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Strategy for Public Affairs and Communication
Public Affairs Management
Public Affairs
The management process that focuses on the formalization and institutionalization of
corporate public policy.
i. Public issue
An issue that is of concern to CDCs stakeholders.
ii. Stakeholder expectations
A mixture of peoples (including members and potential members) opinions,
attitudes, and beliefs about what constitutes reasonable Christian behaviour,
teaching, evangelism, etc.
iii. Performance-expectations gap
A gap between what stakeholders expect and what the Christian Divine Church
is actually doing.

Phase 1: Changing Stakeholder Expectations
o When a performance-expectation gap emerges, the seeds of a public issue
have been sown.

Phase 2: Political Action
o When a problem is placed on the agenda for government action.

Phase 3: Formal Government Action
o When legislative proposals or draft regulations emerge. Characterized also
by an increased number of people involved in the conflict.

Phase 4: Legal Implementation
o When a new law or regulation is implemented and companies are forced to
comply with the law.

Public Affairs Activities

External forces

a. Loss of public trust institutions
b. Globalization of world issues (terrorisms, etc.)
c. Rise of the Internet

Internal forces

d. Better communication within organizations
e. More experience dealing with significant change and complexity
f. Growing focus on the interplay between the Church, its environment, and
its strategies

Public affairs management
The active management of the Churchs external relations, especially its relations with
external stakeholders such as government and regulatory and other governmental
agencies, potential members and communities.
Corporate public affairs activities may include any number of these:
Political action committee
Church/Government Relations
Issue Management
Local Government Relations
Community Relations
Christian/Ecumenical Association Membership
Public Policy Group Relations
Public Relations and (Corporate) Communications
Grassroots Communication
Employee Volunteer Programmes
Media Relations
Employee Communications
Strategic Philanthropy (including corporate social responsibility, etc.)
Corporate public policy /Public Issues
Crisis management
Governmental relations

An effective Christian Divine Church public affairs function must:
Manage public affairs as an ongoing, year-round process.
Cultivate and harvest the capability to build, develop, and maintain enduring
stakeholder relationships.
Influence stakeholders using refined information.
Recognise the importance of managing the grass roots.

Communicate in an integrated manner.
Continuously align its values and strategy with publics interests.
Improve its external relations using the accepted facts of contemporary
management practice.
A structured and systematic process to aid the Church in identifying, monitoring,
and selecting public issues that warrant organizational action.
Environmental intelligence
The acquisition of information gained from analyzing the multiple environments
affecting church.
Publics (or audience: current, potential and future
congregants and local and central governments)
Competitors (other churches, mosques, and religious

Government relations and public affairs are the types of public relations that deal with
how an organization interacts with the government, with governmental regulators, and
the legislative and regulatory arms of government. The government relations and public
affairs functions are often referred to as synonyms, but there are very minor differences.
a) Government Relations is the branch of public relations that helps an
organisation communicate with governmental publics.
b) Public Affairs is the type of public relations that helps an organization interact
with the government, legislators, interest groups, and the media.
These two functions often overlap, but government relations is often a more
organization-to-government type of communication in which regulatory issues are
discussed, communication directed to governmental representatives takes place,
lobbying efforts directed at educating legislators are initiated, and so on. A strategic
issue is any type of issue that has the potential to impact the organization, how it does
business, and how it interacts with and is regulated by the government.
Public policy issues are those with the potential of maturing into governmental
legislation or regulation international, state, or local.
Public affairs is the external side of the function that deals more broadly with public
policy issues of concern among constituents, activists, or groups who lobby the
government on behalf of a certain perspective. Public affairs are often issues of public
concern that involve grassroots initiatives, meaning that everyday citizens organise and

create a movement in favor of a certain issue or perspective. In that case, public affairs
specialists would work to resolve conflict or negotiate on behalf of an organisation,
working with these groups to create an inclusive solution to problems.
Public affairs specialists act as lobbyists on behalf of their organisations, and they
interact with publics who are interested in lobbying the government for legislation
regarding particular issues.
In some organisations, the governmental relations arm or public affairs unit is coupled
with issues management, or it can even be the same public relations executive
responsible for both roles. Issues management and public affairs are extremely close in
their responsibilities, goals, and activities. Both issues management and public affairs
seek to facilitate interaction between the organisation and the government or
government agencies with whom it must deal, and to incorporate and update
organisational policy in accordance with governmental standards. However, issues
management is the larger function because it deals not only with governmental and
regulatory publics but also many other types of publics. The governmental relations or
public affairs function is more narrowly focused on legislative, regulatory, and
lobbying issues.
Public affairs can be used in a corporate setting to interact on policy and legislation with
the government, interest groups (or, as discussed in the following section, activist
publics), and the media. An organisation must also use public affairs to communicate
about policy and procedures with investors, regulatory publics, employees, and internal
publics, as well as communities and customers.
Many companies and organisations (including churches as non-governmental
organisations) have government relations departments because governmental bodies at
the local and national levels have a major impact on business and other operations.
Primary job of government relations is to monitor actions of legislative bodies and
regulatory agencies. This is often done through associations and organisations in the
district, regional and national capital cities.
The primary goal of government relations is to influence decisions of legislative bodies
and regulatory agencies.
Tactics include:
visits to legislators offices to persuade them on issues and votes
expert testimony at public hearings
write speeches for CEOs
writing letters to editors and op/ed pieces
preparing position papers

preparing advocacy advertising, etc
organising grassroots efforts to influence legislators' opinions, etc.
producing advocacy videos to show to governmental committees
placing advocates on network and local talk shows
A basic principle here is that corporations, industries, trade associations, professional
associations, non-profit organizations (such as churches) and PR firms all have a right
to have their views heard in the marketplace of information. PR professionals are often
the catalyst to ensure this happens.


Corporate crisis
o A significant church business disruption that stimulates extensive news
media coverage.
Crisis management
o The process organisations use to respond to short-term and immediate
corporate crises.

An effective crisis management plan involves

Preparing for action by creating an internal communication system that can be
activated the moment the crisis occurs.
Communicating quickly, but accurately.
Using the media (including the Internet) to convey the public affairs message.
Doing the right thing by not minimizing the seriousness of a problem or
exaggerating minor incidents.
Following up and, where appropriate, making amends to those affected
Issues fall within the domain of public policy or public affairs management.
Issues typically have a public policy/public affairs orientation or flavour.
An issue is any trend, event, controversy, or public development that might
affect the church.
Issues originate in social/political/ regulatory/judicial environments.

Basic assumptions
Issues can be identified earlier, more completely, and more reliably

Early anticipation widens the range of options
Early anticipation permits study and understanding of the issues
Early anticipation permits a positive orientation towards the issues
Early anticipation allows for better identification of the stakeholders
Early identification provides the opportunity for the organisation to supply
information about the issue earlier
The Steps of Issues Management
1. Identify public issues and trends in public expectations
o Scan the environment for trends and issues
o Track trends in issues that are developing
o Develop forecasts of trends and issues
o Identify trends and issues of interest to the corporation
2. Evaluate their impact and set priorities
o Assess the impacts and probability of recurrence
o Assess the corporate resources and ability to respond
o Prepare the issue priorities for further analysis
3. Conduct research and analysis
o Categorise issues along relevant dimensions
o Ensure that priority issues receive staff coverage
o Involve functional areas where appropriate
o Use outside sources of information
o Develop and analse position options
4. Develop strategy
o Analyse position and strategy options
o Decide on position and strategy
o Integrate with overall business strategy
5. Implement strategy
o Disseminate agreed-upon position and strategy
o Develop tactics consistent with overall strategy
o Develop alliances with external organizations
o Link with internal and external communication networks
6. Evaluate strategy
o Assess results (staff and management)
o Modify implementation plans
o Conduct additional research



Most large organizations, from multinational corporations to universities, have crisis
communications plans, and so should churches, no matter their size. Whether yours is a
mega-church with scores of staff members or a small congregation with a bi-vocational
pastor, it's vital to have a plan.

The purpose of this policy is to communicate information about crisis situations
accurately and efficiently to the various audiences that are important to our church.
Understanding this purpose, these procedures will direct us in better managing the
crisis and the churchs communication about it.

What is a crisis?

A crisis is a major, negative, public, sudden and unpredicted event that can seriously
disrupt an organisations activity and potentially hurt its bottom line and mission.
Because a crisis occurs in a public environment, even private businesses and non-profit
organisations like churches cannot shield themselves from expectation of being
accountable. By its nature, a crisis invites outside scrutiny and jeopardises the
organisations reputation.
An organisation may find itself either in the role of either culprit or victim in a crisis
situation. Regardless of the cause, if a crisis is handled properly, it offers the
organisation with an opportunity to create a positive impression on its key publics.
According to the Institute for Crisis Management (ICM), every crisis begins as a
problem. A problem becomes a crisis when it escapes the organization before its people
can control it. Based on this premise, we may define a crisis as a significant disruption
in our normal activities that stimulates media coverage and public scrutiny.
A crisis should be considered as any event that will attract media attention and that has
a potentially adverse effect on the publics perception of our church.

What types of crises should we expect?

Crises generally fall into two categories (sudden crisis and smoldering crisis), according
to ICM.

i. Sudden crisis occurs with little warning. Examples include natural disasters such
as floods or tornadoes; accidents such as food poisoning at potluck suppers;
sabotage or vandalism of church property; the sudden death of a church leader;

bomb threats; and injury or death on church property. natural disasters,
accidents, acts of violence, vandalism
ii. Smoldering crisis is a potentially damaging condition that is known to one or
more persons. According to ICM research, 77 percent of crises are of the
"smoldering" type. Examples include scandals such as embezzlement of church
funds; immorality or ethical breaches; picketing of church facilities; blogging
campaigns against the church or church members; even theological issues that
divide congregations and expose the church to public ridicule. Others include:
a) vehicle accident of a group event in which the church designated
driver is alleged to be at fault
b) staff/member who is alleged to be in serious violation of the law
c) alleged misconduct, actual or perceived, by a member or staff
d) organizational dissension, by a member of the staff or constituency
e) alleged financial impropriety, budget shortfall
f) tragedies/injuries involving members or staff
g) litigation

Crisis can also be put under violent and non-violent categories.
Disaster (violent) natural occurrence such as earthquake, floods, etc. Such cause
immediate damage.
Disaster (non-violent) Natural occurrence such as drought, epidemic, etc.
Delayed damage
Accident (violent): mishap involving people or equipment. Immediate damage
Legal/Ethical Failing (Non-violent) Unfortunate personal action violating
legal/ethical/moral standard. Immediate or delayed damage
Mismanagement (Non-violent) But professional judgement impacting on an
organisations operations and procedures. Immediate or delayed damage
Opposition (Violent) Negative impact by outside forces, including product
tempering, terrorism, etc. Immediate damage
Opposition (Non-violent) Negative impact by outside forces, including
competition, erosion of public trust, protests, recalls, lawsuits, new regulations,
etc. Delayed damage
Stages of Crisis Management
Pre-Crisis (Prodromal Stage, earliest symptoms)
a) Anticipation and prevention
b) Crisis forecasting (worst-case scenario)
c) Vulnerability Audit (warning signs)
d) Crisis Planning, with message and messenger
e) Media training
Crisis (Acute Stage)

a) Effective Response
b) Containment
c) Involvement of regulators and outside authorities
d) Investigation
e) Confirmation
Continuing Crisis (Chronic stage)
a) Ongoing containment
Post-Crisis (Resolution Stage)
a) Recovery
b) Return to normal
c) Assessment
d) Preventative Planning
Crisis and Reputation
A crisis shows what an organisation is made of, by making visible under adverse
situations its values, priorities and commitments. It brings out the best or the worst.
Even natural disasters and accidents often have a trail of clues and predictions that
were unheeded. The crisis smoldered long before it burst forth. During the smoldering
period, steps could be taken to prevent or significantly minimise the eventual damage.
Crisis Communication Goals
Our goals for managing communication in the event of a crisis are:
to assure that accurate information is communicated
to avoid fueling the crisis
to safeguard member and staff privacy rights
to maintain a positive image for the church
to be responsive to media and constituents inquiries

Crisis Communication Objectives

During the crisis, the organisations seldom have time to develop detailed strategies.
However, the following objectives should be kept in mind during any crisis situation.

