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Elastic Scattering

Vasily Arzhanov
Reactor Physics, KTH
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 2
Elastic Scattering
Moderation by Elastic Scattering
Inelastic Scattering
Lab and CoM Reference Systems
Scattering from Stationary Nuclei
Change of Variables
Isotropic Scattering in CoM Frame
Post Collision Energy Distribution
Average Logarithmic Energy Loss
Neutron Scattering from Molecules
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 3
Chain Reaction

n
235
92
U
2 MeV n
0.1 eV n
235
92
U
238
92
U
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 4
Why to Slow Down (Moderate)?
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
Energy (eV)
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4


(
b
a
r
n
s
)
235
U
capture
fission
139 94 1
56 3
23
235 1 236 *
92 0 9
6 7
92 1
6 0
2
2
Ba Kr
U (18%) 2.
U U
4 1
)
0
3 (82% n
n
T yr

+
+ +
+

HT2008 Elastic Scattering 5


Principles of a Nuclear Reactor
1
2
N
N
k

n
/
f
i
s
s
i
o
n
N
1
N
2
Leakage
Fast fission
Resonance abs.
Non-fuel abs.
Leakage
Non-fissile abs.
Fission
S
l
o
w
i
n
g

d
o
w
n
E
n
e
r
g
y

E
2 MeV
1 eV
200 MeV/fission
2.5
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 6
Breeding
23.5min 2.3day 238 1 239 239 239
92 0 92 93 94
U n U Np Pu +
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 7
Plutonium Cross-Sections
Worlds Pu
stockpiles.
Mixed oxide
fuels (MOX)
Many neutrons are absorbed here
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 8
Breeding
23.3min 27.4day 232 1 233 233 233
90 0 90 91 92
Th n Th Pa U +
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 9
Neutron Energy Spectrum
Importance of neutron energy spectrum
Neutron energy spectrum is determined by
Nuclear reactions
Geometry and size of the reactor
Nuclear reactions
Fission
Absorption (somewhat secondary)
Scattering (elastic, inelastic)
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 10
Fission Energy Spectrum
3
1.036
0.1 10MeV
2
( ) ; 1.29MeV
( ) 0.453 sinh 2.29
E
kT
E
E
E
N E e T
T
N E e E


= =
=
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 11
Inelastic Scattering
A
X
A+1
X
*
n

Li, Be
2-3 MeV
238
U
40 KeV
1 MeV
50 KeV
Ground
(1) Light (2) Heavy
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 12
General Conclusion on In. Sc.
Inelastic scattering cross section is
relatively small for light nuclei.
Heavy nuclei cannot serve as good
moderators in thermal reactors.
Inelastic scattering may be significant:
Heterogeneous reactors
Highly enriched fuel
Fast reactors
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 13
Laboratory and CoM Systems
A
X
n
v
0
V
0
v
1
V
1
;cos()
M
;cos()
m
w
0
w
1
W
0
W
1
Laboratory CoM
Neutron Nucleus Neutron Nucleus
Before
v
0
E
0
V
0
w
0
W
0
After
v
1
E
1
V
1
w
1
W
1
Deflection angle ;cos() ;cos()
Mass(
A
X) Am
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 14
Motion in Lab System
( )
0 0 1 1
2 2
0 0 1 1
0 0
2 2 2 2
m M m M
mv MV mv MV
m M m M
+ = +
+ = +
+ +
2 2
v V v V
c v V
M
m
v
0
V
0
v
1
V
1

HT2008 Elastic Scattering 15


Velocities in CoM Systems
( )
( )
( )
( )
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
M
m M
m
m M
M
m M
m
m M
=
+
=
+
=
+
=
+
w v c v V
W V c V v
w v c v V
W V c V v
M

m
w
0
w
1
W
0
W
1
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 16
Motion in CoM Systems
0 0 1 1
0 0 1 1
2 2 2 2
0 0 1 1
0 0 1 1
0 0 1 1
0
;
2 2 2 2
m M m M
M M
m m
m M m M
w w
W W
+ = + =
= =
+ = +
=
=
w W w W
w W w W
w V w V
w w
W W
M

m
w
0
w
1
W
0
W
1
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 17
Stationary Nuclei
2
2
9
neutron: 1eV 14000m s
2
3
Be : ( 300K) 1000m s
2 2
mv
E v
MV
E kT T V
= =
= = =
0
0 V = Assumption:
The assumption is poor for energy 0.02 eV
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 18
Useful Relationships
0
m
m M
=
+
c v
M
m
v
0

c
CoM
w
0
w
1
c

v
1
c
( ) ( )

