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City University of Hong Kong

Department of Computer Science


06CS046
Project Title
Face Detection and Face Recognition of Human-like
Characters in Comics
(olume ! of ! "
Student Name # Savina Cheung
Student No. #
Programme Code # BSCCS
Supervisor # Dr. !"N#$ %ing Ho
Ho&ard
'
st
Reader # Dr. N#($ Chong %ah
)
nd
Reader # Prof. *P$ Ho Shing Horace
$or %fficial Use %nly
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
)
Stu&ent $inal +ear Project Declaration
* have read the pro+ect guidelines and * understand the meaning of academic dishonest,$
in particular plagiarism and collusion. * here-, declare that the &ork * su-mitted for
m, final ,ear pro+ect$ entitled.
$ace Detection an& $ace 'ecognition of Human(li)e C*aracters in Comics
does not involve academic dishonest,. * give permission for m, final ,ear pro+ect
&ork to -e electronicall, scanned and if found to involve academic dishonest,$ * am
a&are of the conse/uences as stated in the Pro+ect #uidelines.
Student Name.
Savina Cheung Chui Shan
Signature.
)001232'3
Student *D. Date.
,-stract
*n a nutshell$ it is inconvenient for comic readers to perform a scene search on large
volumes of comic pages$ as a conventional &a, to achieve the task is to perform -rute
force searching -ased on the vague impression of searchers. %ith the emergence of
e-comics$ computers could -e designed to achieve the search task -, comic characters
inde4ing. 5he search of characters under different occasions &ill -e helpful in
identif,ing &hich scenes are the craved ones -, narro&ing do&n the scope from the
large amount of digital comic pages in the data-ase. 5o -e a-le to differentiate -et&een
various cartoon characters for inde4ing$ a content -ased image retrieval 6CB*R7 s,stem
is developed for the sake of comic readers. "nder this pro+ect several detection and
recognition strategies &ould -e investigated to determine &hich algorithms$ &hen
-eing applied on e-comic data set$ are more &orka-le. 8fter the comparison on the
&orka-le face detection and recognition algorithms &ere done from the literature$
some of them have -een culled to e4periment on the comic data set. (verall 1
algorithms 69 for detection and 3 for recognition7 are selected to &ork on the
e4periments$ and the most &orka-le methodologies are found to -e 8da-oost
6detection7 and !lastic Bunch #raph :atching ;!B#:<6recognition7$ ,ielding a rate
of 3=.=0> and =3.33> respectivel,. 5o compensate for the imperfectness of the
detection rate$ the CB*R s,stem developed are em-edded &ith a modification function
for users to add in undetected faces as for input in recognition? &here to improve the
recognition result$ some kno&ledge from the comic nature are utili@ed as to -oost the
performance of !B#:$ resulting an increase of 9A.1B> from the original recognition
rate$ the overall recognition first-rank rate is finali@ed as 1=.=0>. 8lthough the
performance is still not '00> accurate$ the CB*R s,stem might -e a-le to search the
specific scene if users provide more information to it. 5he CB*R s,stem deplo,ed is
also designed in such a &a, that$ if -eing used continuousl,$ the performance of
recognition &ill -e enhanced.
,c)no.le&gement
First and foremost$ m, deepest gratitude goes to m, supervisor$ Dr !"N#$ %ing Ho
Ho&ard$ for his guidance throughout the entire ,ear. Being ama@ed -, his values
to&ards this pro+ect$ * -elieve that this kind of attitude should -e complimented.
%ithout this sort of directions$ definitel, * &ould not have possessed ade/uate vigor to
complete the task -ut &ould have relin/uished for long. 8part from the technological
potion of the pro+ect$ he also put much emphasis on the presentation performance$ of
&hich * am &eak at. He also e4hi-ited great e4tend of patience in supervising this
pro+ect &hen * encountered o-stacles. Furthermore$ his suggestions on the design and
improvement to m, application not onl, enhance the s,stem itself$ -ut also open m,
e,es to -e a&are of ho& current applications are designed. 8ll of these come to m,
personal and the pro+ectCs -enefit. Sincerel,$ * am grateful to have his ,earlong
supervision and advice.