CDC will maintain (or restore) its credibility

with the media
with employees and volunteers
with investors and donors
with government and professional authorities

CDC will maintain (or restore) its reliability

with members

CDC will maintain (or restore) its reputation for social responsibility

with its employees
with volunteers
with the wider community

4. Specific Procedures for Managing Crisis Communication:
Because God is our ultimate help, in the event of a crisis it is appropriate to take time to
offer a prayer to God, asking for guidance and care for those affected by the crisis. As
soon as we become aware of a crisis (or believe a crisis may occur), we would contact
the Apostle and Chairman, immediately. An Incident Report may need to be completed.
He will evaluate the scope of the crisis and determine if the Crisis Communication Team
(recommended to be formed) should be activated. The Crisis Communication Team is
composed of:
PPAC representative
Legal Counsel or substitute Counsel
Others as Deemed Appropriate

It should have a Spokesperson

The Apostle or the Crisis Team will develop a strategy for communicating about the
crisis, dealing with various audiences, and responding to the media. The strategy may
include prepared statement, letters, news releases, news conferences, and assistance
from media and/or legal consultant.
How do we plan for a crisis?

A crisis communications plan is distinct from an operational plan designed to deal with
church security, evacuation procedures and other emergencies, yet it should
complement any church's operational plan. Here are tips for getting started:

i. Define your crisis. State clearly and in writing the types of sudden and smoldering
crises most likely to disrupt your church's activities and stimulate media coverage
and public scrutiny.

ii. Recruit a crisis communications team. Identify members who can serve in key
roles during a crisis.

a) Consider appointing a director of communications who manages the team
(a trusted leader in the church who is a good organiser);
b) a spokesperson (someone comfortable addressing the news media and
other external audiences);
c) a congregational liaison who ensures church members are communicated
with early and often;
d) an administrator who handles calls to the church and manages office
support; and
e) a writer who works with the team to draft clear and consistent messages.

Other team members may be necessary, such as
a) logistics specialists to set up a news conference, secure office supplies
and arrange for meals and other necessities;
b) graphic designers;
c) photographers;
d) telephone operators; etc.

Keep the team fairly small and identify backups for each position. Publish cell phone
numbers for each team member and backup.

Audiences: We have a number of different audiences with whom we communicate. The
audience for crisis communication will vary, depending on the nature and scope of the
situation. While the media is the audience that immediately comes to mind in a crisis,
the church must manage crisis communication to the following audiences:
church members
church council members
Other church leaders
General public, etc.

Once you've identified who you need to reach, determine how you'll reach them.
Consider using your church website, e-mail lists, e-newsletters, telephone calls, a public
address system, written or spoken statements to the news media, news conferences,
etc. Assign the best delivery system for each audience; for example, church members
may be reached most quickly via e-mail, website or telephone, depending on church
size and organization.

Mission: What's the mission of our church? Make sure it comes through clearly in our
communications. Think about how a crisis impacts our mission, what we must do to
address the crisis and how we must stay focused on our mission in a crisis.

Involving the Congregation: Put together a simple step-by-step response plan that our
communications team will carry out. Make sure each member of that team, as well as
our church staff, has a copy. Be sure our congregation knows you have a plan and how

to alert church leaders in the event of a potential crisis. Also, make sure everyone has
access to public statements during a crisis. This will enable and empower them to talk
to their families, friends, neighbors and co-workers. Your members are perhaps the
most effective spokespersons for the church -- if they are informed, equipped and
empowered. Finally, make sure they know that only designated spokespersons should
speak with the news media.

Be specific. Here is a simple step-by-step plan:

Step 1 - Any church member should notify the crisis communications director
immediately upon hearing of a situation or problem that may become a crisis. The
director will seek to verify the information and evaluate the situation to determine
whether it truly is a crisis or potential crisis.

Step 2 - The director activates the crisis communications team, calling or texting
each member immediately.

Step 3 - The team meets within 30 minutes, in person or via phone, to assess the
situation, prepare a short statement, develop key messages and put the right people
in place.

Step 4 -- A congregational liaison (internal) and spokesperson (external) deliver an
initial statement within one hour of being notified of the crisis. Church members
should have access to all information being made public and, if possible, receive that
information before or at the same time it is being released to the public. Use the
most appropriate delivery systems news conference, Web posting, e-mail, etc.

Step 5 - The team develops and delivers additional statements as more information
becomes available. These are provided to church members as they are released to
the public.

Step 6 - If the crisis is a sustained one, the team calls upon additional resources to
organize shifts, arrange for catering of food, etc.

Step 7 - The team shuts down when it is determined the situation is no longer of
media interest or public scrutiny. Other arrangements related to the church's
operational plan may still be needed -- an alternative worship site if the church
building has been destroyed, for example, and the crisis communications team may
need to help transition to normal communications channels.
Step 8 - Debrief. What worked well and what didn't? How should the crisis
communications plan be improved for future preparations?

Practice. No plan is perfect, but practice will help improve your church's plan.

Assemble your crisis communications team once or twice a year for drills. Role play.
Involve church members. Hold mock news conferences. Work the plan and adjust it.

Finally, consider media training for your crisis communications team from
consultants recommended to you from reliable sources in your city or within your
state Baptist convention.
Its a horrible thoughtthe worst has happened at a church across town. Someone
was killed during a crime on the church property. The church suffered a fire. Or the
nightmare of having a child molested.
Make a crisis communication plan
It isnt pleasant, it is not fun and it is much easier to bury your head in the sand and
pretend (and hope and pray) that tragedy never lands on your church grounds. But if
it doesyou will have a plan in place.
Here are tips for crisis communication:
1. Be transparent. Its better that your congregation hear about the news from your
senior pastor or a person appointed than it would be to hear it on the evening news.
2. As well as to your congregation, be transparent to the media. Let the media know
your steps for correcting possible problems that led to the situation.
3. Know that different scenarios require different forms of action. An outbreak of the
chicken pox in a Sunday school class room that was part of a parade into the
Sanctuary last Sunday requires a different form of action than a fire with an unknown
cause that cancels Sunday morning services.
4. Make a plan for any possible scenario you can think offrom the most common
to the most extreme. Write down the steps and create documents that can easily be
edited. Include written form letters and press releases with fill in the blank areas to
cover #1 & #2 above.
5. Form a binder with all of the instructions needed and have twoone in the office
and one at homefor every person on staff. This ensures that the necessary steps
are followed and support is there for one another. Include phone numbers for
everyone on staffhome & mobile.
6. Review the binder yearly and with new staff. Staff changes; situations change. Be
7. Separate information with emergency exits and lock-down procedures should be
given to church leaders and Sunday school leaders. Information should be reviewed
at leadership meetings and especially after a leadership change.

8. Dont expect others to react as you would if tragedy strikes. Respect what you
dont understand.
9. Some members of your congregation will not understand what is going on behind
the scenes. Expect this. They are reacting out of their own fears. Respect what you
dont understand.
10. Expect your plans to not go exactly as planned if they are ever needed. Be
flexible but work within an existing plan.
A final word, is to take time for you to grieve if tragedy does ever strike. Its important to
cry and feel your feelings. Communicating for your church is a huge responsibility and
the weight falls on your shoulders. Communication is also one of the most criticized
areas of church leadership, since it is at the forefront of unhappy information. Feel your
feelingsbut know that God has given you a gift for this ministry.
Answering the media
And God always entrusts those he knows are equipped for the job.
The Apostle (or his designee Spokesperson) will be the contact person with the media.
All requests from the media for information and comment should be politely but firmly
directed to the Apostle (or his designee Spokesperson). This will help maintain control
and uniformity regarding communication and will minimize the potential for conflicting
messages. It will also free you to deal with resolving the crisis.
If a member of the staff or an office bearer is contacted by telephone or in person by the
media during a crisis, he/she should refer the person to the Apostle (or his designee
Spokesperson) or his/her designee. Immediately thereafter the staff member should
advise the Apostle of the media contact and the tone and nature of their inquiry.
When referring the media to the Apostle (or his designee Spokesperson), staff and
office bearers should not say No comment. The No Comment response often
suggests a lack of cooperation or that we may have something to hide. A more
appropriate response would be:
We are saddened by this news. the Apostle (or his designee Spokesperson) will issue
a statement as appropriate in regard to this matter.
No church is immune to crisis. We may think we are, hope we are and even ignore the
possibility as if we are. But church is a place of people, and people create and are
involved in crises.
A crisis in this context is different from a natural disaster. When a church suffers
damage in a disaster, such as heavy rains, its community rallies and expresses concern

and compassion for the church. A communications crisis is different. A useful definition
is, a situation that puts your churchs values on trial in the court of public opinion. Its
an occurrence that prompts the news media to look for such things as negligence,
unethical conduct, issues of public safety, emotional impact and evidence of a cover-up
or widespread problem.
If, an officer of the church, for example molests teen-agers, that causes more damage
than the roof of a church building collapsing. The churchs name will be in the media for
weeks. Trust within the congregation will be severely shaken. The churchs clergy and
congregation alike will be shocked that the well-liked and respected youth pastor could
have committed the crimes.
Its not if but when.
Only one-third of crises are sudden that is, without warning, such as a van crash
involving a church youth group. The other two-thirds are smoldering. Unethical conduct
by a church staff member would be an example of a crisis waiting to surface.
In a crisis, its normal to panic. When a crisis occurs or when the public or media find
out about critical events the church has 60 to 90 minutes to respond. Quickly turning
panic into action is vital if the Church is to have a positive effect on its image. Thats
why its so important to have a plan already in place and training.
Damage to the reputation is reduced if the Church has a crisis communications plan in
place. It moves quickly to be proactive with the media and the congregation. The plan
will keep the communication going, and the church will feel like it is in control of an
uncontrollable situation, if a crisis occurs.
An effective crisis plan should do the following:
Identify members of a crisis team, including a spokesperson.
Specify who to contact within the church, region and district.
Describe an action plan for the first 60 to 90 minutes after a crisis situation
becomes known.
Provide guidelines for disclosing information to the media.
Outline what to do in specific cases.
Its critical during the first 60 minutes to gather facts, contact key people and develop a
statement for the media. Its during this time that the most appropriate spokesperson will
be selected. To work with the media requires honesty, telling the truth and willingness to
Anyone answering the phone needs to defer all questions to the designated
spokesperson. An appropriate statement would be, I want to make sure you have the
most accurate and up-to-date information. The person to give that to you is,. No matter
what question is asked, the response needs to defer to the one spokesperson.

If the caller is a reporter, ask for the reporters deadline and honor the deadline by
calling back. Unreturned calls look like a cover-up, and you lose the opportunity to get
out the information you want reported. Likewise, never say, No comment.
The goal of the initial statement to the media is to share only confirmed facts and to
engender continued trust in the church. The public, including your congregation, want to
know that you care, and they want to know what youre doing about the situation. Say
something such as, Our priority is the safety of everyone involved, and talk about what
the church is doing to help people.
Local churches also are using their Web sites to make statements and call for healing
during crisis.
We need to have someone who is trained in crisis communications management, who
is available to help in a crisis and who can provide training now.
Remember, its not if but when, so begin now charting a clear course through crisis



To create and maintain good Community Relations to communities where
Christian Divine Church has a presence, and beyond.
To enhance Christian Divine Churchs reputation as a socially responsible
Church, nationally and internationally

Christian Divine Church focuses on the following areas of community engagement:

Consultation and Communication

Communicating with our neighbours and operating as part of the community is
important to us. To maintain our two-way dialogue with stakeholders, Christian Divine

Ensures an open and transparent relationship with local people,
businesses, organisations, elected politicians and representatives and
other local groups through provision of information about the operation
and policies of Christian Divine Church.

Provides information through verbal, electronic and paper-based formats
accessible to all individuals as far as reasonably practicable.
Seeks opinions and views on matters affecting local people living, working
or engaging with all areas with Christian Divine Church presence.
Provides a forum for discussions about the Christian Divine Church.


The Community Relations Strategy should be an integral part of the Christian Divine
Churchs Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategy (CDC CSR framework) and
part of four distinct Impact areas:


The Community Strategy follows church business in the Community Framework to co-
ordinate all Community Relations activities across all CDC locations and the nations as
a whole. Remember the Accra Sports Stadium Disaster in 2001). The framework
supports CDC's mission to demonstrate best practice in CSR whilst underpinning
corporate (church) objectives. The key areas of engagement with the wider community
are identified as:

1. Corporate Objectives

2. Education and Industry

3. Volunteering

4. Corporate Community Engagement

5. Philantrophy and Charities

6. Key Messages

7. Bench Marking, Management and Recognition

8. Key Elements of the Plan

CDC should use and support this framework, which provides focus nationally, regionally
and locally. CDCs high profile and ongoing engagement within the Community will
increase expectations that we are serious about our intentions and that any
engagement with the Community is to be trusted.


