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B

UNIT VI REPRODUCTION

( 2 ) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN FLOWERING PLANTS
Flower A fas!"a#!"$ or$a" of A"$!os%er&
A typical flower consists of following parts.
(i) CALYX:- Outer most whorl of green leaves.
(ii) COOLLA: - !
n"
whorl of coloure" leaves.
(iii) A#$O%C&'(:- (ale repro"uctive whorl) it consist of stamens.
(iv) *Y#O%C&'(:- +
th
innermost whorl, it forms female repro"uctive whorl ) it consists of carpels.
'ale re%ro()#!*e )"!# (S#a&e") + ,
A stamen consists of two parts: - -ilament an" Anther
S#r)#)re of A"#-er+ ,
A typical anther is .ilo.e", each lo.e having two thecae ("ithecous).
&t is a tetragonal structure consisting of four microsporangia, two in each of the lo.es.
Later two microsporangia .ecome fuse" as pollen sac.
'!ros%ora"$!)& (Polle" Sa)+ ,
&t is surroun"e" .y four layers: -
Outermost layer - %pi"ermis
/econ" layer - %n"othecium
(i""le layer - ! 0 + layers of cells
&nnermost layer - 1apetum 2 nourshes the "eveloping pollen
grains (microspores)3
A young anther has mass of compactly arrange" homogenous cells calle" sporogenous tissue (!n).
'!ros%oro$e"es!s+ , 1he process of formation of microspores from a pollen mother cell through meiosis. %ach cell
of sporogenous tissue is a potential pollen mother cell (4(C) an" can give rise to microspore
tetra".
/porogenous tissue ((C microspore tetra" microspore
(!n) (!n) (n) (n)
(microspore mother cell)

As the anther matures an" "ehy"rate, the microspores "issociate from each other an" "evelop into pollen grains.
Polle" Gra!"s+ , 4ollen grain is surroun"e" .y a thic5 wall calle" e6ine, which is har" an" ma"e up of sporopollenin.
At one point e6ine is a.sent, it is calle" germ pore. &nsi"e the e6ine, there is a thin layer, calle"
intine which is ma"e up of cellulose an" pectin.
A mature pollen grain has a vegetative cell (large in si7e) an" a generative cell (small in si7e).
'e$as%ora"$!)& (O*)le)+ ,
1he ovule is a small structure attache" to the placenta .y means of a stal5 calle" funicle. 1he point of attachment
of the .o"y of the ovule to the funicle is 5nown as hilum. 1he main .o"y of the ovule is compose" of
paranchymatous cells 5nown as nucellus.
%ach ovule has one or two protective integument, which encircle the ovule e6cept at the tip having small opening
calle" micropyle.
Opposite to micropylar en" is chala7a.
*enerally a single em.ryosac or female gametophyte is locate" in nucellus.
Cells of nucellus have a.un"ant reserve foo" material.
'e$as%oro$e"es!s+ , 1he process of formation of megaspore from megaspore mother cell.
meiosis
megaspore mother cell (!n) four megaspores (n)
Fe&ale $a&e#o%-.#e (E&/r.o sa)+ , &n a ma8ority of flowering plants , one of the megaspores is functional while
other three "egenerate.
1he functional megaspore "evelops in em.ryo sac.
1he nucleus of the functional megaspore (n) un"ergoes three successive mitotic cell "ivisions which result the
formation of eight nucleate" stage of em.ryo sac (free nuclear "ivision).
1he cell wall formation starts at eight nuclear stages. 1hree cells are groupe" together at micropylar en" to form
the egg apparatus (! synergi"s 9 : egg cell).
1hree cells are groupe" at chala7al en", calle" antipo"al cells.
1he remaining ! nuclei are calle" polar nuclei move to the centre of em.ryo sac, calle" central cell.
1hus typical angiospermic em.ryo sac at maturity is ; nucleate" an" < celle".
Polle" %!s#!l !"#era#!o"+ ,
1he pistil has the a.ility to recogni7e the pollen, whether it is of right type (Compati.le) or of the wrong type
(&ncompati.le).
&f it is compati.le, the pistil accepts the pollen.
1he pollen grains germinate on stigma to pro"uce pollen tu.es. 1he content of the pollen grains move into the
pollen tu.e i.e. two tu.e nuclei an" the generative cell (or the two male gametes in those species whose pollen is
li.erate" at the three celle" stage).
4ollen tu.e grows through the tissue of stigma an" style .y secreting en7ymes an" enters the ovule)
Do)/le fer#!l!0a#!o"+ , 1he pollen tu.e releases ! male gametes into the cytoplasm of a synergi". One of the
male gametes (n) moves towar"s the egg cell (n) an" fuses with it (/yngamy) an" it results the formation of
7ygote (!n).
= /econ" male gamete fuses with econ"ary nucleus ( !n ) to forme" triploi" primary en"osperm nucleus ( >n )
(4%#). 1his fusion is calle" triple fusion (?egetative fertilisation).
= /ince two fusions , syngamy an" triple fusion occur in an em.ryo sac the phenomenon is 5nown as "ou.le
fertilisation.
Pos# fer#!l!0a#!o" e*e"#s+ , :. %n"osperm an" em.ryo "evelopment.
!. (aturation of ovule an" ovary.

Ovary - -ruit (!n)
Ovary wall - 4ericarp (!n)
Ovule - /ee" (!n)
Outer integument - 1esta (!n)
&nner integument - 1egmen (!n)
@ygote (!n) - %m.ryo (!n)
4rimary %n"osperm #ucleus - %n"osperm (>n)
E&/r.o+ , %m.ryo formation starts after a certain amount of en"osperm is forme".
7ygote pro-em.ryo glo.ular heart shape" mature em.ryo
em.ryo em.ryo