B, this opportunit, * &ould also like to e4tend m, appreciation to the Department of
Computer Science of Cit, "niversit, of Hong Dong$ especiall, for those professors
and tutors &hom * have ac/uired kno&ledge from for all these ,ears. %ithout such
fundamental cognition it &ould -e far more difficult to comprehend and progress on
the development of the pro+ect.
ast -ut not least$ thank is to -e e4pressed to kingcomics.com$ for providing the data
set in digital form that is a critical factor to the completion of this pro+ect.
Content
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'.' 5H! PR(B!:.................................................................................................................................... A
'.) 5H! S("5*(N................................................................................................................................... A
'.9 PR(E!C5 SC(P! ................................................................................................................................. B
1.3.1 Content-based image retrieval (CBIR)...................................................................................... 9
1.3.2 Face Detection and Recognition ............................................................................................. 10
1.3.3 Data et................................................................................................................................... 10
'.3 (R#8N*F85*(N (F F((%*N# S!C5*(NS....................................................................................... ')
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).) F8C! D!5!C5*(N ............................................................................................................................. '3
2.2.1 Feat!re-Based "##roac$......................................................................................................... 1%
2.2.2. Image-Based "##roac$ .......................................................................................................... 1&
).9 F8C! R!C(#N*5*(N ......................................................................................................................... '1
2.3.1 "##earance-Based "##roac$ .................................................................................................. 1'
2.3.2 (odel-Based "##roac$ ........................................................................................................... 1'
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3.1.1 #ecialt) to be considered *or Comic et ................................................................................ 20
3.1.2 +in Color egmentation......................................................................................................... 20
3.1.3 "daboost -- Boosted Cascade o* ,aar-li+e *eat!res ............................................................... 22
3.1.% -e!ral -et.or+ ....................................................................................................................... 2/
9.) F8C! R!C(#N*5*(N ......................................................................................................................... )1
3.2.1 0re#rocessing.......................................................................................................................... 2'
3.2.2 0C" 1 0rinci#le Com#onent "nal)sis..................................................................................... 29
3.2.3 2D" 1 2inear Discriminant "nal)sis ...................................................................................... 33
3.2.% Ba)esian Intra#ersonal345tra#ersonal Classi*ier ................................................................... 3%
3.2.6 4B7(84lastic B!nc$ 7ra#$ (atc$ing ................................................................................ 36
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3.) SHS5!: S5R"C5"R!........................................................................................................................ 30
3.9 *:8#! R!5R*!G8 ........................................................................................................................... 39
3.3 "S!R *N5!RF8C! ............................................................................................................................. 3=
%.%.1 0er*orming Detection.............................................................................................................. %/
%.%.2 9raining Data elector ............................................................................................................ %/
%.%.3 earc$ elector........................................................................................................................ %9
%.%.% ingle C$aracter earc$er ...................................................................................................... %9
%.%.6 Ran+ (odi*ier ......................................................................................................................... 61
%.%.& C$aracters Ban+ ..................................................................................................................... 62
%.%./ Im#rovement on t$e :!er) res!lt ............................................................................................. 63
%.%.' (!lti#le C$aracters earc$er ................................................................................................. 66