Key Objectives - To support CDC's objective of being regarded locally regionally and
nationally as best in class in Community Relations, among churches:

National support to CDC sponsored programmes.
Extend involvement with local community activities
Participate in collaborative ventures with associated Churches, and others
Selectively promote community involvement
Assist CDC branch churches, districts and the regions to support
community, regional and national (Ghana) issues and involve CDC in best
practice Community Relations ( and corporate social responsibilty)
Link to CSR and Sustainability Strategies
Demonstrate where appropriate Community Excellence


2.1. Education should be given a high priority underpinning CDC's support to a
Campaign to Promote Education, particularly raising the profile of Basic
Education and Apprenticeships as a choice and supporting any national agenda
and focus on the following key areas: -

2.2. Education Business Partnerships Centres CDC Schools located in the
regions, linking to them to/with local Education strategy and networks. Providing
state of the art facilities for work related activities for young people supporting the
national curriculum, etc.

2.3. Education Business Forums - supporting local and national Government
backed initiatives to help regenerate poor performing schools in deprived
communities close to our operations, including employee involvement and
support to head teachers to improve personal development and school

2.4. National School and Education Challenges to raise the profile of CDC
Community Relations Strategy nationally, specifically our education programmes.

Basic Schools Design Challenge
Special Schools Trusts and Academies, local and regional support to
initiatives focusing CDC's support to Special Schools, like Dzorwulu
Special School.
Health Power Challenge, campaigns/education of epidemics like cholera,
ebola, and environmental hygiene, etc
Apprentice and Graduate CSR Challenges
The Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)
programme, for first and second cycle schools.


Employees that are actively involved in community investment activities are significantly
more likely to find their work interesting, will recommend working for their company to
family and friends and credit their engagement in community activities to helping them
manage people more effectively.

3.1. Community involvement to provide many opportunities to engage employees,
e.g. pastors and laymen/women to develop a wide range of skills and
competences including communication, project management, leadership and
team working.

3.2. The Church has a number of initiatives that support community plans highlighting
employees willingness to engage with the Community, to foster teamwork and
support the Church's CSR Framework of commitment by engagement.
Employee Involvement remains a cornerstone of commitment to social and
economic regeneration of communities.

3.3. This strategy requires hands on development to personalise a site 'Community

Branch committee/community plan
Direct involvement and employee support to Education Business Partnership
Senior and Junior management support to identified Community activities e.g.
cleaning exercises, etc
Active local community team and individual community projects
Local Government representation
Community links into Church supported regeneration programmes e.g. to
support the renovation of local schools.
Charity requests


4.1 Church representation and involvement nationally, regionally and locally to
community, social and religious groups is an essential means of gathering
information and influencing key government and regional enterprises e.g.
Regional Development Agencies, Local Strategic Partnerships, Chambers of
Commerce and Business, Charitable and Public Networks, Council of Churches,

4.2 Strive for Representation on Board, Executive and Senior Management as a key
element of information gathering for future changes in strategy and should
support the following areas:-


Town/City Forums, Local Strategic Partnership's
Local Community Forum's
Chamber of Commerce and Learning and Skills Councils
Disrict, Municipal, Metropolitan Assemblies
Local and Areas Council membership
Education Directorates

5.0 Education Excellence

In order to engage local young people in considering their future employment and the
skills and qualities they may require, the Christian Divine Church should:

Engage with primary, secondary, further, higher and other education
establishments particularly those located within the Churchs locations.
Deliver, through time (e.g. by employee volunteers), financials ponsorship,
knowledge sharing or donation of resources, the expertise, skills or facilities to
support the development of:

i. Basic skills key to employment: Reading,writing and arithmetic.
ii. Aspirations: The desire to work, achieve and progress through
iii. Attitude for employment: Employability skills such as personal
presentation, punctuality, interpersonal skills and verbal and written
Deliver a weekly work experience programme for student residents of the
churchs areas of presence
Operate a Prize Scheme which funds students from the needy communities.

6.0 Health and Wellbeing for Work

It is in the interests of the Church to operate in a vibrant and healthy community from
which it can recruit its future members and staff. To support its neighbours to engage in
healthy activities, Christian Divine Church should:

Support local programmes that encourage healthy living, team work,
commitment, competitiveness and other attributes conducive to sustainable
Encourage active and healthy lifestyle opportunities for local people through
support for health, wellbeing and/or sporting organisations working with the
community around Christian Divine Church or its staff.

7.0 Charity

The Church, its employees and onsite partners should raise funds for the worthy cause
of providing care and facilities for life limited children as well as children with complex
healthcare conditions.

How Do We Engage?

Christian Divine Church should approach community engagement through a grass-roots
approach, including face-to-face engagement. Support for local organisations and
activities, is delivered via:

Knowledge sharing
Board and/or Trust memberships
Employee volunteers
Financial sponsorships
Donation of resources (e.g. IT equipment )
Pro-Bono advice.

Decisions on how to engage and with who are to be made by the Christian Divine
Church PPAC. Applications for funding, donations or other support must be received in
writing by the PPAC


8.1 The Church should sponsor and/or contribute to general charities nationally and
locally. Expectations from charities for sponsorship and giving are increasing.
The Church is to to focus on selected key Corporate Charities, Red Cross, etc,
and distressed communities, while continuing to support local charities through
the support and contributions, especially in times of epidemic, crisis, etc.


CSR communications need to be as professional as any other type of corporate
communication - using the right channels to reach target audiences.

9.1. The following key messages are to be clear in all activities undertaken by the
Christian Divine Church, both internal and external:

Board level commitment to Corporate Social Responsibility
CDC's commitment to the community
Trusted Organisation working for Christ Jesus
Socially Responsible
Respected by our members and employees
Members and Employees respected by the community
Sensitive to social, economic and environmental issues
Diverse in our involvement in the community
Corporate accountability


9.2 Principles underpinning our Public Voice

Six key principles run through our work in the Community and underpin our public voice:

Support for sustainable development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Recognition of the partnership between Christian Divine Church and society
Conviction that progress in achieving higher standards of responsibility will best
be achieved through a voluntary approach rather than regulation, where possible.
Different indicators of success in corporate responsibility have different levels of
materiality in our Church as expectations can reasonably vary by size, sector and
Our church, by and large, does well by virtue of the services provided and how it
does it, creating good health by healing the sick, enabling spiritual stability by
preaching the Gospel of Jesus Christ, providing opportunities for employees and
members (current, and potential).
Belief that excellent understanding of communities from which our Church draws
its memers and employees makes it more effective and profitable.


Benchmarking, Management and Recognition are key tools to measuring the
impact of the Community Strategy externally. A number of initiatives provided by
the Pentecostal Council, Christian Council (which one do we belong to?)
membership give us the opportunity to identify our strengths and weaknesses
and actively communicate our successes.

Every organisation, no matter how large or small, ultimately depends on its reputation
for success. All the people who have a stake in an organisation, e.g. customers,
suppliers, employees, investors, journalists and regulators can have an impact. They all
have an opinion about the organisations they come into contact with whether good or
bad, right or wrong. These perceptions will drive their decisions about whether they
want to work with you, shop with or support you. In the case of a church, we talk about,
they joining and being part of the fellowship for Christ. in todays competitive world,
reputation can be the churchs biggest asset the thing that makes Christian divine
Church stand out from the crowd and gives us a competitive edge over the other

Effective Public Relations can help manage reputation by communicating good
relationships with all the churchs stakeholders (audiences or publics, as we say in
public relations).
i. Public Relations is the discipline which looks after reputation, with the aim of
earning understanding and support and influencing opinion and behaviour.
ii. It is planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual
understanding between an organisation (i.e. Christian Divine Church) and its
publics (publics are audiences/stakeholders that are important to the
organisation. They include existing members and potential members; employees
and management; financial institutions; media; government; suppliers and
opinion leaders
Understanding is a two-way communication. To be effective, an organisation needs to
listen to the opinions of those with whom it deals and not solely provide information.
Issuing a barrage of propaganda is not enough in todays open society.
Below are some activities of PR professionals:
1. Programme planning: Analysing problems and opportunities, defining goals,
recommending and planning activities and measuring results. Liaising with
management and clients (members) throughout
2. Writing and editing: since Public Relations work involves trying to reach large
groups of people, the method most often used is the printed word; shareholder
reports, annual reports, press releases, film scripts, articles and features,
speeches, booklets, newsletters.
3. Media Relations: Developing and maintaining a good working contact with the
media. This involves applying knowledge of how local and national papers,
magazines, radio and television work as well as the special interest journalists.
4. Corporate Identity: Developing and maintaining an organisations identity via
corporate advertising, presenting the organisations name and reputation rather
than its products/services
5. Speaking: communicating effectively with individuals and groups including
meetings, presentations and platform participation.
6. Production: Brochures, reports, film and multi-media programmes are important
means of communication. Co-ordination of studio or location photography. Sound
knowledge of techniques for supervision is necessary.
7. Press Events: News conferences, exhibitions, facility celebrations, open days,
competitions and award programmes are all used to gain the attention of specific
8. Research and Evaluation: the first activity undertaken by a public relations
practitioner is usually analysis and fact gathering. A PR programme should be
evaluated as a continuing process and measurement is used to decide future
Church Public Relations

Church Public Relations is about creating awareness of church activities, both for
the various identifiable publics and church members.
Consider aspects of church activities that might interest the media.
Enhance current projects and activities to make them more appealing to the
media and the publics.
PPAC/Church Public Relations: Roles and Responsibilities
1. Identify public relations guidelines and church responsibilities to raise public
awareness and support membership development efforts.
2. Select and prepare team members to implement a church public relations plan.
Review the list of church public relations responsibilities with participants.
Ask participants to indicate whether the church currently fulfills each
responsibility or whether the public relations committee will work to enable the
church to do so.
Ask participants to share strategies to meet each responsibility.
As church leaders, how can we promote positive public relations in our community?
Educate church members about their responsibility to promote public relations.
Develop and maintain relationships with representatives of the media.
Be aware of all church projects and activities and work to promote those that
might appeal to the media and the general public.
Use the Internet and social media to post news press releases, public relations
outreach tips, and other PR tools.
How can church leaders help members to fulfill these responsibilities?
Use Press Release templates, and personalize them for our church.
Create a church brochure and a fact sheet to present to potential members, the
media, civic and community leaders or others who may be interested in joining
the church.

Update and maintain a Christian Divine Church Web site

In conjunction with a larger public relations campaign, a church Web site can be an
effective means to publicize church activities and service initiatives.
Encourage members to wear their lapel pin in their professional capacity.
Encourage church members to tell non-members about the good work done by
our church and churches around the world.
Encourage members not to be gospel evangelism-shy

Church Public Relations: Roles and Responsibilities
Every Member can promote positive public relations by:
Being fully informed about the mission of the church and the church programmes
and activities.
Seeking opportunities to further the aims and accomplishments of the church
through personal and professional contacts.

Strategic Planning for Public Relations
The process of these steps is deliberate, and they must be taken in sequence. After
identifying a problem, our tendency too often is to skip ahead to seeking solutions,
leaping over research and analysis. This can result in unwarranted assumptions that
later prove to be costly, counterproductive and embarrassing. Careful planning leads to
programmes that are proactive and preventative, rather than to activities that are merely
reactive and remedial. At the same time, the steps should flexible enough to allow for
constant monitoring, testing and adjusting as needed.
Good ones have learned how to build the research and planning components into their
work and "sell" it to their clients and bosses.

Phase One: Formative Research
Step 1: Analyzing the Situation
Step 2: Analyzing the Organization
Step 3: Analyzing the Publics
Phase Two: Strategy
Step 4: Establishing Goals and Objectives
Step 5: Formulating Action and Response Strategies

Step 6: Designing Effective Communication
Phase Three: Tactics
Step 7: Selecting Communication Tactics
Step 8: Implementing the Strategic Plan
Phase Four: Evaluative Research
Step 9: Evaluating the Strategic Plan
During the first phase of the nine steps, Formative Research, the focus is on the
preliminary work of communication planning, which is the need to gather information
and analyze the situation. In three steps, the planner draws on existing information
available to the organization and, at the same time, creates a research program for
gaining additional information needed to drive the decisions that will come later in the
planning process.
Your analysis of the situation is the crucial beginning to the process. It is imperative that
all involved - planner, congregations, pastors, key colleagues and the ultimate decision
makers of the Church - are in solid agreement about the nature of the opportunity or
obstacle to be addressed in this programme.
Analyzing the Situation
Begin with the basic planning questions. Then address the expanded planning
items to the extent they help. Skip any items that don't address your planning
Background on the Issue
Is this the first time the Church has dealt with this situation, or are we setting out
to modify an existing communication program?
What is the cause of this situation?
Is there any dispute that this is the cause?
What is the history of this situation?
What are the important facts related to this situation?

