fuselage ........................................................................................................ 41
5.1.4 Weight of Horizontal Tail ..................................................................................................... 42
5.1.5 Weight of Vertical Tail .......................................................................................................... 42
5.1.6 Weight of the Skin................................................................................................................ 43
5.1.7 Third Weight Estimate ......................................................................................................... 44
5.2 INITIAL GEOMETRIC SIZING ......................................................................................................... 45
5.2.1 Fuselage Sizing ..................................................................................................................... 45
5.2.2. Wing Sizing .......................................................................................................................... 45
5.2.3. Tail Sizing ............................................................................................................................. 45
5.3. SUMMARY OF MAJOR DIMENSIONS OF THE AIRCRAFT ............................................................ 48
5.4 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................ 48

CHAPTER 6: THREE VIEW AND CONFIGURATION LAYOUT ............................ 49


6.1 INITIAL SIZING SUMMARY ........................................................................................................... 49
6.2 THREE-VIEW DRAWING............................................................................................................... 50
ii

6.3 WETTED AREA ESTIMATION........................................................................................................ 52


6.4 INTERNAL VOLUME ESTIMATION ............................................................................................... 53
6.5 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................... 53
6.6 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................ 53

CHAPTER 7: PROPELLER SELECTION.............................................................. 54


7.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 54
7.2 PROPELLER SIZING ...................................................................................................................... 55
7.3 SUMMARY OF PROPELLER SPECIFICATIONS ............................................................................... 57
7.4 PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIPS ................................................................................................. 57
7.4.1 Propeller parameter calculation at take-off conditions ...................................................... 59
7.4.2 Propeller parameter calculation for climb conditions ......................................................... 60
7.4.3 Propeller parameter calculation for cruise conditions ........................................................ 61
7.4.4 Propeller parameter calculation for turning conditions ...................................................... 62
7.4.5 Propeller parameter calculation for landing conditions ...................................................... 63
7.5 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................... 64
7.6 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................ 64

CHAPTER 8: IMPROVED DRAG POLAR AND POWER PLANT ESTIMATION...... 65


8.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 65
8.2 LIFT .............................................................................................................................................. 65
8.2.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 65
8.2.2 Calculation of CL .................................................................................................................. 66
8.2.3 Calculation of CLmax ............................................................................................................... 66
8.2.4 Calculation of CLmax ............................................................................................................. 69
8.3 PARASITE DRAG ESTIMATION ..................................................................................................... 70
8.3.1 Flat-plate Skin Friction Coefficient ....................................................................................... 70
8.3.2 Component Form Factor ...................................................................................................... 71
8.2.3 Component Interference Factor .......................................................................................... 71
8.3.4 Miscellaneous Drag .............................................................................................................. 71
8.3.5 Geometric Details ................................................................................................................ 71
8.3.6 Calculation and Summary Table of Parasite Drag ................................................................ 72
8.4 OSWALD SPAN EFFICIENCY FACTOR AND K ................................................................................ 74
8.5 MODIFIED DRAG POLAR .............................................................................................................. 75
8.6 CHECKING FOR WING LOADING IN SEGMENTS INDEPENDENT OF T/W .................................... 75
8.6.1 Wing Loading for Stall Conditions ........................................................................................ 76
iii

8.6.2 Wing Loading for Landing .................................................................................................... 76


8.6.3 Wing Loading for Cruise Conditions ..................................................................................... 76
8.6.4 Wing Loading for Loiter........................................................................................................ 77
8.7 WING LOADING SELECTION ........................................................................................................ 78
8.8 THRUST-TO-WEIGHT RATIO CALCULATION ................................................................................ 78
8.8.1. Thrust-to-Weight Ratio for Take-Off Conditions ................................................................ 78
8.8.2. Thrust-to-Weight calculation for Climb .............................................................................. 79
8.8.3. Thrust-to-Weight calculation for Vmax ................................................................................. 81
8.8.4. Thrust-to-Weight calculation for turning............................................................................ 81
8.9 SUMMARY OF THRUST-TO-WEIGHT AND SELECTION ................................................................ 82
8.10 WING LOADING FOR SEGMENTS DEPENDENT ON (T/W) ......................................................... 82
8.10.1. Wing Loading for Take-Off conditions .............................................................................. 82
8.10.2. Wing Loading calculation for Climb .................................................................................. 83
8.10.3 Wing Loading for Vmax ........................................................................................................ 83
8.10.4 Wing Loading for Turning................................................................................................... 84
8.11 SUMMARY OF POWER REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................... 84
8.12 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 85
8.13

REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................... 85

CHAPTER 9: ESTIMATION OF CENTRE OF GRAVITY OF AIRCRAFT .................. 86


9.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 86
9.2 CG OF DIFFERENT COMPONENTS ............................................................................................... 86
9.2.1 Fuselage ............................................................................................................................... 87
9.2.2 Wing ..................................................................................................................................... 88
9.2.3 Horizontal Tail ...................................................................................................................... 89
9.2.4. Vertical Tail.......................................................................................................................... 91
9.2.5 Propeller ............................................................................................................................... 93
9.2.6. Motor .................................................................................................................................. 93
9.2.7. Battery................................................................................................................................. 93
9.2.8 Payload ................................................................................................................................. 94
9.2.9 Summary of the CG location of different components........................................................ 94
9.3 CG LOCATION OF AIRCRAFT ........................................................................................................ 95
9.4 CALCULATION OF CG OF LANDING GEAR ................................................................................... 96
9.4.1 Landing Gear Arrangement .................................................................................................. 96
9.4.2 Landing Gear Weight ........................................................................................................... 98

iv

9.4.3 Landing Gear CG................................................................................................................... 98


9.5 MODIFIED LOCATION OF CG ....................................................................................................... 99
9.6 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 100
9.7 REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................. 100

CHAPTER 10: STABILITY AND TRIM ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT ....................... 101


10.1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 101
10.1.1 Longitudinal Stability........................................................................................................ 101
10.1.2 Lateral Stability ................................................................................................................ 101
10.1.3 Directional Stability .......................................................................................................... 101
10.2 LOCATION OF CENTRE OF GRAVITY ........................................................................................ 102
10.3 NEUTRAL POINT ...................................................................................................................... 102
10.4 PARAMETERS OF WING .......................................................................................................... 103

10.4.1  ............................................................................................................................... 103

10.4.2 CL ..................................................................................................................................... 103

10.5 PARAMETERS OF FUSELAGE.................................................................................................... 103


10.5.1 Cmfus ................................................................................................................................. 103
10.6 HORIZONTAL TAIL PITCHING MOMENT .................................................................................. 105
10.6.1 Dynamic Pressure Ratio () ........................................................................................... 105
10.6.2 Planform Area Ratio () ........................................................................................... 105
10.6.3 Lift-Curve Slope of Horizontal Tail (
) ...................................................................... 106
10.6.4 Tail Angle of Attack Derivative (

) ......................................................................... 106
10.6.5 Non-Dimensional Aerodynamic Center x-location () ............................................. 107
10.6.6. Calculation of Cmh ............................................................................................................ 107
10.7 EFFECT OF POWER PLANT ON PITCHING MOMENT ............................................................... 107
10.8 LOCATION OF NEUTRAL POINT ............................................................................................... 108
10.9 STATIC MARGIN ...................................................................................................................... 108
10.10 Recalculation at new CG location: ........................................................................................ 109
10.10.1 ( )New: .................................................................................................................... 109
10.10.2 (Cmfus)new: ....................................................................................................................... 109
10.10.3 (

)new and (Cmh)new: ............................................................................................. 109
10.10.4 New location of neutral point: ....................................................................................... 110
10.11 MODIFIED VIEWS WITH NEW WING LOCATION ................................................................... 111
10.12 TRIM ANALYSIS...................................................................................................................... 112
10.13 CONCLUSION......................................................................................................................... 116

10.14 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................... 116

CHAPTER 11: PARASITE DRAG ESTIMATION ............................................... 117


11.1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 117
11.2 FLAT PLATE SKIN FRICTION COEFFICIENT ............................................................................... 117
11.3 COMPONENT FORM FACTOR .................................................................................................. 118
11.3.1 Fuselage ........................................................................................................................... 118
11.3.2 Wing and tails................................................................................................................... 118
11.4 COMPONENT INTERFERENCE FACTOR.................................................................................... 118
11.5 LANDING GEAR DRAG ............................................................................................................. 118
11.6 GEOMETRIC DETAILS OF DIFFERENT COMPONENTS .............................................................. 121
11.7 CALCULATION AND SUMMARY OF PARASITE DRAG CALCULATION ....................................... 122
11.8 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................... 124
11.9

REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................ 124

CHAPTER 12: FLIGHT PERFORMANCE AND V-n DIAGRAM .......................... 125


12.1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 125
12.2 STALL CONDITIONS ................................................................................................................. 125
12.2.1. Stall Wing Loading........................................................................................................... 125
12.3 CRUISE CONDITIONS ............................................................................................................... 126
12.3.1 CD and CL ........................................................................................................................... 126
12.3.2 V min drag ............................................................................................................................. 126
12.3.3 Vcruise and CL ...................................................................................................................... 127
12.3.4 Cruise Wing Loading......................................................................................................... 127
12.3.5 CD ...................................................................................................................................... 127
12.3.6 Thrust for minimum drag ................................................................................................. 127
12.3.7 Power for minimum drag ................................................................................................. 127
12.3.8. Minimum power conditions............................................................................................ 128
12.3.9 Thrust for minimum power.............................................................................................. 128
12.3.7 Power for minimum power .............................................................................................. 128
12.4 CLIMB CONDITIONS ................................................................................................................ 128
12.4.1 CL and CD ........................................................................................................................... 128
12.4.2 Vclimb.................................................................................................................................. 129
12.4.3 Thrust for climb ................................................................................................................ 129
12.4.4 Power for climb ................................................................................................................ 129
12.4.5 Climb gradient .................................................................................................................. 129
vi

12.4.6 Climb Wing loading .......................................................................................................... 130


12.4.7. Rate of Climb ................................................................................................................... 130
12.5 TURN CONDITIONS.................................................................................................................. 130
12.5.1 Load factor (n) .................................................................................................................. 130
12.5.2 CL and CD ........................................................................................................................... 130
12.5.3 Thrust for turn.................................................................................................................. 131
12.5.4 Power for turn.................................................................................................................. 131
12.5.5. Turning wing loading....................................................................................................... 131
12.6 LANDING ................................................................................................................................. 131
12.6.1 Turn Radius (R) ................................................................................................................. 131
12.6.2. Approach Distance (Sa).................................................................................................... 132
12.6.3 Flare Distance (Sf) ............................................................................................................. 132
12.6.4. Ground roll distance (Sg) ................................................................................................. 132
12.6.5. Landing Wing Loading ..................................................................................................... 132
12.7. TAKE-OFF................................................................................................................................ 133
12.7.1 Static Thrust ..................................................................................................................... 133
12.7.2. Turn radius (R)................................................................................................................. 133
12.7.3 Airborne distance (Sa) ...................................................................................................... 133
12.7.4 Ground roll distance (Sg) .................................................................................................. 133
12.7.5 Take-off Wing Loading ..................................................................................................... 133
12.7.6 VTO .................................................................................................................................... 134
12.7.7. Power for take-off ........................................................................................................... 134
12.7.8 Maximum acceleration (a) ............................................................................................... 134
12.8 LOITER ..................................................................................................................................... 134
12.8.1 CL ...................................................................................................................................... 134
12.8.2 Loiter wing loading........................................................................................................... 135
12.9 SUMMARY AND SELECTION OF WING LOADING .................................................................... 135
12.10 THRUST-TO-WEIGHT ............................................................................................................. 135
12.10.1 Cruise ............................................................................................................................. 136
12.10.2 Climb .............................................................................................................................. 136
12.10.3 Turn ................................................................................................................................ 136
12.10.4 Take-Off.......................................................................................................................... 137
12.10.5 Vmax ................................................................................................................................. 137
12.11. SUMMARY AND SELECTION OF THRUST TO WEIGHT RATIO ............................................... 137

vii

12.12. V-n DIAGRAM ....................................................................................................................... 138


12.12.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 138
12.12.2 Load Factor..................................................................................................................... 139
12.12.3 V-n Diagram parameters calculation ............................................................................. 139
12.12.4 Limit load factor calculation........................................................................................... 140
12.12.5 Stall condition ................................................................................................................ 140
12.12.6 Manoeuvring point A ..................................................................................................... 141
12.12.7 Calculation of Velocity Vc ............................................................................................... 141
12.12.8 Diving velocity VD ........................................................................................................... 141
12.12.9 Velocity at negative limit load ....................................................................................... 141
12.12.10 Equations for the curves .............................................................................................. 142
12.12.11 Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 143
12.13 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................... 144

Chapter 13: FINAL CONFIGURATION .......................................................... 145


13.1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 145
13.2 WEIGHT AND GEOMETRY ....................................................................................................... 145
13.3 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS ......................................................................................... 147
13.4 STABILITY PARAMTERS............................................................................................................ 148
13.5 FLIGHT ENVELOPE CHARACTERISTICS ..................................................................................... 148

viii

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Mission Profile ...................................................................................................................... 2


Figure 1.2 Sketch of the configuration.................................................................................................... 4
Figure 2.1. Structural or empty weight fraction plot .............................................................................. 5
Figure 2.2 Power plant fraction plot ....................................................................................................... 6
Figure 2.3 Mission leg weight fractions .................................................................................................. 8
Figure 3.2: NACA 2310 Airfoil Geometric Profile .................................................................................. 10
Figure 3.3: Lift Curve For NACA 2310 In The Operating Envelope ........................................................ 11
Figure 3.4: Drag Polar For NACA 2310 In The Operating Envelope ...................................................... 11
Figure 3.5: Aspect Ratio - Historical Data Plot ...................................................................................... 13
Figure 3.6: Wing Loading - Historical Data Plot .................................................................................... 13
Figure 3.7 Tau Camera .......................................................................................................................... 15
Figure 3.8 CL v/s CD for different velocities ........................................................................................... 18
Figure 3.9 Power v/s Velocity ............................................................................................................... 18
Figure 3.8 Rimfire 0.32 brushless Outrunner motor............................................................................. 19
Figure 3.9 Electrifly 4S 2200mAh LiPo .................................................................................................. 20
Figure 3.10 13 X 8 NEW APC Thin Electric Propeller ............................................................................. 20
Figure 3.11. Silver Series 45A Brushless ESC ......................................................................................... 20
Figure 4.1The Landing Path and Landing Distance[1]........................................................................... 23
Figure 4.2 Take-off analysis [2] ............................................................................................................... 27
Figure 6.1 Side View of the RC Model Airplane .................................................................................... 51
Figure 6.2 Top View of the RC Model Airplane ..................................................................................... 51
Figure 6.3 Front View of the RC Model Airplane .................................................................................. 52
Figure 7.1 Cross-section of a propeller[1]............................................................................................. 54
Figure 7.2 Fixed- Pitch propeller[1]....................................................................................................... 54
Figure 7.3 Variable- Pitch propeller[1] .................................................................................................. 55
Figure 7.4 Constant- speed propeller[1] ............................................................................................... 55
Figure 7.6. Variation of J with CT at different P/D ratios [5] ................................................................... 58
Figure 7.7. Variation of J with Cp at different P/D ratios [5] ................................................................... 58
Figure 8.1 Lift curve slope v/s Mach number ....................................................................................... 65
Figure 8.2 Taper ratio correction for low aspect ratio wings [1] ............................................................ 67
Figure 8.3 Airfoil leading edge sharpness parameter [1] ....................................................................... 67

ix

Figure 8.4 Subsonic maximum lift of high aspect ratio wings [1] ........................................................... 68
Figure 8.5 Mach number correction for subsonic maximum lift of high aspect ratio wings [1] ............ 68
Figure 8.6 Angle of attack increment for subsonic maximum lift of high aspect ratio wings [1]........... 69
Figure 8.7 Parasite Drag vs. Mach number ........................................................................................... 74
Figure 8.8 Modified drag polar ............................................................................................................. 75
Figure 9.1. Side view of the aircraft in cartesian coordinate system . .................................................. 86
Figure 9.2. Top view of the aircraft in cartesian system ....................................................................... 87
Figure9.3. CG location of fuselage ........................................................................................................ 88
Figure9.4. CG location of wing .............................................................................................................. 88
Figure 9.5 Schematic of the important geometric points for tail CG calculation [2] ............................. 89
Figure 9.6. CG location of horizontal tail .............................................................................................. 91
Figure9.7. CG location of vertical tail .................................................................................................... 92
Figure 9.8 Landing Gear Arrangement about Aircraft CG ..................................................................... 96
Figure 10.1. Position of root chord [1] .............................................................................................. 104
Figure 11.1 CD values for Landing Gear (Fixed Type) [2] ...................................................................... 119
Figure 11.2 CD values for Landing Gear (Fixed Type) [2] ...................................................................... 120
Figure 11.3 Parasite Drag vs. Mach number ....................................................................................... 124
Figure 12.1 V-n diagram for a general aviation aircraft ...................................................................... 139
Figure 12.2 V-n Diagram ..................................................................................................................... 143

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1 Design Specifications ............................................................................................................... 2
Table 1.3 Preliminary design considerations .......................................................................................... 3
Table 2.1 Weight specification for RC airplanes ..................................................................................... 5
Table 2.2. Result table of iterative process............................................................................................. 7
Table 3.1 Airfoil Data .............................................................................................................................. 9
Table 3.2 Characteristics of NACA 2310................................................................................................ 10
Table 3.4 Wing Specifications ............................................................................................................... 14
Table 3.5 Parameter values at different velocities ............................................................................... 17
Table 4.1 Ground Rolling Resistance[1] .................................................................................................. 24
Table 4.2 Wing Loading at different flight conditions .......................................................................... 26
Table 4.3 Engine power at different flight conditions .......................................................................... 31
Table 4.4 Thrust-to-weight at different flight conditions ..................................................................... 31
Table 5.1 Weight of each component................................................................................................... 44
Table 6.1 Initial Sizing Summary ........................................................................................................... 49
Table 6.2 Wing and Empennage Wetted Area Calculation ................................................................... 52
Table 7.1. Historical Data for propeller selection of RC aircrafts [3] ...................................................... 56
Table 7.2 Propeller Parameters ............................................................................................................ 64
Table 7.3 Propeller performance in each segment............................................................................... 64
Table 8.1 RC Model Airplane (W0 = 1.98 kg) Component Geometric Data .......................................... 72
Table 8.2 Parasite Drag Calculation for design cruise speed of 20 m/s ................................................ 73
Table 8.3 Parasite Drag Coefficients for RC Model Airplane Speed Range........................................... 73
Table 8.4 Wing Loading at different flight conditions .......................................................................... 78
Table 8.5 Engine power at different flight conditions .......................................................................... 82
Table 9.1 CG location and weights of different components ............................................................... 94
Table 11.1 RC Model Airplane (W0 = 1.98 kg) Component Geometric Data ...................................... 121
Table 11.2 Parasite Drag Calculation for maximum cruise speed of 20m/s ....................................... 122
Table 11.3 Parasite Drag Coefficients for RC Model Airplane Speed Range....................................... 123
Table 12.1 Wing loading for different segments ................................................................................ 135
Table 12.2 Thrust-to-weight ratio of different segments ................................................................... 137
Table 12.3 Parameters required for V-n diagram ............................................................................... 140

xi

LIST OF SYMBOLS



AR

Aspect Ratio

BP

Balance Point

Wing span

Chord
Maximum value of coefficient of lift for wing



 

Maximum value of coefficient of lift for airfoil


CD

Coefficient of drag for wing


Zero Lift Drag Coefficient

CL

Coefficient of lift for wing

Cp

Coefficient of Power

Croot

Root chord

CS

Speed Power Coefficient

CT

Coefficient of Thrust

Ctip

Root chord

Drag

Ostwalds Efficiency Factor

hf

Flare Height

hob

Obstacle Height

HP

Engine Horsepower

Advance Ratio

k
L

Parasite Drag Coefficient


Lift

Propeller Blade Length

Load Factor

Increment time for free roll

xii

Speed in RPM

Speed in RPS

P
P
PTO



( )

Turn Radius
Maximum Rate of Climb

Wing Area

Sa

Approach Distance

Sf

Flare Distance

Sg

Ground Roll Distance

STO

Take- Off Distance

SL

Landing Distance

Thrust

!"



Thrust-to-Weight ratio for maximum Rate of Climb

Thrust-to-Weight ratio for Take-Off



#/

Engine Power for Take-Off

Engine power for Maximum Velocity


R

!"

Pitch

Engine power for Maximum Rate of Climb

 

!"

Engine Power

Thrust-to-Weight ratio for maximum Velocity

Vf

Flare Velocity

VLO

Velocity at lift off

Vloiter

Loiter Velocity

Vmax

Maximum Velocity



Velocity at maximum Rate of Climb

VstallStall Velocity
W

xiii

Weight

!
% &'()*+

 "
!

%"
!

,-),.

Wing loading for Landing



Wing loading for maximum Rate of Climb

 "
%

!
% */

 "
!
%

 "
!