D!o# E&/r.o+ , A typical "icot em.ryo consists of an em.ryonal a6is an" two cotyle"ons. 1he portion of em.ryonal
a6is a.ove the level of cotyle"ons is the epicotyle which terminates with the plumule or stem tip. 1he portion
.elow the level of cotyle"ons is hypocotyle that terminates at its lower en" in the ra"icle or root tip.
'o"oo# E&/r.o+ , (onocot (ice, (ai7e etc.) has one partially "evelope" cotyle"on calle" /cutellum. 1he
em.ryonal a6is has the ra"icle an" root cap enclose" .y a sheath calle" Coleorrhi7a. 1he upper en" (epicotyle)
has plumule which is covere" .y hollow fol"er structure, the coleoptile.
A%o&!1!s+ , Apomi6is is a form of ase6ual repro"uction that mimics se6ual repro"uction, where see" are forme"
without fertili7ation.
Pol.e&/r.o".+ , Occurance of more than one em.ryos in a see". e.g. orange, lemon, onion, mango, groun" nut etc
.
easons: - (ore than one egg may .e forme" in the em.ryo sac.
(ore than one em.ryo sac may .e forme" in an ovule.
Cells of ovule other than ovum "evelop into em.ryo .
( 2 ) 3U'AN REPRODUCTION
'e"s#r)al .le:- 4u.erty in female starts when gona"s start functioning. 1he age of ::-:+ years is the age of
pu.erty in human female. 1here is a cyclic activity with a perio"icity of a.out !; "ays an" involve changes in the
structure an" function of the whole repro"uctive system. &t is calle" menstrual cycle.
P-ases !" 'e"s#r)al .le +,
:. 'e"s#r)al %-ase+, 1his phase continues for a.out +-A"ays. $uring this phase en"ometrium of uterus is cast off.
1he .loo" capillaries rupture an" therefore, there is "ischarge of .loo" , mucous an" uterine tissue.
!. Foll!)lar %-ase (Prol!fera#!*e %-ase)+, (A
th
-:+
th
"ay)
1he primary follicle in the ovary grows an" .ecome fully mature graffian follicle.
egeneration of en"ometrium layer of uterus an" repair of the .loo" Capillaries.
o -/B secrete" .y anterior pituitary glan" stimulates the growth of the follicles an" secretion of estrogen .y the
growing follicles.
Coth -/B an" LB reach their pea5 level in the mi""le of the cycle.
>. O*)la#or. %-ase+, 1he pea5 of LB (LB /urge) in"uces the rupture of the mature graffian follicle an" ovulation
occurs .1he secretion of estrogen "ecreases .
+. L)#eal %-ase (Sere#or. %-ase)+, upture" follicle transforms as corpus luteum, which secrete large amount of
progesterone.
1he secretion of progesterone an" its level is controlle" .y LB from anterior pituitary .
1he en"ometrium thic5ens further. 1he uterine glan" increases in length an" "iameter.
$uring 4regnancy all events of menstrual cycle stop an" there is no menstruation.
&+th "ay
Ovulation (LB an" -/B)
Oocytes release"
D "ays Luteal phase
-ollicular phase 4rogesterone
(-/B an" estrogen) (corpus luteum
$evelops)

(enstruation
'pto A
th
"ay
4rogesterone with"rawn
Luteal regression
(:
st
"ay) (!;
th
"ay)
&n the a.sence of fertilisation, the corpus luteum generates. 1his causes "isintegration of the en"ometrium lea"ing to
menstruation.
S%er&a#o$e"es!s+, 1he process of formation of /perms from male germ cells in the testes is calle"
spermatogenesis. 1his process starts at pu.erty.
1he spermatogonia present on the insi"e wall of seminiferous tu.ules multiply .y mitosis.
/ome of the spermatogonia calle" primary spermatocytes perio"ically un"ergo meiosis.
A primary spermatocyte un"ergoes meiosis ( ( 0 & or re"uction "ivision) lea"ing to formation of two eEual haploi"
cells calle" secon"ary spermatocytes.
1hese two secon"ary spermatocytes un"ergo the secon" meiotic "ivision ( ( 0 && ) to pro"uce four eEual haploi"
spermati"s.
1he spermati"s get transforme" into sperms or spermato7oa .y the process calle" /permeiogenesis
1he spermati"s mature into sperms in the sertoli cells (nurse cell).
(ature sperms are release" in the lumen of seminiferous tu.ules(spermiation).
*erminal epithelium cells +F !n
"ifferentiation mitosis
/permatogonia +F !n
mitosis
4rimary spermatocytes +F !n
:
st
meiotic "ivision re"uction "ivision

/econ"ary spermatocytes !> n
!
n"
meiotic "ivision

/permati"s !> n
"ifferentiation spermeiogenesis
/permato7oa !> n spermiation
Oo$e"es!s+ , 1he process of formation of ova in the ovary.
Oogenesis is initiate" "uring em.ryonic "evelopment of female foetus. Oogonia are forme" in the ovary of foetus.
#o more oogonia are forme" after .irth.
1he oogonia multiply .y mitotic "ivision forming 4rimary oocytes (!n).
1hese cells start "ivision an" enter into prophase & of the meiotic "ivision an" get temporarily arreste" at that
stage, calle" primary oocytes.
%ach primary oocyte gets surroun"e" .y granulosa cells an" from primary follicle.
At the stage of tertiary follicle, primary oocyte completes its first meiotic "ivision an" form a large cell calle"
secon"ary oocyte an" a tiny cell, the first polar .o"y.
1ertiary follicle changes into mature graffian follicle, which ruptures to release secon"ary oocyte (ovum) from the
ovary .y the process of ovulation.
!n *erminal epithelium cells
+F
-oetal life !n oogonia
+F
mitosis, "ifferentiation
!n 4rimary oocyte
+F
Cirth G chil" hoo" &st meiotic "ivision
(complete" prior to ovulation)
4u.erty -irst polar .o"y
n /econ"ary oocyte
!>
!
n"
meiotic
"ivision /econ" polar .o"y.
n Ovum
!>
Fer#!l!0a#!o" a"( I&%la"#a#!o"+ ,
1he process of fusion of sperm with an ovum.
S!#e+ Hunction of isthmus an" ampulla of the fallopian tu.e.
Co"(!#!o"+ Ovum an" /perm shoul" reach simultaneously to the ampullary - isthmic 8unction.
/ecretion of acrosome helps the sperm entry into cytoplasm of ovum through 7ona pelluci"a an" plasma
mem.rane
1his in"uces the completion of the meiotic "ivision of secon"ary oocyte.
Ovum (ooti") n
/econ"ary oocyte
/econ" polar .o"y n
Fer#!l!0a#!o" +,
/perm ovum
@ygote -allopian tu.e
Cleavage
Clastomeres
: , ! , + , ; , :F "aughter cells
(orula uterus
Clastocyst &mplantation in uterine wall
4las#o.s# +
Outer layer: 1ropho.last - get attache" to en"ometrium
&nner group of cells: &nner cell mass E&/r.o
: month 0 Beart
! months - Lim.s an" "igits
> months - %6ternal genital organ
A months - -irst movement
F months - .o"y covere" with fine hair, eye-li"s, eye lashes etc
D months - -ully "evelope" an" rea"y for "elivery
Plae"#a+ 4lacenta is the intimate connection .etween the foetus an" uterine wall of the mother to e6change
the material.
F)"#!o"s of %lae"#a as /r!($e +
o #utrition
o espiration
o %6cretion
o As .arrier
o %n"ocrine function
As E"(or!"e #!ss)e
4lacenta pro"uces several hormones such as
o estrogens
o progastogens
o human chorionic gona"otropin (hC*)
o human placental lactogen (h4L)
o rela6in (&n late phase of pregnancy).
&ncrease" pro"uction of estrogens, progestogens, cortisol, prolactin, thyro6ine etc, is essential for supporting
the foetal growth, meta.olic changes in mother an" maintenance of pregnancy.
( 5 ) REPRODUCTIVE 3EALT3
I"fer#!l!#.+ , &na.ility to pro"uce chil"ren in spite of unprotecte" se6ual copulation of a couple.
Reaso"s for !"fer#!l!#.+ , (i) 4hysical
(ii) Congenital "iseases
iii) $rugs
(iv) &mmunological reactions
1he couple can .e assiste" to have chil"ren through certain special techniEues commonly 5nown
as assiste" repro"uctive technologies (A1).
(!) In Vitro Fer#!l!0a#!o" (IVF)+ , -ertili7ation outsi"e the .o"y in almost similar con"itions as that
of in the .o"y, followe" .y em.ryo transfer (%.1.).
Tes# #)/e /a/. %ro$ra&&e 0 Ova from the wifeI"onor female an" sperm from hus.an" I"onor
male are allowe" to fuse un"er simulate" con"ition in the la.oratory.
6IFT 0 @ygote intra fallopian transfer 0 @ygote or early em.ryo upto %ight .lastomeres is
transferre" into the fallopian tu.e.
IUT 0 &ntra 'terine 1ransfer 0 %m.ryo with more than eight .lastomeres are transferre".
(!!) Ga&e#e I"#ra Fallo%!a" Tra"sfer (GIFT) 1ransfer of an ovum collecte" from a "onor to
fallopian tu.e of another female who can not pro"uce ova, .ut can provi"e suita.le con"itions
for fertili7ation an" further "evelopment of the foetus upto parturition.
(!!!) I"#ra C.#o%las&! S%er& I"7e#!o" (ICSI), 1he sperm is "irectly in8ecte" into the ovum to
form an em.ryo in the la.oratory an" then em.ryo transfer is carrie" out.
(!*) Ar#!f!!al I"se&!"a#!o" 1his metho" is use" in cases where infertility is "ue to the ina.ility
of the male partner to inseminate the female or "ue to very low sperm counts in the e8aculates.
&n this metho", the semen collecte" from the hus.an" or a healthy "onor, is artificially
intro"uce" into the vagina or into the uterus (&'& 0 &ntra 'terine &nsemination).
'e#-o(s of /!r#- o"#rol+ ,
(i) #atural metho"s: - 4erio"ic a.stinance
Coitus interrupts
Lactational amenorrhea.
(ii) Carrier metho"s: - Con"om, $iaphragms, Cervical cap.
(iii) &ntra uterine "evices: - #on 0 me"icate" e.g. Lippes loop
Copper releasing e.g. Cu-1
Bormone releasing e.g. L#* 0 !J
(iv) Oral contraceptives:- 4ills I /aheli
/mall "oes of either progestogens or
4rogestogen 0 estrogen com.ination
(v) /urgical (sterilisation): - (:) 1u.ectomy (!) ?asectomy