Does this situation involve the organization's relationship with another group? If
yes, what groups?
Consequences of the Situation
How important is this situation to the organization's mission?
How consistent is this situation with the mission statement or vision statement?
How serious of a response is warranted to this situation?
What is the likely duration of this situation? (one time? Limited/short-term?
Ongoing/long term?)
Who or what is affected by this situation?
What predictions or trends are associated with this situation? (These can be
organizational or church-related, community relations, nation-related, etc.)
What potential impact can this situation make on the organization/church's
mission or "bottom line"?
Do you consider this situation to be an opportunity (positive) or an obstacle
(negative) for your organization? Why? If you consider this an obstacle, how
might you turn it into an opportunity?
Resolution of the Situation
Might information (quality or quantity) affect how this situation is resolved?
How can this situation be resolved to the mutual benefits of everyone involved?
What priority does this situation hold for the public relations/communications
staff? for the church's top management?
How strong is the church's commitment to resolve this situation?
This step involves a careful and candid look at three aspects of the organization:
i. its internal environment (mission, performance and resources),
ii. its public perception (reputation), and
iii. its external environment, (competitors and opponents, as well as

Analyzing the Organization
Begin with the basic planning questions. Then address the expanded planning
items to the extent they help. Skip any items that don't address your planning
2.1 Internal Environment

2.2 Public Perception
2.3 External Environment
2.1 Internal Environment
Performance: What is the quality of your organization/church's performance?
a) What service/product do you provide related to the issue identified in
b) What are the criteria for determining its quality?
c) What is its quality?
d) Within the last three years, has the quality improved, remained
unchanged, or deteriorated?
e) How satisfied is organizational leadership with this quality?
f) What benefit or advantage does the product/service offer?
g) What problems or disadvantages as associated with this product/service?
(Consider environmental, health/safety/ financial, social, political and other
h) What is the niche or specialty that sets you apart from competitors?
i) How has the service/product changed within the last 3 years?
j) How is the service/product likely to change within the next 2 years?
k) Should changes be introduced to improve the service/product?
l) Are organizational leaders willing to make such changes?
Structure: What communication resources, including budget, are available?
a) What is the purpose/mission of your organization related to this issue?
b) How does this issue fit into the organizational vision?
c) Is this expressed in a strategic business plan for your organization?
d) What communication resources are available for potential public
relations/marketing communication activity: Personnel, equipment, time, budget
e) Within the next three years, are these resources likely to increase, remain
unchanged or decrease?
f) How strong is the public relations/communication staff's role in the organization's
decision-making process?
Internal Impediments: How supportive is the organization/church of public relations
a) How supportive is the internal environment for public relations activities?
b) Are there any impediments or obstacles to success that come from within your
organization among top management, or among public relations/marketing staff,
or among other internal publics? Are these impediments caused by

policy/procedure? Are these impediments deliberate? If you have identified
impediments, how can you overcome them?
2.2 Public Perception
a) How well known is Christian Divine Church?
b) What is the reputation of the Church?
c) How do we want to affect this reputation?
a) How visible is your service, message,etc.?
b) How widely used is our service, message, etc.?
c) How is the service, message, etc., generally perceived?
d) How is CDC generally perceived?
e) Is the public perception about our Church correct?
f) What communication already has been done about this situation?
g) Within the last three years, has your organization's reputation improved,
remained unchanged or deteriorated?
i) How satisfied is organizational leadership with this reputation?
2.3 External Environment
Competition: What is the major competition for your organization?
a) How competitive is the external environment of your organization?
b) What other organisations/churches compete on this issue?
c) What are their performance levels?
d) What are their reputations?
e) What are their resources?
f) What does the competition offer that you don't?
g) How has the competition changed within the last three years?
h) Within the next three years, is the competition likely to increase, remain
unchanged or deteriorate?
Opposition: What significant opposition exists?
a) What groups exist with a mission to resist or hinder your organization?
b) How effective have these groups been in the past?
c) What is their reputation?
d) What are their resources?
e) How have these groups changed within the last three years?

f) How have their tactics changed?
g) Within the next three years, is the opposition likely to increase, remain
unchanged or deteriorate?
External Impediments: Is anything happening in the environment that can limit the
effectiveness of the public relations programme?
a) Is the environment in which we are operating currently growing, stable, declining,
or unstable/unpredictable?
b) What changes, if any, are projected for this environment?
c) What impediments deal with members and/or potential members?
d) What impediments deal with regulators?
e) What impediments have financial or economic origins?
f) What impediments have political origins?
g) What impediments originate in society at large?
a) How visible is our service?
b) How widely used is our service?
c) How is the service, message, etc., generally perceived?
d) How is the Christian Divine Church generally perceived?
e) Is the public perception about the Christian Divine Church correct?
f) What communication already has been done about this situation?
g) Within the last three years, has the Christian Divine Churchs reputation
improved, remained unchanged or deteriorated?
h) How satisfied is the Christian Divine Church leadership with this reputation?
In this step we identify and analyze our key publics - the various groups of people who
interact with Christian Divine Church on the issue at hand. This is an objective
technique for setting priorities among the various publics, to help select those most
important on the particular issue being dealt with. This step includes an analysis of each
public in terms of their wants, needs and expectations about the issue, their relationship
to the Church, their involvement in communication and with various media, and a variety
of social, economic, political, cultural and technological trends that may affect them.
Analyzing the Publics
Begin with the basic planning questions. Then address the expanded planning
items to the extent they help. Skip any items that don't address your planning
3.1 Identifying Publics

3.2 Analyzing Publics
3.1 Identifying Publics
Congregations/worshipers/members (Customers). Who are the major publics for
Christian Divine Church? (Groups of people who use our service)
a) Who are your primary customers (i.e. members)?
b) Who are your secondary customers (members) (who use the services of your
primary customers, e.g. friends, relations, etc., of members)?
c) How has the church membership changed within the last three years?
d) How is the church membership likely to change within the next three years?
Producers of the Service (the Clergy, Administration, etc.: Who are the key publics
for this situation? (Groups of people who provide the services)
a) Who produces your service?
b) Who provides the Church with services and materials?
c) Who provides money?
d) How have CDC and its politics/way of doing things/providing service and
programmes changed within the last three years?
e) How are the above likely to change within the next three years?
Enablers: Who are the major opinion leaders for these publics? (Groups that create an
environment that supports the Church)
a) Who are opinion leaders among your customers?
b) Who are your colleagues?
c) Who are your regulators?
d) How have regulators helped you within the last three years?
e) With whom do you have contracts or agreements?
f) What media are available to you?
g) How have the media helped you in the last three years?
h) How have your enablers changed within the last three years?
i) How are your enablers likely to change within the next three years?
Limiters (Groups that create an environment that does not support the Church)
a) Who are our competitors?
b) Who are your opponents?
c) What type of opponents? are they advocates (for something), dissidents (against
something), activists (seeking something), or zealots (single-minded and
potentially aggressive)?
d) Who can stop us or slow us down?

e) How have our limiters changed within the last three years?
f) How are our limiters likely to change within the next three years?
Intercessory Publics and Opinion Leaders|
a) What publics are in a position of influence with our key publics?
b) How likely is it that they will speak for Church's position?
c) Who are formal opinion leaders for? Elected and/or appointed government
d) How likely is it that they will speak for Church's position?
e) Who are informal opinion leaders for family, neighbourhood, occupational,
religious, ethnic, or community leaders?
f) How likely is it that they will speak for the Church's position?
g) Who are vocal activists on this issue?
h) How close is their position on this issue vis-a-vis the Church's?
i) How likely is it that they will speak for the Church's position?
Key Publics
Based on the issue you identified in Step 1 as well as the above information and
insights about the Churchs various publics, select several that warrant particular
attention. These become our key publics as your address this issue.

3.2 Analyzing Publics
Characteristics of each Key Public re: Issue
a) What does this key public ( e.g. church management) know about this issue?
b) What does this public think about this issue?
c) What does this public want on this issue?
d) What does this public not want on this issue?
e) What does this public need on this issue?
f) What problem(s) does this public have related to this issue?
g) What does this public expect from the organization vis-a-vis this issue?
h) How free does this public see itself to act on this issue?
Characteristics of each Key Public (What is the nature and type of each key
public) re: Organization (or its Service)
a) How does or how might the key public affect our organization?
b) How does or how might our organization affect this public?
c) What does this public know about our organization?

d) How accurate is this information (compared to info in Step 2)?
e) What does this public think about our organization?
f) How satisfied are you with this attitude?
g) What does this public expect from our organization?
h) How much loyalty does this public have for our organization?
i) How organized or ready for action on this issue is this public?
j) How influential does this public see itself with the organization?
k) How influential does the organization see this public?
Communication Characteristics of each Key Public (What are the major wants,
interests, needs and expectations of each public?)
a) What personal communication channels do this public use?
b) What organizational media does this public pay attention to?
c) What news media does this public pay attention to?
d) What advertising or promotional media does this media pay attention to?
e) Is this public actively seeking information on this issue?
f) How likely is this public to act on information it receives?
g) Who are credible sources and opinion leaders for this public?
Demographic/Psychographic Characteristics of each Key Public: What benefits
can you offer this public?
a) Age
b) Geographic characteristics
c) Socio-economic traits
d) Product/service usage
e) Cultural/Ethnic/Religious traits
f) Education level
g) Lifestyle traits
h) Other relevant characteristics
a) What benefit or advantage does your organization offer each public?
b) How does this benefit differ from the benefits available from other organizations?
The second phase of the planning process, Strategy, deals with the heart of planning:
making decisions dealing with the expected impact of the communication, as well as the
nature of the communication itself.

This Step focuses on the ultimate position being sought for the organization and for the
product or service. This step helps you develop clear, specific and measurable
objectives that identify the organization's hoped-for impact on the awareness,
acceptance and action of each key public. A good deal of attention is given to objectives
dealing with acceptance of the message, because this is the most crucial area for public
relations and marketing communication strategists.

Establishing Goals and Objectives
Begin with the basic planning questions. Then address the expanded planning
items to the extent they help. Skip any items that don't address your planning
Basic Planning
i. What are the goals?
ii. What position do you seek?
iii. What are the specific objectives (awareness, acceptance and
Expanded Planning
Goals (what are the goals?)
a) What are the organisation's reputation goals on this issue?
b) What are the organisation's relationship goals on this issue?
c) What are the organisation's task goals on this issue?
d) Do any of these goals contradict another goal?
e) What is the relative priority among the viable goals?
f) Does the organisation have resources (time, personnel, money, etc.) to achieve
these goals?
g) Does the organization have willingness to work toward these goals?
h) Are there any ethical problems with these goals?
Position (What position do we seek?)
a) What is a key public for this message/service/concept?
b) What position do you seek for your message/service/concept for this public?
c) Is this desired position appropriate?
d) What is your current position?
e) What change do you need to make to achieve desired position?
f) What is the competition?
g) What is its position?
[Replicate the above position questions for each key public]

Objectives (What are the specific objectives (awareness, acceptance and action)?
a) Write at least one awareness objective for each key public: "To have an
effect on awareness, specifically of the existence of Christian Divine
b) Write at least one acceptance objective for each key public: "To have an
effect on acceptance, specifically, to accept the Word of Jesus Christ and
c) Write at least one action objective for each key public: "To have an effect
on action, specifically, to give their lives to Jesus Christ, and join the
Christian Divine Church)
Answer the following questions for each individual objective:

d) Is this objective linked to the CDC' mission or vision statement?
e) Is this objective responsive to the issue/problem/opportunity/goal?
f) Is this objective focused on a particular public?
g) Is this objective clearly measurable?
h) Does this objective indicate a time frame?
i) Is this objective challenging to the organisation?
j) Is this objective realistically attainable?