= +
= + +
+ +
=
+
+
=
+ +

= +


v w c cw
A A M
E E A
A m
E E
A A
E E
1 1
2 2 2
1 0 0
2
1 0
2
1
2
1 0
0 1
0
2 cos
1 2
;
( 1)
cos
1 A
1 A 2A
1
; ;
1 1
2
cos w w
v w c
inLab:
E is always given the Lab-system!!
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 19
Energy Loss
0 0
E E E
2
2
0 0 0
2
1 2 cos 1
( 1) 1
+ +

=

+ +

A A A
E E E E E
A A
2
1
1
A
A


+

=0 =180
E
0
E
0
E E
E
After
collision
E
0
E
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 20
( ) ( )
( )
( )
(
(
)
)
dv
n E n v
dE
dE
n v n
n E dE n v
E
dv
dv =
=
=
3 3
2
neutron neutron
cm J cm cm
) )
s
2
(
2
( n E
mv
E
n
v m
v
E






= =
E
v
E+dE v+dv
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 ( )
1
( ) ( ) ( )
dE mvdv
dE
n v n E mvn E mE n E
dv
dv
n E n v n v
dE mv
=
= = =
= =
Change of Variables
( ) n E dE
( ) n v dv
E
n
e
r
g
y
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 21
E E
0
E
0
??
( )
0
p E E
Post Collision Energy Distribution
( ) p
Final goal:
Frequency function = probability density distribution of scattering
angles in CoM system. It depends on: (1) E
0
, (2) struck nucleus.
Its form is determined from: (1) experiment, (2) theoretical model.
CoM
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 22
Frequency Function
( ) p d =
(1) Probability that a neutron is scattered in CoM into
angle whose cosine lies in [, + d]
(2) Fraction of all scattering collisions which result in
angles whose cosine lie in [, + d]
1
1
(1) ( ) 0
(2) ( ) 1
p
p d

HT2008 Elastic Scattering 23


General Approach
0
( ) ( )
n n
n
p a P

=
=

Series expansion:
Legendre polynomials:
( )
2
0 1 2
1
( ) 1; ( ) ; ( ) 3 1
2
P P P = = =
1
,
1
2
( ) ( )
2 1
n m n m
P P d
n

=
+

Orthogonality:
1
1
2 1
( ) ( )
2
n n
n
a p P d

+
=

Coefficients:
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 24
Simplest Model
0 0 1 1 0 1
( ) ( ) ( ) p a P a P a a = + + = + +
0
( ) p a =
General form:
We postulate:
Isotropic
scattering in CoM
1
0
1
1
( ) 1 ( )
2
p d a p

= = =

1 2
0 a a = = =
Simplest form:
Immediate
consequence:
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 25
Isotropic Scattering in CoM
r d

sin r
w
0
Experiments: elastic scattering is isotropic in CoM.
Number of neutrons emerging through any unit area
on the surface is independent of the position.
( ) ( )

= =
= =
=
=

ring
sphere
A
p d
A
r rd
r
d
p p
2
( )
2 sin
4
1
s
1
(
in
) sin
2
2
( ) ?
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 26
Isotropic Frequency Function
( )




=
=
= =

=
1
( ) sin
2
( ) ( )
1 1 1
( ) si
co
n c s
2
s
o
2 2
p
p d p d
p d d d d
1
( )
2
p =
= cos

HT2008 Elastic Scattering 27


Non-Isotropic Frequency
Function
( ) 1 2 1
( )
0 1
1
a
p
a

=

>

Mathematically, next step is


Physically, it corresponds
to p-scattering
z

z
a = 0 a = 0.5
a = -1 a = 1
n
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 28
Frequency Function in Energy
( )
0
( ) p E E p E
( ) p E dE =
Probability that an incident neutron with kinetic energy E
0
will
have energy in dE about E after scattering collision
Fraction of all scattering collisions which result in final kinetic
energies between E and E + dE
( )
2
0 0
2 2
0
2
0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 ( 1)
( 1
( 1) 1
( )
4
) 2
1
d
p E dE p d p E p
dE
A A d A
A
p E
E E
A d
A E
AE
E
E