%"

Wing loading for stall conditions

Wing loading for Take-Off



Wing Sweep

XCG

Location of centre of gravity along X axis

YCG

Location of centre of gravity along Y axis

ZCG

Location of centre of gravity along Z axis


Wing taper ratio
Propeller efficiency

45

Density of air

6

Approach Angle

637

Obstacle Angle

8'

xiv

Wing loading for maximum Velocity

12'32

45

Wing loading for Cruise conditions

Coefficient of friction

Angle of attack
Density of air
Sweep Angle

CHAPTER 1: GOAL DETERMINATION AND MISSION SPECIFICATIONS

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Aircraft design is an iterative process. The design depends on many factors such as customer and
manufacturer demand, safety protocols, physical and economic constraints etc. It is a compromise
between many competing factors and constraints and accounts for existing designs and market
requirements to produce the best aircraft. The design starts out in three phases:
(a) Conceptual Design
This involves sketching up a variety of possible configurations that meet the required design
specifications. Fundamental aspects such as fuselage shape, wing configuration and location,
engine size/power plant size and type are all determined at this stage. Constraints to design
are all taken into account at this stage.

(b) Preliminary Design


At this stage the design configuration arrived at in the conceptual design phase is then
tweaked and remodelled to fit into the design parameters. Major structural and control
analysis is also carried out in this phase. Aerodynamic flaws and structural instabilities if any
are corrected and the final design is drawn and finalised.

(c) Detail Design


This phase deals with the fabrication aspect of the aircraft. It determines the number, design
and location of ribs, spars, sections and other structural elements. All aerodynamic,
structural, propulsion, control and performance aspects have already been covered in the
preliminary design phase.

1.2 GOAL DETERMINATION

The goal is to design a flying model of a miniature aircraft mainly intended to undertake missions viz.
reconnaissance/ surveillance. The most common aircrafts i.e. the remote controlled aircraftshave
multiple applications such as in military, weather forecast, topological survey, reconnaissance etc.

The teams primary plan is to design for surveillance in forest areas to track the wildlife movements
and to study their habitual patterns through the collected data. The surveillance aircraft can also be
used to capture poacher activities within the reserve area.

1.3MISSION PROFILE
The required mission profile for the RC model airplane to be designed is given in Figure 1.1 below.

LOITER
CRUISE

CRUISE

Endurance ~15 min flight


time
CLIMB

DESCENT

Cruise Altitude 50m,


TAKE-OFF

LANDING
Figure 1.1: Mission Profile

Table 1.1 below enlists the design specifications for the aircraft to be designed.
Table 1.1 Design Specifications
S. No

PARAMETER

DESIGN VALUE

1.

Vstall

10 m/s

2.

Vcruise

20 m/s

3.

Vmax

25 m/s

4.

Take off distance

50 m

5.

Range / Endurance

~15 minutes of flight time


(includes takeoff, climb to cruise
altitude, descent and landing time)

6.

Landing distance

50 m

The data mentioned in Table 1.1provide a basis for the design. However, these are the initial
specifications of the RC model airplane concept under consideration and may be altered based on
the constraints imposed during the course of preliminary and detail design stages.

1.4 PRELIMINARY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

The preliminary design considerations arrived at, after literature survey, are enlisted in Table 1.3
below. These may be amended at a later stage after appropriate estimates and calculations.
Table 1.3 Preliminary design considerations

S.NO.

PARAMETER

PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE

1.

Flying Weight

~1.0 - 2.0 kg

2.

Aspect Ratio (AR)

~6-8

3.

ARW/ARref

~4-5(1)

4.

(L/D)max

~9.5-12.5(2)

5.

Wing Type

High wing or low wing (to be decided)

6.

Power Plant

Electrical power plant inclusive of


battery, motor, electronic speed
control (ESC) and propeller

7.

Aerodynamic Control
Surfaces

Ailerons, Elevators and Rudders

8.

Thrust to Weight Ratio

To be decided

9.

Range

~15 minutes of flight time

Propeller

Fuselage

Wing Planform shape


to be decided
Vertical
Tail
Horizontal Tail

Figure 1.2 Sketch of the configuration

A conceptual configuration of the Radio-controlled Electrical powered model airplane has been
shown in the Figure 1.2.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE SURVEY AND FIRST WEIGHT ESTIMATE

2.1 INTRODUCTION
Literature survey of the available RC aircrafts is crucial for assuming initial specifications for the
aircraft to be designed. These provide a basis for estimation of the weight of the aircraft as
presented in this chapter.

2.2 DATA COLLECTION


The Table 2.1 below shows a compilation of the weight data collected using internet search of
currently flying Radio Controlled (RC) electrically powered (EP) Model Airplanes.

Table 2.1 Weight specification for RC airplanes


S.No.

RC AIRPLANE

Flying Wt,
W0 (kg)

Structural
Wt, We (kg)

Powerplant
Wt, Wpp (kg)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Revolution 3D trainer
Foamtana
Electrifly Yak 55M
Electrifly Extra 330SC
Hobbico Superstar EP
Extra330 L
Edge 540
Carbon Z Yak 54
Hawker Hurricane 25e
F3A/Gadfly
Nemesis Racer EP

0.430
0.450
1.700
0.234
1.230
0.620
1.650
1.730
2.100
2.350
2.100

0.282
0.280
1.187
0.178
0.918
0.427
1.157
1.139
1.528
1.713
1.390

0.148
0.170
0.513
0.056
0.312
0.193
0.493
0.591
0.572
0.637
0.710

Using Table 2.1, following two graphs, comparing the structural (also called empty weight) weight
fraction and the powerplant weight fraction to the flying weight or AUW (i.e. AllAll-up weight termed
as AUW, since for electric powered RC airplanes weight during the flight remains
remains same), respectively
have been plotted.

Figure 2.1. Structural or empty weight fraction plot

Figure 2.2 Power plant fraction plot

Figure 2.2 and Figure 2.3 also show the least square fitted linear regression equations, which has
been used to do the preliminary weight estimate of the RC model airplane.

2.3 FIRST WEIGHT ESTIMATE

The weight of an RC EP model airplane can be estimated as,

W0 = WP / L + WE + WPP
This can be rewritten as,

W
W0 = WP / L + W0 E
W0

W
+ W0 PP

W0

which on simplification gives,

W0 =

WP / L
W W
1 E PP
W0 W0

(2.1)

Following initial estimate has been used for the iterative process to arrive at the preliminary weight
estimate of RC EP model airplane;
From mission requirements;

WP/L = 0.15 kg

Starting guess value of AUW weight;

W0 = 1.1 kg

From Figure 2.2 and Figure 2.3, the powerplant and structural weight fractions have been used for
the iterative estimation of AUW or flying weight.
The intermediate results of the iterative process is compiled and shown in Table 2.2. The process
was allowed to continue till an error of less than 0.5% had been achieved.

Table 2.2. Result table of iterative process


Initial Guess

Fractional Weights

Estimated
AUW

Error

W0

WP/L

We/W0

Wpp/W0

W0

%age

1.100

0.150

0.594

0.306

1.500

36.364

1.500

0.150

0.596

0.303

1.493

0.548

1.493

0.150

0.596

0.303

1.493

0.002

2.4 CONCLUSION

The first weight calculation estimates the flying weight of the aircraft to be 1.493 kg. However, this is
a very preliminary estimate. Assuming a safe margin the initial weight of the aircraft is taken as 1.5
kg. The aircraft will be battery operated; hence all the weight fractions will be equal to the first
weight estimate, WO. Thus, the final mission leg weight fractions are as follows:

2, W2

0, WO

3, W3

4, W4

1, W1
Figure 2.3 Mission leg weight fractions

5, W5

CHAPTER 3: SECOND WEIGHT ESTIMATE

3.1 INTRODUCTION
The first weight estimate carried out in the previous chapter was completely based on historical
data. In this chapter requirement specific airfoil and wing is chosen. Based on those, the power plant
estimation is carried out.

3.2 AIRFOIL
A considerable amount of airfoil data has been accumulated from windtunnel tests and in-flight tests
over the years and the compilation is available in the airfoil catalogues. The selection of the airfoil
from such a catalogue depends upon the design specifications that are required to be met, such as
cruise and stall characteristics. A similar approach has been adopted to select an appropriate airfoil
for the RC model airplane.

3.2.1 Airfoil Data Collection


Following Table 3.1 shows a compilation of some of NACA 4-digit family of the airfoils considered for
this work, as the RC model airplane has to operate at very low speed in surveillance operation. This
set of airfoils has been selected based on the high stall angle, high maximum section lift coefficient,
availability of thickness for structure and ease of manufacturability. At this stage of design a more
rigorous approach of custom-designed airfoil based on computational analysis has been avoided.
Table 3.1 Airfoil Data
Zero lift
Angle of
Attack
(AoA)

Cl,max

NACA 1408

-1.1

0.875

14

39.7

11

2.6

85.6%

NACA 1412

-1.11

1.417

15

54.2

16.5

3.5

64.9%

NACA 2310

-2.04

1.467

15

56.4

12.1

1.2

66.8%

NACA 2312

-2.05

1.377

15

56

14.5

1.7

48.2%

NACA 2414

-2.23

1.372

15

56.4

17.8

50.5%

Airfoil

stall

(L/D)max

Trailing
edge angle

Leading edge
radius (%c)

(degrees)

Lower
Flatness
(%c)

3.2.2 Airfoil Selection

After thoroughly investigating the available airfoil dataset and based on the requirement of low stall
speed, high maximum section lift coefficient and maximum aerodynamic efficiency the NACA 2310
airfoil has been chosen for the airplane design.

Figure 3.1, shows the profile of the selected airfoil designated as NACA 2310.

Figure 3.2: NACA 2310 Airfoil Geometric Profile

The aerodynamic and geometric characteristics of NACA 2310 airfoil are as follows:
Table 3.2 Characteristics of NACA 2310
Geometric Characteristics

Aerodynamic Characteristics

Camber

2% of chord

Clmax

1.467

Chord Length

0.25 m

stall

15

Location of maximum camber

30% of chord from LE

Stall Speed (m/s)

8.5

Maximum Thickness

10% of chord

(L/D)max

56.4

Trailing edge angle

12.1

Lower flatness

66.80%

Leading edge radius

1.20%

10

3.2.3 Airfoil Operational Characteristics

As per design specification of stall speed of 10 m/s and cruise speed of 20 m/s, the operating
Reynolds number envelope of airfoil has been estimated.
Density of air() : 1.15 kg/m3
Viscosity of air: 1.983x10-5 N-sec/m
sec/m2
Hence,
Reynolds number (stall) = 1.67x105
Reynolds
lds number (cruise) = 3.33x105
For the Reynolds number of 1.67x105 and 3.33x105, the airfoil lift-curve
curve and drag as estimated using
DESIGNFOIL Software are shown in Figure 3.3 and Figure 3.4 respectively.

Figure 3.3: Lift Curve For NACA 2310 In The Operating Envelope

Figure 3.4: Drag Polar For NACA 2310 In The Operating Envelope

11

3.3 WING DESIGN

3.3.1 Aspect ratio


Table3.3 shows a compilation of the geometric data collected using internet search of currently
flying Radio Controlled (RC) electrically powered (EP) Model Airplanes.

Table 3.3: Geometric Specification Of RC Airplanes


Flying

Length

Span

Wing

Aspect

Wing Loading

Wt (kg)

(m)

(m)

Area (sq m)

Ratio

(kg/sq m)

W0

Sref

AR

W0/Sref

Revolution 3D trainer

0.430

0.965

0.864 0.245

3.04

1.754

Foamtana

0.450

0.978

0.991 0.254

3.86

1.770

Electrifly Yak 55M

1.700

1.194

1.283 0.328

5.02

5.187

Electrifly Extra 330SC

0.234

0.889

0.826 0.172

3.96

1.358

Hobbico Superstar EP

1.230

0.917

1.238 0.259

5.91

4.743

Extra330 L

0.620

0.889

0.925 0.170

5.03

3.647

Edge 540 25 45" RC EP

1.650

1.029

1.151 0.246

5.39

6.713

Carbon Z Yak 54

1.730

1.232

1.219 0.339

4.39

5.108

Hawker Hurricane 25e

2.100

1.067

1.359 0.310

5.96

6.781

Funster V2

2.350

1.346

1.842 0.546

6.21

4.306

Nemesis Racer EP

2.100

1.200

1.560 0.392

6.21

5.357

Using Table 3.3, the two comparison graphs of the aspect ratio of wing (AR) against the AUW and
the wing loading to the flying weight or AUW have been plotted in Figure 3.5 and Figure 3.6
respectively.

12

Figure 3.5: Aspect Ratio - Historical Data Plot

Figure 3.6: Wing Loading - Historical Data Plot

13

Figure 3.5 and Figure 3.6 also show the least square fitted linear regression equations, using which
following preliminary wing specifications have been estimated for AUW of 1.5 kg for RC model
airplane.
Table 3.4 Wing Specifications
Wing Specification
Aspect Ratio

5.35

Airfoil Chord Length (m)

0.25

Wing type

Rectangular high wing

All the RC Airplane considered in the historical dataset have high wing with rectangular planform.
This allows designers to have high ground clearance as the height of the RC model airplane is very
small and also gives more internal volume and stability to the airplane. Further, rectangular wings
are easy to manufacture and integrate with the airplane fuselage.
3.3.2 Wing area (S)
The design Vstall=10 m/S.
We know that,

1
: = < = 45 #*/ ?  @
2

where S= Projected area of the wing

From Chapter 1, W = 1.5 kg = 14.715 N and from section 3.2.2 CLmax= 1.467
Thus,
@=

3.3.3 Span Length (b)


We know,

2<

45 #*/ 
?

@ = 0.174 I?

J =
AR=5.35 and S=0.174 m2
Thus, b= 0.951 m

14

2 x 14.715
1.15 x 10? x 1.467

K?
@

3.4 SECOND WEIGHT ESTIMATE

The weight of an RC EP model airplane during first estimate was estimated in Chapter 2 by,

W0 =

WP / L
W
1 E
W0

W PP

W0

Now, as we have more insight into the geometric and aerodynamic details of airplane components,
we can revise the equation and arrive at a more accurate estimate using calculated payload and
powerplant weight instead of using the powerplant weight fraction from historical data.
Therefore, the revised equation becomes:

W0 =

W P / L + W PP
W
1 E
W0

(3.1)

3.4.1 Payload Weight Calculation

The payload for the aircraft is chosen as an infra-red camera to serve the purpose of forest area
surveillance. The camera best suited for the missions requirements is the Tau 320.

Figure 3.7 Tau Camera

The Tau is a long wavelength camera (8-14 microns) un-cooled micro-bolometer camera designed
for infrared imaging applications with minimum size, weight and power consumption.

15

Specifications:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)

320(H) x256 (V) un-cooled micro-bolometer sensor array, 25 X 25 micron pixels


Spectral Band: 7.5-13.5 m.
NEdT Performance: <50mK at f/1.0
Power Consumption: < 1.0 Watts
Input voltage range: 4.0-6.0 VDC
Time to image: ~2 seconds
Operating Temperature Range: -40OC TO +80oC
Weight of the body: 70 grams
Weight of the lens: 30-45 grams

Thus, we can estimate the payload weight as:


WPL

= WBODY + WLENS + WMOUNTINGS

= 70 + 45 + 35
WPL = 150 grams

3.4.2 Powerplant Weight Calculation

Density of air

: 1.15 kg/m3

Viscosity of air : 1.983*10-5 N-sec/m2


Design cruise speed

: 20 m/sec

For wing:
Aspect ratio

: 5.35

Wing span

: 0.951 m

Reynolds number

: 3.33x105

From drag polar inFigure 3.4,


Zero lift drag coefficient, CDO =0.0107
Ostwalds efficiency factor for rectangular wing, e = 0.85

16

Thus,
L=

1
= 0.072
MNJ

Therefore, drag polar equation for the wing is

CD = CD0+ KCL2
CD = 0.0107 + 0.072 CL2
We know that,

1
: = < = 45 # ? @
2
=

2<
45 # ? @

For each value of velocity, CL can be calculated. Thereafter using drag polar, CD can be evaluated.
Now,
Q

O = P = ? 45 # ?  @and

1
RSNT  = O # = 45 # U  @
2

Table 3.5 below tabulates the values of CL, CD and power for different velocities.
Table 3.5 Parameter values at different velocities

S.No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

17

Velocity
(m/s)
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

CL
1.467
1.215
1.021
0.870
0.750
0.654
0.575
0.509
0.454
0.407
0.368
0.334
0.304
0.278
0.255
0.235

CD
0.1657
0.1171
0.0858
0.0652
0.0512
0.0415
0.0345
0.0293
0.0255
0.0227
0.0204
0.0187
0.0173
0.0163
0.0154
0.0147

Power
(W)
16.57
15.59
14.84
14.34
14.07
14.00
14.12
14.43
14.90
15.54
16.36
17.33
18.48
19.80
21.29
22.96

Using Table 3.5 CL v/s CDand Power v/s Velocity can plotted:
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12
CD

0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

CL

Figure 3.8 CL v/s CD for different velocities

25

Power

20
15
10
5
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

Velocity

Figure 3.9 Power v/s Velocity

The maximum velocity that we have chosen for our design is 25 m/s. The power requirement for this
velocity is 22.96 W.

18

Based on this power requirement of 22.96W, following powerplant components have been chosen.

(a) MOTOR Rimfire 0.32 BL Outrunner

Figure 3.8 Rimfire 0.32 brushless Outrunner motor

Features
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

High Efficiency
High Power
High Torque
Light-weight
includes propeller adapter and motor mounts

Specifications
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)

19

Weight: 0.198 kg
Max Power: 850 W (maximum burst 1480 W)
Max RPM: 20,000 RPM
Diameter: 42 mm
Length: 50mm
Shaft Diameter: 5.0mm
Voltage Range: 11.1 14.8 / 3-4S LiPo

(b) BATTERY Electrifly 4S 2200mAh LiPo

Figure 3.9 Electrifly 4S 2200mAh LiPo


Specifications:
(a) 11.1-14.8V 2200 mAh Lithium-Polymer Battery
(b) Weight : 0.235 kg

(c) PROPELLER

Figure 3.10 13 X 8 NEW APC Thin Electric Propeller

Specifications:
(a) 13x8 (length-228.6 cm, pitch-152.4 mm)
(b) Weight : 0.03 kg

(d) ELECTRONIC SPEED CONTROLLER (ESC)

Figure 3.11. Silver Series 45A Brushless ESC

20

Specifications:
(a) 5V/2A BEC
(b) Weight: 0.05 kg
Thus, the total powerplant Weight (Wpp) is:
Wpp = Wmotor + Wbattery + Wprop = 0.198 + 0.235 + 0.03 + 0.05
Wpp= 0.513 kg.
3.4.3 Weight Calculation
Using the payload and powerplant weights estimated above and the empty weight fraction from
Chapter 2, following second estimate of the RC model airplane take-off gross weight has been
calculated:
W0 =

Thus,
< =

W PL + W PP
W
1 E
W0

(0.15 + 0.513)
(1 0.596)

< = 1.6411 kg

3.5 CONCLUSION
NACA 2310 airfoil has been chosen for the design of the RC model airplane.
The second weight estimation has been done by approximating the structural weight ratio of the
airplane based on the historical data and using estimated values of power plant and payload.
After the second weight estimate, WO=1.6411 kg. The change from the first estimate is 8.6%

21

CHAPTER 4: WING LOADING AND THRUST-TO-WEIGHT RATIO

4.1 WING LOADING


The thrust-to-weight ratio (T/W) and the wing loading (W/S) are the two most important parameters
affecting aircraft performance.
Wing loading is defined as the ratio of the loaded weight of the aircraft to the area of the wing. It is
a useful measure of the general manoeuvring performance of an aircraft. Larger wings (i.e. lower
wing loading) generate more lift as they move more air. Thus, a smaller wing loading is preferred. An
aircraft with smaller wing loading will be able to take-off and land at a lower speed (or be able to
take off with greater load). It will also be able to turn faster.
The major constraints on W/S will be due to Vstall and landing. Higher the speed of the aircraft more
is the lift generated per unit area of the wing. Thus, a smaller wing can carry the same weight in level
flight for a higher wing loading. Thus, the landing and take-off speeds will also be higher.
Manoeuvrability is also reduced in such a case.
4.1.1 Wing Loading for Stall Conditions
We can calculate the wing loading for stall conditions considering L=W. Thus, we get

< 1
= 45 #*/ ? 
@
2

1
< = : = 45 #*/ ?  @
2
(4.1)

For the NACA 2310 airfoil  = 1.467

For finite wings with AR>5 we have[1]

Thus,

 = 0.9 


 = 1.3203

45 = 1.15 \]/IU , design #*/ = 10 I/^


Thus,

<
1
_ `
= x 1.15 x 10? x 1.3203
@ */ 2
<
_ `
= 75.92 a/I?
@ */
<
_ `
= 7.74 \]/I?
@ */

22

4.1.2 Wing Loading for Landing

Figure 4.1The Landing Path and Landing Distance[1]


It is known that

@ = @. + @ + @b = 50I

Assuming, flare velocity, #b = 1.23#*/ [?]and load factor n=1.2[2], we get


Turn radius, R as
#b ?
=
](e 1)

=
Assuming 6 = 33

[?]

b = (1 hR^6 )

(1.23x10)?
9.81x0.2

(4.2)

 = 77.1 I

, flare height hfis given as

(4.3)

b = 77.1(1 hR^33 )
b = 0.106 I

Assuming hob= 1 m. The approach angle for this height considering the entire length of the runway is
1.15o. This is lower than the assumed approach angle and can be taken as a safe estimate for hob.