A range of actions is available to the organisation, and in this step you consider what
you might do in various situations. This section includes typologies of initiatives and

Formulating Action & Response Strategies
Begin with the basic planning questions. Then address the expanded planning
items to the extent they help. Skip any items that don't address your planning
Public Relations Initiatives (What proactive strategies might you develop?)
Is it appropriate to use any of the following approaches?
i. Organisational performance

ii. Audience participation
iii. Alliances
iv. Sponsorships
v. Activism
i. News
ii. Transparent communication
Public Relations Responses (What reactive strategies might you develop?)
Is it appropriate to use any of the following approaches?
Denial (Innocence, mistaken identity, blame shifting)
Excuse (Provocation, lack of control, accident, victimization, self-defense)
Justification (Good intention, context, idealism, mitigation
Vocal Commiseration
Rectifying Behaviour:

Corrective Action
Strategic Inaction:
Summarize the response strategy of your organization.
Action/Response Consistency (How consistent are these strategies with past
practices of your organization?)
a) Is this action/response consistent with past verbal messages of the
b) Is the action/response consistent with past actions of the Church/spokesperson?
c) Is the action/response consistent with the mission of this source?
d) Is the action/response consistent with image of this source? ( i.e.
e) Is the action/response ethical?
Step 6 deals with the various decisions about the message, such as the sources who
will present the message to the key publics, the content of the message, its tone and
style, verbal and nonverbal cues, and related issues. Lessons from research about
persuasive communication and dialogue will be applied for the ultimate purpose of
designing a message that reflects the information gained through Step 3.

Designing Effective Communication
Begin with the basic planning questions. Then address the expanded planning
items to the extent they help. Skip any items that don't address your planning
6.1 - Message Source
6.2 - Message Appeal
6.3 - Verbal and Nonverbal Communication
6.1 Message Source

Message Source: Identify several possible spokespersons who could present your
message. Then look at the items below and answer the questions for each
possible message source. Then compare your responses to determine the
sources best suited for this communication task. An effective message source will
have mainly high and positive rankings in each item.
Credibility: What is the level of credibility for each possible spokesperson?
a) How expert on this topic is the message source?
b) How well-known are his/her credentials to the audience?
c) If expertise is high, should the audience be reminded of this?
d) If expertise is not known, can the audience be made informed of this?
e) Does the message source enunciate clearly?
f) Does the source speak with dynamism and authority?
g) Does the source speak calmly and reassuringly on this topic?
h) How trustworthy will the source be perceived?
i) Can the source speak truthfully and independently about the topic?
j) Does the source have any associations that compete with the organisation?
k) Does the source have any associations that are inconsistent with the
organization's image?
l) Is the source available to your organisation?
Charisma: What is the level of charisma for each?
a) How similar is the source similar to the audience?
b) How familiar is the audience with the source?
c) How attractive is the source to the audience?
d) Can the source be presented in an attractive setting?
Control: What is the level of control for each?
a) Does the source have any moral leverage with this audience?
b) Does the source have any power over this audience?
c) Does the source have the willingness to use this power?
d) Does the source have the ability to investigate this audience?
e) Does the source have the authority to reward or punish this audience?
f) Does the source have the authority to blame or forgive this audience?
6.2 Message Appeal
Basic Planning
What is the key message that forms the basis of this public relations or marketing
communication programme.

i. How does this message use a rational appeal?
ii. How does this message use an emotional appeal?
Expanded Planning
Does your message include both a rational appeal and an emotional appeal?
Rational Appeal: How does this message use a rational appeal?
a) How does your message make a rational appeal?
b) Does the message feature a factual, value, or policy proposition?
c) Which of the following provide arguments for your claims? -- Physical Evidence,
Analogy, Audience Interest, Comparison, Context, Examples, Statistics,
Testimony and Endorsements, Visual Presentation
Emotional Appeal: How does this message use an emotional appeal?
i. How does your message make an emotional appeal?
ii. Does the message feature an appeal to positive or negative emotions?
iii. What is the emotion?

a) Love Appeal. What kind of love? (i.e. poignancy, togetherness, nostalgia, pity,
compassion, sensitivity, sympathy)
b) Virtue Appeal. What virtue? (i.e. justice, altruism, loyalty, bravery, piety,
discretion, improvement, esteem)
c) Humor Appeal
Will the use of humor make the source more persuasive?
a) Is the humour relevant to the issue?
b) Is the humour funny?
c) Is the humour appropriate for the audience?
d) It the humour appropriate for the organization?
e) Will the humour enhance the message?
f) Will the humour help meet the objectives?
Sex Appeal (Not really appropriate in the context of the Church)
Will the use of sex appeal make the source more persuasive?
a) Is the sex relevant to the issue?
b) Is the sex appropriate for the audience?
c) Is the sex appropriate for the organization?
d) Will the sex help enhance the message?
e) Will the sex help meet the objectives?

Fear Appeal (Message about Hell?)
Will the use of fear appeal make the source more persuasive?

a) Is the fear relevant to the issue?
b) Is the fear appropriate for the audience?
c) Is the fear appropriate for the organization?
d) Does the message include a solution to overcome the fear?
e) Will the fear enhance the message?
f) Will the fear help meet the objectives?
Guilt Appeal (Message about our sinful nature: We are all sinners)
Will the use of guilt appeal make the source more persuasive?
a) Is the guilt relevant to the issue?
b) Is the guilt appropriate for the audience?
c) Is the guilt appropriate for the organization?
d) Does the message include a solution to overcome the guilt?
e) Will the guilt enhance the message?
f) Will the guilt help meet the objectives?
6.3 Verbal and Nonverbal Communication
Verbal Communication: How does your message use verbal communication?
Message Structure
a) Does your message present only one or more than one (opposing) points of
b) If more than one point of view is presented, it your message sandwiched (stating
your argument, noting the opposing argument, and finally restating your
argument and refuting the opposing argument)?
c) Does your message present a conclusion?
d) Does your message reiterate its main idea?
a) Will your publics find your message clear, simple and understandable?
b) What is the education level of your target public?
c) How does this compare with the Fog Index for your written message?
Power Words

a) Have you used powerful language in your message?
b) Does your product/program have a descriptive and memorable name?
c) Does your product/program have a descriptive and memorable slogan?
Ethical Language
a) Does your message use pretentious or exaggerated language?
b) Does your message use dishonest or misleading language?
c) Does your message use defamatory language?
d) How could any of these verbal elements be made stronger?
Nonverbal Communication: How does your message use nonverbal communication?
Does the presentation of your message include:
a) a symbol?
b) a logo?
c) music?
d) symbolic language?
e) symbolic physical artifacts?
f) symbolic clothing?
g) symbolic people?
h) a mascot?
i) symbolic use of color?
j) a symbolic setting?
How can either be made stronger?
During the Tactics phase, various communication tools are considered and the visible
elements of the communication plan are created.
This inventory deals with the various communication options. Specifically, the planner
considers four categories:
i. Face-to-face communication and opportunities for personal
ii. Organizational media (sometimes called controlled media),
iii. News media (uncontrolled media), and
iv. Advertising and promotional media (another form of controlled

While all of these tools can be used by any organization, not every tool is appropriate
for each issue. Following the menu review, the planner packages the tactics into a
cohesive communication programme.
Selecting Communication Tactics
Begin with the basic planning questions. Then address the expanded planning
items to the extent they help. Skip any items that don't address your planning
7.1 Interpersonal Communication and Involvement
7.2 Organizational Media Tactics
7.3 News Media Tactics
7.4 Advertising and Promotional Media Tactics
7.1 Interpersonal Communication and Involvement
i. What interpersonal communications tactics will you use?
ii. How will these tactics help the organization achieve its objectives?
iii. What resources will these tactics require?
Personal Involvement

Organizational-site involvement: Plant tour, open house, test drive, trial membership,
free class, sample, shadow programme, ride-along, premiere
Audience-site involvement: Door-to-door canvassing, in-home demonstration, petition
Information Exchange

Educational Gathering: Convention, council, convocation, synod, conclave, conference,
seminar, symposium, colloquium, workshop, training session
Product Exhibition: Trade show
Meeting: Annual stockholder meeting, lobbying exchange, public affairs meeting
Demonstration: Rally, march, demonstration,
Speech: Question-answer session, oration, talk, lecture, guest lecture, address,
keynote, sermon, homily, panel, debate, speakers bureau, forum, town meeting

Special Event
i. Civic event: fair, festival, carnival, circus, parade, theme event/community
ii. Sporting event: tournament, marathon, triathlon, outdoor spectator event,
meet, field day, football, etc.
iii. Contest: science fair, spelling bee, beauty pageant, talent/debate/Bible
iv. Holiday event: civic, cultural, religious, conventions, retreats, etc.
v. Progress-oriented event: procession, motorcade, grand opening,
groundbreaking, cornerstone, dedication, ribbon-cutting
vi. Historic event: founders day, anniversary, centennial, play, pageant, caravan
vii. Social event: luncheon, dinner, reception, tribute, banquet, roast, awards,
recognition, fashion show, tea
viii. Artistic event: concert, concert tour, recital, play, film festival, art show, photo
ix. Fund-raising event
7.2 Organizational Media Tactics
i. What organizational media tactics will you use?
ii. How will these tactics help the organization achieve its objectives?
iii. What resources will these tactics require?
General Publications
Serial publication:
a) newsletter,
b) house organ,
c) bulletin.
Stand-alone publication:
a) brochure,
b) leaflet,
c) folder,
d) pamphlet,
e) booklet,
f) magazine
g) tract,
h) circular
i) reprint, internal news release.

Progress report:
j) annual report,
k) quarterly report.
User kit, teacher kit.
Research report
Direct Mail: Memo, appeal letter, marketing letter, postcard, invitation, catalogue
Miscellaneous Print Media:
a) Poster,
b) window display,
c) bulletin board,
d) suggestion box,
e) pay stuffer,
f) bill insert,
g) door hanger,
h) business card,
i) certificate,
j) proclamation
Audio-Visual Media:
i. Audio: Telephone, dial-a-message, recorded information, free call numbers, demo
tape, demo CD.
ii. Video: Non-broadcast video, corporate video, internal video, video conference, slide
show, teleconferences.
iii. Computer-based media: e-mail, listserve, news group, web site, homepage, web TV,
web radio, touch-sensitive computer, YouTube, Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, Flikr,
7.3 News Media Tactics
i. What news media tactics will you use?
ii. How will these tactics help the organization achieve its objectives?
iii. What resources will these tactics require?
Direct News Material: News fact sheet, event listing, community calendar, interview
notes, news release, feature release, actuality, video B-roll, video news release, social
news release, photo and caption, media kit

Indirect News Material: Media advisory, story idea memo, query letter
Opinion Material: Position statement, white paper, contingency statement, standby
statement, letter to the editor, guest editorial, op-ed piece
Interactive News Opportunity: Interview, news conference, studio interview, satellite
media tour, editorial conference
7.4 Advertising and Promotional Tactics
i. What advertising media and promotional tactics will you use
ii. How will these tactics help the organization achieve its objectives?
iii. What resources will these tactics require?
Print Advertising Media: Magazine advertising, advertorial. Newspaper advertising:
display, classified, personal classified. Directory advertising. House advertising,
Programme advertising
Electronic Advertising Media:
i. Television: commercial, spot, infomercial.
ii. Radio: commercial, network radio, spot radio.
iii. Cable television: advertising, cable crawl.
iv. Computer media: e-zine, electronic catalogue, pop-ups
Out-of-Home Advertising:
Outdoor poster: billboard, paint, spectacular, wall mural.
i. Arena poster.
ii. Signage. (sign boards, bill boards, etc.)
iii. Out-of-home video, video wall.
iv. Church buildings
Transit advertising: bus sign, car card, station poster, diorama, shelter poster, mobile
billboard. Aerial advertising, blimp, airplane tows, skywriting, inflatable
Promotional Item: Clothing, costume, office accessory/stationery, home accessory
Now that you know what you want to say and why, its time to gure out how youre
going to broadcast your message.
o What channels:

o Print - Op Ed, Letter to the Editor, Guest article, magazine feature
o Broadcast - Radio or TV Talkshow Appearance
o Blogs
o News Sites
o Social Media: Twitter, Facebook, Youtube
o What events:
o New Study/Report/Announcement
o Event/Anniversary
o Dramatic Human Interest
o Controversy
o Fresh Angle on Old Story
o Calendar Hook/Holiday
o Prole of Fascinating Person
o Response to Big News Story
o Celebrity Involvement
o Story placements proactive pitching; matte articles
o Mentions in other announcements/events
o Media event
o Regional announcements
o Speeches
o Paper products news release, backgrounder, fact sheet
o Brochure, flier
o White paper
o Follow-up announcements milestones, results, openings
o Stakeholder consultations or events
o Letters to stakeholders
o Advertising TV/radio/print/out-of-home/online
o Social media outreach
o Develop a Communications strategy
o Conventions, symposia, fora, etc

o Calendars/dairies
o Logos
o Buildings
o Notice boards
o Posters
o Leaflets
o Magazines
o Media liaison
Strategic Implications of Tactics
For each tactic identified in sections 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 and 7.4 above, answer the
following questions:
i. Will this tactic help the organization to interact with the appropriate public?
ii. What level of impact will this tactic make on the key public?
iii. Will this tactic advance the organization toward its awareness objectives?
iv. Will this tactic advance the organization toward its acceptance objectives?
v. Will this tactic advance the organization toward its action objectives?
vi. What is the main advantage of this tactic?
vii. What advantages does this tactic offer that other tactics do not?
viii. Are there any disadvantages with this tactic?
Implementation Items
a) How much will it cost to implement this tactic?
b) Is the cost justified?
c) Is the cost practical, based on the organization's resources?
d) How much staff time will it take to implement this tactic?
e) Is the time practical, based on the organization's resources?
f) What level of skill, equipment and expertise is needed to implement this tactic?
g) Is the needed level available within the organization?
h) Is the needed level available to the organization from outside sources?
In Step 8, you develop budgets and schedules and otherwise prepare to implement the
communication programme. This step turns the raw ingredients identified in the
previous step into a recipe for successful public relations and marketing communication.
Implementing the Strategic Plan