= =

+ + +

=
+
= =


=
+

in Lab system!!
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 29
E E
0
E
0
0
1
(1 ) E
0
( ) ( ) p E p E E =
Post Collision
Energy Distribution
1
{ }
Pr E <
0
E
E
0 0 0
1 1
;
2 2
E E E E
+
= =
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 30
( )
0
0
0
2
0
ln ( )
1
1
ln 1 ln 1 ln
1 2 1
( )
o
o
E
E
E
E
E
p E dE
E
A
E A
E A A
p E dE



= = + = +
+

2
for 10
2 3
>
+
A
A
Average Logarithmic
Energy Loss
Nucleus Light
A = 1
Heavy
A >> 1
0 1
1 0
2
1
1



=

+

A
A
1 ln
1

= +

Does not depend


on energy!!!
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 31
Plots of and

HT2008 Elastic Scattering 32


( )
2
1
1
1 ln
2 1
A
A
A A



= +
+
2
2
3
A

Approximate Formula
Mass number, A
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 33
Average Cosine in CoM


= = =

1 1
1 1
1
( ) 0
2
p d d
M
m
w
0
w
1
W
0
W
1
cos
= 90

HT2008 Elastic Scattering 34


Average Cosine in Lab

=

1
1
( ) p d
cos

= = ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
d
p d p d p p
d

+
=
+ +
2
1 A
1 A 2A


= =

1 1
1 1
( ) ( ) ( ) p d p d
=
2
3A
( )
( )



1
238
H 48
U 89.8
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 35
Material A []
1
H 1 0 0.667 48.2
2
D 2 0.111 0.333 70.5
4
He 4 0.360 0.167 80.4
6
Li 6 0.510 0.095 83.6
9
Be 9 0.640 0.074 85.8
10
B 10 0.669 0.061 86.2
12
C 12 0.716 0.056 86.8
238
U 238 0.938 0.003 89.8
H
2
O * * 0.037 87.9
D
2
O * * 0.033 88.1
Average Cosine in Lab-System
1
H
2
D
4
He
238
U H
2
O
12
C
10
B
6
Li


HT2008 Elastic Scattering 36
Elastic Scattering from Molecules
Fast neutron
Slow (thermal) neutron
Feels only H
Feels whole
molecule
0

coll
k chem
E E
0

coll
k chem
E E
2
(H O) 2 (H) (O) = +
s s s
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 37
Elastic Scattering in Water
E [eV]
0.01 0.1 1 10
50
100
150
200
Chemical binding is
important unimportant
2 (H) (O) +
s s
[barn]
s
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 38
Scattering from Molecules
In case of very slow neutrons, Blatt and Weisskopf have shown:
( )

H
s
F
Scattering cross section of Hydrogen in Free (atomic) state
( )

H
s
B
Scattering cross section of Hydrogen in bound state
( ) ( )
2
4
1


=

+

H H
m
s s
B F
m
A
A
m(H) = 1
m(H
2
O) = A
m
( ) ( )
2
2
1
1


+

=

+


A A
m
s s
B F
m
A A
A A
m(O) = A
m(UO
2
) = A
m
U
O O
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 39
Scattering of Hydrogen in Water
Energy [eV]
( )

H
s
B
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 40
1
H Elastic Cross Section
1MeV 1eV
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 41
4
He Elastic Cross Section
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 42
9
Be Elastic Cross Section
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 43
16
O Elastic Cross Section
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 44
23
Na Elastic Cross Section
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 45
238
U Elastic Cross Section
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 46
Summary on Elastic Scattering
Elastic scattering cross-sections for light elements are
more or less independent of neutron energy up to 1 MeV.
For intermediate and heavy elements, the elastic cross-
section is constant at low energy and exhibit some
variation at higher energy.
We are usually more interested in light elements as far as
elastic scattering is concerned; so a good approximation
is,
s
= const, for all elements of interest.
Nearly all elements have scattering cross-sections in the
range 2 to 20 barns.
The important exception is water and heavy water.
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 47
The END