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IS 12845 (1989): Density composition tables for aqueous


solutions of hydrochloric acid [CHD 1: Inorganic Chemicals]

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IS12845 ;1989

( Reaffirmed 2003 )

Indian Standard

DENSITY-COMPOSITIONTABLESFOR
AQUEOUSSOLUTIONSOFHYDROCHLORTC
ACID- SPECIFICATION
543'24 : 546'41 + 546'46

UDC

BUREAU
MANAK
April

1991

OF
BHAVAN,

BIS 1991

INDIAN

STANDARDS

9 BAHADUR
SHAH
NEW DELHI 110002

ZAFAR

MARG
Price Group 7

Chemical Standards

Sectional Committee,

CDC 1

FOREWORD
This Indian Standard was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards
the draft finalized by the Chemical Standards Sectional Committee
Chemical Division Council.

on 30 November 1989, after


had been approved by the

The density-composition
tables provide a simple means to determine the strength of any aqueous
solntion of hydrochloric
acid or of making a solution of specific strength.
The underlying
principle in the preparation of these tables is that density is a function of the composition of
aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions.
By using a density hydrometer or from the density determined at any particular temperature within the range of the tables, composition of the solution can
be determined.
The density-composition
table is based on data obtained from the International
Critical Tables 1928 still authoritative and relates to mass, not to apparent mass in air.
This standard is based on the tables published in BS 976 : 1987, Density-composition
aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid, issued by the British Standards Institution.

tables

for

For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with
the final value, observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be roundh,
off in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 Rules for rounding off numerical values ( revised ). Ted
number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that ofhe
specified value in this standard.

Is1284!!:1989

Indian Standbd
DENSITY-COhiPOSITION TABLES FOR
AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF -HYDROCHLORIC
ACID - SPECIFICATION
1 SCOPE

8 = Mass in grams of hydrochloric

acid in
100 g@ams of the aqueous solution.
G = Mass in grams of hydrochloric
acid in
one litre of the aqueous solution at
temperature t.

1.1 This standard furnishes tables which correlate density with composrtion of aqueous soiutions of hydrochloric
acid. This standard is
.intended to assist in determining the strength of
an aqueous solution of hydrochloric
acid of
.known density and in preparing solutions of
specific strength.

3.2 The table gives the values OC g and G for


densities of hydrochloric acid solutions at various
temperatures between 0 and 40C.

3 REFERENCES

3.3 Table 1 has been so prepared that the density Dt increases by steps of 1 kg/m* and the
corresponding values of g and G have been for
each 5C over the range 0 to 40C.

2.1 The following Indian Standards are necessary


.adjuncts to this standard.

3.4 Corrections to be applied


racy are given in Annex A.

Title

IS No.
3104
4 Part 1) : 1982

SpedIflcation
for
density
hydrometers: Part 1 Requirements ( first revision )

3104
( Part 2 ) : 1982

Specification for density hydrometers: Part 2 Methods


of
test
and
use ( jirst

accu-

3.5 Examples of the use of the density-composition tables in conjunction with hydrometers
are given in Annex B.
3.6 Determinitlon of D, from Table 1
The method of obtaining density of solutions
of hydrochloric acid of known strength is given
in Annex C.

revision )
3 DENSITY-COMPOSITION

TABLE FOR
AQUEOUS
SOLUTIONS
OF HYDRO4XLORIC ACID ( TABLE 1)

3.7 Choice of Hydrometera


Recommendations as to the choice of suitable
hydrometers for use in conjunction
with these
tables are iven in Annex D. To avoid error in
visual rea %ing of the scales of the hydrometers
and to apply the corrections given in Annex A
with best advantage, density hydrometers
shall
be used in overtlow vessels as recommended in
IS 3104 ( Part 2 ) : 1082.

3.1 Abbreviationn
For the purpose of this standard,
abbreviations shall apply:

for greater

the following

Dt e Density of the aqueous solutions of


hydrochloric
acid in ( kg/ml ) at a
temperature t.

Table 1 Density - Composition Table for Aqueous Solutions of HydrochloricAcid (Ckuses 3,3.3,3.6, B-1.1, B-34 C-l.1 and C-2 . 11
OC

2OC

15'C

25C

.-

_-

D,

i3

1000
1001
1002

09

0.0

0.2
04

2
4

0.2
04

2
4

0.1
0.3
0.5

1
3
5

0.2
0.4
0.6

2
4
6

0.3
0.5
0.8

1003
1004
1005

0.6
Q8
1.0

6
8
10

0.6
08
1.0

6
8
10

07
O-8
1.0

7
8
10

08
1.0
1-2

8
10
12

19
F2
l-4

1008
1007
1008

1-l
1.3
1*5

12
13
15

1.2
1.4
l-5

12
14
16

1.2
1.4
1.6

12
14
16

14
1.6
1.8

14
16
18

1009

1010
1011

1.7
1.9
2.1

17
19
21

1.7
1.9
2.1

18
19
21

1.8
2.0
2-2

18
20
22

2.0
2.2
24

1012
1013
1014

2.3
2.5
2.6

23
25
27

2.3
2.5
2.7

23
25
27

2.4
2.6
2.8

24
26
28

1015
1018
1017

2.8
3.0
3.2

29
31
33

2.9
3.1
3.3

29
31
33

3.0
3.2
34

4018
1019
1020

3.4
3.6
3.8

34
36
38

3.4
3.6
3.8

35
37
39

1021
1022
1023

3.9

40

4.0
4.2
4-4
46
4-8
50

1024
1025
1026

l-

40C

D,
--

1.3

1.2
1.4
1.6

12
14
16

1.6
1.8
2.0

16
18
20

1000
1001
1002

12
14
16

1-5
1.7
1.9

15
17
19

1.8
2.1
2.3

18
21
23

2.2
2.4
2.6

22
24
26

1003
1004
1005

1.8
2.0
2.2

18
20
22

2.1
2.3
2.5

21
23
25

2.5
2.7
2.9

2il
27
29

2.8
3.1
3.3.