Begin with the basic planning questions. Then address the expanded planning
items to the extent they help. Skip any items that don't address your planning
Basic Planning
i. What specific initiatives, sections or groupings of tactics make this plan
ii. What public, goal and objective does each tactic serve?
iii. What is the budget and schedule for each tactic?
Expanded Planning
From the following categories, indicate which one offers the greatest likelihood of a
package of programme tactics that is cohesive and logical:
i. By Public
ii. By Goal
iii. By Objective
iv. By Organizational Department
v. By Tactic
List specific initiatives or sections in your plan
Strategic Implications
i. Will this approach help the organisation to interact with the appropriate
ii. What is the main advantage of this approach?
iii. What advantages does this approach offer that other approaches do not?
iv. Are there any disadvantages with this approach?
i. Message repetition
ii. Frequency
iii. Scheduling pattern (optional): Continuous, Flightin (when you stay up all
night, without sleep) ,
iv. Pulsing,
v. Massing
vi. Assigned manager for each tactic
vii. Timeline for each tactic


Timeline for a Strategic PR Plan. Sample Gantt Chart (Numbers Within Bars Are Days
to Accomplish Task)

i. Budget Line Items
ii. Personnel
iii. Materials
iv. Media costs
v. Equipment and facilities
vi. Administrative items
vii. Full-cost budget
viii. Break-even point
ix. Per-capita cost
The final phase, Evaluative Research, deals with evaluation and assessment, enabling
you to determine the degree to which the stated objectives have been met and thus to
modify or continue the communication activities.

This is the final planning element, indicating specific methods for measuring the
effectiveness of each recommended tactic in meeting the stated objectives.
Evaluating the Strategic Plan
Begin with the basic planning questions. Then address the expanded planning
items to the extent they help. Skip any items that don't address your planning
Basic Planning
i. How will you measure awareness objectives?
ii. How will you measure acceptance objectives?
iii. How will you measure action objective?
Expanded Planning

a) When can this information be obtained?
b) After-only study
c) Before-after study
d) What research methodologies would be most effective?
e) Judgmental assessment (personal experience? outside experts?)
f) Interviews with key people. Which people?
g) Focus groups with representative publics. Which publics?
h) Survey of representative publics. Which publics?
i) Control group?
j) Content analysis of representative artifacts. Which artifacts?
k) Readership study
l) Media tracking
Evaluation Categories

Indicate how each of the following methodologies might be used to evaluate each
individual tactic
a) Evaluation of Output
b) Message production
c) Message dissemination
d) Message cost analysis
e) Advertising equivalency
f) Evaluation of Awareness Objectives
g) Message exposure

h) Message content analysis
i) Readability measures
j) Message recall
k) Evaluation of Acceptance Objectives
l) Audience feedback
m) Benchmark (baseline) study
n) Evaluation of Action Objectives
o) Audience participation
p) Direct observation of results
q) What standards of accuracy and reliability are needed for the evaluation?
r) Who can provide information for evaluation?
a) Who will receive the final evaluation?
b) How will it be used?
c) What level of candor are decision-makers willing to receive?
Evaluation Schedule
a) Timeline for implementation report
b) Timeline for progress report
c) Timeline for final evaluation
Evaluation Programme Checklist
Is this evaluation programme?
a) Useful to the organization?
b) Clearly linked to established objectives?
c) Appropriate as to cost?
d) Appropriate as to time?
e) Appropriate as to other resources?
f) Ethical and socially responsible?
g) Credible, with accurate data?
h) Actionable?

Effective communication is vital to spreading the mission and ministries of the Christian
Divine Church.

The Programmes and Public Affairs office works closely with Apostle Ebenezer Boahen,
the General Council, the Central Committee, the Pastoral Council, regional, district and
local committees, and branch churches of the Christian Divine Church, to coordinate
and communicate ministries which proclaim the news that Jesus is calling.
The Communications office is responsible for:
Disseminating important information to conference churches
Increasing awareness of the Christian Divine Church through media outreach
Designing, maintaining and updating the conference website, www.cdc/
Creating visuals for conference ministries and for Annual General Conference
Collaborating with Planning and Administration Committee to produce e-news, a
bi-monthly electronic newsletter or a printed magazine
Introducing and integrating the latest social media into the daily life of the
o Facebook discuss issues that impact the church
o Twitter tweet about topics of interest to the conference
o YouTube view videos of Annual General Conference and of the latest
happenings at Headquarters and regional and district centres
o Flickr view, and download free of charge, hundreds of photos from EOC
o Instagram - view videos of Annual General Conference and of the latest
happenings at Headquarters and regional and district centres
Educating members on licensing and copyright matters
Technical production of Annual General Meeting sessions
The Communications office also offers training and education to local churches in the
areas of:
Welcoming and hospitality
Local church communications
Web support
Working with the Media
Crisis Communication
To schedule a training for your church, or district or regional committee meeting, please
e-mail Director of Communications (name) or call (tel. no).
To establish internal guidelines on the ways in which information is to be relayed to the
media on behalf of the Christian Divine Church.

It is the policy of the Christian Divine Church that any requests from the media (whether
print, audio, or video) for an official position shall be directed to the Apostle (Chairman
of CDC), Board of Trustees President or the Planning and Administration Committee, or
other members of the Board of Trustees or PAC or PPAC, for response.
In the event that a member or friend of the Christian Divine Church is approached by a
representative of the media and asked to comment on behalf of Christian Divine
Church, he/she shall state that the Apostle or a member of the Board of Trustees or
PAC or PPAC must provide any official response. Accordingly he/she may by:
referring the requestor to the Apostle or Board or PAC or PPAC member if
providing the phone number and/or web address of PPAC or a PPAC member
or the others to the requestor, or
Obtaining the contact information of the requestor and forwarding it to the
Apostle or Board or PAC or PPAC at (Create email address for committees) for
Upon notification from a member or friend that a media request has been made for an
official position of Christian Divine Church, the Apostle (or his designee Spokesperson)
shall try to obtain consensus from the Apostle or any of the designated committee
members as possible before responding to the media request. In the event that time
does not allow for this solicitation of Apostle (or his designee Spokesperson) and the
question regards a previously stated position of Christian Divine Church, the Member
shall use his/her best judgment to respond in a manner that would represent the will of
the Apostle (or his designee Spokesperson) and the best interest of the congregation.
Cultivating a successful media relations
While nothing inspires more fear and trepidation in public relations professionals than
media relations, it doesn't have to be complicated. Remember these 10 tips and soon
we'll land our ultimate story.
1. Have a Good Story. Whether writing a movie, a sitcom, an opera, a book or
a news article, a good story must have certain elements such as a theme, a
hero, and a beginning, middle and end, to make it compelling. Journalists
recognize a strong story within seconds, so learn how to tell yours quickly and
succinctly. That's good storytelling.
2. Know Your Audience. You wouldn't call potential clients without knowing
something about their business, so don't call the media blindly. Before you

pitch any media outlet, study it. Read the publication. Watch the show. Who
covers similar topics? Are there contributors to stories where you have
interests such as religion, social welfare or health? What format do they
prefer? The answers will be very different depending on whether you are
pitching The Daily Graphic, The Ghanaian Times, or "Radio Gold, and other
FM stations.
3. It's All About Relationships. Whose call are you more likely to take? A
vendor you've never spoken to before or one who has taken the time to
develop a relationship and truly understands your needs? It is no different
with the media. Building relationships NOW means that reporters will take
your call when you've got an important story to tell. Best of all, even if they
can't help you on this particular one, they are likely to refer you to another
reporter who can. As with any relationship, building trust is critical. Do what
you say you will, within the timeframe you give. You may not be able to
provide all the information requested, but if you are upfront about what you
can and can't do, reporters will appreciate it and remember. One
reminder: everything is on the record, no matter how close you are.
4. Create the Unexpected. Look for out-of-the ordinary partnerships for
spurring media interest. For instance, we want to position our CDC, as a
contemporary church for younger believers and more relevant than ever. To
do that, we need to generate publicity for the church beyond the traditional
press. We leverage CDC's relationship with a renowned Christian singer, to
create a joint musical convention/show. Attending media could be far from
ordinary: most popular radio and TV stations and more.
5. Pitching is Fun. When you are just starting out, you can't believe this could
ever be true. You imagine the worst: crabby journalists hanging up on you or
worse, cursing you. Then we land our first big story, and suddenly we've got
pitching fever. Here are some quick tips to make those calls easier:

a. Use this effective introduction: "We haven't spoken before." Forget the
days of pretending to be a reporter's best friend. Journalists don't fall
for it and they actually miss the first valuable minutes of your pitch
trying to figure out who you are. Be upfront.
b. Hone our pitch to a 15 second elevator speech.
c. Always ask if a reporter is on deadline. If so, find out a good time to
call back, and do
d. Know our story inside and out. This allows us to revise our pitch as we
hear objections instead of folding instantly. Know enough to pitch other
journalists, too. Even if our client doesn't fit this time, another may.
e. Try different approaches. All journalists have personal preferences
about how they like to be contacted so try a variety of
techniques. Often a brief, compelling paragraph sent via e-mail is an
effective yet unobtrusive introduction.
f. Follow-up. Many potential leads are lost simply because PR people
don't follow through on them. If a reporter tells you to call back another
time, make sure you do. Also, just because a reporter doesn't answer

our e-mail immediately, doesn't mean he/she isn't interested. It could
just mean that they haven't gotten to any of the 150 e-mails received
that day.
g. Persistence, persistence, persistence. There is a fine line between
being persistent and annoying, but if we truly know our story and our
audience, there is no shame in steadfastly making contact attempts
until we get the reporter on the phone. (Just don't keep leaving
6. Be Creative. While it's easy to recycle the same old press releases and fact
sheets, infusing our media plans with some innovative thinking will produce
stronger, more effective results. For instance, when introducing a programme,
special service, etc., we position the programme as part of the growing retro
trend (childrens theme programme) and tie into adult nostalgia for childhood.
For example, we send out "Wouldn't You Like to Be a Kid Again?" cards to
parents of school kinds in nearby cluster of schools and the media nationwide
along with compelling video footage. We reach a large number of both
children and parents with the message that our new candy is fun for all ages.
7. Good Writing Counts. Adopt a journalistic approach. Look carefully at how
reputable publications such as the Daily Graphic and Ghanaian Times write a
story. What is the lead? What type of quotes do they use? Study different
types of stories -- features, executive changes, news articles. For the most
part, you'll see the inverted pyramid style where the most important
information is in the lead and the rest of the story flows from there. Despite
recent e-word mania, it's time to eliminate jargon and buzz words. Say what
you want, but say it simply and plainly. Another sign of weak writing is the use
of clichs. Finally, ever feel like you just can't write that press release? This
blockage often indicates you don't have enough information. Do outside
research. Interview a member of the congregation or Christian Community.
Get another perspective. Then you're sure to end up with a solid product that
would appeal to any journalist.
8. Have a Strategy. Don't use the same media strategy for every story. Think
about whom we want to reach and how to create excitement. One effective
technique is to offer a "first" (as in first chance to break the story) to a major
media outlet. For the launch a musical concert, etc., The Daily Graphic or
Peace FM, for example, gets the first opportunity. We expect that other media
would chase the story. As the morning the story hits, we made calls to
arrange interviews with other media. Quickly other media (broadcast) outlets
will cover the story as well.
9. Clients Love Hits. Despite all the counseling, strategy, partnerships, writing
and more, Christians want media coverage. Until the church creates better
measurement systems, a full page story becomes a tangible "product" that
our members can hold in their hands and show to their boss.
10. If You Get Results, You'll Go Far. There are two measures of how high you
rank on the value chain: knowledge and relationships. Success with media
relations is a sure way to show that you are at the top.