%.%.9 ,el# site .................................................................................................................................. 6&
%.%.10 #eci*)ing 4B7( 2andmar+ 2ocations ................................................................................ 6&
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6.1.1 45#erimental et!# ................................................................................................................. &1
6.1.2 2o. 2evel "nal)sis 1 +in Color egmentation ...................................................................... &2
6.1.3. Image based "##roac$ ........................................................................................................... &6
6.1.% ,; egmentation ; "daboost ............................................................................................. &/
=.) !IP!R*:!N5S (N F8C! R!C(#N*5*(N............................................................................................. JA
6.2.1 45#erimental et!# ................................................................................................................. &'
6.2.2 0C" and 2D" Distance (eas!re............................................................................................ /1
6.2.3 <verall 0er*ormance............................................................................................................... /3
6.2.% Cartoonist and tor) #lots....................................................................................................... //
6.2.6 <ccl!ded ................................................................................................................................. /9
6.2.& 4B7( Class C$aracters ;ie. ................................................................................................ '0
6.2./ Images .it$ 2o. 0er*ormances on 4B7( ............................................................................. '3
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"##endi5 " -- (ont$l) 2og .............................................................................................................. 90
"##endi5 B 1 Data et *or Face Recognition .................................................................................. 92
"##endi5 C 1 Collaboration Diagram o* ("IR4 ............................................................................ 9%
"##endi5 D 1 Data et *or Face Detection ...................................................................................... 96
C*apter !(( 9ntro&uction
'.' 5he Pro-lem
5he most important content in comics is the plot of the stor,$ &hich is the premier
intention for comic readers to purchase and en+o, them. Comic characters are al&a,s
an essential element in the creation of a narrative. So stor, plots and characters are
al&a,s adhered to each other.
%ith the aid of technolog,$ comic readers no& can o-tain their favorite comics in
electronic form. 8nd as the accessi-ilit, of electronic comics is -ecoming increasingl,
hand,$ there is a trend of reading comics on PC rather than on the traditional printed
paper volumes.
Ho&ever$ it is a common nature of comics to -e distri-uted in hundreds of volumes$
resulting in thousands of comic pages. *n addition$ sometimes it takes /uite a &hile for
the pu-lishers to distri-ute the ne4t volume. 8long &ith another propert, of comics$
-eing that the plot can al&a,s -e related to a scene that happens in a far earlier volume?
the three factors are /uite trou-lesome for comic lovers$ especiall, those &ho are
follo&ing an active comic rather than a retired one. *t is indeed a rather trick, task to
find out &hat had happened in previous chapters if the comic readers forget some
details or &ant to find the correlation -et&een chapters.
'.) 5he Solution
8s images reside in readersC mind more than te4t and the, tend to find a particular
scene &ith certain characters -, e4haustive search$ a superior comic inde4ing approach
is to search comic pages in terms of different comic image characters rather than
simpl, -, te4t. *dentif,ing &hich character to &hich is vital in searching a particular
scene from the comics -ecause the characters are al&a,s the main theme of the scene.
Having the information of &here the characters are located$ the search of finding a
particular scene can then -e tapered do&n$ and hopefull, it is more efficient for comic
readers to perform a scene search. 5his pro+ect e4plores the possi-ilit, of appl,ing
e4isting face detection and recognition technolog, -ased on content -ased image
retrieval 6CB*R7 to -uild a s,stem for identif,ing individual comic characters among a
set of digital comic images.
'.9 Pro+ect Scope
!010! Content(-ase& image retrieval (C/9'"
Content--ased image retrieval 6CB*R7 is currentl, an active research area in the
computer vision communit,. "nfortunatel,$ there are onl, fe& CB*R s,stems that can
handle e-comics. 8ll of the data of e-comics are availa-le as multimedia documents$ i.e.
documents consisting of different t,pes of data such as te4t and images. Ho&ever$ little
&ork has -een done on content--ased image retrieval to specificall, handle digital
comics.
*n this pro+ect a CB*R s,stem &hich demonstrates face detection and recognition
techni/ues to allo& the retrieval of comic images from /ueries of comic characters &ill
-e presented. 8s the CB*R s,stem is mainl, -uilt on comic characters detection and
recognition$ the detection and recognition of comic characters &ill -e the main scope.