CHAPTER 9
Title : - Strategies for enhancement in food production
Introduction :- Due to rapid increase in human population , more resources are
needed especially food . Traditional methods of food production can not fulfill
the requirement . To enhance food production , new strategies have been
adopted which include
Animal husbandry Dairy management , poultry management apiculture
and fisheries etc.
Plant breeding It involves production of new varieties for high yield , disease
resistance , pest resistance , stress resistance and improved food quality
Single Cell Protein ( S C P ) The protein rich food produced with the help of
microbes is called S ! .
Plant Tissue Culture Technique to grow and maintain plant cells , tissues and
organs on a suitable culture medium " in vitro#.
Obecti!es :- $fter studying this chapter , the student will be able to
% understand role of various modern techniques of animal husbandry to
increase production from animals .
% that plant breeding is sequential programme and it is used for specific
purposes li&e increase quantity and quality of yield , disease resistance etc.
% appreciate the use of tissue culture technique and alternate source of
protein for human consumption as Single ell !rotein " S ! # .
% recogni'e various types of animal breeding techniques through
hybridi'ation .
% differentiate between in(breeding and out(breeding , out(crossing and
cross(breeding .
% &now about some more branches of biology li&e apiculture and fisheries
which are also related with enhancement in food production .
8e. Wor(s
Animal "usbandry : Science of rearing , feeding , caring and breeding of livestoc&s . It
also includes poultry , farming and fishery .
Artificial Insemination : Introduction of semen of good quality male in to vagina of
another female .
A#uaculture : It pertains to the production of useful aquatic plants and animals such as
fishes , prawns , crayfish , mussels , oysters and seaweeds by proper utili'ation of
available water .
$ermplasm Collection : The entire collection " of plants ) seeds # having all the diverse
alleles for all the genes in a given crop .
"ybridi%ation : *ethod of producing new individuals by crossing parents with different
genetic constitution . It brings about variation .
Inbreeding : Breeding by self pollination or selfing or between the members of same
population , variety or species .
Inbreeding &epression : ontinued close inbreeding decreases the fertility and
productivity
'O(T : *ultiple +vulation ,mbryo Transfer Technique .
Pure line : It is a progeny of single self fertili'ed homo'ygous individuals .
Super O!ulation : Stimulation of good female animal to release more eggs .
'ain Concepts :-
"-# *eaning of management in Dairy and !oultry .
".# Inbreeding as a source of accumulating superiority /s a source of
depression .
"0# ontrolled breeding e1periments using artificial insemination and
*+,T .
"2# !isciculture as a part of aquaculture and their role in 3Blue 4evolution5
"6# !lant breeding is a sequential and systematic programme .
"7# !lant breeding is used to develop resistance against disease and insect
pests .
"8# 9se of plant breeding technique for improved food quality .
":# oncept of Single ell !rotein " S ! # .
";# *ethod of Tissue ulture technology .
"-<# ,nrichment of food quality through bio(fortification .
'anagement of )arms and )arm animals :
=our main farming groups are
Dairy farm animals "livestoc&# include mil& giving animals. +ur strategy
for their improvement should be
Selection of breed
Disease resistant
,fficient in breeding
=arm management requires good housing "shelter# , adequate clean water ,
balanced diet , hygiene and sanitation facilities , regular medical care and
mil&ing and storage and transport facilities .
!oultry includes all types of birds which provide meat and eggs .
Besides above strategy, they require precautions against epidemics li&e
3Bird =lue5.
=ishery includes eatable fishes and other aquatic animals. They are the
main source of food and livelihood for coastal people . =ish farms
resulted in production boom of protein source.
$piculture provides benefits from honey bee honey , wa1 bee > crop
pollination .
Inbreeding is ad!antageous as *ell as disad!antageous :
Inbreeding is the mating of animals of same variety for four to si1
generations. Superior males and superior females are selected and
mated. !rogeny are evaluated for desired characters. They are
homo'ygous for the trait. ?hen genes become stabili'ed in the variety,
they are called 3!ure line5. They show 3@ybrid vigour5. Such pure lines
are obtained and they provide high yield. It removes harmful recessive
homo'ygote and superior genes are accumulated.
Inbreeding also results accumulation of harmful , deleterious
recessive alleles. It reduces fertility and called 3Inbreeding depression5.
These animals are prone to disaster situation when faced with changed
environmental conditions. ross breeding at regular intervals restore
their fertility and yield.
Controlled breeding e+periment :
It is an artificial cross breeding method to procure quality and
quantity of products in animals. It is achieved by
Artificial Insemination , It is process of collecting semen of desired
male into the reproductive canal of desired female to get progeny of good
characters. Its advantages are
Semen of one male can fertili'e many females.
,asy to transport the semen as compared to male animal.
Semen can be free'ed and stored for long duration.
Ao direct mating is required during heat period.
'ultiple O!ulation (mbryo Transfer Technology ('O(T) , This
technique is used to improve herd population. =emale animal "cow# is
administered hormone with =S@ li&e activity. It accelerates many follicle
maturation simultaneously "7 : eggs per cycle or super ovulation#. $
superior male "bull# is mated with, resulting many 'ygotes.
$t : 0. celled stage, embryos are non(surgically e1tracted and
transferred to surrogate mothers. Benetic mother is used again for ne1t
round of super ovulation and surrogate mothers give birth to young ones.
Technique resulted in high yielding herd si'e in short time.
A#uaculture as part of -.lue /e!olution0 :
Ci&e 3Breen 4evolution5 of cereals, 3Blue 4evolution5 is
symboli'ed to blue water with the products. *anagement of any eatable
product from water area "aquatic# comes under aquaculture , be it animal
or plant product. Thus pisces "fish#, prawn, crab, lobster, edible oyster
and plant products come under aquaculture. =ishery is the chief industry
and lifeline of coastal people. Blue 4evolution is meant for their
economic growth and high nutritional supplement for all. Aow a days,
fresh water aquaculture is getting popular besides marine one.
Steps of Plant breeding Programme :
!lant breeding is a systematic and sequencial process "scientific#.
Traditional farming can increase cultivation of biomass up to limited
e1tent of area. !lant breeding includes manipulation of plant species
characters for better plant yield and disease resistance. It gives us plants
with
-# high yield "quantity#
.# quality of yield "si'e , colour , nutrients , flavour#
0# stress tolerance "against e1treme temperature , drought , flood and
salinity#
2# resistance to pathogens
6# resistance to pests
!lant breeding e1periment follows the following steps
Collection of !ariations , In this step , variants of the species are
collected and stored to be used as parents. Their genomes are preserved .
These variants may be wild ancestors with desired characters. The entire
collection of genes and alleles is called as germplasm .
(!aluation and selection of parents , The collected variants are
evaluated and tested for desirable characters. They are then multiplied.
Cross hybridi%ation of selected parents , !arents of desired character
are then cross bred with different combinations . They may or may not be
successful during hybridi'ation because success rate is very low.
Selection and e!aluation of superior hybrid progeny , @ybrid
progeny should be superior to both parents , only then they are selected.
Selection basis is stable homo'ygosity of desired characters. It is
achieved by self pollination.
Testing and release of selected !ariety , $fter series of evaluation tests
at different climatic locations , different times "seasons# and quality test,
plant variety becomes ready for commerciali'ation.
&isease and Pest resistance through Plant breeding :
rop pathogens li&e virus , bacteria and fungus damage it but their
resistance can be generated through plant breeding e1periments. !lants
also show similar resistance against pests. This resistance or immunity
lies in their modified ) recombinant genotype. It reduces dependence on
fungicides and bacteriocides and their harmful effects. To obtain disease
resistance plant, we should &now
Type of pathogen
Benotype of host and pathogen
*ode of transmission of pathogen
*ain methods followed are (
(1) Selection breeding ,
Selection of parent from variants .
@ybridi'ation
Selection of progeny "hybrid# by evaluation and testing
4elease of variety
".# 'utation breeding - reate by inducing mutation through radiation or
chemical effects and then selection of mutants through evaluation and
testing and then release of variety.
"0# $enetic (ngineering , 4ecombinant DA$ technology is a new
method, in which a desirable "resistant# gene from wild relative is
isolated and transferred into cultivated crop plant cell with the help of
carriers "bacteria)virus# under laboratory conditions " in vitro#.4esultant
recombinant is evaluated and tested for the trait and then release of
variety.
!est resistance is achieved by incorporating morphological or bio(
chemical methods i.e.
@airs on leaves
Solid stem
Ao nectar
Smooth leaves
@igh aspartic acid "taste#
Cow sugar and nitrogen content "food#
.reeding for 2uality impro!ement of food :
Deficiency of micro(nutritional elements li&e protein , vitamins
and minerals "hidden hunger# can be prevented by growing improved
quality crops. @idden hunger effects health. Its solution lies in bio(
fortification of food. *ethods of incorporating quality traits are same as
that of any plant breeding programme. These crops have
@igh protein content especially amino acid li&e lysine and tryptophan
*inerals li&e iron and calcium
/itamins li&e /it. $ > /it.
Concept of Single Cell Protein ( S C P ) :
The protein rich food produced by microbes is called Single ell
!rotein " S ! #. To reduce food dependence on plant producers, we can
shift to micro(organisms for nutritional requirement. They grow fast and
can be transformed to give high biomass of food. They even reduce
organic waste and create no pollution. @eterotrophic microbe li&e
mushroom is now being grown commercially and consumed as diet.
$utotrophic Spirulina is another e1ample of microbe which grow fast on
industrial waste of potato ) molasses and used as nutritional supplement.
.io-fortification - (nrichment of food #uality :
=ood quality is improved with the enrichment of many nutrients in a
single food item. It can be achieved by plant breeding programme. Such
food is rich in
!rotein content and quality "essential amino acids#
+il content and quality "essential fatty acids#
/itamin content
*ineral content
I$4I has developed several bio(fortified varieties of vegetable
crops li&e enriched carrots , spinach , pump&in , bitter gourd , bathua ,
mustard , tomato and beans. Aow it is possible to produce iron fortified
rice and high protein wheat.
Tissue Culture Technology ('icro-propagation) :
*ethod of growing plant part in a nutrient rich medium under
laboratory condition "in-vitro# is called Tissue ulture or *icro(
propagation. !lants thus produced are clones of the parent. The
requirements for tissue culture are
Totipotent e1plant "tissue#
Autrient rich medium and plant hormones
Sterili'ed environment
Its main advantages are
!ropagate large number of plants in short duration.
@ealthy or disease free plants
ost efficient therefore commerciali'ed
$lternate method of plant reproduction who fail in se1ual reproduction
or produce few offspring.
,specially useful in maintaining desired hybrid characters which may
otherwise lost.
Acti!ity :-
&ifficult Areas :-
D Inbreeding depression
D losely related terms +ut(breeding , out(crossing > cross(breeding
D *ultiple +vulation ,mbryo transfer Technology " * + , T # *ethod and
advantage
D Steps of plant breeding programme
D Biofortification
D Single ell !rotein " S ! #
D Somatic hybridi'ation
"OTS 2uestions : ( Self Assessment 2uestions )

