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WRITE SHORT & BRIEF ANSWERS:

89) What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of longitudinal versus cross-sectional
designs?
Answer
The relative advantages and disadvantages of longitudinal versus cross-sectional
designs are summarized
Below.
Relative advantages and disadvantages of longitudinal versus crosssectional designs
Evaluation !riteria !rossSectional "esign #ongitudinal "esign
Detecting change
- +
Large amount of data collection
- +
Accuracy
- +
Representative sampling
+ -
Response bias
+ -
ote! A " indicates a relative advantage over the other design# whereas a $ indicates a relative disadvantage.
A ma%or advantage of longitudinal design over the cross-sectional design is the ability to
detect change as a result of repeated measurement of the same variables on the same
sample.
90) Briefly define and discuss random sampling error, non-sampling error, and the two maor
types of non-sampling error
Answer:
Random sampling error
The error because the particular sample selected is an imperfect
representation of the population of interest. &t may be de'ned as the
variation between the true mean value for the sample and the true mean
value of the population.
Non-sampling error
An error that can be attributed to sources other than sampling and that can
be random or non-random.
on-sampling errors consist of non-response errors and response errors.
Non-response error
A type of non-sampling error that occurs when some of the respondents
included in the sample do not respond. This error may be de'ned as the
variation between the true mean value of the variable in the original sample
and the true mean value in the net sample.
Response error
A type of non-sampling error arising from respondents who do respond but
who give inaccurate answers or whose answers are mis-recorded or mis-
analysed. &t may be de'ned as a variation
between the true mean value of the variable in the net sample and the
observed mean value obtained in the mar(et research pro%ect.
9!) "iscuss how the #nternet can facilitate the implementation of different types of research
designs$
Internet and computer applications
The &nternet can facilitate the implementation of di)erent types of research designs.
Exploratory research
&f an e*ploratory research design is to be utilised# forums# chat rooms or newsgroups
can be used to discuss a particular topic to great depth. +iles can be e*changed that
can include moving images and sounds# allowing ,uestions and probes to be built
around this material. +ormal focus groups may be conducted with e*perts or individuals
representing target groups# all on a global basis if needed.
Conclusive research
-any descriptive studies utilise secondary data in de'ning the nature of a problem# as
a techni,ue in its own right and as a means to develop sampling plans. &n primary data
collection# the
&nternet can be used for surveys and in panels .