29
31
33

100s
1007
1008

22
24
26

2.4
2.6
2.8

24
27
29

2.7
2.9
3.1

28
30
32

3.1
3.3
3.5

31
33
35

3.5
3.7
3.9

35
37
39

1009
1010
1011

2.8
3.0
3.2

28
30
32

3.0
3.2
3.4

31
33
35

3.3
3.6
3.8

34
36
38

3.7
3.9
4.1

38
40
42

4.1
4.3
4.5

41
43
46

1012
1013
1014

32
34
36

3.4
3.6
3.8

34
36
38

3.6
3.9
4.1

37
39
41

4.0
4.2
4.4

40
42
45

4.3
4.5
4.8

44
46
48

4.7
4.9
5.1

48
50
52

1015
1010
1017

3.8
4.0
4.2

s6
40
42

4-o
4.2
4.4

40
43
45

4.3
4.5
4.7

43
46
48

4.6
4.8
5.0

47
49
51

5.0
5.2
5.4

51
53
55

5.4
5.6
5.8

54
57
59

1018
1019
1020

42
45
47

44
46
4.8

44
47
49

4.6
4.8
5-o

47
49
51

4.9
5.1
5.3

50
52
54

5.2
5.4
5.6

53
55
58

5.6
5.8
6.0

57
59
61

6.0
6.2
6.4

61
63
66

1021

49
51
53

50
5.2
54

51
53
55

5.2
5.4
5.6

53
55
58

5.5
5.7
5.9

56
58
61

5.8
6.0
6.3

60
62
64

6.2
6.4
6.6

64
6E
68

6.6
6.8
70

68
70
72

1024
1025
1028

D.9

1-l

10
12
14

1.2
1.4
1.6

1.6
1.8
2-o

16
18
20

20
22
24

2.2
2.4
2.6

26
2.8
39

26
28
30

30
32
34

3-2
3.4
3.6

3.6
3.8
4.0

36
38
40

41
43
45

4.2
4.4
4.6

47
49
51

4.8
5-O
5.2

35-c

11
13

3
5
8

0.8 1 8
1-o , 10

4.1 j 42
4.3 , 44
I
4.5 ; 46
4.7 1 48
4.9
50

3OC

--

W=
1023

Table 1 Density - Composition lhblefor Aqueous Solutions of Hydmddo$c Arid - Ccmtd

0C

10 C

1SC

20-c

ii

-30-c

2sc

1027
1028
1029

5.1
5.3
5.5

52
-54
56

5.2
5.4
5.6

1030
1031
1032

5.6
58
6.0

56
60
62

1033
1034
1035

6.2
6-4
6.6

1036
1037
1038

65
69
71

4oc

35-c
-

-_

0;