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
!010; $ace Detection an& 'ecognition
8s there are numerous face detection and recognition methods could -e used for
detecting comic characters from comic images$ the pro+ect &ill focus on investigating
&hich of them is more promising in -ringing a -etter performance in such comic
searches. 8fter the algorithms &hich &ould &ork on comic image sets have -een
identified$ further modifications on the algorithm ma, -e proposed in order to improve
the result of the identification process of comic characters. 5hese methods &ill -e
discussed in a later section.
!0101 Data Set
*n a research point of vie&$ numerous of face detection and recognition have -een done
on registered images$ for e4ample$ a ver, common dataset used -, researchers to
perform their e4periments is the F!R!5 Dataset. 8nd man, algorithms are a-le to
perform a high accurac, on this kind of dataset.
Fig!re 1.3.3 ome e5am#les *rom t$e F4R49 Dataset obtained *rom =36>
Ho&ever$ if the dataset are not that registered$ the performances of the algorithms
might -e not such po&erful. *t is never possi-le for comic images to -e perfectl,
registered to suit in the algorithms. 5hus$ along &ith developing the CB*R s,stem to
cater for comic usersC crave$ in this paper &e &ould also like to investigate &hich
e4isting techni/ues are more invariant from the pose$ e4pression and of a given face
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
image.
Belo& lists the different t,pes of faces that &e &ould like the face detector to -e a-le
to detect from the given set of comic images.
@ Frontal and Rotated Frontal
@ Profile
@ Non-skin color
@ Rotated -, B0 degrees
@ (ccluded
'.3 (rgani@ation of Follo&ing Sections
First a -rief revie& of some e4isting face detection and recognition algorithms &ill -e
provided in Chapter ). *n the conse/uent chapter$ the more feasi-le algorithms for the
pro+ect &ill -e identified and -e descri-ed in detail. 5he algorithms &ill then -e
applied to -uild a comic character search application and it &ill -e introduced in
Chapter 3. Su-se/uentl,$ the e4periments had -een done to investigate the
performance of different methodologies implemented &ill -e revealed in Chapter =.
5he final part of the paper &ill present the conclusions.
C*apter ;(( 4iterature 'evie.
5his section discloses some of the popular face detection and recognition algorithms
&hich has -een proposed -, other researchers.
).' (vervie& of Face Detection and Recognition Stage
Face detection and recognition has -een an active research topic in computer vision for
more than t&o decades. Here are the ke, tasks to -e performed.
@ Face detection 6locali@ation7. *t detects &here the faces are located.
@ Facial feature e4traction. De, face features from the faces such as e,es$ mouth$
chin$ are e4tracted to undergo recognition or tracking.
@ Face recognition. 8 stage of matching a facial image to a reference image e4isted
in the training data.
@ Face authentication or verification. 8 positive or negative repl, &ill -e given to
determine &hether a ne& facial image matches &ith the reference ones.
*nput *mage
Face
Detection
Feature
!4traction
Face
Recognition
Figure 2.1. Con*ig!ration o* Face Recognition )stem
8 detail outline of different algorithms of -oth detection and recognition &ill -e
presented in the Chapter 9 so as to compare our scenario &ith the nature of the
algorithms.
).) Face Detection
Face detection methods are often classified into ) main categories in Fig!re 2.2.
Feature Based 8pproaches and *mage Based 8pproaches ;'<.
Figure 2.2 Classi*ication o* Face Detection (et$odologies =1>
;0;0! $eature(/ase& ,pproac*
Feature -ased approaches include methods -ased on edges$ lines$ and curves. Basicall,
depend on structural matching &ith te4tural and geometrical constraints.
For instance$ in edge representation$ &hich &as applied -, Sakai et al. ;)<$ &orks -,
dra&ing face lining from images to locate facial features.
"sing a slightl, different feature from curves and lines$ De Silva et al. ;9< carried out
their detection stud, &hich started -, scanning the image from top to -ottom$ and at
the same time searched for the top of a head and then a sudden increase in edge
densities$ &hich indicates the location of a pair of e,es to detect &hether there is a face
in the given image.