How can church leaders establish relationships with the media?
Bring news media representatives into the church as guests, and have the goal
of them becoming members.
Develop awards for journalists.
Inform the media of newsworthy stories that relate to our church or members.
Invite Christian members of the news media to speak to the church about their
Conduct discussion groups or seminars led by members and news media
What steps can Christian Divine Church take to establish relationships with
media representatives? Is the community well informed about our churchs
To receive publicity for projects, we must first undertake meaningful projects that
address real community needs.
We should sponsor a major community service activity each year.
Communicate often with our church leaders, particularly those responsible for
projects and activities, to take advantage of public relations opportunities that
may develop.
What basic steps should you take when preparing to work with the media?
Know the facts of the story you wish to promote.
Name your spokespeople.
Prepare fact sheets.
Write a news release.
Consult the Internet for media outreach ideas, press release templates, key
church messages, and public relations tips.
What are the main types of media in our area?
Local newspapers and magazines
Local radio stations
Local television stations
What other types of media could promote the work of our church?
Types of Media
Online publications
Trade publications
Public access cable stations
Radio public affairs shows and talk radio

Newsletters of other community organizations
Has our church had success with one of these media sources?
The local media is of vital importance because of its ability to reach and influence
opinion in the community the church serves.
Match the story with the appropriate medium. For example, stories with a strong
visual element may appeal to the local television station.
There is tremendous competition for media time and space. Be creative and
consider alternatives to traditional media.
What characteristics should we consider when selecting a public relations team?
Team Member Characteristics
Prominent community members, including civic, academic, and business leaders
Professional media experience
Professional relationships with the media, including those who place
advertisements with local media sources
Thorough knowledge of the church
Strong speaking skills, writing, or photography skills
Web site development experience
How can you give team members the knowledge necessary to do their job effectively?
Inform team members of the responsibilities associated with church public
Give team members examples of past successful and unsuccessful public
relations efforts. Discuss why those efforts did or didnt work and how lessons
can be applied to current efforts.
Church Public Relations: Roles and Responsibilities
Provide team members with a calendar of church and community events to
facilitate planning.
Prepare a list of visitors who may be of interest to the local media. For example:
i. Visiting Missionaries
ii. Musical guests
iii. Interesting speakers
Provide newer team members with background information on church activities
and ongoing projects.
Pair new Members with more experienced ones.
Be knowledgeable about the resources available to your team.

How can you motivate team members?
Create a sense of ownership by involving them in the planning process.
Provide them with challenging tasks.
Regularly acknowledge their efforts and accomplishments.
Show that you value their input by asking for and incorporating their suggestions.
Explain how their duties and tasks contribute to church, the body of Christ and
their own personal growth and development.

i. Maintain positive news media relations.
ii. Seek publicity for successful service projects and activities.
iii. Use regional magazines, and other promotional tools and techniques to
promote worship center aims and accomplishments.
iv. Encourage Members to inform their friends and associates about our
v. Cultivate the understanding of community leaders, young people, and
other groups who should be aware of the church.
vi. Take positive steps to prevent or correct any attitudes within the
community that may harm our churchs reputation or limit its effectiveness.
vii. Use public relations to enhance membership development efforts.
viii. Goal: Obtain full representation of the news media in church membership.

Official Contacts
For media/press requests please contact us at ppac/ ??????? or call
(tel. no.) and leave a message in the general mailbox.
In the event of an emergency involving Church members, please direct all inquiries to
PPAC at (tel. no.).
At any point in time, the Church is faced with having to plan and organise events,
ordinary or special. Whether its a management conference, a worship meeting, a
wedding, a convention, a retreat or small send-off party for a pastor on transfer - it does
not matter how big the event is - planning is necessary and this will help in managing
the occasion.
Putting together a programme for a variety of events requires organizational skills in
order for everything to run smoothly and trouble-free. It is important to plan ahead and
give oneself plenty of time to work out all the specific details.

A special event is a one-time event focused on a specific purpose such as a
groundbreaking, grand opening, a convention, retreat or other significant occasion in the
life of a church. Special events may also be created for other targeted purposes such as
awards banquet or logo contest.
These one-time special events are different from "programmes" offered on a continuing
basis such as a lecture series, debates, reading club or story hour.
The following steps are offered to help guide our event planning:
1. Event Goal
It is always helpful to understand what the goal of an event is. Questions you need to
Is this event to provide fellowship?
Is it a community outreach?
Is it a fundraiser to raise money for a cause?
Depending on the goal of the event, the planning can vary.
2. Event Budget
The objective is to provide event planners with a financial blueprint. The budget should
be specific, and include revenue opportunities (sponsorship, ticket sales, donations,
concession sales, etc.) as well as expenses venue, printing, permits, insurance,
speakers, food, supplies, security).
Planning for any event should always begin with a budget. Understanding how much
money is available to support the event is critical to the planning process.
It is also important to determine if there will be any money raised at the event or if it is
strictly an opportunity to give back to the congregation or community.
3. Church Event Theme
The event may be for fund raising, building awareness about your church, or just an
appreciation event. No matter what your purpose, having a theme will help to create
excitement about your event.
Every event should have an identified theme that helps determine all other supporting
aspects of the happening!
For example, a church revival theme dictates the kind of food, decorations, music and
atmosphere. A theme creates the mood and should be used throughout the event.

4. Consider logistics
With many activities going on simultaneously, there are many details to be checked.
Major areas to consider and plan for include: size of venue (space or building or
grounds used), utility support needed, setup (tables and chairs. tents, portable toilets,
parking, signage) coordination, cleanup, emergency plans, transportation, and public
services such as police and fire departments.
5. Church Event Marketing/ Publicity
Promoting a special event takes creative thinking balanced with practicality. The primary
objective is to publicise the event, but secondary objectives should be considered.
o Are you trying to inform, educate or entertain?
o Increase awareness or attendance of the event?
o Build a base support from a specific audience, young adults, teenagers,
o Facilitate good community relations?
Brainstorm all the available media in including marquees, school newsletters, church
announcements, and cable and commercial stations. Make a detailed list with names of
whom to contact and when.
Attendance for events is only as high as the churchs ability to get the word out or
advertise the event. It is important to create a marketing plan to ensure people are
aware of the event and excited about it.
Depending on whether the event is solely for the church or if it is open to the community
dictates what kind of marketing or advertising needs to be done. It could be as simple
as posting the event on the church website, in the church bulletin and weekly
announcements to as complex as printed brochures or advertisements on local radio or
Regardless, taking the time to think through who the target audience is and how to get
the word out is a critical part of successful event planning.
6. Event Activities
Activities are the fun part of every event and provide things for guests to do.
So whether it is planning the games for the church picnic or creating questions for a
trivia night, the activity planning should include all details of the activities such as what
supplies are needed, instructions for playing games, how prizes are awarded, etc. The
more detail that is laid out ahead of time, the less hiccups there will be the day of the

7. Food/Beverage Selection / Planning
The food is often the highlight of any event so taking the time to plan and prepare great
food can help create a memorable experience for guests. So whether the event is
catered (often a church member) or a group of church volunteers prepare the food
planning the details is important. The menu should support the theme and planning for
adequate paper goods and tasty food is what ensures a great food experience!
Most often, the food at church events may be pot-luck or covered dishes. Some events
will have a sit-down dinner, while others a buffet. Space is often a consideration when
planning the food and beverage selections. You need to plan for lines (sometimes long)
at the buffet
8. Event Set-up and Tear-down
Think about the invisible army that provides electric power, sets up tents, tables,
signage, trash cans, etc. And then the group that shows up after the fact, takes it all
down and cleans up the mess.
This is potentially the most important job in facilitating a big event. A well-organised
setup and tear down plan can eliminate last minute chaos and stress for event
9. Event Decorating
Fun decorations help create atmosphere and can be a great way to reinforce an event
theme, so it is important to have a team that can be creative and dress up the event.
This requires some creative thought and skill at hanging, laying out or designing
decorations. These little added touches can take a mediocre event and turn it into
something to remember.
A sit-down dinner will often have themed centerpieces, as will buffet tables. Some
events will have balloon trees scattered about. Party stores will often carry a selection of
these items.
10. Prizes/Giveaways
Most church events will have some type of prize giveaways. The number of prizes to be
given away is often based on the number of attendees, in addition to the budget
supplied. Often, many churches will have donated prizes from their vendors or
members. A nice Grand Prize will attract more attendees to your event. Raffle tickets
may be purchased from your local party store.
11. Organisational Chart/ Job Duties

Events require people to pull them off so it is important to have someone assigned to
identify what jobs need to be done and assigning people to those jobs.
An organizational chart clearly shows who has responsibility for what and what the
pecking order is. It also entails creating a chain-of-command and identifying leadership
over each area. Though it is less about who is on the top of the rung as it is who can
make decisions and help facilitate a smooth process. The larger the event the greater
the chain-of-command becomes and the more volunteer help will be needed.
Regardless of the size of the event, volunteers will need detailed job descriptions and
training to successfully fulfill their job assignments.
12. Evaluate the event
Take time to evaluate right after the event while the details are fresh. You may want to
consider having a questionnaire for participants to fill out. Some general evaluative
criteria include:
Did the event fulfill its goals and objectives? Why or why not?
Identify what worked and what needs fine-tuning. Which vendors/suppliers
should be used again?
What items were missing on the checklist?
Was the event well attended?
Was informal and formal feedback about the event positive?
Given all that went into staging, was it worth doing?
o Make sure the purpose for the special event is important enough to merit
the time and expense needed to properly stage, publicize and evaluate
the event.
o Carefully match the type of event that is selected to the purpose that it
serves. Do you want to reach out to new members or thank your
o Ensure that the church staff fully supports the special event. Select a
working committee with broad representation.
o Target groups that have a special stake in the event such as members
(current and potential), funders, other leaders, parents etc.
o Start planning at least three months, and in many cases, a year ahead of
o Develop ways to evaluate the event's success. Measurable event
objectives may include attendance, the amount of money raised, the
number of people giving their lives to Christ. etc.
o Compare this with previous events of the same kind or others who have
successfully staged similar events.

2. Make a checklist
The checklist below provides a step-by-step guide to organizing and executing a
special event, like a convention. Include projected deadlines for each step.
Select chair and members of the planning committee.

Develop a master plan and set the event date.
Select chairs for subcommittees such as accommodation, transportation
music, refreshments, setup and cleanup, tour guides, traffic and safety,
speakers, and invitations.
Organize volunteers for each committee.
Formulate a publicity plan. Decide when/how media should be contacted. Be
sure to alert the media of photo and interview opportunities.
Prepare copy for programme and printed materials.
Hold a "tie down" meeting the day before the event. Distribute a schedule of
events to each committee member. Discuss assignments. Distribute
identification badges. Answer any questions.
Set up several registration tables and stagger tour schedules to avoid
bottlenecks. Distribute a programme as guests arrive, so they know what to
After the event, mail the printed programme with an appropriate letter to
"significant others" who were unable to attend.
Remember to thank everyone who participated. Send photos if possible.
Conduct an evaluation
Before starting an event, we need to look for the following:
1. Make the final confirmation of selected speakers with committee.
2. Contact speakers to request participation.
3. Send follow-up letters to confirm speaker commitment, program agenda, title and
description of session.
4. Request speakers' biographies.
5. Prepare descriptions of the speakers' profiles for program and promotional material.
6. Send letter to confirm the exact wording to appear in the program description.
7. Request and prepare photocopies of handout materials, required A/V equipment,
room setup, travel, and accommodations.
8. Contact a resource person just prior to conference for last-minute arrangements.

