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National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health IOSH ELEMENTS OF ERGONOMICS PROGRAMS A Primer based

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

IOSH

ELEMENTS OF ERGONOMICS PROGRAMS
ELEMENTS
OF
ERGONOMICS
PROGRAMS
A Primer based on Workplace Evaluations of Musculoskeletal Disorders
A Primer based
on Workplace
Evaluations of
Musculoskeletal
Disorders
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U.S.U.S. DEPARTMENTDEPARTMENT OFOF HEALTHHEALTH ANDAND HUMANHUMAN SERVICESSERVICES

Public Health Service

Public Health Service

Centers Centers for for Disease Disease Control Control and and Prevention Prevention

NationalNational InstituteInstitute forfor OccupationalOccupational SafetySafety andand HealthHealth

Occupational Safety Safety and and Health Health CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND

CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL

CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL

AND PREVENTION

AND

PREVENTION

A Pathway to Controlling Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs)

LOOKING FOR LOOKING FOR Cues and tip-offs Cues and tip-offs SIGNS OF SIGNS OF WMSDs
LOOKING FOR
LOOKING FOR
Cues and tip-offs
Cues and tip-offs
SIGNS OF
SIGNS OF
WMSDs
WMSDs
to problems
to problems
SETTING THE
SETTING THE
Management commitment
Management commitment
STAGE FOR ACTION
STAGE FOR ACTION
and employee roles
and employee roles
TRAINING—BUILDING
TRAINING—BUILDING
General and specialized training
General and specialized training
IN-HOUSE EXPERTISE
IN-HOUSE EXPERTISE
needs and access to resources
needs and access to resources
GATHERING AND EXAMINING
GATHERING AND EXAMINING
EVIDENCE
EVIDENCE
OF WMSDs
OF WMSDs
Health and risk factor data
Health and risk factor data
collection and assessment
collection and assessment
DEVELOPING CONTROLS
Options for reducing risks and
Options for reducing risks and
evaluating their effectiveness
evaluating their effectiveness
ESTABLISHING HEALTH
ESTABLISHING HEALTH
Duties of health care
Duties of health care
CARE MANAGEMENT
CARE MANAGEMENT
providers and others
providers and others
CREATING A PROACTIVE
CREATING A PROACTIVE
ERGONOMICS PROGRAM
ERGONOMICS PROGRAM
Accent on prevention

Awkward Postures

Overhead Work

Twisting and Carrying Loads

Wrist Deviations

Contact Stress

Poor Shoulder/Wrist Position

Lifting Bulky Loads

Hand - Arm Vibration

Whole Body Vibration
Whole Body Vibration

Figure 1. Illustrations of selected risk factor conditions. (Illustrations adapted from UAW-GM Center for Health & Safety [1990]; Putz-Anderson V [1988]; Grant et al. [1995]; Canadian Center of Occupational Safety and Health [1988]; American Meat Institute and Ergo Tech, Inc. [1990].

Raise and tilt the container for easier access and to reduce bending and lifting

burdens.

Raise and tilt the container for easier access and to reduce bending and lifting burdens.

Use a turntable with fixture to hold the work; select a tool that reduces wrist deviations.

Use a turntable with fixture to hold the work; select a tool that reduces wrist deviations.

Extend and support tool to reduce stress on arm and shoulder.

Round or pad edges of guards, contain- ers, or work tables.

Round or pad edges of guards, contain- ers, or work tables. Use conveyors to reduce twisting

Use conveyors to reduce twisting and eliminate lifting and carrying.

Use conveyors to reduce twisting and eliminate lifting and carrying.

Raise worker with platform and use in-line tool to reduce wrist bending.

Raise worker with platform and use in-line tool to reduce wrist bending.
 

Use mechanical assist devices for

Select power tools with anti-vibration properties. Use handle coatings that suppress vibrations; increase coefficient of friction to reduce force requirements.

Use balancers,

isolators and

less stressful handling.

damping materials to reduce vibrations at the source or along trans- mission path. Make driving surface smooth.

   

Figure 2. Illustrations of some basic ways for controlling selected risk factor conditions.