s-s
7.1
7.3

70
73
75

7.3
7.5
7.7

75
77
79

1027
1028
1029

1
G

-T

--

55
57
59

5.6
5.8
6.0

57
59
61

5.8
6.0
6.2

60
62
64

6.1
6.3
6.5

83

55
57

5.4
5.5
5.7

67

6.5
6.7
6.9

5.8
6.0
6.2

59
61
64

5.9
6.1
6.3

61
63
65

6.2
6.4
66

63
66
68

6.4
,6.6
6.9

66
68
71

6.7
7.0
7.2

69
72
74

7.1
7.3
7.5

73
75
78

7.5
7.7
7.9

77
79
82

7.9
8.1
8-3

81
84
86

1030
1031
1032

64
66
66

6.4
6.6
6.8

66
66
70

6.5
6.7
6.9

68
70
72

6.8
7.0
7.2

70
,72
74

7.1
7.3
7.5

73
75
77

7.4
7.6
7.8

76
78
81

7.7
7.9
8~1

80
82
84

8.1
8.3
8.5

64
86
86

8.5
8.7
9.0

68
90
93

1033
1034
1035

6.8
7.0
7.2

70
72
74

7.0
7.1
7.3

72
74
76

7.1
7.3
7.5

74
76
78

7.4
7.6
7.8

77
79
81

7.7
7.9
8.1

79
82
84

8.0
8.2
8.4

83
85
87

8.4
8.6
8.8

87
89
91

8.8
90
9.2

91
93
55

9.2
9.4
9.6

95
97
99

1030
1037.
1038

1039
1040
1041

7.4
7.6
7,8

77
79
81

7.5
7.7
7.9

78
60
82

7.7
7.9
8.1

80
a3
85

8.0
8.2
8.4

83
85
87

8.3
8.5
8.7

86
86
90

8.6
8.8
9.0

89
92
94

9.0
9.2
44

93
95
98

9.4
9.6
98

97
LOO
102

9.8
10.0
10.2

102
104
106

1039
1040
1041

1042
1043
1044

7.9
8.1
8.3

83
85
87

8.1
8.3
8.5

85
87
89

8.3
8.5
8.7

87
89
91

8.6
8.8
9.0

90
92
94

8.9
9.1
9.3

93
95
97

9.2
9.4
9.6

96
96
LO1

9.6
9.8
10.0

100
102
105

LO.0
10.2
10.4

104
107
109

10.4
10.6
10.8

108
111
113

1042
1043
1044

1045
1046
1047

8.5
8.7
8.9

89
91
93

8.7
8.9
9.1

91
93
95

8.9
9.1
9.3

93
95
98

9.2
9.4
9.6

96
96
101

9.5
9.7
9.9

99
102
104

9.9
10.1
10.3

la3
105
LO7

10.2
10.4
10.6

107
109
111

10.6
LO-8
11.0

111
113
116

11.0
11.2
11.4

115
118
120

1045
1046
1047

1048
1049
1050

9.1
9.3
9.5

95
97
99

9.3
9.5
9.7

97
99
102

9.5
9.7
9.9

100
102
104

9.8
10.0
10.2

103
105
107

10.1
10.3
10.5

106
108
111

10.5
10.7
10.9

1110
1
112
1114

10.8
11.0
11.2

114
116
118

A.2
11.5
.1.7

118
120
122

11.7 122
11.9 124
12.1. 127

1048
1048

1051
1052
1063

9.7
9.8
10.0

101
104
106

9.9
10.1
10.3

104
106
106

10.1
10.3
10.5

106
108
111

10.4
10.6
10.8

109
112
114

10.7
10.9
11.1

113
115
117

11.1
11.3
11.5

I116
1119
1121

11.5
11.7
11.9

120
123
125

il.9
L2.1
b2.3

125
27
i29

12.3
L2.5
12.7

--

53

65

l29
131
134

1050
lW1

(COdWf)

OC

4OC

102
lo4
106

108
110
lu

104
10.6
1@8

ll0

108
llQ
lla

114
116
118

1W
1061

114
11.5
11.7

1063
low

tw

f-4

114

107
10-9
11.1

113
115
117

11.0
11.2
114

116
118
120

119
11.2
114

116
119
121

11.3
11.5
11.7

119
121
124

116
11.8
12.0

I22
I.25
l27

l.20
123
125

11.6
11.8
l2Q

Y.23
I.25
127

11.9
12.1
12.3

126
128
130

12.2
124
126

129
131
133

ll.9
12-l
12.3

1zI
129
X51

12.2
124
12.5

129
132
134

12.4
12.6
12.8

132
l34
I.37

12.8
WQ
13.2

136
138
140

12-5
12.7
12.9

133
135
137

12.7
12.9
13-1

136
138
140

130
13.2
134

139
141
143

13-3
13.5
13.7

13.1
13.2
134

140
142
144

13.3
13.5
13.7

142
144
147

13.6
13.8
14.0

145
148
150

1074

X5-6
13-E
14-o

146
146
150

13.9
14.1
14.2

149
151
153

14.2
14.4
14.6

1075
1076
1077

14.2
144
14.5

152
154
157

14.4
14.6
14.8

155
157
160

10-78
1079
WE0

14.7
14-9
15.1

159
161
163

15.0
15.2
15.4

162
164
166

1066

1068
1067
1w

tw

1062

tw

1067
1w
lW
1070

1071
1072

1073

lb

.-

D,

11.7 123
11.9 125
12.1 128

12-l 127
12.3 129
12.5 132

12.5 132
12.7 134
12.9 136

12.9 136
13.1 138
13.3 140

1064
1W
1W

11.9
12.1
12.3

12.3 130
12.5 132
12.7 134

12.7 134
12.9 136
13.1 138

13.1 138
13.3 141
13.5 143

13.5 143
13-j 145
li.9 147

1067
1w
1w

12.5
12.7
12.9

137
139
141

13.3 141
13.5 143
13.7 145

13.7 145
13.9
14.1 ;zz

14.1 150
14.3 152
14.5 154

1066
1061
1063

143
146
148

13.9 148
14.1 150
14.3 152

14.3 152
14.5 155
14.7 157

14.7 157
14.9 159
15.1 161

1W
1w
1w

142
144
147

150
152
155

14.5 154
14.7 157
14.9 159

14.9 159
15.1 161
15.3 164

15.3 164
15cl 166
15.8 168

1W

13.9
14.1
14.3

149
151
153

157
159
162

15.1 161
15.3 164
15.5 166

15.5 166
15.7 169
16Q 171

16.0 171
16.2 173
16.4 175

1069
1070
1071

152
154
1s

14.5
14.7
14.9

155
158
160

164
166
168

15.7 168
15.9 171
16.1 173

16.2 173
16.4 176
16.6 178

16.6 178
16.8 180
17.0 162

1072
1073

14.7
14.9
15.1

159
161
163

15.1
15.3
15.5

162
165
167

166
169
171

15.9 171
16.1 173
16.3 175

16.3 175
l.6.5178
16.7 180

16.8 180
17.0 183
17.2 185

17.2 185
17.4 187
17.6 189

1076
1076
1077

15.3
15.5
15.7

165

15.7
15.9
16.1

169
171
174

173
176
178

16.5 178
16.7 180
16.9 182

16.9 182
17,l 185
17.3 187

17-4 187
17.6 189
17.8 192

17.8 192
18.0 194
18.2 197

1078
1On
1w

1064

167
170

139
142
144

16.1
16.3
165

1067
106#

1074

15 c

0-c

36C

25-c

#)C

&?

16.7
16.9
17.1

160
182
185

17.1
17.3
17.5

185
187
189

17.5
17.7
17-9

1189
192

196

- -

4oC

35'C

i -

1081
1082
1083

15.3
15.5
15.7

165

15.6
15.8
15.9

168
170
173

15.9

167
169

16.1
16.3

172
174
176

16.3
16.5
16.7

1
1x
180

1084
1085
1085

15.8
16.0
16.2

172
174
176

16.1
16.3
16.5

175
177
179

16.5
16.7
16.9

179
181
183

16-9
17.1
17.2

183
165
187

17.3
17.5
17.6.