).).'.' o&-level 8nal,sis
o&-level anal,sis deals &ith the segmentation of visual features using pi4el properties
such as gra,-scale and color.
Because of the lo&-level nature$ features generated from this anal,sis are am-iguous$
as &e make our goal at higher accurac,$ &e ma, consider some other approaches that
can generate more e4plicit features.
).).'.) Feature 8nal,sis
*n feature anal,sis$ visual features are organi@ed into a more glo-al concept of face and
facial features using information of face geometr,. 5hrough feature anal,sis$ feature
am-iguities are reduced and locations of the face and facial features are determined.
Features are invariant to pose and orientation change.
Facial features are difficult to locate -ecause of corruption such as illumination$ noise$
and occlusion. 8lso it is difficult to detect features in comple4 -ackground.
).).'.9 8ctive shape m o dels
:odels have -een developed for the purpose of comple4 and non-rigid feature
e4traction such as e,e pupil and lip tracking. 8ctive shape models depict the actual
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
ph,sical and hence higher-level appearance of features. (nce released &ithin a close
pro4imit, to a feature$ an active shape model &ill interact &ith local image features
6edges$ -rightness7 and graduall, deform to take the shape of the feature.
5his method is simple to appl,? ho&ever$ templates need to -e initiali@ed near the face
images or it &onKt &ork$ and as the main idea is template matching$ it is impossi-le to
enumerate templates for different poses.
;0;0;0 9mage(/ase& ,pproac*
Face detection -, e4plicit modeling of facial features has -een trou-led -, the
unpredicta-ilit, of face appearance and environmental conditions. 8lthough some of
the recent feature--ased attempts have improved the a-ilit, to cope &ith the
unpredicta-ilit,$ most are still limited to head$ shoulder and part of frontal faces. 5here
is still a need for techni/ues that can perform in more hostile scenarios such as
detecting multiple faces &ith clutter-intensive -ackgrounds.
*mage--ased approaches ignoring the -asic kno&ledge of the face generall, &ork -,
recogni@ing face patterns from a set of given images$ mostl, kno&n as the training
stage in the detection method. 8fter this initial stage of training$ the programs ma, -e
a-le to detect faces &hich are similar to the face pattern from an input image.
Comparison of distance -et&een these classes and a )D intensit, arra, e4tracted from
an input image allo&s the decision of face e4istence to -e made.
:ost of the image--ased approaches appl, a &indo& scanning techni/ue for detecting
faces. 5he &indo&-scanning algorithm is merel, an e4haustive search of the input
image for possi-le face locations at all scales.
8n e4ample of these approaches involves linear su-space method such as principal
component anal,sis 6PC87 and linear discriminant anal,sis 6D87. *t functions -,
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
e4pressing the principal component of face distri-ution -, eigenvectors. %hen this
anal,sis is done$ each training face can -e represented as a linear component of largest
eigenvectors$ forming eigenfaces ;3<.
8ppl,ing a different techni/ue in image--ased approaches$ Ro&le, et al. ;=< adopt a
Neural net&ork approach &hich trained -, using multiple multila,er perceptrons &ith
different receptive fields. 5hen merging is done on the overlapping detections &ithin
one net&ork. 8n ar-itration net&ork has -een trained to com-ine the results from
different net&orks. 5his neural net&ork approach is also classified as image--ased
approach -ecause it &orks -, identif,ing face patterns.
).9 Face Recognition
5here has -een numerous face recognition methods developed over the past ,ears.
Some proposed face recognition methods recogni@e faces -, e4tracting features. (ne of
them completes the task -, a template--ased approach ;J<. 5emplates are introduced to
detect e,es and mouth in images. 8n energ, function is defined that links edges in the
image intensit, to corresponding &ith the properties in the template.