23

Approach distance Sa,


@ = i

(4.4)

1 0.106
@ = _
` = 17.06 I
jke3m

Flare distance, Sf

@b = ^ne6
Hence,

37 b
l
jke6

(4.5)

@b = 77.1 x ^ne3m = 4.035 I


@. = @ @ @b

Thus,

(4.6)

@. = 50 17.06 4.035 = 28.905 I

Assuming that the lift is small due to rather level orientation of the airplane relative to the ground,
no provision for thrust reversal and ignoring the drag compared to the friction force between the
tires and the ground[2] we get,
2 < 1
o ? (< @)
@. = oap
+
45 @  ]45  8'
Here, VTD=j Vstall and j=1.15[2]
N is the time increment for free roll immediately after touch down. Assuming N=3 s [2]
Table 4.1 Ground Rolling Resistance[1]

24

(4.7)

Even though our aircraft does not have brakes we choose 8' = 0.4 as suggested in [2] to have a safe
estimate of wing loading.
Thus,
s

1.15?  "
2 W 1
t
28.905 = 1.15x3p
+
1.15 S 1.3203 1.15 x 9.81 x 1.3203 x 0.4
<
<
28.905 = 3.9596p + 0.2219 _ `
@
@
Solving the above quadratic equation and taking the lower root we get,
<
_ `
= 30.95 a/I?
@ ,-),.

<
_ `
= 3.155 \]/I?
@ ,-),.
4.1.3 Wing loading for Cruise conditions
For cruising conditions we know that L=W. For cruise conditions, it is required to maximise the range
and hence (L/D) for propeller aircraft, to calculate the wing loading.
Thus, for maximum range and hence maximum (L/D) we get,
  = \ ?

(4.8)


= p  = uM x e x AR x  
\

From previous report we know that   = 0.0107, \ = 0.072


Thus,
= p

0.0107
= 0.3855
0.072

Using this value we get,


< 1
= 45 #&'()*+ ?
@
2

25

(4.9)

< 1
= x 1.15 x 20? x 0.3855 = 88.67 a/I?
@
2
<
_ `
= 9.038 \]/I?
@ &'()*+

4.1.4 Wing Loading for Loiter


For maximum endurance and hence loiter of a propeller aircraft is obtained when the power is
maximised. Maximum power condition is achieved when (CL3/2/CD) ratio is maximised.
For this condition
1
  = \ ?
3

(4.10)

Thus,

3 x 0.0107
= p
= 0.6677
0.072

Using this value we get,


< 1
= 45 #3)/+' ?
@
2

(4.11)

< 1
= x 1.15 x 20? x 0.6677 = 153.57 a/I?
2
@
<
_ `
= 15.65 \]/I?
@ 3)/+'

4.2 WING LOADING SELECTION

Table 4.2 Wing Loading at different flight conditions


S. No.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Mission Segment
Stall
Landing
Cruise
Loiter

Wing loading (kg/m2)


7.740
3.155
9.038
15.650

The least wing loading is chosen from the above values as the design wing loading. Thus,
<
_ ` = 3.155 \]/I?
@

26

4.3 THRUST-TO-WEIGHT RATIO CALCULATION


The wing loading has been fixed after calculating it from the segments independent of the thrust to
weight ratio. This value of wing loading will now be used to calculate the thrust-to-weight ratio for
the segments where the thrust-to-weight ratio is involved.

4.3.1. Thrust-to-Weight ratio for Take-Off conditions

Figure 4.2 Take-off analysis [2]


We know that

The turn radius, R is given by

=

= @z + @ = 50 I

=

6.96(#*/ )?
]

6.96 x (10)?
= 70.95 I
9.81

We assume hob= 1 m as chosen for landing. Thus,


637 = hR^ {Q _1

637 = hR^ {Q _1
27

37
`


1
` = 9.633
70.95

(4.12)

(4.13)

From, the above two values we can calculate Sa


@ = ^ne637

@ = 70.95(1 sin 9.63) = 11.87 I

Thus,

@z = @

SG is estimated by the formula,


@z =

(4.14)

@ = 50 11.87 = 38.13 I

1.21 <@
]45  O<

(4.15)

m.

Using VLO=1.1 Vstall and V=0.7 VLO we get,


O<

m.

1.21 <@
]45  @z

O<

m.

(4.16)

1.21 x 3.155 x 9.81


9.81 x 1.15 x 1.3203 x 38.13

O<

m.

= 0.066

V=0.7 X 1.1 Vstall=0.7 X 1.1 X 10= 7.7 m/s and using prop=0.6 [3]
Engine shaft brake power,
=

O<

m.

x W x V5 x ]

12'32

Here W=1.6411 kg from the second weight estimate.


=
Thus,

28

0.066 x 1.6411 x 7.7 x 9.81


0.6


13.64 <

(4.17)

4.3.2. Thrust-to-Weight calculation for Climb


We choose for the design of the aircraft, the climb rate as 2 m/s.
We get maximum rate of climb for maximum power. Thus,
1
  = \ ?
3

Thus,

3 0.0107
= 0.6677
= p
0.072
Now,
#/



2 < 1
=p
45 @

(4.18)
#/



2 x 3.155 x 9.81
=p
= 8.98 I/^
1.15 x 0.6677

For propeller driven airplane,


( ) =

12'32 
\ <
1.155
2
p

<
45 3   @ (:P )

This on rearranging gives,


Q/?

12'32 
\ <
2
= ( ) + p

<
45 3   @

It is known that for (:P)

1.155
(:P )

  = \ ?

Thus,


u
:

1

_ `
=_ `
=
=

P 
  + \ 4   \


29

(4.19)

Thus,

12'32 
1.155
= ( ) + #/
Q

<

(4.20)

We get,

/ 69.1 <

12'32 
O
_ `
=
< / #/
<


O
0.6 69.1
_ `
=
< / 8.98 1.6411 9.81
O
_ `
= 0.29
< /

4.3.3. Thrust-to-Weight calculation for Vmax

For this case T=D. Thus we have,

 
1
2\ <
O
= 45 # ?
+
< @ 45 # ? @
< 2

(4.21)

O
1
0.0107
2 x 0.072 x 3.155 x 9.81
= x 1.15 x 25?
+
< 2
3.155 x 9.81
1.15 x 25?
O
_ `
= 0.13
< 

To calculate the power,


=
=

30

 "
!



<#

12'32

0.13 x 1.6411 x 9.81 x 25


0.6
 = 87.2 <

(4.22)

4.3.4. Thrust-to-Weight calculation for turning

For turning from [2]:

 
O
1
e?
<
= 45 #/(', ?
+Q
_ `
?

< 2
< @
45 #/(', MJ @

(4.23)

Load factor, n is taken as 2

O
0.0107
4
_ `
= 0.5 x 1.15 x11.5? x
+
x 3.155 x 9.81
< /(',
3.155 x 9.81 0.5 x 1.15 x11.5? x M x 5.35
O
_ `
= 0.126
< /(',

Now,

=

!"

/(',

< #/(',

12'32

 = 38.86 <

4.4 SUMMARY OF THRUST-TO-WEIGHT AND SELECTION


Table 4.3 Engine power at different flight conditions
S.No.
Mission Segment
Power
1.
Take-off
13.64 W
2.
Climb
69.10 W
3.
Vmax
87.20 W
4.
Turning
38.86
For a propeller-driven airplane, power to weight ratio is more relevant than the thrust-to-weight
ratio [2]
The maximum power for which the aircraft has to be designed is 87.20 W which is during climb.
 = 87.20 <

Tabulating the values of (T/W) of other segments using this value of power
Table 4.4 Thrust-to-weight at different flight conditions
S.No.
1.
2.
3.
4.

31

Mission Segment
Take-off
Climb
Vmax
Turning

(T/W)
0.422
0.362
0.130
0.283

The maximum (T/W) is chosen as the design parameter for the aircraft. Thus,
O
_ ` = 0.422
<

4.5WING LOADING FOR SEGMENTS DEPENDENT ON (T/W)


4.5.1. Wing Loading for Take-Off conditions
Using the formula for SG

1.21 <@
@z =
]45  O<

m.

Thus,
<
_ `
@

@z ]45  O<


1.21

m.

(4.24)

We first have to convert the (T/W) for climb conditions to the (T/W) for take-off conditions. The
power remains constant.

Now,

O
_ `
<
<
_ `
@

O
_ `
<

12'32 
<#5

0.6 x 87.2
= 0.422
1.6411 x 9.81 x 7.7

38.13 x 9.81 x 1.15 x 1.3203 x 0.422


= 198.077 a/I?
1.21
<
_ `
@

= 20.19 \]/I?

<
_ `
@

32

> 3.155

4.5.2. Wing Loading calculation for Climb

It is known that
Q/?

12'32 
2
\ <
= ( ) + p

<
45 3   @

1.155
Q

On re-arranging,
<
45 3   12'32 
1
1
p
_ `
=
_
( ) `

@ /
2
\
<
4   \ 1.155

(4.25)

0.6 x 87.2
1 ?
<
1.15 3 x 0.0107
1
p
_ `
=
2`
_

0.072
1.6411 x 9.81
@ /
2
4 x 0.0107 x 0.072 1.155
<
= 145.89 a/I?
_ `
@ /
<
_ `
= 14.87 \]/I?
@ /
<
_ `
> 3.155
@ /

4.5.3 Wing Loading for Vmax

We first convert the (T/W) for climb conditions to the (T/W) for Vmax. The power remains constant.
12'32 
O
_ `
=
<  <#

O
0.6 x 87.2
_ `
=
= 0.130
<  1.6411 x 9.81 x 25
Now,

 
O
1
2\ <
= 45 # ?
+
< 2
< @ 45 # ? @

(4.26)

On re-arranging we get a quadratic in (W/S)


2\

< ?
O
<
1
_
_ ` + 45 # ?  
? @ ` _< `
2
45 #
 @

33

< ?
<
0.0002 _ ` 0.130 _ ` + 3.845 = 0
@
@

Taking the least (W/S)

<
_ `
= 31.06 a/I?
@ 

<
_ `
= 3.166 \]/I?
@ 
<
> 3.155
_ `
@ 

4.5.4 Wing Loading for turning


For turning, (W/S) as in [2] is given by:

( ! ) { u( ! )? 4e? K P
<
_ ` =
?,
@

(4.27)

For (T/W) calculation:

Thus,

12'32 
O
_ `
=
< /(', <#/(',
O
_ `
= 0.283
< /(',
<
_ ` = 3.592 > 3.155
^

4.6 CONCLUSION
The wing loading for the aircraft is fixed at 3.155 kg/m2.
The maximum power for which the aircraft is to be designed for is 87.2 W.

4.7 REFERENCES
[1] RAYMER D., Aircraft Design-A Conceptual Approach 2nd ed., AIAA Education Series,AIAA, 1992
[2] ANDERSON J.D., Aircraft Performance and Design, WCB/McGraw Hill,1999

34

CHAPTER 5: THIRD WEIGHT ESTIMATE AND INITIAL SIZING

5.1 THIRD WEIGHT ESTIMATE


For the second weight estimate, the weight of power plant was fixed and the new weight of the
aircraft was estimated. For the third weight estimate, we estimate the weight of the various parts of
the aircraft and use this empty weight to find the total weight of the aircraft.
5.1.1 Material Selection
Generally balsa wood, foam or plastic are used to build RC aircrafts. The material we choose is balsa
wood.
Balsa wood is the softest commercial hardwood. Balsa wood's distinct properties are directly related
to a unique cell structure in the material. Because of the amount of empty space within the cells of
the tree, those cells are able to compress and stretch without binding or breaking. Despite the low
weight and soft texture of balsa, it is one of the strongest wood types to be found. The cell's holes
that are left by the drying process have a large surface that builds a sturdy support system for the
exterior of the wood [1].

Table 5.1 Balsa wood Properties Guide [2]

35

5.1.2 Weight of the Wing

Wings are the most vulnerable parts of an aircraft which contribute a large amount of lift
(approximately 2 times the weight of aircraft). Hence a large amount of bending moment acts on
aircraft wings. The bending moment produces direct stresses which are resisted by the spars of
wing. The necessary buckling strength is provided by the ribs. For surveillance RC aircraft the design
mission consists of taking off the land, climbing, cruising, turning (accelerated) and landing
segments. Out of these the most severe condition on structural loading (i.e. maximum load factor) is
accelerated turning, where the wing carries the maximum load among all flight conditions.
From Chapter 4, the wing loading is calculated as 3.155 kg/m2 and aspect ratio is fixed at 5.35 for
aircraft gross take-off weight of 1.6411 kg. Therefore, the wing span (b) and chord length (c) has
been re-estimated as,
@=

<m

!
 % "

= 0.52 I?

K = (@ J) = 1.67 I
h=

5.1.2.1 Weight of the Spars

@
= 0.31 I
K

The span of the wing is estimated as 1670 mm. Therefore,


Wing semi-span =b/2 = 835 mm
Assuming the sustained turn flight at constant altitude as the critical loading condition, the load
factor (n) is 2. Therefore, by force balance in vertical direction,
L = 2 W0
W0= 1.6411 kg = 16.099 N
Lift generated by one wing = L/2 =W02

Figure 5.1 Load Distribution with respect to Planform Shape

36

Based on Schrenks approximation [6] (as shown in Figure5.1), that the load distribution (lift in case of
wing) on an untwisted rectangular wing is approximately rectangular. As the wing planform shape
decided to be used for the design work is rectangular, therefore the lift load can be assumed to be
uniformly distributed across the wing sections. This gives,
Intensity of distributed load

w = W02/l = 16.099/0.835 = 19.28 N/m.

Maximum bending moment

M = w*l*(l/2) = 19.28 x 0.835 x (0.835/2)

Therefore,

M = 6.72 Nm

Semi-span
b

DISTRIBUTED WING LOAD (w) = 19.28 N/m

Figure 5.2 Distributed load over the cantilevered rectangular wing

For pure bending, the flexure formula is given by


=
Where,
M
=
I
=

=
y
=

Bending Moment acting over the beam


Area Moment of Inertia of the cross-section
Bending Stress
Perpendicular distance from the neutral axis

We know that, the maximum compressive strength of balsa wood max = 12 MPa.

37

As per available literature, there are following types of loading conditions that affect the service and
safety conditions for any structure:
(a) The maximum load at which the structure perform the service throughout its life-cycle
without any permanent deformation, called as the Limit Load.
(b) The ultimate or design load at which material fails. The design load should be more than the
limit load by a factor of safety.
The safety factor is usually specified as 1.5, for general purpose aviation aircrafts [6].
For our surveillance RC model aircraft,
Normal factor of safety FOSnormal = 1.5
Fatigue factor of safety FOSfatigue = 2.0
Using the above two factors of safety allowable stress has been estimated as,
37+ =



@,3' @b/).(+

37+ =

12
= 4 k
(1.5 2.0)

Front Spar
The front spar is generally located at the quarter chord point of the wing. It takes up about 60% of
the total bending moment of the wing.
Therefore,
Bending moment taken by the front spar = 0.6 M = 0.6 x 6.72 = 4.03 Nm
The thickness of the airfoil (NACA 2310) at quarter chord point is equal to maximum thickness of the
airfoil i.e.
Thickness of aerofoil at quarter chord point = 0.10c = 0.10 x 310 = 31 mm
As the front spar is going to be fixed at this location, the height of the spar is assumed to be 20 mm
as some thickness of the airfoil will be used for integration of the spar to the airfoil.
Therefore,
Height of the spar,

d= 20 mm.

Perpendicular distance from neutral axis, y = d/2 = 10 mm


Therefore, from equation,
=

38


4030 10
=
= 10075 II

We have considered the shape of the spar as rectangular, therefore moment of inertia has been
calculated as
I = bd3 /12.
Where,
b = width of the spar
d = height of the spar
Hence,
b = 12*I/d3 = 12*10075/203 = 15.11 mm 16 mm
Volume of spar = cross-sectional area of spar x wing semi-span
= 16 x 20 x 835
= 267200 mm3.
Density of balsa wood = 150 kg / m3
Therefore, weight of spar = density of balsa wood x volume of spar
= 150 x 10-9 x 267200 = 0.0401 kg.
= 40.1 g
Number of front spars = 2 i.e. one per wing
Therefore, total weight of front spars = 2 x 40.1 = 80.2 g
Rear Spar
The rear spar is located approximately at 75% chord of the wing and takes 40% of the total bending
moment.
Bending moment shared by the rear spar = 0.4 M = 0.4 x 6.72 = 2.69 Nm
The thickness of the airfoil (NACA 2310) at 75% chord = 0.052c
= 0.052*310 = 16.12 mm
As the rear spar is going to be fixed at this location the height of the spar is assumed to be 10 mm as
rest of the thickness of the airfoil will be used for spar and airfoil integration. Therefore,
Height of the spar,
Perpendicular distance from neutral axis,

39

d= 10 mm.
y = 10/2 = 5 mm

Therefore,
=

Hence,


2690 5
=
= 3362.5 II

b = 12*I/d3= 12*3362.5/103 = 40.35 mm 41 mm

Volume of spar = cross-sectional area of spar x wing semi-span


= 41 x 10 x 835
= 342350 mm3.
Therefore, weight of spars= density of balsa wood x volume of spar
= 150 x 10-9 x 342350 = 0.0514 kg.
= 51.4 g
Number of rear spars = 2 i.e. one per wing
Therefore, total weight of the rear spars = 2 x 51.4 = 102.8 g
Total weight of the spars = weight of the front spars + weight of the rear spars
= 80.2 + 102.8 = 183 g
5.1.2.2 Weight of the Ribs
Number of ribs to be used = 20, from historical data of RC model aircrafts [3]
Surface length = 2.05 c
=2.05 x 310 = 635.5 mm
Assuming thickness =10 mm
Weight of each rib = density x surface-length x cross-sectional area
= 150 x 10-9 x 635.5 x 10 x 10
= 0.009533 kg = 9.53 g
Total weight of the ribs = 20 x 9.53 = 190.6 g
Total weight of the wing = 183.0 + 190.6 = 373.6 g

40

5.1.3 Weight of the Fuselage

Based on the historic data collected in Chapter 1 (presented here for convenience) we plot fuselage
length v/s total weight. From this plot we can get the fuselage length for our aircraft.
Table 5.1 Historic data for fuselage length and total weight of the aircraft
S.No

Name of the aircraft


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Revolution 3D trainer
Foamtana
Electrifly Yak 55M
Electrifly Extra 330SC
Hobbico Superstar EP
Extra330 L
Edge 540 25 45" RC EP
Carbon Z Yak 54
Hawker Hurricane 25e
Funster V2
Nemesis Racer EP

Fuselage length
(m)
0.965
0.978
1.194
0.889
0.917
0.889
1.029
1.232
1.067
1.346
1.200

Total weight (kg)


0.430
0.450
1.700
0.234
1.230
0.620
1.650
1.730
2.100
2.350
2.100

From the above data we get the plot:


1.600

Fuselage Length (m)

1.400
1.200
1.000
y = 0.167x + 0.841

0.800
0.600
0.400
0.200
0.000
0.000

0.500

1.000

1.500

2.000

Weight WO (kg)

Figure 5.3 Plot of fuselage length v/s weight

41

2.500

For a WO=1.6411 kg, fuselage length (l) = 1.117 m


Design cross-section of fuselage is taken as 8 cm X 8 cm and a thickness of 8 mm (based on the
payload)
Cross-sectional area of the fuselage = 802-642
=2304 mm2
Volume of the fuselage= length x cross-sectional area
= 2304 x 1117 = 2573568 mm3
Weight of the fuselage = density of balsa wood x volume
= 150 x 2573568 x 10-9
= 0.386 kg = 386.04 g
5.1.4 Weight of Horizontal Tail

Design thickness for the horizontal tail is taken as 5mm.


Surface area of the horizontal stabilizer= 25 % of the wing planform area [3]
= 0.25 x chord length x wing span
= 0.25 x 0.31 x 1.67
= 0.129 m2
Volume of each stabilizer = surface area x thickness
= 0.129 x 0.005 = 6.47 x 10-4 m3
Weight of each stabiliser= density of balsa wood x volume
= 150 x 6.47 x 10-4 = 0.0971 kg = 97.1 g
Total weight of the horizontal stabilizers = 2 x 97.1 = 194.2 g
5.1.5 Weight of Vertical Tail

Design thickness for the vertical tail is taken as 5mm.


Surface area of the vertical stabilizer= 35 % of the wing planform area [3]
= 0.35 x chord length x wing span
= 0.35 x 0.31 x 1.67
= 0.1812 m2

42

Volume of stabilizer

= surface area x thickness


= 0.1812 x 0.005 = 9.06 x 10-4 m3

Weight of stabiliser

= density of balsa wood x volume


= 150 x 9.06 x 10-4 = 0.1359 kg = 135.9 g

5.1.6 Weight of the Skin

Design skin thickness is taken as 1 mm. The material of skin is assumed as foam.
5.1.6.1 Skin Weight for Wing

The surface length of ribs= 635.5 mm =0.6355 m


Volume of the skin= surface length x span x thickness
= 0.6355 x 1.67 x 0.001
= 0.00106 m3
Weight of the skin = density of the foam x volume of the skin
= 41 x 0.00106 = 0.04351 kg = 43.51 g
5.1.6.2 Skin Weight for Fuselage

Surface area of fuselage = (4 x cross-section length) x Fuselage length


= 4 x 0.08 x 1.117= 0.357 m2
Volume of the skin= surface area of fuselage x thickness of skin
= 0.357x 0.001
= 0.000357 m3
Mass of the skin = density of the foam x volume of the skin
= 41 x 0.000357 = 0.014655 kg = 14.655 g
5.1.6.3 Skin Weight for Horizontal Tail

Surface area of each horizontal tail= 0.129 m2


Volume of the skin= surface area of horizontal tail x thickness of skin
= 0.129 x 0.001 = 0.000129 m3

43

Mass of the skin = density of the foam x volume of the skin


= 41 x 0.000129 = 0.005289 kg = 5.289 g
Total skin weight for horizontal tail = 2 x 5.289= 10.578 g
5.1.6.4 Skin Weight for Vertical Tail

Surface area of vertical tail= 0.1812 m2


Volume of the skin= surface area of vertical tail x thickness of skin
= 0.1812 x 0.001
= 0.0001812 m3
Mass of the skin = density of the foam x volume of the skin
= 41 x 0.0001812 = 0.007429 kg = 7.429 g
Total weight of skin = skin weight of (wing + fuselage + horizontal tail + vertical tail)
= 43.51 + 14.655 + 10.578 + 7.429
= 76.172 g
5.1.7 Third Weight Estimate

Table 5.2 Weight of each component

S.No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Component
Wing
Fuselage
Horizontal Tail
Vertical Tail
Skin Weight
Servo
Casing
Receiver
Tri-cycle Landing gear
Other (bolts etc.)