187
189
192

17.7
17.9
18.1

192
194
196

18.1
18.3
18.5

1087
1088
1089

16.4
16.6
16.8

178
180
163

16.7
16.9
17.1

181
184
186

17.1
17.2
17.4

165
188
190

17.4
17.6
17.8

190
192
194

17.8
180
18.2

194
196
199

18.3
18.5
18.7

193
201
203

1090
lo!?1
1092

16.9
17.1
17.3

185
187
189

17.3
17.4
17.6

186
190
193

17.6
17.8
18.0

192
194
197

180
18.2
18.4

196
l!99
201

18.4
18.6
18.8

201
203
206

18.9
19.1
19.3

1093
1094
1095

17.5
17.7
17.9

191
193
196

17.8
18.0
18.2

195
197
199

18.2
18.4
18.6

199
201
203

18.6
18.8
19.0

203
z

19.0
19.2
19.4

208
210
213

1096
1097
1098

18.0
18.2
18.4

198
200
202

18.4
18.6
18.8

201
204
206

18.8
19.0
19.1

206
208
210

19.2
19.4
19.6

2io
213
215

19.6
19.8
20.0

1099
1100
1101

18.6
18.8
19.0

204
206
209

18.9
19.1
19.3

208
210
213

19.3
19Y5
19.7

212
215
217

19.8
20.0
20.1

217
219
222

1102
1103
1104

19.1
19.3
19.5

211
213
215

19.5
19.7
19.9

215
217
219

19.9
20.1
20.3

213
222
224

203
20.5
20.7

1105
1106
1107

19.7 I 217
19.9
'2m
20.1
222

20.1
20.2
20.4

222
224
226

20.5
20.7
20.8

226
228
231

20-9
21.1
21.3

18.0 194
18.2 197
18.4 199

18.4 199
18.6 201
18.8 2o4

1051
1052
1053

199
201

18.6 201
18.8 204
19.0 206

19.0 206
19.2 209
19.4 211

1054
1085
1055

18.7
18.9

203
206
19.1 208

19.2 208
19.4 211
19.6 213

19.6 213
19.8 216
20.0 2l8

1057
1055
1059

206
208
210

19.3 211
19.5 213
19.7 215

19.8 216
20.0 218
20.2 220

20.2 221
20.4 223
20.7 226

lo90

19.5
19.7
19.9

213
215
218

19.9 218
20.1 220
20.3 222

20.4 223
20.6 225
20.8 228

20.9 228
21.1 230
21.3 233

lo93
lo94
lo95

215
217
220

20.1
20.3
20.5

220
222
225

20.5 225
20.7 227
20.9 230

21.0 230
21.2 232
21.4 235

21.5 235
21.7 238
21.9 240

1096
lo97
1098

20.2
20.4
20.6

222
224
227

20.7
20.8
21.0

227
229
232

21.1 232
21.3 234
21.5 237

21.6 237
21.8 240
, 242
22.0

22.1 243
22-3 245
22.5 248

lo99

224
2%
229

20.8
21.0
21.2

229
231
234

21.2
21.4
21.6

234
236
239

21.7 239
21.9 242
22.1 244

22.2 245
22.4 247
22.6 249

22.7 250
22.9 252
23.1 255

1102
1103
1104

231
233
236

214
21.6
21.7

236
2.38
241

21.8
22.o
22.2

241
244
246

22.3 246
22.5 249
227 251

22.8 252
23c1 254
,
23.2
257

23.3 257
23.5 260
23.7 262

194

lo91
lo92

1100
1101

(GmtinsW

IMe 1 Density - Composition Ihble for Aqueous Sohtion~ of HyWoric

0C
-g

5C

10 c

Acid - titd

15 c

1108
1109
1110

20.2
2o.4
20.6

224
226
229

20.6
20.8
21.0

228
231
233

21.0
21.2
21-4

233
235
236

21.5
21.7
21.9

21.9
22-l
22.3

243
246
248

22.4 248
22.6 251
22.8 253

22.9
23.1

254
256
23.3 259

23.4 259
23.6 262
23.8
264

23.9

240
243

1111
1112
1113

20.8
21.0
21.1

231
233
235

21.2
21.4
21.6

235
238
240

21.6
21.8
22.0

240
242
245

22.1
22.2
22.4

245
247
250

22.5
22.7
22.9

250
253
255

23.0 256
23.2 256
23.4 260

23.5 261
23.7 263
23.9 266

24.0 267
24.2 269
24-4 271

24.5 272
24.7 275
24.9 277

1111
1112
1113

1114
1115
1116

21.3
21.5
21.7

236
240
242

YJ1.7 242
21.3
244
22.1
247

22.2
22.4
22.5

247
249
252

22.6
22.8
23.0

252
254
257

23.1
23.3
23.5

257
2&O
262

23.6 263
2F.8 265
24.0 267

24.1 266
24.3 271
24.5 273

24.6 274
24.8 276
25.0 279

25.1 280
25.3 282
25.5 285

1114
1115
1116

1117
1118
1119

21.9
22.1
22.2