-. ?hat is biofortification E
.. Define an inbred line .
0. During meristem culture , some e1plants were &ept in culture medium
containing more au1ins than cyto&inins . ?hich organ of the plant is
e1pected to differentiate from the callus E
2. ?hat is meant by disease resistance E *ention two factors on which a
successful breeding for disease resistance depend .
6. Distinguish between somatic embryo and somatic hybrid .
7. Cist various steps involved in breeding a new genetic variety of crop .
8. In a *+,T programme of herd improvement , a cow was administered
female se1 hormone using following steps . $rrange them in proper
sequence(
"$# $rtificial insemination with semen of an elite bull
"B# Transfer of embryo to a surrogate mother
"# !roduction of multiple eggs instead of single
"D# ,mbryos at 0. celled stage recovered from female non(surgically
/isit a fish mar&et and identify various types of fishes . lassify them
into fresh water fishes and marine fishes . ?hat are the other aquatic animals
included in fisheries but not belonging to the class !isces .
:. ?hat is meant by out(breeding E Describe various methods of out(
breeding in animals .
;. Describe meristem culture technique . ?rite its method and advantages
/eferences :-
BI+C+BF T,GT B++H =+4 C$SS GII BF A..,.4.T.
3 To The !oint Biology 5 for class GII by Trueman5s Specific Series
!radeep5s 3 $ Te1t Boo& of Biology 5 for class GII
Iuestion Ban& lass GII " .<<: # Biology by Dte. of ,ducation ,
Delhi
T49,*$A5S &ICTIO3A/4 O) .IO5O$4 With Blossary of Biological
Terms
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$nimal Breeding
+ut breeding Inbreeding
Soma(clones
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=isheries "$quaculture#
$piculture
!oultry *anagement
Dairy farm *anagement
Aatural
$rtificial
ross breeding
Inter specific
Insemination
* + , T
+ut crossing
Increased crop yield
Disease resistance
!est resistance
Improved quality
ollection of
variation
,valuation and
selection of
parents
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@ybridi'ation
Selection of
superior
recombinants
Testing and
release
Steps
Selection breeding
*utation breeding
4ecombinant DA$
technology
*orphological
Bio(chemical
*icro(nutrition
Bio(fortification
4e(bagging and
tagging
Dusting
Bagging
,masculation