Total structural weight (We) = 1314.9g


WPL= 150 g
44

Weight (g)
373.6
386.04
194.2
135.9
76.172
30[4]
40[4]
9[5]
50
20

WPP = 513 g (from report 3)


WO=We + WPL + WPP
= 1314.9+ 150 + 513= 1977.912 g
= 1.98 kg
% Change from second estimate = 17.12%

5.2 INITIAL GEOMETRIC SIZING


Geometric sizing of the aircraft encompasses the sizing of the fuselage, wing and the tails. We use
the third weight estimate to calculate the size of the components.
5.2.1 Fuselage Sizing

From the historic data collected we can plot fuselage length and weight of the aircraft. From this plot
we can find the fuselage length for our aircraft.
From Figure 5.4, for WO=1.980 kg, we get
Fuselage length, l= 1.174 m
5.2.2. Wing Sizing

Actual wing size = Gross take-off weight / Wing loading at take-off


From Report 4, wing loading (W/S) = 3.155 kg/m2
From third weight estimate, WO=1.98 kg
Thus, area of the wing (Sw) = 1.98/3.155 = 0.6276 m2
Since, aspect ratio has been fixed at 5.35; span of the wing has been estimated to be 1832.4 mm.
5.2.3. Tail Sizing

The primary purpose of the tail is to counter the moments produced by the wing. Thus, the tail size
is related to the wing size. The force due to tail lift is proportional to the tail area. Thus, the tail
effectiveness is proportional to the tail area times the tail moment. This product has the units of
volume, which leads to the tail volume coefficient method for initial estimation of tail size.

45

Figure 5.4 Initial tail sizing [6]


5.2.3.1 Vertical Tail Sizing

For a vertical tail, the wing yawning moments which must be countered are most directly related to
the wing span bW. This leads to the vertical tail volume coefficient defined as:
h =

: @
K! @!

The moment arm (LVT) is approximated as 60% of the fuselage length for front propeller aircraft [6].
Thus,
LVT = 0.6 x 1.174 = 0.7044 m
Table 5.3 Tail Volume Coefficient [6]

From the table above, we pick a value of 0.04 for CVT in absence of any reliable estimate for RC
model airplanes.

46

Thus, we get

@ =

@ =

h K! @!
:

0.04 1.67 0.6276


= 0.0595 I?
0.7044

Assuming an aspect ratio for the vertical tail wing to be equal to 1.4 [6]
J = K ? @

1.4 = K ? 0.0595
Now,

K = 288 II
@ = K h

Chord c = 207 mm
Let taper ratio for the vertical tail wing =0.4 [6]

@ = 0.5 K ( ' + / )
2h = 1.4 '

Cr=295 mm
Ct=118 mm

5.2.3.1 Horizontal Tail Sizing

For a horizontal tail, the pitching moments which must be countered are most directly related to the

mean wing chord (


! ). This leads to the horizontal tail volume coefficient defined as:
h =

: @

! @!

The moment arm (LHT) is approximated as 60% of the fuselage length for front propeller aircraft [6].
Thus,
LHT= 0.6 x 1.174 = 0.7044 m
From Table 5.3, cHT = 0.5 for homebuilt airplane has been selected, in absence of any reliable
estimate for RC model airplanes.
Thus,
@ =
47

h
! @!
:

@ =

0.5 0.31 0.6276


= 0.138 I?
0.7044

Location of the main wing from the nose tip

= 20 % of fuselage length [6]


= 0.2 x 1.174 = 0.235 m = 235 mm

Chord of horizontal tail = 65 % of main wing chord [6]


= 0.65 x 310 = 201.5 mm
Span of the horizontal tail = SHT/CHT
= 0.138/ 0.2015 = 0.685 m
Location of tail horizontal tail from main wing nose = 62% of fuselage length [6]
= 0.62 x 1174 = 728 mm

5.3. SUMMARY OF MAJOR DIMENSIONS OF THE AIRCRAFT


Following table presents a summary of major dimensions of the RC model aircraft, estimated during
initial sizing studies.

S.No.

Table 5.4 Major dimensions of the aircraft


Component
Dimensions

1.

Fuselage Length

1174 mm

2.

Aspect Ratio

5.35

3.

Wing Area

0.6276 m2

4.

Horizontal Tail Span

685 mm

5.

Horizontal Tail chord

201.5 mm

6.

Horizontal Tail Area

0.138 m2

7.

Vertical Tail Tip chord

118 mm

8.

Vertical Tail Root Chord

288 mm

9.

Vertical Tail Height

295 mm

10.

Vertical Tail Area

0.0595 m2

11.

Distance of main wing from


nose tip

235 mm

5.4 REFERENCES

48

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]

http://www.ehow.co.uk/list_6164413_properties-balsa-wood.html
http://www.auszac.com/Balsa%20wood%20Properties%20Guide.pdf
http://www.indoorflyingmodel.com/DesignParameters.html
http://www.futaba-rc.com/servos/analog.html
http://www.hobbylobby.com/spektrum_sr300_3_ch._dsm_sport_surface_receiver_81204_
prd1.htm
[6] D.RAYMER, Aircraft Design- A Conceptual Approach 2nd ed, AIAA Education Series, AIAA,
1992.

CHAPTER 6: THREE VIEW AND CONFIGURATION LAYOUT

6.1 INITIAL SIZING SUMMARY


The initial sizing work was presented in the previous chapter and a summary of the sizing result has
been reproduced in Table 6.1below:

Table 6.1 Initial Sizing Summary


Sl. No. Component

Dimensions

Remarks / Justification / Reference

Fuselage Length

1174 mm

Historical Data [1]

Fuselage Max Cross-section

80mm x 80mm

To accommodate motor size of


40mm dia, battery dimension of
50mm x 25 mm, wiring and
overheads.

Aspect Ratio

5.2

Historical Data [1]

Wing Area

0.6276 m2

Reference [1]

Wing Span

1832.4 mm

Wing Chord

342.5 mm

Horizontal Tail Span

685 mm

Horizontal Tail chord

201.5 mm

Horizontal Tail Area

0.138 m2

10

Vertical Tail Tip chord

118 mm

11

Vertical Tail Root Chord

288 mm

12

Vertical Tail Height

295 mm

49

13

Vertical Tail Area

0.0595 m2

14

Distance of main wing from nose tip

235 mm

6.2 THREE-VIEW DRAWING


Based on initial sizing exercise, following three-view sketches of RC model Airplane geometry have
been generated. Major dimensions have been shown in the figure. Some of the parameters which
were required to make a complete airplane drawing but were not finalized yet, have been estimated
from historical data or by considerations of better clearance, smooth curvature etc.
These parameters are:
-

Fairing between nose-attachment for propeller (circular) and the fuselage forebody (square)
to have smooth aerodynamic flow and proper integration of propeller and airframe.

Aftbody of fuselage has been tapered to facilitate better landing conditions by way of
increasing tail-scrape angle.

The ground clearance is chosen after a survey of the available landing gears for RC planes
such that the propeller blades will not touch the ground.

200 mm

50

Figure 6.1 Side View of the RC Model Airplane

Figure 6.2 Top View of the RC Model Airplane

51

Figure 6.3 Front View of the RC Model Airplane

All the required dimensions for the aircraft have been shown in Figures 6.2 and 6.3

6.3 WETTED AREA ESTIMATION


For wing and empennage surfaces, the wetted area is related to the plan-form area. It is a fraction
more than twice the planform area; since the arc length over the upper and lower surfaces is longer
than the chord length.
Using relations from [1] for wing and empennage wetted area calculation,
For t/c < 0.05;
Swet = 2.003 Sexp
For t/c > 0.05;
Swet = [1.977 + 0.52 (t/c)] Sexp
From Report 5,
For wing,
t/c = 0.1
For Horizontal tail,
t/c = 0.1
For Vertical Tail,
t/c = 0.1

(6.3.1)
(6.3.2)

Table 6.2 Wing and Empennage Wetted Area Calculation


Component

t/c
ratio

Span

Root Chord Tip Chord

Sexp

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm2)

Wing

1832.4

342.5

343

627600 0.1

1273400

Horizontal Tail

685

201.5

201.5

138027 0.1

280057

Vertical Tail

295

288

118

59885

121507

52

0.1

Swet
(mm2)

Similarly, using relation from [1] for fuselage wetted area calculation,
Wetted area of fuselage;
(Swet)fuselage = 3.4 [Atop + Aside] / 2
where,
Atop = Top views projected areas of fuselage
Aside = Side views projected areas of fuselage

(6.3.3)

From Figure 6.1,


Atop = [1174 80] mm2
Atop = 93920 mm2
And similarly,
Aside = [(1174)*80] mm2
Aside = 93920 mm2
Using in (6.3),
Wetted area of fuselage;
(Swet)fuselage = 3.4[93920 + 93920 ]/2 mm2
(Swet)fuselage = 319328 mm2
Therefore, the RC Model Airplane total wetted area:
Total Swet = (Swet)fuselage + (Swet)wing + (Swet)HTail + (Swet)VTail
Or,
Total Swet = 1994292 mm2

6.4 INTERNAL VOLUME ESTIMATION


Using relation from [2] for fuselage volume calculation, internal volume of fuselage;
Vfuselage = 3.4[Atop Aside]/4L
Vfuselage = 3.4[9392093920]/(41174)
Vfuselage = 6386560 mm3

(6.4.1)

As wing and empennage are not used for fuel storage, volume estimation is not required for the
purpose of fuel volume availability. Here, fuselage volume estimation has been done to ensure that
enough volume is available for payload, wiring and other systems.

6.5 CONCLUSION
Based on initial sizing of the aircraft, three-view drawing of the airplane has been generated and
using the geometry data total wetted area of 1771305 mm2 and total fuselage internal volume of
6386560 mm3 has been estimated.
This data will be used for further work on estimation of drag coefficients.

6.6 REFERENCES
[1] D. P. RAYMER, Aircraft Design- A Conceptual Approach 2nd ed, AIAA Education Series, AIAA, 1992.

53

CHAPTER 7: PROPELLER SELECTION


7.1 INTRODUCTION

Figure 7.1 Cross-section of a propeller[1]

The primary purpose of the propeller is to convert the power from the battery and motor power
plant to axial thrust through torque transfer to the propeller. Propellers may be classified as to
whether the blade pitch is fixed or not. The demands on the propeller differ according to
circumstances. For example, in take-offs and climbs more power is needed, and this can best be
provided by low pitch. For speed at cruising altitude, high pitch will do the best job. Propellers are
primarily classified as:
(a) Fixed Pitch Propeller:
The propeller is made in one piece. Only one pitch setting is possible and is usually two
blades propeller and is often made of wood or metal.

Figure 7.2 Fixed- Pitch propeller[1]

(b) Variable Pitch Propeller:


There are two types of variable-pitch propellers adjustable and controllable. The adjustable
propeller's pitch can be changed only by a mechanic to serve a particular purpose-speed or
power. The variable pitch propeller permits pilots to change pitch to more ideally fit their
requirements at the moment. In different aircraft, this is done by electrical or hydraulic
means.
54

Figure 7.3 Variable- Pitch propeller[1]

(c) Constant Speed Propeller:


In modern aircraft, the pitch change is done automatically, and the propellers are referred to
as constant-speed propellers. As power requirements vary, the pitch automatically changes,
keeping the engine and the propeller operating at a constant rpm. If the rpm rate increases,
as in a dive, a governor on the hydraulic system changes the blade pitch to a higher angle.
This acts as a brake on the crankshaft. If the rpm rate decreases, as in a climb, the blade pitch
is lowered and the crankshaft rpm can increase. The constant-speed propeller thus ensures
that the pitch is always set at the most efficient angle so that the engine can run at a desired
constant rpm regardless of altitude or forward speed.

Figure 7.4 Constant- speed propeller[1]

Two-bladed propellers are commonly used because they are relatively efficient and easy and cheap
to produce. Adding more blades decreases the overall efficiency of the prop because each blade has
to cut through more turbulent air from the preceding blade - in fact a single bladed propeller is the
most efficient but these are rarely seen in our hobby although they have been experimented with.

7.2 PROPELLER SIZING


For actual detail of propeller design, the diameter of propeller and blade shape should be known.
Generally, larger the diameter of propeller blade are more efficient in terms of higher thrust. Length
of blade is limited by tip speed. The propeller diameter is the function of horsepower as given below:
For two blades:

where, HP =Engine horsepower


55

D=22(Q/ )[2]

(7.1)

From Chapter 4, the power required by our aircraft is 87.2W,


Thus,

D= 22(87.2/746)Q/ inches
D=12.864 inches 12 inches or

D= 30.48 cm

Now propeller blade length (L) = D/2 cm


L= 30.48/2 cm
Thus, length of blade

L=15.24 cm

Propellers are measured by the diameter and pitch. The pitch is the theoretical distance travelled, by
the prop, in one revolution. The higher the pitch the higher the air speed and vice-versa. The engine,
however, must have enough power to turn the prop faster.
Table 7.1. Historical Data for propeller selection of RC aircrafts [3]
Brand

Description

Prop size (DP)

Blade length (in


cm)

Gemfan

Normal glass filled

104.5

12.7

Gemfan

Normal Carbon Filled

114.7

13.97

Gemfan

Normal Carbon Filled

124.5

15.24

APC

Slowflyer Prop

113.8

13.97

APC

Slowflyer Prop

123.8

15.24

APC

Slowflyer Prop

126

15.24

AeroNaut

Prop and spinner

4.9x4.3

6.22

ParkZone

propeller

9.57.5

12.06

APC

Electric prop

118.5

13.97

APC

Electric prop

1111

13.97

Higher power

APC

Electric prop

1210

15.24

Flyer

APC

Electric prop

1310

16.51

AeroNaut

Carbon fiber prop

10.57

13.33

AXI

Wood prop

3020

38.1

Propeller type

Slowflyer

56

The higher pitch prop (e.g. 10x8) takes only one and a half turns to cover the same distance that the
lower pitch prop (e.g. 10x4) takes 3 turns to. Thus, with both engines and props spinning at identical
RPM, the higher pitch prop will travel further in the same amount of time - hence a faster flying
plane.
Thus we can see that selecting a different propeller pitch size would significantly change the
airplane's performance, with speed being the primary factor.
Hence from the above table we select a Propeller 126 APC Slowflyer prop

7.3 SUMMARY OF PROPELLER SPECIFICATIONS


1. Propeller diameter (D) =12 inches = 0.3048 m
2. Propeller length (L) = 15.24 cm
3. Propeller pitch (P) = 6 inches
4. Pitch to diameter ratio (P/D) = 0.5

Figure 7.5 Special thin, light, and wide blade (126 APC Slowflyer prop)[3]

7.4 PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIPS


The performance estimation of the propeller is done in terms of non-dimensional quantities, Power
Coefficient CP, Thrust Coefficient CT, Efficiency and Speed Power Coefficient CS. These are
calculated once the Advance Ratio J is known. These relations are given in.
The maximum speed of selected low flyer APC 12X6 propeller

57

N = (65000/D) [4]
= (65000/12) = 5417 RPM
Therefore,
N = 5417/60 = 91 RPS
The standard variation of propeller parameters is given below in Figures 7.6 and 7.7

Figure 7.6. Variation of J with CT at different P/D ratios [5]

Figure 7.7. Variation of J with Cp at different P/D ratios [5]

58

7.4.1 Propeller parameter calculation at take-off conditions


At take-off speed, VTO = 11 m/s[6]
1. Advance ratio (J)[2]
J = V/nD
= 11/ (91 x 0.3048)
= 0.3965
2. Coefficient of thrust (CT)
From Figure 7.6 for J= 0.3965 and P/D = 0.5
CT = 0.06
3. Coefficient of power (Cp)
From Figure 7.7 for J= 0.3965 and P/D = 0.5
Cp = 0.032
4. Thrust (T)
T = CT n2 D4
= 0.06 x 1.15 x 912 x 0.30484
= 4.9316 N

5. Propeller power (P)


P = Cp x x n3 x D5
= 0.032 x 1.15 x 913 x 0.30485
= 72.95 W
6. Efficiency (p)
p = Jx CT/Cp
= 0.3965 x 0.06/0.032
= 0.7434 =74.34%
7. Speed power coefficient (Cs)
Cs = J / Cp0.2
= 0.3965/ 0.0320.2
= 0.7892

59

7.4.2 Propeller parameter calculation for climb conditions


For maximum rate of climb condition, Vclimb, max = 8.98 m/s(from chapter 4)
1. Advance Ratio (J)
J = V/nD
= 8.98/ (91 x 0.3048)
= 0.3237
2. Coefficient of thrust (CT)
From Figure 7.6, for J= 0.3237 and P/D = 0.5,
CT = 0.07
3. Coefficient of power (Cp)
From Figure 7.7, for J= 0.3237 and P/D = 0.5,
Cp = 0.032
4. Thrust (T)
T = CT n2 D4
= 0.07 x 1.15 x 912 x 0.30484
= 5.7535N
5. Propeller power (P)
P = Cp x xn3 x D5
= 0.032 x 1.15 x 913 x 0.30485
= 72.9536 W
6. Efficiency (p)
p = J x CT/Cp
= 0.3237 x 0.07/0.032
= 0.708 = 70.8%
7. Speed power coefficient (Cs)
Cs = J / Cp0.2
= 0.3237/0.0320.2
= 0.644

60

7.4.3 Propeller parameter calculation for cruise conditions


Cruise Condition Vcruise= 20m/s[6]
1. Advance Ratio (J)
J = 20/ (91 x 0.3048);
= 0.721
2. Coefficient of thrust (CT)
From Figure 7.6, for J=0.721 and P/D=0.5
CT = 0.02
3. Coefficient of power (Cp)
From Figure 7.7, for J=0.721 and P/D=.5
Cp=0 .018
4. Thrust (T)
T = CT n2 D4
= 0.02x 1.15x 912 x 0.30484
= 1.64N
5. Propeller power (P)
P = Cp n3 D5
= 0 .018 x 1.15 x 913x 0.30485
= 41.036 W
6. Efficiency (p)
p = JxCT/Cp
= 0.721x0.02/0.018
= 80%
7. Speed power coefficient (Cs)
Cs = J/Cp0.2
= 0.721/0 .0180.2
= 1.61

61

7.4.4 Propeller parameter calculation for turning conditions


Turning Condition: Vturn= 11.5m/s[6]
1.

Advance Ratio (J)


J = 11.5/ (91 x 0.3048)
= 0.4146

2. Coefficient of thrust (CT)


From Figure 7.6, for J=0.4146 and P/D=0.5,
CT = 0.059
3. Coefficient of power (Cp)
From Figure 7.7, for J=0.4146 and P/D=0.5,
Cp= 0.032
4. Thrust (T)
T = CT n2 D4
= 0.059 x 1.15x 912 x 0.30484
= 4.849 N
5. Propeller power (P)
P = Cp n3 D5
= 0.032x 1.15 x 913x 0.30485
= 72.95 W
6. Efficiency (p)
p = JxCT/Cp
= 0.4146 x0.059 /0.032
p= 76.44%
7. Speed power coefficient (Cs)
Cs = J/Cp0.2
= 0.4146/0.0320.2
= 0.8252

62

7.4.5 Propeller parameter calculation for landing conditions


Landing Condition, Vlanding= 12.3 m/s (from chapter 4)
1. Advance Ratio (J)
J = 12.3/ (91 x 0.3048);
= 0.4434
2. Coefficient of thrust(CT)

From Figure 7.6, for J=0.4434 and P/D=0.5,


CT = 0.05

3. Coefficient of power (Cp)


From Figure 7.7, for J=0.4434 and P/D=0.5
Cp = 0.03
4. Thrust (T)
T = CT n2 D4
= 0.05 x 1.15x 912 x 0.30484
= 4.10 N
5. Propeller power (P)
P = Cp n3 D5
= 0.03 x 1.15 x 913x 0.30485
= 68.39 W
6. Efficiency (p)
p = J x CT/CP
= 0.4434x0.05/0.03
p = 73.9%
7. Speed power coefficient (Cs)
`
Cs = J/Cp0.2
= 0.4434/0.030.2
= 0.894

63

7.5 CONCLUSION
1. Propeller chosen is APC slow flyer 12 X 6 .
Table 7.2 Propeller Parameters
S.No.

Parameter

Value

1.

Diameter of Propeller disc

12 in/ 0.3048 m

2.

Length of the blades

15.24 cm

3.

Pitch of the propeller

6 in

4.

Pitch/ Diameter ratio

0.5

2. Summary of propeller performance in each segment


Table 7.3 Propeller performance in each segment
S.No.

Segment

CT

CP

T(in N)

P( W)

CS

1.

Take-off

03965

0.06

0.032

4.9316

72.95

74.34

0.7892

2.

