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Section (A):
1. Why the fourth period contains 18 electrons and not 32?
2. Write group electronic configuration of the elements having the atomic number as
given below and predict the period group number and block to which they belong.
Atomic number : 9, 14, 20, 27
3. whth reference to periodic table indicate
(a) An element that is in group III A and 3
rd
period.
(b) Second transition element of fourth period.
(c) The group which accommodates lanthanides and actinides.
(d) The elements of 15
th
group which have metallic as well as non metallic behaviour.
4. A particular atom (not ion) having atomic number between 22 to 30 has magnetic
moment equal to 1.73 B.M then find the atomic number of the element which is just
below it in the periodic table.
5. Explain the following:
(i) There are only 14 lanthanides and only 14 actinides in periodic table
(ii) Why argon (at Mass 39.94) has been placed before potassium (at mass 39.10) in the
periodic table.
Section (B): Atomic And Ionic Radius:
6. Arrange the following in increasing order as directed
(A)

size
(B) atomic size
7. The atomic radii of palladium and platinum are nearly same why?
8. Pick out among the following,

species having smallest ionic


radius
9. Arrange the isoelectronic species

and

in order of their
(a) Increasing effective nuclear charge (b) Increasing ionic radius
(c) Increasing ionization energy
10. Why the atomic radius of neon is greater than fluorine?
Section (C): Ionization Energy:
11. Pick out among the following

- species which is least stable why?


12. The ionization energies of the coinage metals falls in the order
13. The 1
st
ionization energy of potassium is less than that of Cu but the reverse is true
for 2
nd
ionization energy.
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14. Compare qualitatively the first and second ionization potential of copper and zinc..
Explain the observation.
15. Why the 1
st
I.E of nitrogen is higher than oxygen and opposite is true for second I.E
energy?
16. The sums of first and second ionization energies and those of third and fourth
ionization energies (in Kj

of nickel and platinum are:






Based on this information, write the most common oxidation state of Ni ns Pt
Section (D): Electron Gain Enthalpy (Electron Affinity )
17. Of the two elements given in each of the following sets choose the element having a
more negative electron gain enthalpy.
(i) N and O (ii) F and Cl
18. The formation of

from F(g) is exothermic where as that of

(g) from O is
endothermic, why?
19. Be and N have extremely low value of EA against the trend. Explain.
Section (E): Electronegativity:
20. Calculate the electronegativity of chlorine from the bond energy of bond (61
kcal

, F F bond (38 Kcal

) and Cl Cl bond (58 Kcal

) and
electronegativity of fluorine is 4.0
21. The ionization potentials of atoms A and B are 400 kcal

respectively. The
electron affinities of these atoms are 80.0 and 85.0 kcal

respectively. Prove that


which of the atoms have higher electrone- gativity.
22. For the gaseous reaction

was calculate to be 19 kcal under


conditions where the cations and anions were prevented by electrostatic separation
from cabining with each other. The ionization energy of K is 4.3 eV. What is the E. A of F.
Answer:
1. In fourth period 4f and 4d orbitals have higher enegies (even more than 5s).




Ni 2.49 8.80
Pt 2.66 6.70
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2. Atomic Number Period Group no. Block
9 2
nd
17
th
p block
14 3
rd
14
th
p block
20 4
th
2
nd
s block
27 4
th
9
th
d block
3. (a) Al (b) Ti3
rd
or III B (d) As & Sb.
4. 47
5. (i) In lanthanides and actinides, the differentiating electron enters to (n 2)f
subshell.
(ii) In modern periodic table, elements have been place in order of their increasing
atomic numbers. The atomic number of argon is 18 and that of potassium is 19. Thus
argon has been placed before potassium.
6. (A)

; (B)
7. Due to lanthanide contraction.
8.


9. (a)

(b)


(c)


10 Vander waass radius is considered in case of neon not covalent radius
11.


12. In all the 3 cases an s electron in the unpaired state is to be removed. In the case of
Cu a 4s electron is to be removed which is closer to the nucleus than the 5s electron of
Ag. So I.P. decreasing from Cu to Ag. However from Ag to Au the 14 f electrons are added
which provide very poor shielding effect. The nuclear charge is thus enhanced and
therefore the outer electron of Au is more tightly held and so the IP is high.
13 The configuration of K is [Ar]4s while that of Cu is []3

So the answer lies


in the presence of 10 d electrons. A the electrons have got very poor screening effect so
the nuclear charge is not properly screened. Therefore the effective nuclear charge is
high and so the outer most electron is tightly held and high energy is needed to remove
the electron. 2
nd
ionization energy of potassium is higher because the 2
nd
electron from

is to be removed from stable inert gas configuration.





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14.


Cu 744 1961
Zn 906 1736

of copper is less than that of zinc, because removed of electron takes palce from
4

(attaining a more stable configuration3

where as in case of zinc its from


completely filled 4

(attaining the configuration 4

of copper is higher than zinc, because the removal of II


nd
electron from stable
configuration

requires higher energy.


15. Due to the filled p orbital of nitrogen 1
st
ionization energy is higher than oxygen.
After removal of one electron oxygen becomes half filled and second ionization energy
becomes more as compared to nitrogen
16. 2 4 since

of Ni is less than its

and reverse
is the case in Pt.
17. (i) O, (ii) Cl
18. Addition of second electron is opposed by electrostatic repulsion of


19. In Be the extra electron is to be added in 2p-orbital because 2s orbital is completely
filled and in N, it is to added to a half filled 2p orbital. Since half filled and full filled
orbitals are more stable, reluctance in accept electron is found.
20.

20 *

322
21. Electronegativity of A = 3.84; electronegativity of B = 3.08. therefore A has higher
electronegativity.
22.

(

) (

) (

) (

) 02
43 02
35