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UNIT IX , 4IOTEC3NOLOG9
( :: ) 4IOTEC3NOLOG9+ PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES
4!o#e-"olo$.+ , 1he techniEue of using micro 0 organisms, plant or animal cell or other components of it to pro"uce
pro"ucts an" processes useful to human.
Plas&!(+ , An e6tra chromosomal, circular $#A molecule that replicate autonomously in a .acteria cell.
Pal!"(ro&es+ , 4alin"rome in $#A is a seEuence of .ase pairs that rea"s same on the two stran"s or its reverse
orientation gives the same rea"ing ..
AK 0 *AA11C 0 >K
>K 0 C11AA* 0 AK
Reo$"!#!o" s!#e+ , 1he specific .ase seEuence of si6 .ase pairs in $#A where the restriction en7yme cuts the $#A.
1ools of recom.inant $#A technology: -
&. estriction en7yme
&&. Cloning vector
&&&. $#A ligase
&?. $#A polymerase
?. Bost organism
Clo"!"$ *er#ors+ ,
1he vectors are $#A molecules that can carry a foreign $#A segment an" replicate insi"e the host cell. %g.
(i) 4lasmi"
(ii) Cacteriophage
(iii) YACs - Yeast Artificial Chromosomes.
(iv) CACs - Cacterial Artificial Chromosomes.
Fea#)res re;)!re( for fa!l!#a#!"$ lo"!"$ !"#o a *e#or<
&. Or!$!" of re%l!a#!o" (Or!)+ - /eEuence where replication starts an" any piece of $#A, when lin5e" to this
seEuence can .e ma"e to replicate within the host cell.
&&. Sele#a/le &ar=er: - Belp in i"entifying an" eliminating non-transformants an" selectively permitting the
growth of the transformants.
&&&. Clo"!"$ s!#e: - 4referre" single recognition site which a vector nee"s to have commonly use" restriction
en7ymes.
&?. Ve#or for lo"!"$ $e"es !" %la"#s a"( a"!&als: -
eg. *enetically mo"ifie" Agrobacterium tumefaciens , E . coli an" retrovirus.
Gel ele#ro%-ores!s
*el electrophoresis is a techniEue of separating $#A fragments, forme" .y the action of restriction
en"onucleases.
$#A fragments are negatively charge" molecules. 1hey can .e separate" .y forcing them to move towar"s
ano"e un"er an electric fiel" through a me"ium.
Agarose gel , a natural polymer e6tracte" from sea wee"s is use" as me"ium for gel electrophoresis .
1he $#A fragments separate accor"ing to si7e through the sieve pores of agarose gel.
1he separate" $#A segments can .e seen only after staining the $#A with ethi"ium .romi"e.
On e6posure to '? ra"iation, we can see .right orange coloure" .an"s of $#A.
1he separate" .an"s of $#A are e6tracte" an" cut out from the agarose gel , this is 5nown as el)#!o".
1he $#A fragments purifie" in this way are use" in constructing recom.inant $#A.
Proess of Reo&/!"a"# DNA Te-"olo$.

ecom.inant $#A technology involves the following steps: -
(!) Isola#!o" of $e"e#! &a#er!al (DNA)+ -
$#A can .e o.taine" from the cell .y treating them with en7ymes li5e, Lyso7yme for .acteria, Cellulase for plant
cell, Chitinase for fungus.
Bistone protein an" #A can .e remove" .y treating with proteases an" ri.onuclease.
4urifie" $#A ultimately precipitate .y the a""ition of chille" ethanol.
(!!) C)##!"$ of DNA a# s%e!f! loa#!o"+,
1he purifie" $#A is cut .y the restriction en7yme. Agarose gel electrophoresis is use" to chec5 the progression of
restriction en7ymeKs "igestion.
(!!!) A&%l!f!a#!o" of $e"e of !"#eres# )s!"$ PCR+ ,
Amplification is the process of ma5ing multiple copies of "esire" $#A segment in Vitro using 4C .
4olymerase Chain eaction involves three steps: -
a) De"a#)ra#!o"+ 0 1he target $#A is heate" to high temperature (D+
o
C), resulting the separation of two stran"s of
$#A. %ach stran" acts as template.
.) A""eal!"$+ , 1wo oligonucleoti"e primers anneal ( heat I cool 0 attach firmly ) to each of the single stran"e" $#A
template.
c) E1#e"s!o" of %r!&ers: - $#A polymerase e6ten"s the primers using the nucleoti"es provi"e" in the reaction.
(!*) L!$a#!o"+ ,
1he cut out Lgene of interestK from the source of $#A an" cut vector with space are mi6e" an" ligase en7yme is a""e"
0 this results formation of recom.inant $#A (r $#A).
(*) Tra"sfer of reo&/!"a"# DNA !"#o #-e -os#+ ,
1he ligate" $#A is intro"uce" into the recipient cell. 1he recipient cell ma5es itself LcompetentK to receive an" ta5e up
$#A present in the surroun"ing.

(*!) O/#a!"!"$ #-e fore!$" $e"e %ro()#+ ,
1he cell containing the foreign gene is culture" on suita.le me"ium an" the pro"uct can .e e6tracte" from the
me"ium.
Cio reactors are use" for processing large volume of culture for o.taining pro"ucts of interest in sufficient Euantities.
(*!!) Dow"s#rea& %roess!"$+ ,
1he pro"ucts so o.taine" un"ergo a series a processes .efore putting them in mar5et as a finishe" pro"uct. 1he
processes inclu"e separation an" purification.
1he pro"ucts are formulate" with suita.le preservatives an" su.8ecte" to Euality control testing an" clinical trials.
( :2 ) 4IOTEC3NOLOG9 AND ITS APPLICATIONS
IN AGRICULTURE
( : ) 4#< Co##o"
1he soil .acterium Bacillus thuringiensis pro"uces crystal protein calle" cry protein .y cry gene that 5ill certain
insect larvae such as to.acco .u"worm armyworm, .eetles an" flies .