5he 8ctive Shape :odel proposed -, Cootes et al.;1< is more fle4i-le than the
template--ased approach -ecause L the advantages using the so-called anal,sis through
s,nthesis approach come from the fact that the solution is constrained -, a fle4i-le
statistical modelM;A<.
8ccording to u ;B<$ face recognition algorithms can -e classified into
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
appearance--ased and model--ased approach.
Figure 2.3 Classi*ication o* Face Recognition (et$odologies =9>
;010! ,ppearance(/ase& ,pproac*
*t is -ased on o-+ect vie&s. *t applies statistical techni/ues to anal,@e distri-ution of
o-+ect image vectors and derive a feature space accordingl,.
;010; 7o&el(/ase& ,pproac*
!lastic Bunch #raph :atching
%iskott et al. ;'0<$ making use of geometr, of local features$ proposed a structural
matching categor, named as !lastic Bunch #raph :atching 6!B#:7. 5he, used #a-or
&avelets and a graph consisting of nodes and edges to represent a face. %ith the face
graph$ the model is invariant to distortion$ scaling$ rotation and pose.
9D m orpha-le m odel
Blan@ et al.;''< proposed that face recognition can -e achieved -, encoding shape and
te4ture in terms of model parameters in order to -uild a 9D morpha-le model &hich
can handle different face e4pressions and poses. 8nd recognition is done -, finding
similarit, -et&een the /uer, image and the protot,pe of this architecture.
C*apter 1 (( 7et*o&ologies for 5>periments
*n this section 9 detection 6Skin Color Segmentation$ 8da-oost and Neural Net&ork7
and 3 face recognition methodologies 6PC8$ D8$ Ba,esian Classifier and !B#:7
&hich are to -e e4perimented on the comic data set &ill -e d&elled on.
9.' Face Detection
10!0! Specialty to -e consi&ere& for Comic Set
5he main purpose for the face detection stage in our application is for preparing the
face recognition stage. Provided &ith the ground truth tool$ faces can -e located
manuall, -, users? -ut this is often time consuming. %ith the help of face detection$
faces can -e located automaticall, and hopefull, it can decrease the time locating all
the faces -, hand. 5hus the follo&ing criteria are -eing considered for the choice of
face detection methodologies.
@ 8ccurac,
For accurac,$ it is likel, for the results to have -oth false detected and miss faces.
Since false detect and miss are dependent on each other 6if the false detection rate
is high then the miss rate &ill -e lo&er? and vice versa7$ high false detection rate
over high miss rate is preferred as it is more efficient for users to delete a false
face rather than re-locating a missing face.
@ ocali@ation
ocating the e4act region of the faces 6-ut not /uasi ones7 is crucial such that the
ke, features of the face should -e included -ut not an, other unnecessar, features.
10!0; S)in Color Segmentation
Since the -ulk of the face images are of skin color$ a direct method to determine &here
faces are located at could -e as simple as looking for the pi4el value of the comic page
to see &hich of them lies under the skin color threshold ;')<;'9<.
5o get the -est result for skin color detection$ firstl, the color space &hich could
provide the -est representation of skin color has to -e chosen 6Fig!re 3.1.2b7. 5hen the
threshold is o-tained -, sampling under a lot of face images &hich appear as skin
color.
8fter&ards$ segmentation is done and the Lto--eM faces of &hich the pi4els value lies
under the determined threshold &ill -e e4tracted out 6Fig!re 3.1.2c7. 8s some of the
pi4els$ even lies &ithin the threshold$ &ill not -e a face? to remove the scatters &hich
&ill not possi-l, -e a face$ erosion is perform 6Fig!re 3.1.2d7? and after erosion some
of the Lto--eM faces &ill -e shrunken$ in turn affecting the locali@ation of the result$
thus after erosion is done dilation &ill -e carried out 6Fig!re 3.1.2e7.
