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EE3221: Digital Communication


Dr Hassan Yousif Ahmed
Electrical Engn. Dept.
College of Engineering at wadi

Aldwaser

Salam bin Abdulaziz University
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Textbook & Reference
Refernce
Bernard Sklar (1988) Digital
Communications: Fundamentals and
Applications, Prentice Hall.
Text Book
Simon Haykin and Michael Moher
(2007), Introduction to Analog& Digital
Communications, 2nd Ed., John Wiley &
Sons., Inc.
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Coursework
Two tests (15 marks each)
Tut/quiz paper (10 marks)
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Chapter 1
Elements of Digital Communications
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Why Digital
The primary advantage is the ease with which
digital signal, compared with analog signals, are
regenerated.
Pulse degradation and regeneration
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Why Digital
Digital circuits/signals are less subject to distortion
and interferences than are analog counterparts
Digital circuits/signals are two states signals
Analog circuits/signals are not two-state signals, and
distorted signals can't be perfectly generated.
Digital circuits are more reliable and can be produced
at lower cost than analogue circuits
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Elements of Digital
Communication System (DCS)
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Elements of DCS/Information Source
Information source: This is the device producing
information to be communicated by, means of DCS.
Information sources are:
Analogue information: Sources taking values from infinite set
Digital information: Sources taking values fromfinite set
Textual information: Sequence of characters
Analog information sources can be transformed into digital
sources through the use of sampling and quantization.
Sampling and quantization process is called source
encoding
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Elements of DCS /Source Encoding
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Elements of DCS/Channel coding &
Digital Modulation
Channel coding deals with the techniques used to enhance digital signals so
they are less vulnerable to channel impairments, like:
Noise
Fading
Jamming
Digital modulation is the process by which digital symbols are transformed
into waveforms that are compatible with the characteristics of the channel.
In case of baseband modulation, these waveforms take form of shaped pulses
In case of bandpass modulation, the shaped pulses modulate a sinusoidal called
carrier
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Elements of DCS/Baseband Modulation
Baseband modulation for digital sequence
(a) Binary digits, (b) Pulse representation and (c) Pulse waveform
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Elements of DCS/ Bandpass Modulation
Bandpass modulation for textual message
(c) Textual message. (d) Symbols M = 2
k
and (e) Bandpass digital waveforms
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Fourier Transform of Pulses
In communication systems, we use frequency-
domain description of signal.
The amplitude and phase of each frequency component
We get this information by performing Fourier
analysis on the signal.
Several methods of Fourier analysis available for
the representation of signals.
If the signal is periodic, Fourier series is used
If the signal is aperiodic, Fourier transform is used
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Example
Let x(t) denote the periodic signal depicted in figure and
described analytically by
where is a rectangular pulse of width . Determine the Fourier
series expansion for this signal.
n
nT t
) t ( x
0
t
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Solution
0
0
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
2
1
T
n
c sin
T

T
n
sin
n
1

e e
) jn (
T
T
1

dt e
T
1

dt e ) t ( x
T
c
0
T
jn
T
jn
0
T
t
jn
0
T
T
T
t
jn
n
where sinc(t)=sin( t)/( t)
The signal is periodic with period T
0
thus
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Solution
Since then
n
T
t
jn
e
T
n
c sin
T
) t ( x
0
2
0 0
n
t jn
n
e c ) t ( x
0

A graph of the Fourier series coefficients
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Example
Determine the Fourier transform of a rectangular pulse of
amplitude A and duration T, given as
Rectangular pulse
T
t
rect A ) t ( g
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Solution
We have
c(fT) sin AT
fT
fT sin
AT
e e
fT 2 -j
AT
dt A
dt e
T
t
T
t
F
fT j fT j
T
T
ft 2 j

e
2
2
-
ft j2 -
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Time and Frequency Domains of Rectangular Pulse
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3.4 Pulse Shaping
Premodulation filter is used in pulse shaping without signal distortion
and intersymbol interference (ISI) problem.
Overall frequency response raised-cosine (RC) spectrum, which
made up of transmit filter, channel and receiver filter
where f
1
is the frequency parameter and W is the bandwidth
1
1 1
1
2
2
0
1
2
cos 1
4
1
2
1
) (
f W f
f W f f
f f 0
W f
W W

W
f P
(3.17)
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3.4 Pulse Shaping
Roll-off factor indicates the excess bandwidth over the
ideal solution corresponding to
p(t ), the inverse Fourier transform of P (f ),
has value of unity at current signaling instant
zero crossings at all other consecutive signaling
instants.
The zero crossing ensure the ISI problem is reduced to
zero.
W
f
1
1
(3.3)
0
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3.4 Pulse Shaping
*****
If the desired rate of pulse
transmission is Ts pulses per
second, the BWrequired is
s
b
T
f
2
1