Ct to6in protein e6ists as inactive protoxin, .ut once an insect ingests this inactive to6in, it is converte" into active
form of to6in "ue to the al5aline pB of the gut which solu.ilise the crystals. 1his causes swelling an" lysis of
intestinal cells lea"ing to "eath of insect larvae .
Ct to6in genes ( cry genes ) were isolate" from Bacillus thuringiensis an" incorporate" into the several crop
plants such as cotton.
1he proteins enco"e" .y the following genes control the pest.
cryIAc an" cryIIAb control the cotton .allworm larvae .
cryIAb control corn .orer larvae .
( 2 ) Pes# res!s#a"# %la"#
A nemato"e Meloidegyne incognita infects to.acco plants an" re"uces their yiel".
#emato"e specific genes were intro"uce" into the host plant using Agrobacterium as vector.
1he intro"uction of $#A was such that it pro"uce" .oth sense an" anti-sense #A in the host cells.
1hese two #As .eing complementary to each other forme" a "ou.le stran"e" #A ("s#A) ma5ing it inactive.
1his "s#A molecule .in"s to an" prevent translation of m#A of the nucleoti"e .y the process calle" #A
interference (#Ai).
1he result was that the parasite coul" not survive in the transgenic host an" the transgenic plant get protecte"
from the parasite.
IN 'EDICINES
( : ) Ge"e T-era%.
&t is a techniEue of inserting genes into the cells an" tissue of an in"ivi"ual to treat a here"itary "isease.
1he first clinical gene therapy was given in :DDJ to a four year ol" girl with a"enosine "iaminase "eficiency.
1his "isor"er is cause" "ue to the "eletion of the gene for a"enosine "iaminase.
A$A "eficiency can .e cure" .y .one marrow transplantation in some chil"ren. Lymphocytes were grown in a
culture an" functional A$A, then c$#A is intro"uce" into these lymphocytes. 1hese lymphocytes are transferre"
into the .o"y of patient.
As these cells are not immortal, the patient reEuire" perio"ic infusion of such genetically engineere" lymphocytes.
Per&a"e"# C)re+ , &f a functional gene is intro"uce" into a .one marrow cells at early em.ryonic stage, it coul"
.e a permanent cure.
( 2 ) Ge"e#!all. E"$!"eere( I"s)l!"
A "ia.etic patient nee"s regular insulin which is "ifficult to o.tain from animals an" may "evelop immune
response li5e allergy . &t is a protein therefore will .e "igeste" in the stomach if ta5en orally .
(ammal I human insulin is synthesi7e" as pro-hormone ( inactive ) containing e6tra stretch of C pepti"e.
1o o.tain *enetically engineere" insulin , two $#A seEuences co"ing for A an" C polypepti"e chains of
insulin were intro"uce" in the plasmi" of E. coli .
ecom.inant genes in plasmi" of E. coli pro"uce two protein chains A an" C separately .
After e6traction , .oth chains were com.ine" .y creating "isulphi"e .on"s to form insulin .

2 ) 'ole)lar D!a$"os!s
Conventional pathological metho"s "etect "isease when symptoms of "isease appear which is a late stage . %arly
"etection can .e "one .y 4C , %L&/A or recom.inant $#A technology .
4olymerase Chain eaction ( 4C ) of few $#A seEuences can .e multiplie" in large num.er an" "etect
mutate" $#A very early e.g. B&? in A&$/ patient an" suspecte" cancerous cells .
%L&/A is .ase" on antigen 0 anti.o"y interaction . 4resence of small amount of antigen of pathogen or anti.o"y
synthesi7e" .y the immunity system can .e "etecte" which shows presence of pathogen .
TRANSGENIC ANI'ALS ( ADVANTAGES )
1ransgenic animals are .eing pro"uce" possessing foreign genes . 1hey are .eing use" .y humans for various
purposes i.e.
(1) Nor&al %-.s!olo$. a"( (e*elo%&e"# + 1o stu"y functions of genes especially after intro"ucing them from other
species .
(2) S#)(. of (!sease + 1ransgenic animal mo"els are investigate" an" stu"ie" for treatment of "iseases li5e cancer
, Al7heimer etc .
(3) 4!olo$!al %ro()#s + 1ransgenic animalKs pro"ucts are less e6pensive , easy to manufacture in .ul5 Euantity
eg- "rug for emphysema ( M 0 : 0 antitrypsin ) , antiphenyl5etonuria an" more nutritional an" .alance mil5 from
transgenic cow osie .
(4) Va!"e safe#. + ?accine testing is "one on transgenic animals eg- 4olio vaccine on transgenic mice .
(5) C-e&!al safe#. #es#!"$ + 1o6icity effect on transgenic animals is teste" . 1hey are ma"e more sensitive to
to6ins .y recom.ination of genes therefore give .etter results in less time when e6pose" to such to6ic chemicals .
GENETICALL9 'ODIFIED ORGANIS'S ( G'O )
TRANSGENIC PLANTS ( ADVANTAGES )
1ransgenic plants are also .eing pro"uce" possessing foreign genes . 1hey are .eing use" .y humans for various
purposes i.e.
(:) Crops .ecome &ore #olera"# to a.iotic stress con"itions i.e. col" , "rought , salt an" heat etc.
(!) 1hey re"uce reliance on chemicals li5e fertili7ers an" pestici"es etc.
(>) 1heir use re"uces post harvest losses to crops .y fungi , pest etc eg. 4est resistant crops 0 Ct cotton
(+) 4lants efficiency to use minerals is increase" ( soil fertility is maintaine" )
(A) #utritional Euality of foo" or pro"uct is improve" eg. 0 ?itamin A enriche" rice .
73IT , 8 (CO5O$4
( 19 ) O/$A3IS'S A3& POP75ATIO3S
(cology is a branch of science that studies the reciprocal relationship bet*een organisms and their physical en!ironment:
(cology is basically concerned *ith four le!els of biological organisation , organisms; populations; communities and
biomes:
O/$A3IS'S: +rganisms form the basic unit of study in ecology. +rganisms with similar features and the potential interbreed
among themselves and produce fertile offspring, constitute a species.
POP75ATIO3S: !opulation is a group of individuals of the same species, inhabiting in a given area. Intra specific competition
for basic needs operate among the individuals of a population.
.IO5O$ICA5 CO''73IT4: Biological community is constituted by an assemblage of the populations of all different
species that live in an area and interact with each other. $ biotic community has a distinct species composition and structure.
.IO'(S: Biome is a very large unit, constituting of a maJor vegetation type and associated fauna found in a specific 'one.
$nnual variations in the intensity, duration of temperature and precipitation account for the formation of maJor biomes li&e desert,
rain forest and tundra etc.
'A<O/ .IO'(S O) I3&IA: Tropical rain forest, deciduous forest, desert, sea coast etc.
4egional and local variations within each biome lead to the formation of a wide variety of habitats.
(3=I/O3'(3T: ,nvironment is the sum total of all biotic and abiotic factors that surround and potentially influence an
organism. Temperature, water, light and soil are the maJor abiotic factors.
/(SPO3S( TO A.IOTIC )ACTO/S:
(i) /egulators: Some organisms are able to maintain homeostasis by physiological means "some times behavioural# which
ensures constant body temperature and osmotic concentration. $ll birds and mammals, a very few lower vertebrates and
invertebrates are regulators "Thermoregulation and osmoregulation#. =or e1ample, human beings maintain their body
temperature by sweating in summer and shivering during winter season. !lants do not have such mechanisms to maintain
internal temperatures.
(ii) Conformers: *aJority of animals and nearly all plants cannot maintain a constant internal environment. Their body
temperature changes with the ambient temperature. In aquatic animals, the osmotic concentration of the body fluids change
with that of the ambient water and osmotic concentration. Some species have evolved the ability to regulate, but only over a
limited range of environmental conditions, beyond which they simply conform.
$ diagrammatic representation of organismic response is shown below.
conformers
4egulators
Internal level
!artial 4egulator
,1ternal level
(iii) Partial regulators: @air on the body @air on body acts as heat insulator Surface
area and volume ratio In smaller organisms , the surface area is large as compared to the volume , but in larger animals
this ratio is small. So the larger animals effectively loose less heat thus maintain the body temp.
(i!) 'igration: The organisms can move away temporarily from the stressful habitat to a more hospitable area and return bac&
when stressful period is over.
(!) Suspend > /educe metabolism : The organism may avoid the stress by escaping in time. Bears , frogs and earthworms go
into hibernation in winter, some snails and fish go into aestivation in summer.
A$( P4/A'I&S O) POP75ATIO3: $ population at any given time is composed of individuals of different ages. If the age
distribution is plotted for the population, the resulting structure is called an age pyramid. The shape of the pyramids reflects
the growth status of the population "a# ?hether it is Browing "e1panding# "b# Stable or "c# Declining. Three pyramids for
human populations "males and females# are represented below.
!ost reproductive