Finall, the -lo-s can -e identified -, opting out the inside -lo-s of a larger -lo-
6Fig!re 3.1.2*7.
Figure 3.1.2a Figure 3.1.2b Figure 3.1.2c
Figure 3.1.2d Figure 3.1.2e Figure 3.1.2f
Figure 3.1.2 9$e #roced!res o* s+in color segmentation and blob *inding
8pparentl,$ -, +ust using the skin color segmentation there &ill -e a lot of false
positives. 5o improve the result the detected -lo-s &hich are too narro& 6a-solutel,
&ill not have a face contained7 &ould -e filtered a&a,. 5he -lo-s &hich do not have
more than ) dark regions on the top half of the -lo- and &ithout an, dark regions on
the -ottom half of the -lo-$ &hich assumes to corresponds to the ) e,es and the mouth$
are thro&n a&a, and not counted to -e a detected face 6the e,es and mouths are
marked on the faces on 9able 6.1.2.27.
10!01 ,&a-oost (( /ooste& Casca&e of Haar(li)e features
Proposed -, Giola and Eones;'3<$ 8da-oost is an algorithm that has -een applied for
man, face detection applications. 5he sliding &indo& -ased algorithm constructs a
strong classifier as a linear com-ination of &eak classifiers 6each contains a single
filter7 &ith the help of Haar like filters ;'=<.
9.'.9.' Feature !4traction
Fig!re 3.1.3.1 (le*t) lists some of the Haar filters that are adapted -, 8da-oost.
8ppl,ing a template on the face image as in Fig!re 3.1.3.1 (rig$t)$ the value of this
feature &ill -e the sum of the pi4el intensities in the &hite section over that of the gra,
section. 5hese filters can -e scaled to search for features over the su--&indo&s of the
image.
Figure 3.1.3.1 (le*t) ,aar *eat!res ada#ted b) "daboost? (rig$t) "##l)ing *eat!re on image =2&>
9.'.9.) 5 raining
(nce the feature to -e used is defined$ 8da-oost then move onto the +o- of -uilding a
strong classifier from training the &eak classifiers 6Fig!re 3.1.3.2a7. %ithin a sliding
&indo&$ onl, a small portion of the features are needed to form a strong classifier.
#iven some sample images 64
'
$ ,
'
7$ N$ 64
m
$ ,
m
7 ; ,O' for positive image$ other&ise
,O0<$ the strong classifier is created as follo&s ;)J<;)1<.
'. *nitiali@e &eights D
'
6i7 O '2m
). For tO ' to 5 6num-er of &eak classifiers7
@ Normali@e the &eights
@ For each filter @$ train a classifier h@$ &hich is limited in a single filter?
&here the error e is D
t
6i7 Ph@64
i
7-,
i
P
@ Find the -est &eak classifier that is of minimum error e &ith respect to the
distri-ution D
t
. 6so that there is less error7
@ "pdate the &eight -,
D
tQ'
6i7O D
t
6i7
t
e4p6'-P h
i
64
i
7-,
i
P7 &heret=et26'- et7
9. 5he output strong classifier is
&here
t
O-log
t
Table 3.1.3.2 9raining o* "daboost Classi*ier
%hen 5 &eak classifiers are determined the, contri-ute in a &eighted vote for the final
strong classifier? thus as mentioned earlier$ the strong classifier is -uilt from a linear
com-ination of &eak classifiers. Fig!re 3.1.3.2a is a diagrammatic vie& of the training
process of the construction of the strong classifier and Fig!re 3.1.3.2b gives an
e4ample of ho& the for-loop in step ) is done. *t can -e o-served that the earlier the
stage in the loop$ the less num-er of &eak classifiers are selected$ the detection rate is
-etter and tends more to '00> of detection rate. Ho&ever if a small num-er of &eak
classifiers are chosen$ the false detection rate &ill also increase? therefore this is a
tradeoff$ so for accurac,$ man, cascaded classifiers should -e selected. 5hus during the
training stage$ there are fe& concerns. if a fast cascade is re/uired$ less &eak classifiers
are selected$ making the training process faster and more prone to '00> of detection
rate -ut the classifier is not that LstrongM provided that it includes onl, a fe& &eak
classifiers and a numerous of false detection is e4pected. 8nother concern is ho& to
determine the num-er of &eak classifiers are needed in producing a detection result
&hich minimi@e the reduction in false positives 6false detection7 and ma4imi@ing the
decrease of true positive. 5o deal &ith these concerns$ each stage should -e trained and
the result is estimated$ then the ne4t &eak classifier is added onto the cascade and
trained again. 5he process stops &hen it produces the -est result. But this process is
ver, time-consuming.