Climb

0.3237

0.07

0.032

5.7535

72.9536

70.8

0.644

3.

Cruise

0.721

0.02

0.018

1.64

41.036

80

1.61

4.

Turning

0.4146

0.059

0.032

4.849

72.95

76.44

0.8252

5.

Landing

0.4434

0.05

0.03

4.10

68.39

73.9

0.894

7.6 REFERENCES
[1] http://www.pilotfriend.com/training/flight_training/fxd_wing/props.htm
[2] RAYMER D., Aircraft Design-A Conceptual Approach 2nd ed., AIAA Education Series,AIAA
Publications, 1992
[3] http://www.hobby-lobby.com/propellers_357_ctg.htm
[4] http://www.eflightwiki.com/eflightwiki/index.php?title=Slow_flyer
[5] GARNER W.B., Model Airplane Propellers, March 2009

64

CHAPTER 8: IMPROVED DRAG POLAR AND POWER PLANT


ESTIMATION

8.1 INTRODUCTION
The drag polar calculated in Report 3 was based on historical data and airfoil data. From the
subsequent reports, exact data such as reference area and volume of the various components of the
aircraft, thrust to weight ratio, wing loading, and third weight estimate were calculated. Based on
these calculations (new data), we can now recalculate a more accurate drag polar for the aircraft
and check whether the earlier calculated wing loading and thrust to weight ratio suffice for the
aircraft.

8.2 LIFT

This section of the report presents the methods and calculations to estimate lift-curve slope and max
lift along with angle of attack for max lift, for RC model airplane.
8.2.1 Introduction

The uncambered wing has no lift at zero angle of attack. Maximum lift is obtained at the stall angle
of attack, beyond which the lift rapidly decreases. When a wing is stalled, most of the flow over the
top has separated. The slope of the lift curve is essentially linear except near the stall angle, allowing
the lift coefficient below stall to be calculated simply as the lift curve slope times the angle of attack.
At the stall, the lift curve becomes non-linear. The effect of Mach number on the lift- curve slope is
shown in Figure 8.1. The maximum Mach number for maximum velocity of the aircraft is 0.083.

Figure 8.1 Lift curve slope v/s Mach number

65

8.2.2 Calculation of CL
When the air flows over the wing, there are pockets of air where the local Mach number may be
greater than 0.071. This value will be much less than 1.0. Thus, it can be safely assumed that the
Mach number always remains subsonic. The subsonic lift curve slope empirical formula is as given in
[1] as:

Here ? = 1 ? ,1?

?/



`
?u _Q

%
%

` ()(8.2.1)

/ is the sweep of the wing at the chord location where the

airfoil is thickest. 1 can be approximated as about 0.95 for all Mach Numbers [1]. @+23*+- is the
exposed wing planform area, i.e. the wing reference area less the part of the wing covered by the
fuselage. F is the fuselage lift factor that accounts for the fact that the fuselage diameter d creates
some lift due to the spill-over of the lift from the wing. F as given in [1] is:
= 1.07(1 + K)? (8.2.2)

For the estimation of the value of , the following values are taken for our aircraft:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

A= 5.35
Flight Mach number=0.083. Thus, ? = 0.993
1=0.95 [1]
/ = 0
@+23*+- = 600900 mm2
@'+b = 627600 mm2
@ke, K=1832 mm
^Nk]N nk, =100 mm
= 1.19

Using the above values the value of is calculated as:


=

2M x 5.35

2 + u4 +

600900
_
` (1.19)
.U m.U 627600
m.

= 4.824

8.2.3 Calculation of CLmax


The maximum lift coefficient of the wing is used to determine the wing area. This has a great
influence upon the cruise drag. This in turn affects the aircraft take-off weight to perform the design
mission.

66

The aspect ratio is said to be low if

3
( Q + 1)(hR^ )

Where C1 is a constant based on the taper ratio and is the angle at the leading edge.

(8.2.3)

Figure 8.2 Taper ratio correction for low aspect ratio wings [1]
For C1=0 and =0 J 3. For our aircraft A= 5.35 > 3.
For high aspect ratio wings,


 =  i  l + 


Here Cl max is the airfoil maximum lift coefficient at M=0.2

 = 1.467 for the airfoil chosen.

Figure 8.3 Airfoil leading edge sharpness parameter [1]

The leading edge sharpness parameter has been used to develop methods for the construction of
the lift curve up to stall for wings.

67

Figure 8.4 Subsonic maximum lift of high aspect ratio wings [1]

From [1] for NACA 4 digit airfoil Y= 26 t/c. For the chosen airfoil NACA 2310, Y= 26 x 0.1 =2.6


From Figure 8.4 for Y= 2.6 and =0,  = 0.9




Figure 8.5 Mach number correction for subsonic maximum lift of high aspect ratio wings [1]

68

From Figure 8.5,  = 0


Thus,

 = 1.467 x 0.9= 1.3203


8.2.4 Calculation of CLmax
The angle of attach for maximum lift is defined as:

 =


+ m + 

The first two terms represent the angle of attack if the lift curve slope were linear all the way up to
stall. The second term is approximated by the airfoil zero-lift angle. The third term is a correction for
the nonlinear effects of vortex flow.

Figure 8.6 Angle of attack increment for subsonic maximum lift of high aspect ratio wings [1]

From calculations above,

 =1.3203, =4.893, m = -20

From Figure 8.6 for Y= 2.6 and =0,  =0.80


 =

69

1.3203 180

2 + 0.8 = 14.483
4.824
M

8.3 PARASITE DRAG ESTIMATION

In absence of a reliable estimate of equivalent skin-friction coefficient for RC model airplanes, the
component build-up method [1] to estimate the subsonic parasite drag has been chosen. For each
component of the aircraft a flat-plate skin-friction drag coefficient (Cf), component form-factor (FF)
and interference factor (Q) has been estimated. The total component drag is determined by
multiplying the wetted area of component estimated in Chapter 6 [2], Cf, FF and Q.
The airplane total parasite drag is then determined by adding all individual component drag values
along with miscellaneous drag which accounts for any other drag which has not been accounted in
the component drag; such as, base drag, leakage & protuberance drag, landing gear drag etc. The
airplane parasite drag is then divided by the planform area (S) of the wing to get the airplane
parasite drag coefficient (CD0).

8.3.1 Flat-plate Skin Friction Coefficient


The flat-plate skin friction coefficients (Cf) have been estimated while keeping following points in
consideration;
-

Operating Reynolds number is close to 0.5 million and the surface finish may not be of high
quality, therefore flow over the components can be assumed to be turbulent at all times [1].
In absence of historical data for surface roughness of RC model airplanes, it is assumed that
the model will be painted with smooth paint of skin roughness (k) 2.08x10-5 ft [1].
Max design cruise altitude is 50 m, hence Sea Level (SL) conditions can be assumed for the
calculations.
SL Density ()= 1.15 kg/m3
SL Viscosity at () = 1.983x10-5 N-sec/m2
Speed of sound (a) = 349 m/s at 30C SL

The turbulent flat-plate friction coefficient has been estimated using;


b =

(R]Qm

0.455
0.144? )m.

)?. (1 +

Since, max design speed for RC model airplane is 25 m/s, which corresponds to max Mach number of
M = v/a = 0.071, which is small compared to sonic speed. Therefore, neglecting the term (0.144 M2)
which will be of negligibly small order compared to unity, the equation for friction coefficient can be
rewritten as only a function of Reynolds number:

b = (3.

m.

.
)

70

(8.3.1)

where,

 = min


 Q.mU
, 38.21  "

(8.3.2)

Here, appropriate characteristics length (l) has been taken for airplane components. Such as, mean
aerodynamic chord for wing and empennage and overall length for fuselage.

8.3.2 Component Form Factor

Fuselage form factor has been estimated using; [square-side fuselage has a form factor 40% higher
[1]
, therefore a multiplier of 1.4 has been used]
m

= 1.4 1 + b + mm"

(8.3.3)

where,
=

()

= slenderness ratio

(8.3.4)

For Wing and tails (horizontal as well vertical tails) following equation has been used with
appropriate thickness to chord ratio; [(x/c)m = 0.3, for low speed airfoils] [1]
/

= _1 + (&) &" + 100 &" ` [1.34m.Q (hR^  )m.? ]


m.

(8.3.5)

8.2.3 Component Interference Factor

As per literature [1],


-

Fuselage interference factor is 1.0.


Wing interference factor for un-filleted wing is in between 1.1 to 1.4, assuming 1.3.
For conventional tails (horizontal as well as vertical tails) interference factor is 1.05.

8.3.4 Miscellaneous Drag


Miscellaneous drag for an airplane has been assumed to be 15% of the total friction drag [3]. This
takes care of the drag components which are not possible to estimate, due to absence of data at this
stage of design.

8.3.5 Geometric Details


Table 8.1 summarizes the geometric data of airplane components used for the estimation of drag
values. Wing and empennage airfoils have t/c of 0.1 [2].

71

Table 8.1 RC Model Airplane (W0 = 1.98 kg) Component Geometric Data
Airplane Components
Fuselage
(Square Cross-section)
Wing
(Rectangular planform)

Horizontal Tail
(Rectangular Planform)
Vertical Tail
(Swept Planform)

Parameter, unit
Length (L) , mm
Max Cross-section Area, mm2
Wetted Area, mm2
Span, mm
Chord = MAC, mm
Wetted Area, mm2
Planform Area, mm2
Span, mm
Chord = MAC, mm
Wetted Area, mm2
Span, mm
Root Chord/Tip Chord/MAC, all in mm
Sweep at Max Thickness (max), deg
Wetted Area, mm2

Values
1174
6400
319328
1832
343
1219299
627600
685
201.5
280057
295
288 / 118 / 215
19.9
121507

8.3.6 Calculation and Summary Table of Parasite Drag


Using equations stated in sections 8.3.1 and 8.3.2the parasite drag estimation has been done for
velocity range from 1 to 25 m/s (Vmax). Table 8.2 below shows a set of calculation done for design
cruise speed of 20 m/s.

The parasite drag is thus calculates as:


 =

)Q b ) ) @+/ )

where,
b = Component skin friction coefficient,
)

) = Component form factor,

) =Component interference factor,

@+/ ) =Component wetted area,


S= Planform area

 )*& =Miscellaneous drag coefficient


72

+  )*&

 .+' Landing gear drag coefficient


Table 8.2 Parasite Drag Calculation for design cruise speed of 20 m/s

Table 8.3 below shows the tabulated values of CD0 against the airplane speed and the corresponding
Mach number.

Table 8.3 Parasite Drag Coefficients for RC Model Airplane Speed Range
v (m/s)

73

CD0

v (m/s)

CD0

0.1 0.000287

0.03285

10.0 0.028653

0.01831

0.2 0.000573

0.02876

12.0 0.034384

0.01810

0.4 0.001146

0.02566

14.0 0.040115

0.01794

0.6 0.001719

0.02419

16.0 0.045845

0.01780

0.8 0.002292

0.02328

18.0 0.051576

0.01769

1.0 0.002865

0.02264

20.0 0.057307

0.01759

2.0 0.005731

0.02094

22.0 0.063037

0.01751

4.0 0.011461

0.01961

24.0 0.068768

0.01743

6.0 0.017192

0.01898

8.0 0.022923

0.01859

25.0 0.071633

0.01740

Figure 8.7 shows the plot of parasite drag vs. Mach number. To capture the trend of high parasite
drag variation at low airplane speed values, closer data points have been taken. This plot also shows
that for low subsonic speeds there is an asymptotic lower limit to the parasite drag.

Figure 8.7 Parasite Drag vs. Mach number


The most vital part of the mission segment is cruise. Thus we choose the CDO corresponding to 20
m/s for the modified drag polar.
Therefore, zero-lift drag coefficient, CDO= 0.01759.

8.4 OSWALD SPAN EFFICIENCY FACTOR AND K

The span efficiency factor is given by the equation:


e = 1.78 (1 -0.045A 0.68) 0.64

For A=5.35, e= 0. 89
Now,

74

(8.4.1)

K=

+

(8.4.2)

K =0.067

8.5 MODIFIED DRAG POLAR


The new drag polar is
CD= 0.01759+0.067CL2

(8.5.1)

Figure 8.8 shows the new drag polar.

0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12
CD

0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

CL

Figure 8.8 Modified drag polar

8.6 CHECKING FOR WING LOADING IN SEGMENTS INDEPENDENT OF T/W

75

8.6.1 Wing Loading for Stall Conditions


We can calculate the wing loading for stall conditions considering L=W. Thus, we get
1
< = : = 45 #*/ ?  @
2
< 1
= 45 #*/ ? 
@
2

 = 1.3203, 45 = 1.15 \]/IU , design #*/ = 10 I/^

Thus,

<
1
_ `
= x 1.15 x10? x 1.3203
@ */ 2
<
_ `
= 75.92 a/I?
@ */

8.6.2 Wing Loading for Landing

<
_ `
= 7.74 \]/I?
@ */

For landing from [3]:


2 < 1
o ? (< @)
+
@. = oap
45 @  ]45  8'

From Report 4 [4] Ground roll distance (Sg) = 28.905 m, j=1.15, N=3, 8' =0.4
<
_ `
= 30.95 a/I?
@ ,-),.

<
_ `
= 3.155 \]/I?
@ ,-),.

8.6.3 Wing Loading for Cruise Conditions


For cruising conditions we know that L=W. For cruise conditions, it is required to maximise the range
and hence (L/D) for propeller aircraft, to calculate the wing loading.
Thus, for maximum range and hence maximum (L/D) we get,
  = \ ?
76


= p 
\

From drag polar equation (8.5.1) we know that   = 0.01759, \ = 0.067


Thus,
0.01759
= p
= 0.5138
0.067

Using this value we get,

< 1
= 45 #&'()*+ ?
@
2

< 1
= x 1.15 x20? x 0.5138 = 118.18 a/I?
2
@
<
_ `
= 12.047 \]/I?
@ &'()*+

8.6.4 Wing Loading for Loiter


For maximum endurance and hence loiter of a propeller aircraft is obtained when the power is
maximised. Maximum power condition is achieved when (L3/2/D) ratio is maximised.
For this condition

1
  = \ ?
3

Thus,
= p

Using this value we get,

77

3 0.01759
= 0.890
0.067

< 1
= 45 #3)/+' ?
2
@

< 1
= 1.15 20? 0.89 = 204.70 a/I?
@
2
<
_ `
= 20.866 \]/I?
@ 3)/+'

8.7 WING LOADING SELECTION

Table 8.4 Wing Loading at different flight conditions


S. No.

Mission Segment

Wing loading (kg/m2)

1.

Stall

7.740

2.

Landing

3.155

3.

Cruise

12.047

4.

Loiter

20.866

The least wing loading is chosen from the above values as the design wing loading. Thus,
<
_ ` = 3.155 \]/I?
@

8.8 THRUST-TO-WEIGHT RATIO CALCULATION

The wing loading has been fixed after calculating it from the segments independent of the thrust to
weight ratio. This value of wing loading will now be used to calculate the thrust-to-weight ratio for
the segments where the thrust-to-weight ratio is involved.
8.8.1. Thrust-to-Weight Ratio for Take-Off Conditions

78

SG is estimated by the formula [3],


@z =

1.21 <@
]45  O<

O<

m.

From Chapter 4 , SG= 38.13m. Thus,


O<

m.

m.

1.21 <@
]45  @z

1.21 x 3.155 x 9.81


9.81 x 1.15 x 1.3203 x 38.13

O<

m.

= 0.066

V=0.7 X 1.1 Vstall=0.7 X 1.1 X 10= 7.7 m/s and prop=0.6 from Report 4
Engine shaft brake power,
=

O<

m.

x < x#5 x ]

12'32

Here W=1.980 kg from the third weight estimate.


=
Thus,

0.066 1.980 7.7 9.81


0.6


16.45 <

8.8.2. Thrust-to-Weight calculation for Climb


We choose for the design of the aircraft, the climb rate as 2 m/s.
We get maximum rate of climb for maximum power. Thus,

Thus,

1
  = \ ?
3

3 x 0.01759
= p
= 0.89
0.067
Now,

79

#/
#/





2 < 1
=p
45 @

2 x 3.155 x 9.81
=p
= 7.78 I/^
1.15 x 0.89

For propeller driven airplane,


( )

Q/?

12'32 
2
\ <
=
p

<
45 3   @

1.155
(:P )

upon rearranging,
Q/?

12'32 
2
\ <
= ( ) + p

<
45 3   @

It is known that for (:P)

1.155
(:P )

  = \ ?

Thus,


u
:

_ `
=_ `
=
P 
  + \

Thus,

4   \

12'32 
1.155
= ( ) + #/
Q

<

We get,

/ 71.84 <

12'32 
O
_ `
=
< / #/
<


O
0.60 x 71.84
_ `
=
< / 7.78 1.980 9.81
80

O
_ `
= 0.2852
< /
8.8.3. Thrust-to-Weight calculation for Vmax

For this case T=D. Thus we have,

 
O
1
2\ <
= 45 # ?
+
< 2
< @ 45 # ? @

O
1
0.01759
2 0.067 x 3.155 x 9.81
= x 1.15 x25?
+
< 2
3.155 x 9.81
1.15 x25?
O
_ `
= 0.2112
< 

To calculate the power,


=
=

!"



< #

12'32

0.2112 1.980 9.81 25


0.60
 = 170.93 <

8.8.4. Thrust-to-Weight calculation for turning


For turning from [3]:

 
O
1
e?
<
= 45 #/(', ?
+Q
_ `
?
< 2
< @
45 #/(', MJ @
?

Load factor, n is taken as 2

O
0.01759
4
_ `
= 0.5 x 1.15 x11.5? x
+
x 3.155 x 9.81
< /(',
3.155 x 9.81 0.5 x 1.15 x11.5? x M x 5.35

Now,

O
_ `
= 0.140
< /(',

=

81

!"

/(',

< #/(',

12'32

 = 52.24 <

8.9 SUMMARY OF THRUST-TO-WEIGHT AND SELECTION

Table 8.5 Engine power at different flight conditions


S.No.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Mission Segment
Take-off
Climb
Vmax
Turning

Power
16.45 W
71.84 W
170.93 W
52.24 W

For a propeller-driven airplane, power to weight ratio is more relevant than the thrust-to-weight
ratio [5].
The maximum power for which the aircraft has to be designed is 170.93W.
 = 170.93 <

8.10 WING LOADING FOR SEGMENTS DEPENDENT ON (T/W)


8.10.1. Wing Loading for Take-Off conditions

Using the formula for SG

1.21 <@
@z =
]45  O<

m.

Thus,
<
_ `
@

Now,

82

O
_ `
<
<
_ `
@

@z ]45  O<


m.
=
1.21

O
_ `
<

12'32 
<#5

0.6 x 170.93
= 0.686
1.980 x 9.81 x 7.7

38.13 x 9.81 x 1.15 x 1.3203 x 0.686


= 321.86 a/I?
1.21

<
_ `
@

= 32.81 \]/I?

<
_ `
@

> 3.155

8.10.2. Wing Loading calculation for Climb


It is known that
Q/?

12'32 
2
\ <
= ( ) + p

<
45 3   @

1.155

Q


On re-arranging,
?
<
45 3   12'32 
1
1
p
_ `
=
_
( ) `

<
@ /
2
\
4   \ 1.155

1.15 3x 0.01759 0.6 x 170.93


1
1 ?
<
p
=
2`
_ `
_

2
0.067
1.980 x 9.81
@ /
4x 0.01759 x 0.067 1.155
<
= 870.5 a/I?
_ `
@ /

<
_ `
= 88.73 \]/I?
@ /
<
_ `
> 3.155
@ /

8.10.3 Wing Loading for Vmax


We first convert the (T/W) for climb conditions to the (T/W) for Vmax. The power remains constant.
12'32 
O
_ `
=
<  <#

O
0.6 x 170.93
_ `
=
= 0.2112
<  1.980 x 9.81 x 25
Now,

 
O
1
2\ <
= 45 # ?
+

< 2
< @ 45 # ? @

On re-arranging we get a quadratic in (W/S)

83

2\

< ?
O
<
1
_
_ ` + 45 # ?  
? @ ` _< `
2
45 #
 @

Taking the least (W/S)

< ?
<
0.00016 _ ` 0.2112 _ ` + 6.3573 = 0
@
@
<
_ `
= 34.77 a/I?
@ 

<
= 3.545 \]/I?
_ `
@ 
<
> 3.155
_ `
@ 

8.10.4 Wing Loading for Turning

For turning, (W/S) as in [3] is given by:

( ! ) { u( ! )? 4e? K P
<
( ) =
?,
^

For (T/W) calculation:

12'32 
O
_ `
=
< /(', <#/(',
O
_ `
= 0.459
< /(',

Thus,

<
_ ` = 3.378 > 3.155
^

8.11 SUMMARY OF POWER REQUIREMENTS

Table 8.6 shows the summary of the power requirements estimated for different mission segments
of the design mission.
Table 8.6 Summary of power requirements for different segments
S.No
1.
2.
84

Mission Segment
Take- off
Climb

Power from Report 4


13.64 W
69.10 W

Recalculated Value
16.45 W
71.84 W

3.
4.

Vmax
Turning

87.20 W
38.00 W

170.93 W
52.24 W

8.12 CONCLUSION
The wing loading remains the same as calculated in Chapter 4 at 3.155 kg/m2. But the power
requirement has escalated from 87.20 W to 170.93 W.
The batteries selected in Chapter 2 for second weight estimate provide a power greater than 170.93
W. Thus, the power plant selected is adequate even with the change in the power requirements.