4eproductive
pre reproductive
,1panding Stable Declining
"*ost common# "It is an ideal condition# " In adverse condition which
is not ideal #
POP75ATIO3 $/O?T": If 3A5 is the population density at time 3t5, then its density at time tK- is
AtK- L At K M"B K I# "D K ,#N ?here, B L The number of births
I L The number of immigrants
D L The number of deaths.
, L The number of emigrants.
$/O?T" 'O&(5S:
(i) (+ponential gro*th (ii) 5ogistic $ro*th
"3O5 shape curve is obtained.# "Sigmoid curve is obtained.#
% ?hen factors are not limiting the growth. % ?hen factors are limiting the growth.
% $ny species growing e1ponentially under unlimited % 4esources for growth for most animal populations
resource conditions can reach enormous population are finite and become limiting.
densities in a short time.
% Browth is not so realistic. % The logistic growth model is a more realistic one.
POP75ATIO3 $/O?T" C7/=(:
A L !opulation Density
a r L Intrinsic rate of natural increase
@ t L Time period
b H L arrying capacity "The ma1imum population
"A# si'e that an environment can sustain#



Time "t#
POP75ATIO3 I3T(/ACTIO3SP (
P/(&ATIO3: - Interaction between species involving &illing and consumption of prey is called predation. The species which
eats the other is called the predator and the one consumed is termed the prey. The predator &eeps chec& on prey population.
The reduction in predator population may lead to increase in prey population. ,1ample @erbivore arnivore interaction.
The tiger eats deer. @ere, tiger is predator and deer is prey.
CO''(3SA5IS': - This is the interaction in which one species is benefited and the other is neither harmed nor benefited
under normal conditions. $n orchid growing as an epiphyte on a mango branch, the cattle egret and gra'ing cattle in close
association are the e1amples of ommensalism.
PA/ASITIS': - !arasitism is a &ind of relationship between two species in which one "parasite# derives its food from the other
"host#. !arasitism also involves shelter, in addition to food obtained by a parasite. !arasites may be ectoparasites or
endoparasites. !lant li&e uscuta live on other host flowering plants. *alarial parasite, tapeworm and round worm are
internal parasites.
'7T7A5IS': - In mutualism both the interacting species are benefited mutually. It is also &nown as symbiosis. Some e1amples
of mutualism areP (
"i# !lant !ollinator interaction.
"ii# Cichens represent mutualistic relationship between fungi and algae.
"iii# Rhizobium, the nitrogen fi1ing bacteria living in root nodules of leguminous plant.
( 1A ) (COS4ST('
An ecosystem is a functional unit of nature; *here li!ing organisms interact themsel!es and also *ith the surrounding
physical en!ironment:
,cosystem
Terminal $quatic
"=orest, grassland, desert# "!ond, la&e, river, wet land#
*an made ecosystems P rop fields, an aquarium.
ST/ATI)ICATIO3: /ertical distribution of different species occupying different levels is called stratification.
P/I'A/4 P/O&7CTI=IT4: $mount of biomass or organic matter produced by producers per unit area over a period
of time.
$/OSS P/I'A/4 P/O&7CTI=IT4 ($PP): The rate of production of organic matter during photosynthesis.
3(T P/I'A/4 P/O&7CTI=IT4 (3PP): Bross primary productivity minus respiration losses.
A!! L B!! 4espiration loss
S(CO3&A/4 P/O&7CTI=IT4: The rate of formation of new organic matter by consumers.
P/OC(SS O) &(CO'POSITIO3:
The decomposers brea& down comple1 organic matter into inorganic substances li&e carbon dio1ide, water and nutrients. This
process is called decomposition. Steps of decomposition are(
"i# )ragmentation: ( Brea& down of detritus into smaller particles by detritivores "earthworm#.
"ii# 5eaching: ( ?ater soluble inorganic nutrients go down into the soil hori'on and get precipitated as unavailable salts.
"iii# Catabolism: ( Bacterial and fungal en'ymes degrade detritus into simple inorganic substances.
"iv# "umification: ( $ccumulation of a dar& coloured amorphous substance called humus.
"v# 'ineralisation: ( The humus is further degraded by some microbes and release of inorganic nutrients ta&es place .
(3(/$4 )5O?: ,nergy flow is the &ey function in the ecosystem. The plants "producers# capture only . -< percent of the
photosynthetically active radiation "!$4#. 9nidirectional flow of energy ta&es place from the sun to producers and then to
consumers. $bout -<Q energy flows from one trophic level to another.
$/ABI3$ )OO& C"AI3P ( It begins with producers.
Brass deer lion
"!roducer# "!rimary consumer# "Secondary onsumer#
&(T/IT7S )OO& C"AI3P ( It begins with dead organic matter. It is made up of decomposers "=ungi, Bacteria#.
(CO5O$ICA5 P4/A'I&S P (
"i# !F4$*ID += A9*B,4SP ( "ii# !F4$*ID += ,A,4BFP ( "iii# !F4$*ID += BI+*$SSP (
"Brass land system# "$lways upright in all ,cosystems#