Tray 4–A. Symptoms Survey Form

Symptoms Survey: Ergonomics Program Date Job Name Plant Dept # years months Shift Hours worked/week
Symptoms Survey: Ergonomics Program
Date
Job Name
Plant
Dept #
years
months
Shift
Hours worked/week
Time on THIS Job

Other jobs you have done in the last year (for more than 2 weeks)

 

months

weeks

Plant

Dept #

Job Name

Time on THIS Job

 

months

weeks

Plant

Dept #

Job Name

Time on THIS Job

(If more than 2 jobs, include those you worked on the most)

Have you had any pain or discomfort during the last year?

Yes
Yes

No (If NO, stop here)

If YES, carefully shade in area of the drawing which bothers you the MOST.

Front Back
Front
Back

(Continued)

Tray 4–A (Continued).

(Complete a separate page for each area that bothers you)

Check Area:

NeckCheck Area: Shoulder Elbow/Forearm Hand/Wrist Fingers

Shoulder

Shoulder

Elbow/Forearm

Elbow/Forearm

Check Area: Neck Shoulder Elbow/Forearm Hand/Wrist Fingers

Hand/Wrist

Fingers

Upper BackLow Back Thigh/Knee Low Leg Ankle/Foot

Low Back

Low Back

Upper Back Low Back Thigh/Knee Low Leg Ankle/Foot

Thigh/Knee

Low Leg

Ankle/Foot

Ankle/Foot

1. Please put a check by the words(s) that best describe your problem

Aching Numbness (asleep) Tingling Burning Pain Weakness Cramping Swelling Other Loss of Color Stiffness 2.
Aching
Numbness (asleep)
Tingling
Burning
Pain
Weakness
Cramping
Swelling
Other
Loss of Color
Stiffness
2. When did you first notice the problem?
(month)
(year)
3. How long does each episode last? (Mark an X along the line)
1 hour
1 day
1 week
1 month
6 months
4. How many separate episodes have you had in the last year?
5. What do you think caused the problem?
6. Have you had this problem in the last 7 days?
Yes
No
7. How would you rate this problem? (mark an X on the line)
NOW
None
Unbearable
When it is the WORST
None
Unbearable
8. Have you had medical treatment for this problem?
Yes
No
8a. If NO, why not?
8a. If YES, where did you receive treatment?
1. Company Medical
Times in past year
2. Personal doctor
Times in past year
3. Other
Times in past year
Did treatment help?
Yes
No
9. How much time have you lost in the last year because of this problem?
days
10. How many days in the last year were you on restricted or light duty because of this problem?
days
11. Please comment on what you think would improve your symptoms
Tray 6–A. Recommended Workstation Measurements* 20" 10" 13"–17" 21"–25" 40" 60"
Tray 6–A. Recommended Workstation Measurements*
20"
10"
13"–17"
21"–25"
40"
60"

SEATED WORK:

and secondary

40" 60" SEATED WORK: and secondary 64 56 Occasional extended 48 reach 40 32 24 16
64 56 Occasional extended 48 reach 40 32 24 16 8 0 0 8 16
64
56
Occasional
extended
48
reach
40
32
24
16
8
0
0
8
16
24
32
40
INCHES

INCHES

SEATED WORK:

Boundaries for vertical reaches for grasping objects.

WORK: Boundaries for vertical reaches for grasping objects. STANDING WORK: Shelf heights to which a free-

STANDING WORK:

Shelf heights to which a free- standing person can reach and place a hand flat on a shelf should not exceed 60 in.

Primary

Optimal work surface height varies with the work performed:

areas for table top work.

Precision work = 31–37 in. Reading/writing = 28–31 in. Typing/light assembly = 21–28 in. Seat and back rest heights should be adjustable as noted in chair requirements below.

5–10 Work Surface 6"–12" 8"2–12" 7" Minimum 2–5 4" 14"–21" ADJ.
5–10
Work Surface
6"–12"
8"2–12"
7"
Minimum
2–5
4"
14"–21"
ADJ.
Footrest
25

STANDING WORK:

Workbench heights should be above elbow height for precision work , just below elbow height for light work , and 4–6 in. below elbow height for heavy work .

work , and 4–6 in. below elbow height for heavy work . 37"–43" 34"–37" 28"–35"
37"–43" 34"–37" 28"–35" Precision work Light work Heavy work
37"–43"
34"–37"
28"–35"
Precision work
Light work
Heavy work

*Adapted in part from Grandjean E [1982] (

Fitting the Task to the Man: An Ergonomic Approach

.

London: Taylor & Francis Ltd.) and UAW-GM [1990] (

Heights, Michigan: Center for Health & Safety).

UAW-GM Ergonomics Handbook.

Madison