8.13 REFERENCES

[1] RAYMER D., Aircraft Design-A Conceptual Approach 2nd ed., AIAA Education Series, AIAA
Publications, 1992
[2] ROSKAM J., Airplane Aerodynamics and Performance, DAR corporation,1997.
[3] ANDERSON J.D., Aircraft Performance and Design, WCB/McGraw Hill, 1999

85

CHAPTER 9: ESTIMATION OF CENTRE OF GRAVITY OF AIRCRAFT

9.1 INTRODUCTION
The centre of gravity (CG) of an aircraft is the point at which the aircraft would balance if it were
possible to suspend it at that point. It is the theoretical point at which the weight of the aircraft is
assumed to be concentrated. The centre of gravity of the aircraft is important from the perspective
of stability. Its location is of utmost importance for the longitudinal stability analysis.

9.2 CG OF DIFFERENT COMPONENTS


The origin of the coordinate system is taken at the nose tip. X axis is taken along the length of the
aircraft. Y axis is taken in the transverse direction. Z axis is taken in the vertically upward direction. A
rough sketch of the aircraft is presented to define the coordinate axis.

118mm
235mm
Z

295mm

342.5mm
288mm
80mm
228.6mm

x
201.5mm
1174mm

Figure9.1. Side view of the aircraft in cartesian coordinate system .

86

228.6mm

Y
80mm

235mm

1174mm
X

343mm

1832.4mm
651mm

201.5mm
288mm
685mm

Figure9.2. Top view of the aircraft in cartesian system

9.2.1 Fuselage
Fuselages cross section is 8080 mm2 and straight length 1174 mm.
Thus from the geometry,
CG from nose tip XCG = 1174/2 mm
XCG, F = 587 mm
CG from base

ZCG = 80/2 mm
ZCG, F = 40 mm

CG along Y axis, YCG, F= 0 mm

87

CG, F
X

80mm
40mm
587mm
1174mm
Figure9.3. CG location of fuselage

9.2.2 Wing
Wing CG for one side is given as 40% chord from leading edge of the wing at 40% of semi-span [1].
This y-axis CG distance is for one wing, but when we consider both wings in totality, the CG lies on yaxis due to symmetry.
Thus,
YCG, W= 0 mm
Also, x-axis CG distance is from the leading edge, which is 235 mm aft from the tip of nose of the
fuselage [2].
XCG, W = 235 + 0.4 343 = 372.2 mm
The wing CG location from the base is taken the same as that of the fuselage.
ZCG, W = 40 mm
Z

235mm
372.2mm
X

342.5mm
CG, W

80mm
40mm

Figure9.4. CG location of wing

88

9.2.3 Horizontal Tail

D
S

CG

BP
Croot

MAC

Ct

Figure 9.5 Schematic of the important geometric points for tail CG calculation [2]
where,
MAC = (2/3) Croot (1++2)/(1+) [2]
D = (b/6)[(1+2)(1+)] [3]
using figure 9.5 notation
Wing sweep (S) =[B(Croot +2Ctip)]/{3(Croot +Ctip)}[3]
Wing Taper ratio () = Ctip /Croot
From Chapter 5
Wing Span (b) = 1832mm
Root chord Croot =201.5 mm
Tip chord Ctip =201.5 mm
Horizontal tail span (b)= 685 mm
Taper ratio ()=201.5/201.5
=1
MAC= (2/3)201.5[(1+1+12)/(1+1)]
MAC =201.5 mm
Also,
89

D ={(685/2)/6}[1+21)(1+1)]
D = 342.5 mm
For calculation of (B) = Croot -Ctip
B =201.5-201.5
B= 0 mm
Thus,
Wing sweep (S) =[0(201.5+2201.5)]/{3(201.5 +201.5)}
S =0 mm
Centre of Gravity from leading edge ,
XCG = BP + S
where ,
BP = Balance point (25% of MAC) [3]
BP = 0.25201.5
BP = 50.38 mm
XCG = 53.38+ 0
XCG = 53.38 mm (from Root chord leading edge)
Thus, Centre of Gravity from fuselage nose tip,
XCG = 1174-201.5+ 53.38 mm
XCG = 1020.88 mm

and calculation of CG of aircraft along Z- axis,


From 3D view layout Horizontal tail lies at the mid-section of fuselage
Thus
Centre of Gravity from fuselage base ZCG = 80/2 mm
ZCG = 40 mm
Centre of Gravity along Y axis,
YCG = 0 mm

90

1020.88mm
80mm

40mm
210mm

Figure 9.6. CG location of horizontal tail

9.2.4. Vertical Tail

Root chord Croot=288 mm


Tip chord Ctip =118 mm
Vertical tail span (b)= 295 mm
Taper ratio ()=118/288
=0.409
MAC= (2/3)288[(1+0.409+0.4092)/(1+0.409)]
MAC =214.84 mm
Also,
D =(295/6)[1+20.409)(1+0.409)]
D = 125.94 mm

For calculation of (B) = Croot -Ctip


B =288-118
B= 170 mm
Thus,
Wing sweep (S) =[170(288+2118)]/{3(288 +118)}
S =73.14 mm

Centre of Gravity from leading edge ,


XCG = BP + S
91

where ,
BP = Balance point (25% of MAC) [3]
BP = 0.25214.84
BP= 53.71 mm
XCG = BP+S= 53.71 + 73.14
XCG = 126.85 mm (from Root chord leading edge)
And Centre of Gravity along Z- axis,
ZCG = D = 125.94 mm
Thus, Centre of Gravity from fuselage nose tip
XCG = 1174-288+ 126.85 mm
XCG = 1012.85 mm
And Centre of Gravity from fuselage base,
ZCG = 80+125.94 mm
ZCG = 205.94 mm

Centre of Gravity along Y axis,


YCG = 0mm

118mm

295mm

1012.85mm
Z

288mm
205.94mm

Figure9.7. CG location of vertical tail

92

9.2.5 Propeller

The CG of the propeller is the CG of the propeller as we have taken a two blade propeller. Thus, the
CG of the propeller taken is
Thus, Centre of Gravity from fuselage nose tip
XCG = -20 mm
And Centre of Gravity from fuselage base,
ZCG = 40 mm
Centre of Gravity along Y axis,
YCG = 0 mm

9.2.6. Motor
From the 3D view presented in [5]
Centre of Gravity from fuselage nose tip
XCG = 100 mm
And Centre of Gravity from fuselage base,
ZCG = 30 mm
Centre of Gravity along Y axis,
YCG = 0 mm
9.2.7. Battery
From the 3D view presented in [5]
Centre of Gravity from fuselage nose tip
XCG = 300 mm
And Centre of Gravity from fuselage base,
ZCG = 30 mm
Centre of Gravity along Y axis,
YCG = 0 mm

93

9.2.8 Payload
From the 3D view presented in [5]
Centre of Gravity from fuselage nose tip
XCG = 400 mm
and Centre of Gravity from fuselage base,
ZCG = 40 mm
Centre of Gravity along Y axis,
YCG = 0 mm

9.2.9 Summary of the CG location of different components

Table 9.1 CG location and weights of different components

S. No

94

Aircraft Components

CG location
from fuselage
nose tip XCG

CG location
from fuselage
base ZCG

CG location
along Y axis
YCG

(in mm)

(in mm)

(in mm)

Mass of the
components
(in grams)

1.

Wing

372.2

40

373.6

2.

Fuselage

587

40

386.04

3.

Horizontal tail

1020.88

40

194.2

4.

Vertical tail

1012.85

205.94

135.9

5.

Propeller

-20

40

25

6.

Motor

100

30

198

7.

Battery

300

30

235

8.

Payload

400

40

150

9.3 CG LOCATION OF AIRCRAFT

For the CG location of the landing gear, an initial estimate of the CG of the aircraft is necessary. Thus,
using the method of weighted weights, the CG is calculated using the following formulae:
CG from fuselage nose tip,

X
Thus

(373.6 x 372.2) + (386.04 x 587) + (194.2 x 1020.88) + (135.9 x 1012.85)


+(25 x 20) + (198 x 100) + (235 x 300) + (150 x 400)
=
(373.6 + 386.04 + 194.2 + 135.9 + 25 + 198 + 235 + 150)

CG from fuselage base,

Thus,

X = 501.47 mm

(373.6 x 40) + (386.04 x 40) + (194.2 x 40) + (135.9 x 205.94)


+(25 x40) + (198 x 30) + (235 x 30) + (150 x 40)
=
(373.6 + 386.04 + 194.2 + 135.9 + 25 + 198 + 235 + 150)

Z = 50.73 mm
Y = 0 mm

95

9.4 CALCULATION OF CG OF LANDING GEAR

In general, the design and positioning of the landing gear are determined by the unique
characteristics associated with each aircraft, i.e., geometry, weight, and mission requirements. Given
the weight and cg range of the aircraft, suitable configurations are identified and reviewed to
determine how well they match the airframe structure, flotation, and operational requirements.

9.4.1 Landing Gear Arrangement


From literature available on RC airplanes, it is evident that almost all RC model airplanes use either
tricycle type or, tail-dragger type landing gear arrangements. For our airplane we have chosen
tricycle type landing gear, as this enhances the stability during the ground roll better than taildragger type. This particular feature enables smooth landing and take-offs for the RC aircrafts.
The tricycle type landing gear consists of two main landing gears (MLG) and one nose landing gear
(NLG) with steering capability. In case of RC airplanes, all three landing gear are usually of same gear
height.
The landing gear locations from CG (lm for main gear and ln for nose gear),base (b) and track (t) are
defined as shown below;

Figure 9.8 Landing Gear Arrangement about Aircraft CG


Angle of Pitch and Roll at Take-off/Landing
For a given RC aircraft geometry and gear height (hg), the limit for the take-off/landing pitch angle
and the roll angle (8) [4]at which the tip of the wing just touches the ground follows from
following equation;
h
jke = jke + 2
+ tan tan
st
where,
= 0, wing dihedral angle
s = 1832 mm, wing span
t = wheel track
= 0, wing sweep
= 12

96

Therefore,

j = 1832

m.Qm

(9.4.1)

Conditions at Touchdown
The minimum allowable offset between the aft-most cg and the main gear assembly mounting
locations is given by [4];
 . + b(*+.+ tan
where,
zCGfuselage= 50.73 mm, z-distance from fuselage centreline of the estimated CG of fuselage.
Using geometry data;
l h + 50.730.2126
(9.4.2)
Sideways Turnover Angle
Forces acting sideways on the airplane in cross-wind landing condition or a high speed turn during
taxiing could cause the aircraft to turnover on its side. It is thus desirable to keep the turnover angle
() as small as possible.
The angle is determined using the expression and is maximum allowable up-to 63[6];
. + b(*+.+
jke =
, ^ne
And,
K
K
jke =
=
2( + , ) 2j
Using geometry data we get;
m.U

t = l + l

Q.U

7 /

(9.4.3)

(9.4.4)

To solve (9.4.1) to (9.4.4) with 5 unknowns we need to make an initial guess and then try to satisfy
all the equations, with reasonable values of unknowns. From [5], it is known that the gear length for
RC flyer aircrafts in approximately 2 kg weight category is 5 in. = 127 mm for track length of 15 in.
= 381 mm.
Taking initial guess as, hg = 127 mm;

?Q?

j = 1832 m.Qm = 24.17 II ,which is too small.

Conversely, taking initial guess as, t = 381 mm;


. =

m.Qm
(1832 j)
?

for the height of the landing gear.


Therefore, taking
hg = 100 mm;

97

102 II , which is pretty much in the ballpark

We get,

j = 1832

?Qmm
m.Qm

= 408 II

 = (100 + 50.73) 0.2126 = 32 II


, = j  = 376 II

K=u

m.?m /
Q{m.?m

= 170 II

The above calculated values decide the arrangement of the landing gear.

9.4.2 Landing Gear Weight


The design landing weight for the electric RC airplane is same as gross design take-off weight,
therefore,
Wl = W0 = 1.98 kg = 4.365 lb.
Using main landing gear weight equation [3];
m.U

<. = L&7 L/2. (< a )m.? .


where,
L&7 = 1.0, for non-cross beam landing gear
L/2. = 1.0, for non-tripod gear
Nl = Ngear x 1.5 = 2 x 1.5 = 3.0, ultimate landing load factor
hg = 100 mm = 3.937 in.

<. = (4.365 3.0)m.? (3.937)m.U = 7.22 K = 3.275 \]


This value of main landing gear weight itself is too high.

Thus,

Therefore, the methods given in the conventional aircraft design literature may not give a correct
estimate for RC model airplane.
For RC airplanes, available data from [6] suggests the weight of one off-the-shelf landing gear at
around 25 gm.
Assuming factor of safety is 1.2 to prevent weight under-estimation due to unaccounted component
or aircraft weight increase.
Therefore,
<. = 25 1.2 3 = 90 ]

9.4.3 Landing Gear CG


The landing gears can be considered as point masses to calculate the x-location of centre of gravity
of the landing gear system.
using Figure 9.8,

98

Centre of gravity in x-axis from fuselage nose-tip;

&. = (Xcg)aircraft, + j = 501.47 376 +


U
?

?m

= 397.5 II

Centre of gravity in y-axis from fuselage centre line;

&. = 0 II
Centre of gravity in z-axis from fuselage base;

&. = 0.5 . = 50 II

9.5 MODIFIED LOCATION OF CG


Incorporating the location of the CG of the landing gear, the new CG of the aircraft is:
CG from fuselage nose tip,

X
Thus

(373.6 x 372.2) + (386.04 x 587) + (194.2 x 1020.88) + (135.9 x 1012.85)


+(25 x 20) + (198 x 100) + (235 x 300) + (150 x 400) + (90 x 397.5)
=
(373.6 + 386.04 + 194.2 + 135.9 + 25 + 198 + 235 + 150 + 90)
X = 496.233 mm

CG from fuselage base,

Z
Thus,

(373.6 x 40) + (386.04 x 40) + (194.2 x 40) + (135.9 x 205.94)


+(25 x40) + (198 x 30) + (235 x 30) + (150 x 40) + (90 x 50)
=
(373.6 + 386.04 + 194.2 + 135.9 + 25 + 198 + 235 + 150 + 90)
Z = 50.696 mm
Y = 0 mm

99

9.6 CONCLUSION
From the calculations, we get

X = 496.233 mm
Y = 0 mm

Z = 50.696 mm

9.7 REFERENCES

[1] ROSKAM J., Airplane Design Part V Component Weight Estimation, DARCorporation, 1999
[2] RAYMER D., Aircraft Design-A Conceptual Approach 2nd ed., AIAA Education Series, AIAA
Publications, 1992
[3] http://www.geistware.com/rcmodeling/cg_super_calc.htm
[4] Currey N. S., Aircraft Landing Gear Design: Principles and Practices, AIAA Education
Series,1999
[5] www.RCuniverse.com
[6] www.petenplanes.com.au

100

CHAPTER 10: STABILITY AND TRIM ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT

10.1 INTRODUCTION
Stability plays a key role in the ability to maintain control. The opposite of stability is
maneuverability. If an aircraft had more stability, it would have less maneuverability. In this case,
there would be no way to change the flight path. A desirable middle ground must be designed,
depending on the type of aircraft.
Positive stability means that when the aircraft is displaced it tends to return to the original attitude.
Neutral stability would result in the attitude remaining constant after displacement, neither
returning nor continuing to displace. Negative stability would result in the attitude continuing to
displace or diverge.

10.1.1 Longitudinal Stability


Pitch stability, also called longitudinal stability, is accomplished by keeping the center of gravity (CG)
forward of the center of lift (CL). The centre of lift is a point on the wing where all the lift force
seems to act through. This average point is synonymous with the centre of gravity, but normally is
in the upward direction. Because the upward force of the CL is aft of the CG, the nose-down torque
must be balanced by a tail-down force. The tail-down force is directly related to the airspeed flowing
over the horizontal stabilizer airfoil, and thereby creates a stabilizing situation.

10.1.2 Lateral Stability


When an aircraft rolls into a shallow bank of around 5 degrees, lateral stability results in the wings
rolling level on their own. During steep banks, the tendency is for the aircraft to overbank. This is
because the raised wing has to cover a greater distance, and therefore must travel faster to
complete the circle at the same time. The faster airspeed of the outside raised wing results in
greater lift and the overbanking tendency. During medium banked turns, these two tendencies
cancel out, and the bank remains constant.

10.1.3 Directional Stability


It is primarily a result of the vertical stabilizer. If a slip is encountered, the resulting force on the
vertical stabilizer restores a zero sideslip condition.

101

10.2 LOCATION OF CENTRE OF GRAVITY


Here we have known the location of center of gravity from Chapter 9[2]
XCG = 496.233 mm (from fuselage nose tip)
Thus,

cg= Xcg/c

cg= 496.233/343mm

cg= 1.447mm(from the leading edge of wing)

10.3 NEUTRAL POINT


Neutral point is the position through which all the net lift increments act for a change in
angle of attack .Thus mathematically at neutral point,
C = 0

From [1], the location of neutral point from fuselage nose tip is:
,2 =

& b(* + 1 % &

1 %

All lengths are expressed in terms of fraction of wing mean aerodynamic chord length.
Where,

Cmfus

102

,2
= Xnp/c= Neutral point location from fuselage nose tip
& = Xacw/c= Position of aerodynamic center of wing from fuselage nose tip
& = Xach/c = Position of aerodynamic center of tail from nose tip
CL
=
Slope of lift coefficient with angle of attack of the wing
=
Moment coefficient of the fuselage
CLh
=
Gradient of coefficient of lift with angle of attack of the tail
@
=
Span area of horizontal tail
@!
=
Wing span area

10.4 PARAMETERS OF WING



10.4.1 
Xacw = Position of aerodynamic center of wing from wing leading edge.
From Raymer [1] , aerodynamic center lies at 25% of mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) length.
MAC = 343 mm
Thus,
Xacw = 0.25343 mm
Xacw = 85.75 mm,
And
Xacw = Position of aerodynamic center of wing from fuselage nose tip.
Xacw = 235+85.75 mm
Xacw =320.75 mm
Thus,
& = Xacw/c
& = 320.75/343
& =0.935
10.4.2 CL
CL = Slope of Lift coefficient with Angle of Attack of the Wing
From Chapter 8
CL=4.824 per radian

10.5 PARAMETERS OF FUSELAGE


10.5.1 Cmfus
Cmfus
=

Pitching moment coefficient of the fuselage

From Raymer[1]
Cmfus

!
%

per degree

where
Kf = Empirical pitching moment factor
Wf = Maximum width of fuselage
103

Lf =Length of fuselage
C =Mean aerodynamic chord of wing
Sw = Wing surface srea
From Chapter 5
Wf = 80 mm
Lf = 1174 mm
Sw = 627600 mm2
C= 343 mm
Kf is calculated as follows:
Position of 1/4th root chord in terms
terms of % fuselage length = ((343/4 + 235)/1174)100
235)/1174)
= 27.32%

Figure 10.1. Position of root chord [1]

From figure Kf = 0.009


Thus .
Cmfus =

m.mmm QQ
UU?mm

Cmfus = 3.1410-4 per degree


Cmfus =0.018 per radian

104

10.6 HORIZONTAL TAIL PITCHING MOMENT


As the horizontal tail (HT) has long moment arm, therefore however small the lift produced by the
relatively small surface area of horizontal tail; the moment contribution in pitch axis is quite
significant. This significant moment contribution enables the airplane designers to utilize the
horizontal tail and its control surfaces very effectively to achive longitudinal (pitch axis) stability and
control of the airplane.
From stability point of view, there exists an airplane aerodynamic center or, neutral point about
which pitching moment is invariant with respect to angle of attack. To determine this neutral point
the pitching moment contribution of the horizontal tail is used as;
= : & = @ &

In non-dimensional form;

 = _
This can be re-written as,

@
&
` _ ` _
`_
`
@

 = 1 %

&

(10.6.1)

The terms used in the equation above have been defined and estimated in the following subsections.
10.6.1 Dynamic Pressure Ratio ( )

The term 1 represents the ratio of dynamic pressure at horizontal tails to freestream dynamic
pressure.
The typical value of the dynamic pressure ratio is 0.90 [1].
Therefore,

1 = 0.9


10.6.2 Planform Area Ratio (  )




This term represents the area ratio of horizontal tails to the wing in top view.
Since, Sh = horizontal tail planform area = 138027.5 m2
And, Sw = wing planform area =627600 m2
Therefore,

105

@ 138027.5
=
= 0.22
@
627600

10.6.3 Lift-Curve Slope of Horizontal Tail (


)
The lift-curve slope has been estimated for horizontal tail by a semi-empirical relation [1] for subsonic
speeds;
=

2 + u4 +

2MJ

 ,

1
+
"

@+2
l ()
@'+b

where,

J = aspect ratio of horizontal tail = 3.4

? = 1 ? 1, since for surveillance RC model airplane M<<1


1 = airfoil efficiency = 0.95 [1]
- ?

= 1.07 1 + 7 " = 1.37, where d = equivalent diameter of fuselage and b = span of HT

Sexp = HT reference area less the part covered by fuselage = (685 - 80) x 201.5 = 121907.5 mm2
Sref = HT reference area = 685 x 201.5 = 138027.5 mm2

,/ = 0, HT has rectangular profile


Thus,

2M 3.4 1.37

121907.5
_
` = 4.237 NTTknke
138027.5
U. ?
2 + u4 +  "
m.