On the Evening of the Event we must:
Inspect room arrangements, equipment, and handouts.
Meet with speakers to introduce fellow committee members or resource people;
speakers t room, meals, etc.,
Be available for speakers' requests at all times. Thank them for their
For the ever necessary follow-up:
Send thank you letters to resource people and speakers.
Complete a program planning report which includes an evaluation of resource
people and seminar topics.
Cover all of the expenses, etc., from planning the event

Developing the event timeline
A good timeline is essential to keep you on track throughout the process. A timeline can
be as simple or as complex as you want it to be.
The key is to make sure the timeline includes hard deadlines, i.e. important dates for
tasks that that you cant afford to over-run.
One of the other aspects of planning a successful event is to surround you with people
that can each play a part in helping that event succeed.
You have to delegate responsibility and let everyone use their own special skills to
make the event a success.
The easiest way to delegate tasks is to divide the biggest task (organising the
conference) into smaller areas of responsibility and then assign individuals to these
The form on the next page provides a sample timeline which will give you some idea of
the types of items to include in it.
Your timeline provides you with an overview of the tasks to be completed. You should
assign a committee member to each task and have them sign off completed items.
Food and catering (if applicacable)
Speakers and presenters

Printed Materials
Each area of responsibility, such as registration, will actually be comprised of individual
smaller tasks. This section will help you break the larger tasks into comprehensive task
These task lists can then be added to your timeline at a later time. Your sample timeline
charts are organized by when you should start planning your timeline and what needs to
be done.
Lets take a look at these. They basically explain what tasks have to be done in the
specified amount of time.
4 - 6 Months before Event:
Target Date:
Completion Date:
Confirm number of attendees
Set budget
Site inspections
Book venue
Book entertainment
Book keynote speakers
Set preliminary agenda
Start collecting phone numbers, e-mails and addresses of participants
Decide on theme
Hire photographer/videographer
2 - 3 Months before Event:
Assemble the meeting or event package (the Announcement with registration
form, agenda, the Venue and other information participants will need)
Send out invitations and/or registration package
Confirm speakers and panelists
Contact caterers

Contact wine & spirits suppliers
Contact florist
Confirm audio/video (AV) photography requirements
Contact AV and computer specialists
Order corporate gifts or other giveaways
1 2 Months Before Event:
Make sure all contracts are signed
Review with legal counsel
Review speakers' assignments
Review all menus, room setups etc.
Review equipment list with participants
Start assembling ideas for the registration kits, badges, agendas, vouchers,
timetables, leisure activity suggestions
Put appropriate literature in each kit
Finalize all menus
Finalize decor and floral arrangements
1 Month before Event:
Rehearse format with the venue, and decide on room setups, podia, etc.
Make sure enough electrical outlets are available, as well as the necessary
cabling for equipment
If you're using a hotel, decide with hotel management what welcome basket will
be in each room
Alert hotel who your VIPs are
Confirm guest list
10 Days before Event:
Do a checklist one more time to make sure nothing has slipped through the
One more time, do an accurate guest list

Prepare seating charts
The Day Before Event:
Go over checklist again
Arrange cash for gratuities, etc.
Review duties with staff members or hired help
Make sure signage and directions are completed
Prepare one-sheet "hot list" of critical phone numbers
Confirm any outside vendors (e.g. AV specialist)
Assemble all delegate materials
Day 1 of Event:
Bring your checklists and this Workbook with you
Bring your Planner's Tool Kit
Have the attendee list, properly alphabetized, ready at
the reception table, together with name tags
Bring extra name tags
Finalize head count for every event
Set out table numbers and name tags according to your seating charts
Solicit business cards from on-site staff, including cell phone numbers
Suggested list of areas of responsibility to assign to committee members
Food and catering
Speakers and presenters
Printed Materials

And many more
Each of these committees will basically follow a hierarchy of overall project manager
and subordinate supervisors (each committee head).
That is the best way to designate your committee. You will have others heading each of
their departments and those handling any of those volunteers that help them fulfil their
Managers job:
As the overall manager of the project or event, it is your job:
to watch everyone else doing their jobs
to assist when needed
to monitor budget costs
to make the lead decisions for the committee members through your approval of
their actions; and
to monitor the overall performance of the committee members in general.
The best thing that you can do as organizer is to ensure that each responsibility goes to
the person that is most qualified and dependable to do it.
With each of these areas covered, the task of organizing the event should be far easier.
The purpose for many conferences and seminars is generally to gain some sort of profit.
For example, a business conference is usually designed to woo a potential big client to
your company and a seminar can be held in order to raise funds for a charity of some
With this in mind, you must also consider your budgeting expenses because you do not
want your money spent to be higher than the money received. There will be more on the
budget in the next section.
When you want to form your very own event committee you must not only choose the
right areas of delegating responsibility, but you must also be very much on top of things
yourself. You are more of the supervisor to the other people.
You should ensure that you give people tasks that they are comfortable with and that
they can perform with minimal supervision.
The committee should also be certain to have regular and continual meetings:
On the subjects of the tasks needed to be performed

the money that is needed to do each task (to ensure that you do not go over
budget in any area); and
To discuss regularly any problems that have or may come up in the future.
Regular meetings are the best way to keep your entire committee in the loop. You
should also be sure to get all of the contact information from the committee so that you
can get in touch with them whenever needed, and give yours so that they can find you
when needed.
The easiest way to ensure that your committee does the best job possible is to keep in
constant communication with each other and make sure to share any and all vital
information about the tasks being performed, even if all things are hunky dory.
The next thing that you should be aware of when forming your committee is that each
committee member regularly keeps vital records of everything that they do and all of the
expense money that they spend.
For example; have each committee member make copies of and give over receipts to
you personally so that you can keep an accurate record of all things that are going on.
This information will be required eventually by a boss or superior sooner or later and it is
best that you keep on top of this as the project manager because if things get lost or no
accurate records are available, it will put your butt or career on the line.
Your role when being responsible for the planning and follow through of the event is the
event organizer.
As the event organiser, you are responsible for everything about the event. This means
that if the speakers are late; the food is not good; the AV equipment is not working; or if
the seating arrangements dont work out, all of these things will fall on you.
The average conference or seminar is set up by your employer to accommodate
important clients, for presentation information; for prospective new clients and to
accommodate a key speakers message or works.
It is because of this fact that a lot can ride on the events success; particularly for the
organizer of the event. If your event is successful it can very well mean that a promotion
is on the horizon for you or that you will get ahead in some way or another.
This guide is for the organizer of the event, to help you know exactly what you are doing
from beginning to end.
When you are beginning the process of organizing a conference or seminar, there is
nothing that is more priceless available to you than the brainstorming list.

The brainstorming event list is composed of any and every idea that you could have for
the event like food, seating, other people involved in helping the event take place, and
everything else that you can come up with.
When we think of a conference organizer, we typically think of the person who is
responsible for all the conference logistics; however your role as a conference organiser
extends far beyond that.
You are responsible not just for the details but also for the big picture. You need to
develop a vision for your conference with realizable goals and objectives that are
maintained and supported by the details of the event.
A vision for a conference, for example, may include:
Measurable goals and objectives
Establishing a committee
Delegating tasks to committee members
Developing a timeline
Developing the conference program
Holding regular committee meetings to verify that committee members have the
support required to accomplish their tasks
Hold a meeting after the conference and gather feedback on the conference
Send out appropriate thank you notes following the event.
There is a great deal to do.
Set up a checklist of committee members, their contact information; a list of jobs that
need to be done and a list of what tasks have to be performed.
In the end, you could wind up making at least 3-4 checklists all together.
Event Planning Guide
At some point in life, everyone is faced with having to plan and organise a special event.
Whether its a management conference, convention, retreat, a meeting, a wedding or
send-off party for a pastor, etc. It does not matter how big the event is - planning is
necessary and this will help in managing the occasion.
In event planning guide will help you to:
1. Make the final confirmation of selected speakers with committee.
2. Contact speakers to request participation.
3. Send follow-up letters to confirm speaker commitment, program agenda, title and
description of session.

4. Request speakers' biographies.
5. Prepare descriptions of the speakers' profiles for program and promotional material.
6. Send letter to confirm the exact wording to appear in the program description.
7. Request and prepare photocopies of handout materials, required A/V equipment,
room setup, travel, and accommodations.
8. Contact a resource person just prior to conference for last-minute arrangements.
On the Evening of the Event you must:
Inspect room arrangements, equipment, and handouts.
Meet with speakers to introduce fellow committee members or resource people;
speakers to rooms, meals, etc.
Be available for speakers' requests at all times. Thank them for their
For the ever necessary follow-up:
Send thank you letters to resource people and speakers.
Complete a program planning report which includes an evaluation of resource
people and seminar topics.
Cover all the expenses, etc.,from planning the event
Now lets get right into the planning stage!
Sample Checklist No. 1: Task list
The tasks may be different than this, but this will give you the general idea.
Responsibility Member Tel.
Food /catering

Printed materials
Sample checklist No. 2 Tasklist

These checklists are only a sample of what you can do when making your checklists,
but you get the idea.
When you have confirmed each of the items in your list as being confirmed finished,
simply check it off.
A more advanced checklist will also include the general stages of each task such as
inquiries/confirmed etc. These checklists will be your saviours later.
Who is attending the event? Learn the importance of the right group size for the event
and conferences
In any face-to-face meeting, the size of the group directly affects the amount of time that
is needed to accomplish the task as well as the groups ability to stay on track. The
number of people in a meeting affects:
The number of ideas and opinions that are generated and expressed by each
The degree of contribution that is possible for each and every individual.
The amount of time needed to consider and reach consensus on each idea.
Task Member
Order supplies
Order Food
Audio/video rental
Door prizes etc.

All of these factors must be considered when determining the number of participants in
any meeting or conference. Though there are no hard and fast rules about the groups
size, electronic conferences bring additional considerations for determining the number
of participants to be allowed to be involved.
Because participants can use their workstations to simultaneously contribute ideas,
more ideas can be contributed in a shorter period of time than in traditional conferences.
The anonymity and brainstorming techniques used during conferences encourage a
high degree of contribution from all participants that are involved. The larger the group,
the more time must be spent on discussion and clarification.
The type of conference or event it is must also be considered when choosing an
appropriate group size. If the event is designed to gather information but not to make
decisions about the information, the size of the group can be as large as the room and
workstation count can support.
On the other hand, if the meeting is designed to make strategic decisions, significant
discussion and consensus building will be required and a small group size is probably
more appropriate.
In general, a group size of approximately eight to twelve works well for reaching
decisions and working through problems. The Impact of Group Size on Agenda Writing;
while writing an agenda is very important to know the group size so that you can set
appropriate step limits and make accurate time budgets for each step and the overall
For example, when you are planning a Generate step, think about the total number of
ideas that may be contributed throughout the event. With a group of ten to twenty
participants, it is likely that each participant will contribute at least one idea during the
Even with this minimal contribution, there will be a large number of ideas that you have
to process during the following steps, and a significant amount of time might be
required. If you are working with critical success factors, and expect the final list to be
short, limiting the number of ideas is probably better.
On the other hand, if you are naming a new product or brainstorming ideas for a new
advertising campaign, a large number of ideas are welcome.
In either case, a smaller group (four to six participants) might be asked to generate an
unlimited number of ideas so that, they can get all sides of an issue.

With large groups you can be certain that much space will be used very effectively with
large groups by using teams or multiple users per workstation.
By breaking the large group into several smaller groups and assigning each of these
groups a single workstation, the team can work together to develop ideas and opinions.
Then, the team spokesperson can enter their responses into the team workstation.
If your facilities that you are using to host your events are not adequate, and do not
provide enough workstations for each participant or even for each group, multiple users
can be assigned to each workstation.
Each participant should be assigned to a workstation that can contribute ideas in a
Generate step, and participate fully in Evaluate, Cross Impact and Multiple Criteria
Analysis steps.
A conference is an excellent example of the uses and success of space with large
groups. With a conference, teams could be used for conference planning.
Each organization involved in the event could be represented by a team or a team
spokesperson. Consideration could be used to create and track to do lists, due dates,
and ownership for all tasks.
At the conference itself, a large group could use multiple users per workstation to
discuss and vote on several issues using a formal Evaluation step.
Each person attending the conference has an opportunity to voice their opinion, vote on
an issue, and see immediate results.
Using the multiple users per workstation configuration, you could also enable
conference attendees to comment on speakers, facilities, survey questions, activity
preferences, technical questions, or announcements.
After the Event concludes you must:
Pay the bills
Write thank-yous and send gifts
Complete your expenditures and match to budget
Pay gratuities
Notes: (Here is where you would write down any notes or special points of interest that
you would like to add about the event itself)