244
247
249

22.3
22.5
22-7

249
251
254

22.7
*z&9
23-l

254
256
255

23.2
234
236

259
261
264

23.7
23-9
24-l

iit
269

24.2 270
24.4 272
24.5 275

24.7 276
24.9 278
25.1 280

25.2 281
25.4 284
25.6 286

25.7 287
25.9 290
26.1 293

1117
1118
1119

1120
1121
1122

22.4
22.6
22.8

251
253
256

22.8
23.0
23.2

256
258
261

23.3
23.5
23.7

261
263
2%

23.8
24.0
24.1

266
269
271

24-3
244
24.6

272 24-7 m
274 24.9 280
2'76 25.1 282

25.3 283
25.5 285
25.7 288

25.8 289
26.0 291
26.2 294

264 295
26.6 296
26.8 300

1121

1123
1124
1125

23.o
23.1
23.3

256
260
262

23.4
23.6
23.8

263
265
267

23.9
24.0
24.2

266
270
273

24.3
24.5
24.7

273
276
278

24-8
25-O
25.2

279
281
264

25.3 285
25.5 287
25.7 269

25.9 290
26.1 293
26.3 295

26.4 296
26.6 299
26.8 302

27.0 3a3
27.2 305
274 308

1123
1124
1125

1126
1127
1128

23.5
23.7
23.9

265
267
269

24.0
24.1
24-3

270
272
274

24.4
24.6
24.8

275
277
260

24.9
25.1
25.3

280
283
285

254
25-6
25.8

286
289
291

25.9 292
26.1 294
26.3 297

26.5 298
26.7 300
26.9 303

27.0 304
27.2 307
27.4 309

27.6 311
ma
313
28.0 316

1126
1127
1128

1129
1130
1131

24.1
24.2
24.4

272
274
276

24.5
24.7
24.9

277
279
281

25.0
25.2
254

282
284
287

25.5
25.7
25.9

286
290
293

269
26-2
26.4

294
296
298

26.5 299
26.7 302
26.9 304

27.1 306
308
it.5 311

27.6 312
27.8 315
28.0 317

28.2 319
284 321
28.6 324

1129
1130
1131

1132
1133
1134

24.6
24.8
25.0

279
281
283

25.1
25.2
25.4

2m
286
288

25.5
25.7
25:9

269
292
294

26.1
26.3
264

295
297
300

26-6
26-8
2w

301
303
306

27.1 307
27.3 309
27.5 312

27.7 313
27.9 316
Z&i 318

28.2 320
28.4 322
28.7 325

28.8 327
29.1 329
29.3 332

1132
1133
1134

238

265
24.1 267
24.3 270

1120
1122

/
/

I
'

fhble 1 Density - Qmpositim fhble for Aqueous Sduliom


t

D,

(I

10 c

SC

r
G

I-

25%

20-c

15 C

ofHydmddark

35C

3OC

25.2
25.3
25.5

286
288
290

25.6
25.8
26.0

291
293
295

26.1
26.3
26.5

296
299
301

26.6
26.8
27.0

302
305
307

n-2
214
276

308
311
313

1138
113s
1140

25.7
25.9
26.1

293
295
297

26&
26.4
26.6

298
300
303

26.7
26.9
27.1

304
306
309

27.2
27.4
276

310
312
315

276
280
28.2

316
318
321

28.3
28.5
28.7

1141
1142
1143

26.3
26.4
26.6

300
302
304

26.8
26.9
27.1

305
308
310

27.3
27.5
27.6

311
313
316

27.8
289
28.2

317
320
322

284
286
20.8

1144
1146
1140

26.8
27.0
27.2

307
309
311

27.3
27.5
27.7

313
315
317

27.8
28-O
28.2

318
321
324

28.4
28.6
28.8

325
321
330

1147
1148
1149

27.4
27.5
27.7

314
316
319

27.9
28.1
28.3

320
322
325

28.4
28.6
28.8

326
329
331

29.0
29.2
29.4

1150
1151
1152

27.9
28.1
28.3

321
323
326

28.4
28.6
28.8

327
330
332

29.0
29.2
29.4

334
336
339

1163
1154
1155

28.5
28.7
28.8

328
331
333

29.0
29.2
29.4

334
337
339

29*6
29.8
30-O

1156
1157
1168

29.0
29.2
29.4

335
338
340

29.6
29.8
29.9

342
344
347

1159
1160
1161

29.6
29.8
29.9

343
345
348

40-c

--

113s
1136
1137

Add - Car&f

9-s
9.7
9.9

D,

--

315
317
320

28.3
28.5
28.7

321
324
326

!8*9

28

!9*1
!9.3

i30

322
325
327

28.9
29.1
29.3

329
331
334

t9.5
z9.7
B9

35
i38
i41

3!24
326
329

28.9 330
29.1. 332
29.3 335

29.5
29.7
29.9

337
339
342

1t41
1142
1143

290
29.2
294

331
334
336

29.5
29.7
29.9

338
340
34;