10.6.4 Tail Angle of Attack Derivative (

The horizontal tail angle of attack (AoA) derivative with respect to the wing AoA is given by [1];


=1


where, the downwash derivative has been empirically determined using [2];

m. Q.Q

= 4.44 L L L hR^& "

where, KA, K and KH are factors representing wing aspect ratio, wing taper ratio and HT location
respectively.
Here,
& = 0, wing quarter chord sweep for rectangular wing
Q

L = Q. = 0.1323, where A = 5.35 for wing [3]


L =

Qm{U

= 1, where =1.0 for rectangular wing [3]

lH = distance parallel to wing root chord between wing MAC quarter point to the quarter chord point
of MAC of HT [3]= 1174 201.5 235

UU
?mQ.
+

= 702.125 mm

hH = height of HT MAC above or below the plane of wing root chord = 0


Therefore,
106

L =
Using these values,


7

?
u 
7

= 1.093

= 1 4.44[0.1323 1.0 1.093]Q.Q = 0.5554

 )
10.6.5 Non-Dimensional Aerodynamic Center x-location (
Typically for most subsonic high aspect ratio lifting surfaces, the aerodynamic center is located at
quarter chord point of MAC [1].
Therefore,
& =
where,

&
h

c = 343 mm, mean aerodynamic chord of wing and,


& = x-location of aerodynamic center of the horizontal tail = 1174 201.5 +

Therefore,
& =

?mQ.

1022.875
= 2.982
343

= 1022.875

10.6.6. Calculation of Cmh


Now, using the all calculated values in (10.6.1), the pitching moment contribution of horizontal tail
for estimation of airplane neutral point is;
 = 1
Therefore,

= [0.9 0.22 4.237 0.5554 2.982]


@
&
 = 1.389

10.7 EFFECT OF POWER PLANT ON PITCHING MOMENT


107

The effect of propulsive unit on longitudinal stability and trim are usually difficult to estimate. For
propeller driven aircrafts, the effect of power on longitudinal stability consists of two parts;
-

Direct effect caused by forces developed by the propulsion unit. This depends on the vertical
separation of the thrust line from the line passing through center of gravity and parallel to
thrust line. If this separation is small, the effect on pitching moment due to direct effect can
be neglected [1].
Indirect effect caused by propeller slipstream passing over the wing and tail surfaces. The
effect of changes in local lift and drag forces due to this on pitching moment is usually small
and hence neglected [2].

The direct effect also includes normal force acting on propulsion unit, which for propeller airplane is
de-stabilizing and for pusher airplane is stabilizing in nature. From literature [1] [2], it is common to
neglect the propeller force term in normal direction to determine power-off stability.
Then, the power effects are accounted for using a static margin allowance based on test data of
similar airplanes. Typically these power-on effects reduce the static margin by 4~10% for propeller
airplanes [1].
Therefore, we assume the power-on reduction in static margin of 5%.

10.8 LOCATION OF NEUTRAL POINT


Knowing all the parameters, the neutral point can be calculated as:
,2 =

10.9 STATIC MARGIN

(4.824 x 0.935) 0.018 + 1.389


= 1.111
4.824 + 0.468

The handling characteristics of an airplane in longitudinal flight are also determined by the static
margin. Static margin is defined as the distance between the center of gravity and the neutral point
of the aircraft.
Thus,

Static Margin = ,2 cg

From Raymer [1]

C = C (,2 cg)
Thus For positive static margin, pitching moment coefficient is negative, so the aircraft is stable.
Static Margin= 1.111- 1.447=-0.336
Reduction in Static Margin due to power plant= 5% of -0.336=-0.0168
Thus, Static Margin= -0.319

108

Thus, the aircraft is unstable. To get a stable configuration we change the location of the wing by
190mm i.e. we move the wing from 235mm from nose tip to 425mm from nose tip. Due to this
movement, the CG of the aircraft also changes. The new CG is:
CGnew= 537.7 mm

cg = (537.2)/343

Thus,

=1.566
Because of the change in the location of the wing, the values of the following parameters are
recalculated:

10.10 Recalculation at new CG location:


 )New:
10.10.1 (
Xacw = 425+85.75 mm
Xacw =510.75 mm
Thus,
& = Xacw/c
& = 510.75/343
& =1.49

10.10.2 (Cmfus)new:
Position of 1/4th root chord in terms of % fuselage length = ((343/4 + 425)/1174)100 = 43.5%
From fig 10.2,
Kf = 0.017
Thus,
(Cmfus)new =0.033

( )new=0.468

10.10.3 (

)new and (Cmh)new:

and
(Cmh)new =1.181

109

10.10.4 New location of neutral point:


Thus,
,2 =

(4.824 x 1.49) 0.033 + 1.181


= 1.598
4.824 + 0.393

,2 = 1.598
And

The static margin= 1.598-1.566= 0.032


Reduction due to power plant= 5% of 0.032= 0.0016
The new static margin= 0.0304
This static margin is rather low, so again we change the CG location of aircraft by changing the
location of dead weight in aircraft.
Assume the new location of battery is 290mm from fuselage nose tip. Hence the new CG location of
aircraft is:
CGnew= 501.78 mm

cg = (501.78)/343

Thus,

cg =1.463

Because of no change in the location of the wing, the values of the parameters and neutral point
have not changed:
Thus,

,2 =1.598 and cg =1.463


The static margin= 1.598-1.463= 0.135
Reduction due to power plant= 5% of 0.135= 0.00675
The new static margin= 0.128
Thus,

=


And
Since

110

-(static margin)=-0.128




= x




= 4.824 x 0.128 = 0.6186.

is negative, we can conclude that our aircraft is stable.

118mm

10.11 MODIFIED VIEWS WITH NEW WING LOCATION


425m
295mm

342.5mm
288mm

228.6mm

80mm

201.5m
1174mm

111

10.12 TRIM ANALYSIS


When the total pitching moment about centre of gravity is zero, the condition is known as trim
condition. Hence, for trim situation, coefficient of pitching moment about centre of gravity must also
be zero.
Or 
= 0

The equation for 


is given by[1],


= &. & +  +  +  1
+

2
( 2 )
@ &.

@
O
& &. +

@
@ /

The moment due to propeller is very small as compared to other terms, and hence can be neglected.
As we are not using jet engine, the last term in above equation can be neglected.
The coefficient of pitching moment about aerodynamic centre of wing having NACA2310 airfoil by
using design foil software is,

 = -0.043

Then, above equation becomes


= &. & +  +  +  1

@
&.
@ &

here,
= elevator deflection,
 = ratio of dynamic pressure at the tail and the free stream dynamic pressure.

Substituting all values, we get

0 = 4.824 (1.566 1.49) + (-0.043) + (0.033 ) + 0


0.9 0.22 (2.982 1.566)
Then, we get,
0.3996 0.2804 - 0.043 = 0
This is a trim equation for this aircraft.
Now,
Lift coefficient for the wing = Lift curve slope times the wing angle of attack and
Lift coefficient for the tail = Curve slope times the tail angle of attack

112

The angles of attack are measured with respectto zero lift angle.
Then corresponding equations are given by [1]

= ( + n 3 )

= ( + n 3 )

here,
3 = zero lift angle of attack for wing,
3 = zero lift angle of attack for horizontal tail,
= effect of downwash.
Now, the equation for change in zero lift angle due to a plain flap is given by[1]
1

b
3 = i l
b

where,
@b22+

= 0.9 \b i
l
cos [Q]
b
b
@'+b
and

= = 4.237 NT Tknke

As explained by, Raymer, theoretical lift increment for small flap deflections can be obtained from:

Figure10.2: Theoretical lift increment Figure10.3:Empirical correction for


for plain flaps
plain lift increment

113

for values of Cf/C =75/201.5 = 0.373 and t/C =0.12


the above graph gives

=


5.1 per radian and \b = 1

Therefore

=


0.9 1 5.1 0.25 cos 0

(10.12.1)

= 1.15
Using equation,
Q

 = .?U 1.15 b

(10.12.2)

 = 0.271b =3

For calculation of down wash angle by[1]


=

where,



Q 
 

= 0.42

= 0.42
Thus
= 4.237 ( + 0 0.42 +0.271b )
=2.457 + 1.15b

(10.12.3)

Using above trim equation,


we get,

 = ( + n ) + 1

@

@

= 4.824 ( + 2M/180) + 0.9 0.22 (2.457 + 0.63b )

 =5.31 + 0.125b +0.168


and,


= 0.3996 0.2804 - 0.043

= 0.3996 0.2804 (2.457 + 1.15b )- 0.043


 = - 0.2899
0.322 ! - 0.043
114

(10.12.4)

Table10.1.calculation of Cm,cg at different values of delta for trim analysis



for
delta
=0


for
delta
=2


for
delta =2



for
for
delta =- delta =4
6

-

for
for
delta =- delta =8
10


for
delta =12

-0.043

-0.0542

0.01335

0.017461

-0.0480

-0.0593

0.034922

-0.0531

-0.0643

0.052383

-0.0581

-0.0694

0.069844

-0.0632

-0.0745

-0.0069

0.02429
8
0.01923
6
0.01417
4
0.00911
2
0.00405

0.087306

-0.0683

-0.0795

-0.01196

-0.00101

0.104767

-0.0733

-0.0846

-0.01702

-0.00607

0.122228

-0.0784

-0.0897

-0.02208

-0.01114

0.139689

-0.083

-0.0947

-0.02715

-0.0162

0.15715

-0.0885

-0.0998

-0.03221

-0.02126

10

0.174611

-0.0936

-0.1048

-0.03727

-0.02632

11

0.192072

-0.0986

-0.1099

0.00298
0.00804
0.01311
0.01817
0.02323
0.02829
0.03335
0.03842
0.04348
0.04854
-0.0536

0.00828
8
0.00322
6
-0.00184

0.02078
0.02584
0.03091
0.03597
0.04103
0.04609
0.05115
0.05622
0.06128
0.06634
-0.0714

0.00208

0.03173
0.03679
0.04185
0.04692
0.05198
0.05704
-0.0621

-0.04233

-0.03138

12

0.209533

-0.1037

-0.1150

-0.04739

-0.03645

13

0.226994

-0.1088

-0.1200

0.05866
0.06373

-0.05246

-0.04151

alpha
in deg

alpha in
radian

115

0.06716
0.07223
0.07729
0.08235
0.08741
0.09247
0.09754

0.07646
0.08153
0.08659

0.00929
0.01435
0.01941
0.02447
0.02953
-0.0346
0.03966
0.04472
0.04978
0.05484
0.05991
0.06497
0.07003
0.07509

0.04
0.02
0
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

Cm,cg

-0.02

delta =0
delta=2
delta=-2

-0.04

delta=-4
-0.06

delta=-6
delta=-8

-0.08

delta=-10
-0.1

delta=-12

-0.12
-0.14

Angle of attack of wing(in radian)

Figure10.4:Trim curve

10.13 CONCLUSION
1.Modified 3-D shows the new CG location of aircraft is 501.78mm and wing location 425mm from
fuselage nose tip.
2.The stability Analysis is done and positions of Neutral Point and centre of gravity in terms of
fraction of wing chord are found to be 1.598 and 1.463 respectively, from the nose tip.
3.Static Margin is found to be 0.128 i.e 12.8%, which is well within stability range(5-15%).
4.The slope of CMcg vesus alpha as shown in plots above is found out to be negative which indicates
that the aircraft is stable
5. Since the 
at zero angle of attack is negative for elevator deflection delta at zero, thus the
initialtail setting angle will be set as -8.

10.14 REFERENCES
[1] RAYMER D., Aircraft Design-A Conceptual Approach 2nd ed., AIAA Education Series,1992
[2] PAMADI B. N., Performance, Stability, Dynamics and Control of Airplanes, AIAA Education Series,
2004

116

CHAPTER 11: PARASITE DRAG ESTIMATION


11.1 INTRODUCTION
In the absence of a reliable estimate of equivalent skin-friction coefficient for RC model airplanes,
the component build-up method [1] to estimate the subsonic parasite drag has been chosen. For each
component of the aircraft a flat-plate skin-friction drag coefficient (Cf), component form-factor (FF)
and interference factor (Q) has been estimated. The total component drag is determined by
multiplying the wetted area of component estimated in Report 6 [2], Cf, FF and Q.
The airplane total parasite drag is then determined by adding all individual component drag values
along with miscellaneous drag which accounts for any other drag which has not been accounted in
the component drag; such as, base drag, leakage & protuberance drag, landing gear drag etc. The
airplane parasite drag is then divided by the planform area (S) of the wing to get the airplane
parasite drag coefficient (CD0).

11.2 FLAT PLATE SKIN FRICTION COEFFICIENT

The flat-plate skin friction coefficients (Cf) have been estimated while keeping following points in
consideration;
-

Operating Reynolds number is close to 0.5 million and the surface finish may not be of high
quality, therefore flow over the components can be assumed to be turbulent at all times [1].
In absence of historical data for surface roughness of RC model airplanes, it is assumed that
the model will be painted with smooth paint of skin roughness (k) 2.08x10-5 ft [1].
Max design cruise altitude is 50 m, hence Sea Level (SL) conditions can be assumed for the
calculations.
Density ()= 1.15 kg/m3
Viscosity () = 1.983x10-5 N-sec/m2
Speed of sound (a) = 349 m/s at 30C

The turbulent flat-plate friction coefficient has been estimated using;


b =

0.455
(R]Qm )?. (1 + 0.144? )m.

Since, max design speed for RC model airplane is 25 m/s, which corresponds to max Mach number of
M = v/a = 0.071, which is small compared to sonic speed. Therefore, neglecting the term (0.144 M2)
which is negligibly small order compared to unity, the equation for friction coefficient can be
rewritten as only a function of Reynolds number:

b = (3.

m.

.
)

117

where

 = min


 Q.mU
, 38.21  "

Here, appropriate characteristics length (l) has been taken for airplane components.Mean
aerodynamic chord for wing and empennage and overall length for fuselage.

11.3 COMPONENT FORM FACTOR

11.3.1 Fuselage
Fuselage form factor has been estimated using; [square-side fuselage has a form factor 40% higher
[1]
, therefore a multiplier of 1.4 has been used]
m

= 1.4 1 + b + mm"
where

=-=

()

= slenderness ratio

11.3.2 Wing and tails


For Wing and tails (horizontal as well vertical tails) following equation has been used with
appropriate thickness to chord ratio; [(x/c) m = 0.3, for low speed airfoils] [1]
/

= _1 + (&) &" + 100 &" ` [1.34m.Q (hR^  )m.? ]


m.

11.4 COMPONENT INTERFERENCE FACTOR

As per literature [1],


-

Fuselage interference factor is 1.0.


Wing interference factor for un-filleted wing is in between 1.1 to 1.4, assuming 1.3.
For conventional tails (horizontal as well as vertical tails) interference factor is 1.05.

11.5 LANDING GEAR DRAG

Landing gear for the RC model airplane has been chosen to be non-retractable tricycle type as this
configuration is most stable during ground run. Being non-retractable the drag of the three landing
gears namely, two main landing gear and one nose landing gear contribute to drag throughout the
flight envelope.
The regime of operation for our aircraft is low subsonic.
118

The landing gear drag estimation has been done using procedure outlined in [2]. Some of the data
has been reproduced in Figures 11.1 and 11.2.

Figure 11.1 CD values for Landing Gear (Fixed Type) [2]

119

Figure 11.2 CD values for Landing Gear (Fixed Type) [2]


We have chosen a Type 3 landing gear [3] and without wheel fairing to reduce weight, therefore from
Figure 11.2,
,z+' = 0.62

@b'3,/
@

The value 0.62 corresponds to reference area defined as landing gear frontal area @b'3,/ , which
primarily consists of wheel frontal area, as the other connecting rod and attachment areas are
negligible in the case of RC model airplanes. The reference has been converted to the airplane
reference area (S).
From historical data of RC airplanes landing gear data [3], the tire size for small scale airplanes
(weight category 6-12 pounds) used is 2.5 in (63 mm) for main wheels as well as nose wheel. The
standard tire width for tire of 2.5 in (63 mm) diameter is 0.4 in (10 mm) [3].
120

Therefore, gear frontal area has been calculated as,

@b'3,/ = K , where b = tire width and d = tire diameter.

Thus,

@b'3,/ = 0.01 0.063 = 0.00063 I?

The total landing gear drag has been estimated as:


,z+' = 0.62 a.+'

@b'3,/ 0.62 3 0.00063


=
= 0.001867
0.6276
@

11.6 GEOMETRIC DETAILS OF DIFFERENT COMPONENTS

Table 11.1 summarizes the geometric data of airplane components used for the estimation of drag
values. Wing and empennage airfoils have t/c of 0.1.

Table 11.1 RC Model Airplane (W0 = 1.98 kg) Component Geometric Data
Airplane Components
Fuselage
(Square Cross-section)
Wing
(Rectangular planform)

Horizontal Tail
(Rectangular Planform)

Vertical Tail
(Swept Planform)

121

Parameter, unit
Length (L) , mm
Max Cross-section Area, mm2
Wetted Area, mm2
Span, mm
Chord = MAC, mm
Wetted Area, mm2
Planform Area, mm2
Span, mm
Chord = MAC, mm
Wetted Area, mm2

Values
1174
6400
319328
1832
343
1219299
627600
685
201.5
280057

Span, mm
Root Chord/Tip Chord/MAC, all in mm
Sweep at Max Thickness (max), deg
Wetted Area, mm2

295
288 / 118 / 215
19.9
121507

11.7 CALCULATION AND SUMMARY OF PARASITE DRAG CALCULATION

Using equations stated in sections 11.2 and 11.3the parasite drag estimation has been done for
velocity range from 1 to 25 m/s (Vmax). Table 11.2 below shows a set of calculation done for design
cruise speed of 20 m/s.
The parasite drag is thus calculates as:
 =

)Q b ) ) @+/ )

where,
b = Component skin friction coefficient,
)

+  )*& +  .+'

) = Component form factor,


) =Component interference factor,
@+/ ) =Component wetted area,
S= Planform area
 )*& =Miscellaneous drag coefficient
 .+' Landing gear drag coefficient

Calculation for CD0 for v=20m/s is shown in Table 11.2 below.


Table 11.2 Parasite Drag Calculation for maximum cruise speed of 20m/s

122

Similar calculations as shown in Table 11.2 are carried out for different velocities. Table 11.3 below
shows the tabulated values of CD0 against the airplane speed and the corresponding Mach number.
Table 11.3 Parasite Drag Coefficients for RC Model Airplane Speed Range
v (m/s)

CD0

v (m/s)

CD0

0.1 0.000287

0.04075

10.0 0.028653

0.02403

0.2 0.000573

0.03605

12.0 0.034384

0.02379

0.4 0.001146

0.03248

14.0 0.040115

0.02360

0.6 0.001719

0.03080

16.0 0.045845

0.02344

0.8 0.002292

0.02975

18.0 0.051576

0.02331

1.0 0.002865

0.02901

20.0 0.057307

0.02298

2.0 0.005731

0.02705

22.0 0.063037

0.02290

4.0 0.011461

0.02553

24.0 0.068768

0.02285

6.0 0.017192

0.02480

25.0 0.071633

0.02280

8.0 0.022923

0.02435

Figure 11.3 shows the plot of parasite drag vs. Mach number. To capture the trend of high parasite
drag variation at low airplane speed values, closer data points have been taken. This plot also shows
that for low subsonic speeds there is an asymptotic lower limit to the parasite drag.

123

Figure 11.3 Parasite Drag vs. Mach number


The most vital part of the mission segment is cruise. Thus we choose the CDO corresponding to 20
m/s for the modified drag polar.
i.e. CDO= 0.02320

11.8 CONCLUSION

The parasite drag calculated using the component build-up method is 0.02320. Thus the modified
drag polar is:
CD= 0.02320+0.067CL2

11.9 REFERENCES

[1] RAYMER D., Aircraft Design-A Conceptual Approach 2nd ed., AIAA Education Series,1992
[2] ROSKAM J., Airplane Design PART VI Preliminary Calculation of Aerodynamic, Thrust and Power
Characteristics, RAEC (Roskam Aviation And Engineering Corporation), 1987.
[3] www.hobbylinc.com

124

CHAPTER 12: FLIGHT PERFORMANCE AND V-n DIAGRAM


12.1 INTRODUCTION

The final performance analysis of the aircraft is now carried out. This analysis includes the use of the
improved drag polar, the aerodynamic properties of the wing and airfoil and the selected power
plant. The analysis is carried out for different mission segments.

12.2 STALL CONDITIONS

From Chpater 8, CLmax=1.3203


12.2.1. Stall Wing Loading
Thus wing loading for stall conditions is given by:

< 1
= 45 #*/ ? 
@
2

<
_ `
= 0.5 x 1.15 x10? x 1.3203
@ */

125

<
= 75.92 a/I? = 7.738 \]/I?
_ `
@ */

12.3 CRUISE CONDITIONS

From Chapter 5,
Total Weight (W0)= 1.98 kg
Aspect Ratio (AR) = 5.35
Wing Span (b)

= 1832 mm

Wing Chord (c)

= 343 mm

Wing area (S)

= 0.6276 m2

Drag Polar (CD)

= 0.02320+0.067CL2

12.3.1 CD and CL
For cruising conditions we know that L=W. For cruise conditions, it is required to maximise the range
and hence (L/D) for propeller aircraft, to calculate the wing loading.

Thus, for maximum range and hence maximum (L/D) we get,


  = \ ?


0.02320
= p  = p
\
0.067
= 0.3463

 =   +   = 2 x 0.02320
 = 0.0464

This is also the condition for minimum drag.