(CO5O$ICA5 S7CC(SSIO3P (
The gradual and fairly predictable change in the species composition of a given area is called ecological succession. The species
that invade a bare area is called pioneer species.
The final community in an ecological succession that is in near equilibrium with the environment is called clima+ community.
Secondary Succession begins in an area where natural biotic communities have been destroyed "burned or cut forests, land that
have been devastated by flood #.
S7CC(SSIO3 O3 A .A/( /OC@ (8(/A/C")
Bare roc& Cichen moss stage $nnual herb stage !erennial
"!ioneer Species# herb stage
=orest Scrub stage
"lima1 ommunity#
Succession in A#uatic en!ironment ("ydrarch)
!hytoplan&ton Submerged plant Submerged free
stage stage floating plant stage
"!ioneer Species#
=orest Scrub stage *arsh meadow 4eed swamp stage
"lima1 community# stage
P"OSP"O/7S C4C5(
Citter fall
Decomposition
9pta&e
?eathering
4un off
Consumers
$etritus
/oil solution
oc5 minerals
4ro"ucers
( 1C ) .IO&I=(/SIT4 A3& CO3S(/=ATIO3
$enetic di!ersity: - Benetic diversity refers to the variation of genes within a species.
Species di!ersity: - Species diversity refers to the variation of species within a region.
(cological di!ersity: - /ariation in ecosystem. =or e1ample India has more diversity at ecosystem level than Aorway.
Pattern of .iodi!ersity: - "i# Catitudinal gradients.
"ii# Species area relationship
(i) 5atitudinal gradients: - Species diversity decreases as we move away from the equator towards the poles.
% $ forest in a tropical region li&e equator has upto -< times as many species of vascular plants as a forest of equal area in a
temperate region li&e the *idwest of the 9S$.
% The largely tropical $ma'onian rain forest in south $merica has the greatest biodiversity on the earth.
(ii) Species Area relationship: - $le1ander /on @umboldt observed that within a region species richness increases with
increasing area, but only up to a limit.
The relation between species richness and area for a wide variety of te1a "angiospermic plants, birds, bats and fresh water fishes#
turns out to be a rectangular hyperbola.
+n a logarithm scale, the relationship is a straight line.
This relationship can be represented by the equation
Cog S L log K R Cog $ ?here
S L Species richness ) $ L $rea ) R L Slope of the Cine "<.- to <..# ) L F Intercept

The speices area relationship among very large area then the slope of the line will be much steeper"RL <.7(-..#
Causes of biodi!ersity 5osses :
1: "abitat loss and fragmentation:
This is most important cause of plant and animal e1tinction . =or e1ample Tropical rain forest being destroyed fast.
The $ma'onian rain forest is called the5 lung of the planet5.
It is being cut for cultivating soyabeans.
D: O!er , e+ploitation:
*any species e1tinction is due to over e1ploitation by humans.
9: Alien Species In!asions:
?hen alien species are introduced , some of them turn invasive and cause decline or e1tinction of indigenous species. =or
e1ample, introduction of the $merican catfish for aquaculture purpose is posing a threat to the indigenous catfish in our
rivers.
A: Co , e+tinctions:
?hen a species becomes e1tinct, the plant and animal species associated with it in an obligating way " compulsory partner # also
become e1tinct.
Conser!ation of biodi!ersity :
onservation strategies
In situ conservation strategies Ex situ conservation strategies
!rotected Biosphere Sacred forests
areas reserves and la&es
Terrestrial *arine
Sacred plants Seed ban&s Botanical gardens
@ome gardens Bene Ban&s Roological par&s
ryopreservation
Cryopreser!ation:- onservation in liquid nitrogen at a temperature of -;7
o
.
It is useful to conserve the vegetable propagation crops li&e potato.
( 1E ) (3=I/O3'(3TA5 ISS7(S
.iochemical O+ygen &emand (.O&):-
B+D refers to the amount of o1ygen that would be consumed if all the organic matter in one liter of water were o1idi'ed by
bacteria. The B+D test measures the rate of upta&e of o1ygen by microorganisms in a sample of water
Indirectly B+D is a measure of the organic matter present in the water. The greater the B+D of waste water, more is it5s
polluting potential .
In the given figure , the effect of sewage on some important characteristic of a river is shown.
=ish &ill and disappearance 4eappearance of clean
of clean water water organisms
B + D
Algal .loom Sewage Direction of flow
!resence of large amount of nutrients in water causes e1cessive growth of algae, called algal bloom.
@armful effects of algal bloom areP(
-. =ish mortality
.. Deterioration of water quality
0. To1ic to animals and human beings.
.iomagnification
It refers to increase in concentration of to1ic substances at successive trophic level.
Biomagnification of DDT in an aquatic food chain
?ater !hytoplan&ton Rooplan&ton Small fish
"<.<<0 ppm# "<.<.6 ppm# "<.<2 ppm# "<.6 ppm#
Carge fish =ish eating birds
". ppm# "6 ppm#
"armful (ffects:-
@igh concentration of DDT disturbs calcium metabolism in birds, which cause thinning of egg shell and their premature brea&ing,
causing decline in bird population.
(utrophication:-
It is the process of nutrient enrichment of water and subsequent loss of species diversity li&e fishes. ,1cess nutrient causes algal
bloom which may cover the whole water surface in water body and release to1ins .
It causes o1ygen deficiency in water that leads to the death of aquatic animals li&e fishes.

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$lobal *arming:-
Increase in the level of greenhouse gases is mainly responsible for global warming. "Increase in mean global temperature due to
trapping of infra red radiation#
arbon dio1ide, *ethane, =s, A.+ are the main gases that causes greenhouse effect.
"armful effects of global *armimg:-
-. *elting of glaciers
.. +ver many years, this will result in a rise in sea level that can flood the population of coastal plains.
'easures to control global *arming:
-. *inimise the use of fossil fuel.
.. Improving efficiency of energy usage.
0. 4educing deforestation.
2. !lanting trees.
O%one &epletion:-
+'one gas is continuously formed by the action of 9/ rays on molecular o1ygen and also degrade into molecular o1ygen in
stratosphere.
The thic&ness of the o'one layer in a column of air from the ground to the top of the atmosphere is measured in terms of
Dobson units "D9#.
+'one layer absorbs the harmful 9/ rays. These rays may cause s&in cancer, damage genes , inflammation of cornea etc .
hloroflurocarbons deplete the o'one layer. The part of atmosphere with lesser concentration of o'one is called o'one hole.

Steps leading to o%one depletion:
9/ rays split =s and release atomic "l#
9/ rays also split o'one in to o1ygen.
hlorine atom traps o1ygen atom and o'one is not formed again from o1ygen. This leads to depletion of o'one in the
stratosphere.
Control of =ehicular Air Pollution in &elhi:-
$ll the buses of Delhi were converted to run on AB by the end of .<<.. It is safe from adulteration and can not be siphoned off
by thieves . It is cheaper than petrol or diesel .
+ther steps to reduce air pollution in Delhi include.
-. !hasing out of old vehicles.
.. 9se of unleaded petrol and low sulphur petrol and diesel.
0. 9se of catalytic converters in vehicles.
2. $pplication of ,uro(II , ,uro(III and Bharat norms for vehicles.
Auto )uel PolicyP(
The government of India has laid out a road map to cut down the vehicular air pollution in many cities of India.
The goal of this policy is to reduce Sulphur to 6< ppm in petrol and diesel and reduce to 0.6Q of the fule
The Bharat Stage II was forced for all automobiles in all cities w.e.f. $pril, -, .<<6.
The cities "li&e Delhi, *umbai, hennai, Hol&ata etc.# applied ,uro III emission norm form $pril -, .<<6 and ,uro I/ ,mission
norm will be applied from $pril -, .<-<.