30.1 344
30.3 347
30-5 350

1144
1146
1146

332
335
337

29.6
29.7
29.9

339
342
344

30.1
30.3
30.5

345
348
351

30.7 352
30.9 365
31.1 358

1147
1148
1149

296
29.8
300

340
343
345

30-l
=3.
365

347
349
352

30.7
30.9
31.1

353
356
359

31.3 360
31.5 363
31.7 366

1160
1151
1162

341
344
347

30.2
30.4
306

348
350
353

30.7
309
31.1

354
357
360

31.3
31.5
31.7

361
364
366

31.9 368
32.1 371
32.4 374

1153
1164
1166

30-2
30.4
30.6

349
352
354

30.8
31.0
31.2

356
358
361

31.3
3lc.l
31.7

362
365
368

31.9
32.1
32.3

369
372
375

32.6 376
32.8 379
33.0 382

30-8
31.0
31.2

357
360
362

31.4
31.6
31.8

363
366
369

31.9
32.1
32.3

370
373
375

$2.6
32.8
33.0

377
380
383

33.2 384
33.4 387
33.6 390

i33

113s
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140

Table 1 Density - Composition

OC

D,

co

1O'C

5 c

365

of Hy~chioh

25C

20C

15C

Table for &WOW Sdutims

Acid - Cimtd

3O.OC

35'c

40-c

GgGgGgGgG

32.0
32.2
32.4

371
374
377

32-5
32-a
33.0

378
381
384

33.2
33.4
33.6

385
388
391

33.8
34-o
34.2

393
396
398

1162
1163
1164

379
382
385

33.2
33.4
33.6

386
389
392

33.8
34.0
34.2

394
396
399

34.4
34.6
34.8

401
404
407

1165
1166
1167

D,

1162
1163
1164

31.4
31.6
31-a

1165
1166
1167

32.0
32.2
32.4

/ 373
1 375
( 378

.32.6
32.8
33.0

1168
1169
1170

32-6
32-a
33.0

j 381
1 383
386

33.2
33.4
33.6

388
390
393

33-a
34-o
34.2

394
397
400

34-4
34-6
34-a

402
405
408

35-l
35.3
35.5

410
412
415

1168
1169
1170

1171
1172
1173

33.2
33.4
33.6

389
391
394

33.8
34.0
34.2

396
398
401

34-4
34.6
34-a

403
405
408

35.0
35-2
35.5

410
413
416

35-7
35.9
36.1

418
421
424

1171
1172
1173

1174
1175
1176

33.8
34.0
34.2

( 397
( 400

;4"6

;I

;I;

4l;

El'9

42;

402

34.8

409

35.4

'16 -. 38'1

424

36.8

432

1174
1175
1176

1177
1178
1179

34.4
34.6
34.8

405
408
410

35.0
35.2
35.4

, 412
415
417

35.6
35.8
36.0

419
422
425

36.3
36.5
36.7

427
430
433

37.0
37.2
37.4

435
438
441

1177
llrn
1179

1180
1181
1182

iii.

I 413
1 416
418

35.6
35.8
36.0

/ 420
/ 423
I 426

36.2
36.4
36.6

428
430
433

36.9
37-2
37-4

436
439
442

37.6
37.9
30-1

444
447
450

1180
1181
1182

1183
1184
1185

35.6
35.8
36.0

/ 421
j 424
i 427
I

36.2
36.4

429
431

36.6

434

36.8
37.1
37.3

436
439
442

37.6
37-a
38.0

445
448
450

-1183~
1184
1185

1186
1187
1188

36.2
36.4

429

36.8
37.0

437
440

37.5
37.7
37.9

444
447
450

38.2
38.4
38.7

453
456
459

1186
1197

35.4

36.6

368
370

j 4%
/ 435

37.3

443
1

1188
I

D,

35 c

4C

1189
1190
1191

36.8
37-o
37.2

438
440

37.5
37.7
37.9

445
448
451

1192
1193
1194

37.4
37.6
37.8

446
449
452

38-l

454
457
460

38.7
39-o
39.2

1196

1196
1197

38-o
38-2
38.5

455
457
460

36.7
38-9

39.1

462
465
468

39.4
39.6
39.8

470
473
476

1196
1198
1197

1198
1199
1200

38-7
38.9
39-l

463
466
469

39.3
395
39.8

471
474
477

40-O

480

1198
ll!I9
1200

39.3
39.5
39-7

472
475
478

1201
1202
1203

40.0
40-2

481
464

1204
1206

1201
1202
1203
1204
1205

443

38.3
38.5

463
456
459

1189

462
465
468

1192
11g
1181

1190
1191

IS 12845:1!m

ANNEX A
( Clauses 3.4 and 3.7 )
CORRECTIONS OF READINGS TAKEN BY HYDROMETERS
A-l CORRECTIONS TO BE APPLIED
GREATER ACCURACY

A-1.1.2

FOR

A-1.1.2.1 Appropriate
corrections for making
allowance for this temperature effect are given
in Table 3. Density hydrometers
corrected in
accordance with Table 3 give the density Dt of
the liquid at t.
A-1.1.3 Surface Tension Correction
These corrections are applied on a hydrometer
reading taken in an overflow vessel so as to
ensure that the surface of the liquid is truly
clean.

A-1.1.1 Corrections for Scale Errors


The maximum permissible scale errors allowed
on hydrometers appropriate
for hydrochloric
acid are given in Table 2.

Indian Standard Hydrometers for Use in Aqueous Solutions of Nitric Acid


( Clauses A-1.1.1 and D-l.1 )

Table 2

Interval
Covered by
Indioidanl
Hydrometers

Category

Corrections

When the hydrometer reading is taken at a


temperature t other than the standard temperature ts ( 27X, 20C or 15C ), the reading is
in error due to the difference in the volume of
the hydrometer between ts and 1.

A-l.1 Where greater accurafy is necessary, the


following additional correctlons are applied for:
a) the scale error of the hydrometer,
b) the difference between the temperature of
the liquid and the standald temperature
of the hydrometer, and
c) the difference between the surface tension
of the liquid and that for which the
hydrometer is adjusted.

Sertnrd

Temperature

r-_A_-y
( g/ml )

Equivalent
of One SubDivision
r---h-,

Scale Length Number of Pergti:$ble


( Nominal
Le;;;h )

Scale
Division

E&or

Overall
Length
Max

Max

e-7

Bolb
Diameter

w--,
Min

Max

( g/ml ) ( kglmr )
(mm)
( kg/m )
( kg/m)
(mm)
(mm)
36
40
-+ 0.2
335
10
02
105
20
owe 2
L 20
o-020
23
27
f 0.5
335
100
0.5
125
50
04005
L so
o-050
20
24
-f I.0
270
50
1
70
50
0401
M 50
O-050
18
20
& 2.0
250
50
2
85
100
o-002
Ml00
0.100
18
20
f 2.0
190
25
2
50
50
0402
s 50
0050
NOTE - The letters L. M and S stand for Long, Medium. and Short respectively
and the numbers
graduations of the scale of each
associated with each of them indicate the difference between the two extreme
hydrometer of the particular series concerned.
-,

Table 3

Standard Temperature 1, of Hydrometer

SI No.
P-

--

Temperature

i)

17
22
27
32
31
42
-

Hydrometer Reading at Temperature z


----.-__*-_._-_-~

__-____--A.------w--4--

27C

ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)
viii)
ix)
x)