12.3.2 V min drag
Now,

1
< = 45 #" #$ ? @
2

2W
2 x 1.98 x 9.81
#" #$ = p
=p
5 C S
1.15 x 0.3463 x 0.6276
#" #$ = 12.467 I/^

126

Also,

O" #$ =

1
O" #$ = 45 #" #$ ?  @
2

1
x 1.15 x 12.467? x 0.0464 x 0.6276 = 2.603 a
2

12.3.3 Vcruise and CL


Vcruise estimation as given in [1] is:

#&'()*+ = 2#*/

#&'()*+ = 2 x 10 = 20 I/^

2<

5 #&'()*+ ? @

2 x 1.98 x 9.81
= 0.1346
1.15 x 20? x 0.6276
< 1
= 45 #&'()*+ ?
@
2

12.3.4 Cruise Wing Loading

<
= 0.5 x 1.15 x 20? x 0.1346
_ `
@ &'()*+
!

%"

&'()*+

=30.958 N/m2= 3.165 kg/m2

12.3.5 CD
From drag polar,
CD=0.02320+0.067CL2
Thus,
CD=0.02320+ 0.067 x 0.13462
CD=0.0244
1
O&'()*+ = P = 45 #&'()*+ ?  @
2

12.3.6 Thrust for minimum drag

1
O&'()*+ = x 1.15 x20? x0.0244 x0.6276
2
12.3.7 Power for minimum drag

127

O&'()*+ = 3.524 a

&'()*+ = O&'()*+ #&'()*+

&'()*+ = 3.524 x 20 = 70.48 W

12.3.8. Minimum power conditions


For minimum power,
3   = \ ?

3  
3 x 0.02320
= p
=p
\
0.067
= 1.019

From drag polar,


 = 0.02320 + 0.067 x1.019?
 = 0.0928

2W
2 x1.98 x 9.81
=p
#" &'($ = p
5 C S
1.15 x 1.019 x 0.6276
#" &'($ = 5.978 m/s

1
O" 23+' = P = 45 #" 23+' ?  @
2

12.3.9 Thrust for minimum power

1
O" 23+' = x 1.15 x 5.978? x 0.0928 x 0.6276
2
O" 23+' = 1.197 a

12.3.7 Power for minimum power


" 23+' = O" 23+' #" 23+'

" 23+' = 1.197 x 5.978 = 7.154 W

12.4 CLIMB CONDITIONS

12.4.1 CL and CD
As shown in section 12.3.8, for minimum power conditions,
128

= 1.019

 = 0.0928
12.4.2 Vclimb

One of the equations of motion for climb is:


L= W cos
Here is the climb angle which is taken as 10o.
2Wcos
2 x1.98 x 9.81 x cos 10
=p
#&)7 = p
5 C S
1.15 x 1.019 x 0.6276
#&)7 = 7.212 I/^

12.4.3 Thrust for climb


The other equation of motion for climb is:

T=D+ W sin
Now,

Thus,

1
P = 45 #&)7 ?  @
2

1
P = x 1.15 x 7.212? x 0.0928 x0.6276 = 1.742 a
2
T= D+ Wsin10
Tclimb= 5.115 N

12.4.4 Power for climb

12.4.5 Climb gradient


Climb gradient (G) is given by:

&)7 = O&)7 #&)7

&)7 = 5.115 x 7.212 = 36.89 W

G=sin=

{

G= 0.1736
129

12.4.6 Climb Wing loading


From [1],
?

 " u " (4\  )


<
!
!
_ `
=
?
@ &)7
 "

where,
Q

q= dynamic pressure=? 45 #&)7 ?=0.5 x 1.15 x 7.2122=29.92 kg/ms2


<
_ `
=
@ &)7

.QQ

Q. .Q

12.4.7. Rate of Climb

?
.QQ
0.1736"
Q. .Q
? m.m

"
?.?

0.1736" u

<
_ `
= 33.476 a/I? = 3.413 \]/I?
@ &)7

R/C = Vclimb sin


= 7.212 sin10
= 1.25 m/s
Design cruise altitude=50 m
Thus, time to climb= 50/1.25= 39.92 s

12.5 TURN CONDITIONS

12.5.1 Load factor (n)

e=

= Bank angle
Assuming a level bank angle of 45o

12.5.2 CL and CD

#/(', =11.5 m/s


130

(4 x 0.067 x 0.0232)

:
= sec
<

L = Wsec = 1.414<
=

2 x 1.414<
5 #/(', ? @

=
From drag polar,

2 x 1.414 x 1.98 x 9.81


= 0.5755
1.15 x 11.5? x 0.6276
CD=0.0232+0.067 x 0.57552
CD=0.0454

1
O/(', = P/(', = 45 #/(', ?  @
2

12.5.3 Thrust for turn

1
O/(', = x 1.15 x11.5? x 0.0454 x 0.6276 = 2.166 a
2
/(', = O/(', #/(',

12.5.4 Power for turn

12.5.5. Turning wing loading


From [1],

/(', = 2.166 x 11.5 = 24.91 W

<
_ `
=
@ /(',

!" u!" (4e? \  )


?,
"

where,
Q

q= dynamic pressure=? 45 #/(', ? = 76.04 \]/I^ ?

Q. .Q" uQ. .Q" (4 x1.414? x 0.067 x 0.0232)


<
_ `
=
? m.m Q.Q
@ /(',

"
.m
?.Q

12.6 LANDING

12.6.1 Turn Radius (R)

#b = 1.23 #*/ , e = 1.2[Q]

131

?.Q

<
_ `
= 120.98 a/I? = 12.33 \]/I?
@ /(',

=
=

#b ?
](e 1)

(1.23x10)?
9.81x0.2

 =77.11 m

b = (1 hR^6 )

12.6.2. Approach Distance (Sa)


Here, 6 = 3

[Q]

b = 77.11(1 hR^33 )
b = 0.106 I

Assuming hob= 1 m
Approach distance Sa,
@ = i

37 b
l
jke6

1 0.106
` = 17.06 I
@ = _
jke3m
@b = ^ne6

12.6.3 Flare Distance (Sf)

@b = 77.11 ^ne3m = 4.035 I


12.6.4. Ground roll distance (Sg)
Total landing distance,
S= Sg+ Sa+ Sf
Thus,
Sg= S -Sa- Sf
Sg=50-17.06-4.035
Sg=28.905 m
12.6.5. Landing Wing Loading

j=1.15, N=3, 8' = 0.4[1]

2 < 1
o ? (< @)
@. = oap
+
45 @  ]45  8'
!

1.15?  % "
2 < 1
p
28.905 = 1.15x3
+
1.15 @ 1.3203 1.15 9.81 1.3203 0.4
<
<
28.905 = 3.9596p + 0.2219 _ `
@
@

132

Solving the above quadratic equation and taking the lower root we get,

<
_ `
= 30.95 a/I? = 3.155 \]/I?
@ ,-),.

12.7. TAKE-OFF

12.7.1 Static Thrust


For the power plant selected in Chapter 2
The static thrust as calculated in [2] is= 1265g= 12.409 N

12.7.2. Turn radius (R)

=

=

6.96(#*/ )?
]

6.96 x(10)?
= 70.95 I
9.81

12.7.3 Airborne distance (Sa)


We assume hob= 1 m. Thus,
637 = hR^ {Q _1

637 = hR^ {Q _1
Thus,

37
`


1
` = 9.633
70.95

@ = ^ne637

@ = 70.95(1 sin 9.63) = 11.87 I

12.7.4 Ground roll distance (Sg)


Total take-off distance,

S=Sg + Sa
Sg= S Sa=38.13 m
12.7.5 Take-off Wing Loading
@. =

133

1.21 <@
]45  O<

< =
@

< =
@

]45  O< @.


1.21

Q?.m

9.81 x 1.15 x 1.3203 x Q. .Q" x 38.13

<@

1.21

= 299.86 a/I? = 30.567 \]/I?

12.7.6 VTO
The take-off velocity is given by:

VTO= 0.7 VLO= 0.7 x (1.15 Vstall)


VTO= 0.7 x 1.15 x 10
VTO= 8.05 m/s
12.7.7. Power for take-off
Power required is:

12.7.8 Maximum acceleration (a)
The maximum acceleration is given by:

= O #

= 12.409 x 8.05


= 99.89 <

k=

k=

O
I

12.409
1.98

k = 6.267 I/^ ?

12.8 LOITER

For maximum endurance and hence loiter of a propeller aircraft is obtained when the power is
maximised. Maximum power condition is achieved when (L3/2/D) ratio is maximised.
12.8.1 CL

Thus,

134

1
  = \ ?
3

3 x 0.02320
= p
= 1.019
0.067
12.8.2 Loiter wing loading

< 1
= 45 #3)/+' ?
@
2

< 1
= x 1.15 x20? x 1.019 = 234.42 a/I?
@
2
<
_ `
= 23.9 \]/I?
@ 3)/+'

12.9 SUMMARY AND SELECTION OF WING LOADING

Table 12.1 below summarizes the values of wing loading calculated in the above sections
Table 12.1 Wing loading for different segments
S. No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Segment
Stall
Cruise
Climb
Turn
Landing
Take-off
Loiter

W/S (kg/m2)
7.723
3.165
3.413
12.33
3.155
30.567
23.9

Thus, the wing loading selected is the minimum from the table above
<
= 3.155 \]/I?
@

12.10 THRUST-TO-WEIGHT

The wing loading selected above is used for the thrust to weight calculations of the different
segments.

135

12.10.1 Cruise
The thrust-to-weight ratio is given by:

O
1
_ `
=
< &'()*+ (:P )&'()*+
(:P )&'()*+ = 7.463

Thus,

O
_ `
= 0.134
< &'()*+

12.10.2 Climb
For climb, the thrust-to-weight ratio as given in [3] is given by:

G= 0.1736 from section 12.4.5


Q

<@

O
=+
+
<
<@ MJ

q=dynamic pressure= ? 45 #&)7 ? =29.92 kg/ms2

<@

O
=+
+
<
<@ MJ

O
29.92 x 0.0232
3.155 x 9.81
= 0.1732 +
+
<
3.155 x 9.81
x 29.92 x 5.35
O
= 0.257
_ `
< &)7

12.10.3 Turn
The thrust-to-weight is calculates from:

n=1.414 from section 12.5.1


Q

e? <@

O
=
+
< <
MJ
@

q= dynamic pressure=? 45 #/(', ?= 76.04 kg/ms2

O
76.04 x 0.0232 1.414? x 3.155 x 9.81
=
+
<
3.155 x 9.81
x 76.04 x 5.35
O
_ `
= 0.105
< /(',

136

12.10.4 Take-Off

Thrust for take-off calculated in section 12.7.1= 12.409 N


The weight of the aircraft (WO) = 1.98 kg

12.10.5 Vmax
For this condition T=D

O
_ `
<

12.409
= 0.639
1.98 x 9.81

 
O
1
2\ <
= 45 # ?
+
< 2
< @ 45 # ? @

O
1
0.0232
2 x 0.067 x 3.155 x 9.81
= x 1.15 x 25?
+
< 2
3.155 x 9.81
1.15 x 25?

Thus,

O
_ `
= 0.275
< 

Thus,

O
 = _ `
< #
<   
 = 133.61 <

12.11. SUMMARY AND SELECTION OF THRUST TO WEIGHT RATIO

S.No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Table 12.2 Thrust-to-weight ratio of different segments


Segment
(T/W)
Power(W)
Cruise
0.134
70.48
Climb
0.257
36.89
Turn
0.105
24.91
Take-off
0.639
99.89
Vmax
0.275
133.61

The thrust to weight ratio is chosen as the maximum of the values tabulated.

The maximum power requirement is:

137

O
= 0.639
<

 = 133.61 <

However, the aircraft will seldom be made to reach Vmax. It will usually travel at cruise speed of 20
m/s. So power adequacy for 99.89W is sufficient.

12.12. V-n DIAGRAM

12.12.1 Introduction
Flight regime of any aircraft includes all permissible combinations of speeds, altitudes, and
configurations. This regime is shaped by aerodynamics, propulsion, structure, and dynamics of
aircraft. The borders of this flight regime are called flight envelope or manoeuvring envelope. Pilots
are always trained and warned through flight instruction manual not to fly out of flight envelope,
since the aircraft is not stable, or not controllable or not structurally strong enough outside the
boundaries of flight envelope. A mishap or crash is expected, if an aircraft is flown outside flight
envelope.

Four important flight envelopes are as follows:


1. Diagram of variations of aircraft lift coefficient versus Mach number (CL M)
2. Diagram of variations of airspeed versus altitude (V h)
3. Diagram of variations of centre of gravity versus aircraft weight (Xcg W)
4. Diagram of variations of airspeed versus load factor (V n)
One of the most important diagrams is the V-n diagram referred to as flight envelope. This envelope
demonstrates the variations of airspeed versus load factor (V n). In other words, it depicts the
aircraft limit load factor as a function of airspeed. One of the primary reasons that this diagram is
highly important is that, the maximum load factor; that is extracted from this graph; is a reference
number in aircraft structural design. If the maximum load factor is under-calculated, the aircraft
cannot withstand flight load safely.

Figure 12.1 shows a typical V-n diagram for a general aviation aircraft [4].

138

Figure 12.1 V-n diagram for a general aviation aircraft

The curve between O and A represents the aerodynamic limit on load factor imposed by CLmax. The
region above the curve OA is stall region. Horizontal line AB represents the limit load factor. On the
right hand side of diagram, line BC represents the maximum diving speed. The bottom part of the
diagram, given by curve OD and horizontal line DC corresponds to negative absolute angle of attack,
that is negative lift and hence the negative load factor.

12.12.2 Load Factor


Load factor is defined as the ratio between lift and weight.
e=

where,
n= load factor
L = lift of the aircraft
W = weight of the aircraft

12.12.3 V-n Diagram parameters calculation


RC model data used for the calculations is as:
139

:
<

Table 12.3 Parameters required for V-n diagram


Maximum lift co efficient (Clmax)

1.467

Weight of aircraft (W0)

1.98kg

Wing area (S)

0.6276mm2

Aspect ratio (AR)

5.35

Wing span (b)

1832mm

Density at sea level ()

1.15kg/m

12.12.4 Limit load factor calculation


Positive limit of the limit load Factor is given by[4],
?mmm

nlimitpos=2.1 + !Qmmmm

where,

W = weight of aircraft in pounds


W= 4.365 pound
Hence,

?mmm

nlimitpos=2.1 + .UQmmmm
=4.5

The value of limit load factor should be [6]


2.5 < nlimitpos< 3.8
So we take limit load factor nlimitpos =3.
Negative value of limit load factor should be well below positive limit load factor as the weight acts
in the same direction as that of the lift.
The negative limit load factor is taken as [6]
nlimitneg= -1

12.12.5 Stall condition


At level flight maximum load factor nmax=1
Thus
L=nW
CLmax0.5Vs2S=1W9.81

140

So stalling velocity,
VS=9.898m/s
ns= 1
12.12.6 Manoeuvring point A

Limit load factor at point A,


nA= nlimitpos =3
and velocity at manoeuvring point A, given by[4],
V*=9.898nA
V*=9.8983 m/s
V*= 17.14 m/s
12.12.7 Calculation of Velocity Vc

Velocity Vc is expressed as given below [4],


Vc=2VS
Vc=29.898
Vc=19.796 m/s
12.12.8 Diving velocity VD

Dive speed is given by [4],


VD=1.4Vc
VD=1.419.796m/s
VD=27.71m/s
12.12.9 Velocity at negative limit load
The negative limit load factor is,
nlimitneg= -1
Thus, for n=1
L=W
Hence,
Velocity at nlimitneg = VS=-9.898 m/s

141

12.12.10 Equations for the curves


For curve OA,
Q

 45 # ? @
:
?
e=
=
<
<
Substituting the values we get,
e=

For curve AB

1.3203 x 0.5 x 1.15 x 0.6276 x V ?


1.98 x 9.81
e = 0.02453V ?

. = e)23* = 3

For curve BC

For curve CD

# = #
e = e))/,+. = 1

For curve OD
e = # ?

where C is a constant. This C can be determined by using a known point on the curve i.e. point D.
At point D n=-1 and V=-9.898.
Thus,
C=-0.102
From the value of this constant the CLmax for negative angle of attack can be calculated as
=

Substituting the values,  = 0.5494


Thus for OD, e = 0.102# ?

142

 ? 45 @
<

Figure 12.2 V-n Diagram

The right side of the V-n diagram describes about the high speed limits of the aircraft. Undesirable
phenomenon such as wind gust, aileron reversal etc. will lead to structural failure of the aircraft. The
speed limit is given by the red line. Under no circumstances, should this velocity be exceeded. During
diving, the weight and the thrust vector are along the same direction and maximum thrust and
acceleration is obtained. However, this is undesirable for smaller aircrafts and the maximum velocity
is constrained by the power available.

12.12.11 Conclusion

The V-n diagram is unique for each aircraft. The important parameters for flight envelope diagram
for our aircraft are:
1. Positive limit load factor, nlimitpos=3.0
2. Negative limit load factor, nlimitneg=-1.0
3. Stalling speed VS= 9.898 m/s
4. Manoeuvring speed V*= 17.14 m/s
143

5. Speed Vc=19.796 m/s


4. Diving Speed VD =27.71 m/s.

12.13 REFERENCES

[1] ANDERSON J.D., Aircraft Performance and Design, WCB/McGraw Hill, 1999
[2] http://adamone.rchomepage.com/calc_motor.htm
[3] RAYMER D., Aircraft Design-A Conceptual Approach 2nd ed., AIAA Education Series,AIAA,
1992
[4] SADRAEY M.,Aircraft Performance Analysis,VDM Verlag Dr. Mller, 2009

144

CHAPTER 13: FINAL CONFIGURATION

13.1 INTRODUCTION
The design mission of our aircraft is to undertake the surveillance in forest areas to track the wildlife
movements and study their habitual patterns. For this purpose, the literature survey was done and
statistical dataset of RC model aircrafts currently in service was generated for initial weight
estimation. Also, we decided the payload for the aircraft to be 150 gm, based on market survey of
available surveillance grade camera and related systems.
Using initial weight estimate and statistical data of RC aircraft models we carried out various
conceptual design steps, i.e. initial sizing, refinement in weight estimate, and estimation of flight
performance, envelope and stability characteristics.
The RC model aircraft configuration was finalized. Following sub-sections would show the details of
finalized configuration

13.2 WEIGHT AND GEOMETRY


(i) Overall weight Wo =1.98 Kg

(ii) Main wing


(a) Type of airfoil: NACA 2310
(b) Wing span: 1832mm
(c) Wing chord: 342.5 mm
(d) Aspect ratio: 5.35
(e) Twist angle: 00
(f) Taper ratio: 1
(g) Wing planform area: 0.6276m2
(h) No of spars: 04
(i) No of ribs 20

145

(iii) Horizontal tail


(a) Type of airfoil: NACA 0012
(b) Span: 685mm
(c) Chord: 201.5mm
(d) Twist angle: 00
(e) Taper ratio: 1
(f) Planform area: 0.102m2
(iv) Vertical Tail
(a) Type of airfoil: NACA 0012
(b) Span: 295mm
(c) Chord: 288mm (root), 118 mm (tip)
(d) Twist angle: 00
(e) Taper ratio: 0.409
(f) Planform area: 0.0423m2

(v) Fuselage
(a) Overall length of the fuselage: 1174mm
(b) Maximum width: 80mm
(c) Maximum height: 80mm
(d) No of longerons: 04
(e) No of Frames: 16

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(vi) Power plant


(a) Battery Electrify 4S Li-polymer battery, 14.8V,2200 mAh
(b) Propeller
1. Disc Diameter (D) = 0.3048m
2. Propeller length = 0.1524m
3. Pitch (P) = 0.1524m
4. P/D = 0.5
(c) Motor- Rimfire 0.32 BL Outrunner.
(d) Engine speed Controller Electronic, silver series 45A

13.3 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS


The performance characteristics of our aircraft model at various flight conditions were calculated
considering following parameters
Drag Polar CD=0.0232+0.067CL2
Maximum Lift Coefficient CLmax = 1.3203
Stalling Velocity VStall =10 m/s
(a) Performance Characteristics Take Off Regime
(i) Lift Off Velocity VLo = 8.05 m/s
(ii) Take Off distance Ground Roll Sg= 38.13m
Approach Distance Sa=11.87m
(iii) Wing loading (W/S) =299.86N/m2
(iv) Thrust Loading (T/W) =0.6388N/m2

(b) Performance Characteristics Cruise Regime


(i) Cruise Velocity Vcruise =20m/s
(ii) Wing loading (W/S) =30.958N/m2
(iii) Thrust Loading (T/W) =0.1814N/m2

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(c) Performance Characteristics climb Regime


(i) Climb Velocity Vclimb =7.212m/s
(ii) Wing loading (W/S) =33.476N/m2
(iii) Thrust Loading (T/W) =0.2633N/m2
(iv) Climb Angle =10 degrees
(v) Rate of Climb =1.25m/s

(d) Performance Characteristics turn Regime


(i) Wing loading (W/S) =120.98N/m2
(ii) Thrust Loading (T/W) =0.1089N/m2

(e) Performance Characteristics Landing Regime


(i) Wing loading (W/S) =30.95N/m2
(iii) Landing distance, S =50m

13.4 STABILITY PARAMETERS


(a) Neutral Point in terms of fraction of wing chord is 1.598 from the nose tip
(b) Static margin is 12.8% of Chord

13.5 FLIGHT ENVELOPE CHARACTERISTICS


(a) Positive limit load factor nlimitpos= 3
(b) Negative limit load factor nlimitneg= -1
(c) Corner/manoeuvring Velocity = 17.14 m/s
(d) Diving/maximum Velocity = 27.71m/s

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