Temperature Correctioas for Density Hydrometers


(Clauses A-1.1.2.1 and A-1.1.3.4 )

20C
( PC ) of liquid
0

15C -

10

5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40

15
20
25
30
35
40
-

1200

1 000

Correction

+5
$4
$3
+I

+6
$5
+3
+2

0
-1
-3
-4
-5
-_ 6

-2
-3
-5
-6
-8

NOTES
1 When the sign is positive, the correction is to be added to the hydrometer
lo be subtracted from it.
2 This table is based on the value 2.5 X IO- Per C for the coefficient
hydrometer.
10

( 0.1 kg!ms )

reading

and

of cllbical

when

negative

expansion

it is

of the

A-1.1.3.4 Application
tions:

A-1.1.3.1 When the highest accuracy is required,


hydrometer
adjusted for the high surface
tension value 75 mN/m shall be used.

of

hydrometer

correc-

Example:

A-1.1.3.2 In cases where no special precautions


are taken for obtaining a clean acid surface, the
surface tension of aqueous solutions is usually
less than the surface tension value for clean
s urfaces.
Also, since the value depends to a
large extent on the degree of contamination of
the surface, the effective surface tension is erratic. Hence when using ordinary hydrometer
jars without overflow, it is not possible to assign
a reliable value to the surface tension of the acid
solutions without measuring it. Under these
conditions surface tension corrections are usually
It may, however, be assumed that
ignored.
under ordinary conditions of cleanliness, the
values lie between 40 mN/m and 70 mN/m. It
is, therefore, appropriate .to use a hydrometer
adjusted for 55 mN/m. The error then introduced by ignoring surface tension is unlikely to
exceed values given in Table 4.

Hydrometer
used: Densitv hydrometer
Z
50 range 1 100 to 1 150 kg/mi at 20C adjusted
for 75 mN/m,
ascertained
scale error
-t-O5 kg/m*.
Temperature of acid solution
Uncorrected hydrometer reading using overflow technique
Corrections:
For scale error
For temnerature ( from
Table-3 )

For surface tension


( from Table 6 )
Then density of acid
solution at 27C

27C
1 1060 kg/ml
-05 kg/m8
-02

kg/m8

-01 kg/ma
-----1 105.2 kg/ma

From Table 1 a
solution
of densit!
1 105 kg/m* at 27C contains
220 g d
hydrochloric
acid in 100 g of solutior
and one litre of solution. contains 243 g oi
hydrochloric acid.

A-1.1.3.3 It is of interest to examine the overall


effect of ignoring corrections under A-1.1, A-l.1 2
and A-1.1.3 when using hydrometers adjusted
for the medium surface tension value.
In
Table 5, the hydrometers are assumed to be
floating in hydrochloric acid solutions of density
tween 1000 and 1 150 kg/ma at a temperature
di ering by flOC from the standard temperab48.
ture of the hydrometer.

Had the corrections of scale error, tempera.


ture and surface tension been ignored the
values would have been 222 g and 246 g,
respectively.

Table 4 Maximttm Errors Introdaced by Ignoring Sorf8ce Tension when Reading Den&y
liydrometen, Adjosted for 55 mN/m, in Aqueous Solotions of Hydrochloric Acid
in 80 Ordiarry Hydrometer J8r Maximum Error ( kg/m* )
( Clause A-1.1.3.2 )
DcnrltyHydrometers AdJusted for 55 mN/m
Dcnrihr
of the Acid Solution
Sl
No.
-__.-_
-

,----___-----___--__,
Ml00
L 50
M so
S50
L 20
ktdm*
f
1.1
fV9
*
0.4
fo.7
*:2
looo-1200
i)
NOTE - The letters L, b-2 and S stand for *Long*, Medium. and Short respectively and tho numbers
arrociated with each of them indicate the difference between the two sxtroma graduations of the scale Of each
hydrometer of tbc particular series concerned.

?8bie 5

Series and Range

Mttximttm Error@Due to Omirsiott of 8ii Corrections to Density


Hydrometers Adjusted for 55 pN/m
( Clause A-1.1.3.3 )

Category

Value of 1 sub-division
( kg/m* 1
a) Maximum permissible scale correctioor
b) Ml;;T;rn temperature corrections for
c) Maximum estimated surface tenrion
correction

Ml00
2.0

S50
2.0

f 2.0

f 2-o

f 0.3

f 03

f 0.3

f 0.7

If 1.1

f 0.9

L 20
0.2

L 50
0.5

f 0.2

* 0.5

M 50
1.0
kg/m*
f 10

f 0.3

f 0.3

f 0.2

f 0.4

-+ 1.2
* 2.0
f O-7
f 3.4
f 3.2
Maximum value of total correctlonl
Error in grams in determined strength of OolutiOnOf density 1 100 kg/m* at 30C ( 213 g hydrochloric acid per
100 g Of aolutlon or 234 g hydrochloric acid per 1 Htre of solution ) corrcapondmg to total corrections above.
I
f 0.2
I o-4
f 0.7
f 092
f 0.6
wcl in 100 g of lolutlon
18
f3
*5
f2
f8
HC1 in 1 litrc of #olutlOn
N3Ta - The lsttsrc L, M md S rtand for Long, Medium, and Short rerpeotlvely and the numberl
ga#oc{gted with rach of them indicate tho difforettce between the two extreme tgrrduations of the ,cgle of

@robhydrom@ter
of the particularleric8 coaceroed.

11

1812865:1#19
Surface Teedon Corrections for Indian Standard Density Hydrometers AdJarbd
for High Surface Tensioo Value When Used in Aqoeoos Solutions of Hydrochloric
Acid Having Trsly Clean Sorface ( Correction in 01 kg/ma )

Tsbie 6

( Chwe
3 1 No. Daarily of Solath
0

ii)
iii)

at

27C ( kg/m* 1
loo0
1 100
1200

A-1.1.3.4)

Indian Standard Hydrometers Adjusted for the High Sorface Teasion 75 mN/m
~-h----__------,____
r---------L2O

L so

M 50

-1
-1

M 100/S 50

-2
-4

-1
-2

-5
-5

NOTES
1 The letters L, M and S staad,for Long. Medium, and Short respectively and the numbers associated
with each of them indicate the difference between the two extreme graduations of the scale of each bydrometer of the particular series concerned.
2 The sign being negative. the correction is IO be subtracted from the hydrometer reading.

ANNEX B
( Chse 3.5 )
USE OF DENSITY-COMPOSfTION
B-1 TO DETERMINE THE STRENGTH OF
AN AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID

TABLES

a hydrometer
during the dilution until the
Hydrometer indicates that the density is approaching 1 102 kg/m*. At this stage and before
making the final adjustment, the temperature of
the solution is taken. Suppose it is 25C, then
from Table I the value of Dt corresponding
to
headed 25C is
g = 208 in the column
1 100 kg/ma. The solution at 25C should,
therefore,
be adjusted so that a hydrometer
indicates that its density is 1 100 kg/m*. The
solution thus obtained will contain 208 g of
hydrochloric acid in 100 g of solution.

El.1

Suppose that the temperature of the solution is TSC and the density at that temperature
is 1 086 kg/ms. Then in Table 1 UI 3er the temperature 25C and opposite Dt = 1 OS? will be
found g - lg.1 and G = 196, indicatmg that
the solution contains 181 grams of hydrochloric
acid in 100 g of solution and 196 g of hydrochlyic acid in one litre of solution at 25C.
B-2 TO MAKE UP A SOLUTION CONTAINING 2043 g OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID IN
THE 100 GRAMS OF SOLUTION
B-2.1 In Table 1 under t - 20C the value of
Dt corresponding to g = 208 g is 1 102 kg/m.
Water should therefore be mixed with a more
tincentrated
solution of hydrochloric
acid, in
-small portions with thorough mixing and avoidance of an undue rise in temperature, the density
of the diluted acid solution being checked with

B-3 TO MAKE UP A SOLUTIOti CONTAINING 218 g OF HYDROCHLORIC


ACID IN
1 LITRE OF SOLUTION AT 25C
B-3.1 From Table 1 under the heading 25C, we
find that a solution containing 218 g of hydrochloric acid per litre has 199 g of hydrochloric
acid per 100 g of solution.
Therefore
the
required solution is made up as in B-2 using
g = 199.

ANNEX C
( Chuse 3.6 )
DETERMINATION

OF DENSITY

(Dt ) AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES

C-l DETERMINATION OF Dt FROM THE


VALUE OF g

C-2 DETERMINATION
VALUE OF G

C-l.1 Consider

C-2.1 The percentage

a solution containing
15 g of
hydrochloric acid in 100 g of solution, that is,
one for which g = 15. By looki 7g up the value
of Dt corresponding to the value g = 15 under
any particular temperature in Table 1 the density
of the solution at that temperature
can be
obtained.
Thus, for example, the density of
the solution is I 076 kg/m8 at 10% and 1 072
kg/m* at 20C.

tion
the
litre
the
the

OF Dt FROM THE

composition
g of a soluis independent
of its temperature,
but G,
number of grams of hydrochloric
acid in 1
of solution, varies with the temperature
of
solution owing to the change
in volume
of
solution with change in temperature.
Hence,

the concentration G must always be associated


with a particular temperature.
For a given
value of G applicable at a particular tempera12

IS 12845 : 1989
ture, Table 1 can be used to obtain the density solution at various temperatures.
Examples of
or at the values which may thus bs obtained are given
any other temperature within the range of the in Table 7.
table. The value of G for the solution at temTable 7 Values of G of a Solution at
peratures other than the specified one can also
Different Temperatures
be obtained.
For example, consider a solution
containing 298 g of hydrochloric
acid per litre
( Clause C-2 )
at 20C. Under 20C in Table 1 the value of
PC
Grams (g) of
Density (Ot) of Grams (G) of
I& corresponding to G = 298 is 1 131 kg/ma and
Solution of
HCI in 100 g
HCI in 1 Litre
the corresponding value of g is 264. By tracing
kg/m at PC!
of Solution
of Solutioa
the value g = 264 through the Table 1, and
at PC
interpolating where necessary, the density Dt at
0
264
1 142
302
various temperatures of the solution containing
10
26.4
300
,298 g of hydrochloric acid in 1 litre of solution
z:
26.4
1
: ::t
126
298
at 20C can be obtained and also the number
40
26.4
1 120
it!
of grams of hydrochloric acid in 1 litre of the
of the solution at the specified temperature

ANNEX D
( Clauses 3.7.and A-1.1.1 )
CHOICE OF HYDROMETERS
D-l INDIAN STANDARD HYDRO.VETERS
;:tXL;;E
1N CONJUNCTION WITH THE

chloric acid. They may have scales of density


at 27C, 20C and 15C. The choice of the
hydrometer series will depend on the accuracy
required and the amount of solution available.
Table 2 gives the essential features of the varjous
D-l.1 Indian Standard specifications for density
suitable for aqueous
hydrometers
IS 3104 ( Parts 1 and 2 ) : 1982 series of hydrometers
solutions.
affords a wide choice of density hydrometers
suitable for use in aqueous solution of hydro-

13

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ducer.
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of the Standard Mark may be granted to manufacturers
or producers may be obtained from
the Bureau of Indian Standards.
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