Figure 3.1.3.2a Diagrammatic ;ie. o* "daboost 9raining=2&>
Figure 3.1.3.2b Classi*ication res!lts *or a##l)ing di**erent n!mber o* .ea+ classi*iers=2/>
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
9.'.9.9 Detection
(nce the strong classifier is o-tained$ &e can proceed to the detection phrase. 5he
concept here is similar to that of the training stage$ -, &hich the first classifier should
return most faces$ and the second &ill cut off more false detected o-+ects 6as sho&n in
Fig!re 3.1.3.37$ etc.
Figure 3.1.3.3 Detection b) !sing a cascade o* .ea+ classi*iers to *orm a strong classi*ier =2&>
9.'.9.3 Detection on Co m i c Characters
*n this pro+ect$ a )'-stage 8da-oost strong classifier is used to detect faces in a given
image. 8lthough it takes /uite a &hile in training$ the detection part is speed,. 5his is
an advantage of 8da-oost.
9.'.9.= 8da-oost on face recognition
Face recognition can also -e done -, 8da-oost;'A< &here the positive images of a
character class and the negative images are not of the character class. But to provide a
good classifier$ a large num-er of sample images have to -e o-tained$ &ith at least
'000 positive images and =000 negative images in addition to e4haustive training for
minimum ) &eeks can give us a classifier for ' single class. *n this pro+ect &e simpl,
do not have such kind of resources on the characters image of '000 per class.
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
:oreover$ the performance of 8da-oost on face recognition is not too good &hen there
are a large num-er of classes involved.
10!04 2eural 2et.or)
Figure 3.1.4 -e!ral -et.or+ diagrammatic overvie.=2'>
Similar as 8da-oost$ Neural Net&ork$ coined -, Ro&le, et al ;=<$ &orks -, sliding
&indo&s. 8n input comic image is to -e scanned -, sliding &indo&s of different
scales$ in &hich these &indo&s &ill -e fitted in to a neural net&ork. Having trained
ho& to recogni@e a face$ the neural net&ork &ould -e a-le to determine &hether the
input &indo& contains a face. 5he Neural Net&ork i-rar, -eing distri-uted under
#N" #eneral Pu-lic icence is ac/uired to demonstrate the e4periments in Chapter =
;)A<.
9.) Face Recognition
5he roadmap of face recognition techni/ues to -e discussed is sho&n on Fig!re 3.2$
&here PC8 and D8 &ill undergo Su-space 5raining and Su-space Pro+ect? Ba,esian
and !B#: &ill train and test on a different path.
8long &ith the face imageries$ the coordinates of e,es of each face images are
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
assumed to -e o-tained -efore the normali@ation is operated. 8ll the algorithms are
provided -, Colorado State "niversit, 6CS"7 Face *dentification !valuation S,stem
6version =.07 ;'B<.
Figure 3.2 Roadma# o* 0C"A 2D"A Ba)esian and 4B7(
(modi*ied diagram *rom =19>)
10;0! Preprocessing
Normali@ing the images -efore appl,ing onto the training process is a crucial step in
classification and the schedule is adopted from ;'B<. 5he imageries o-tained first have
to -e transformed to gra, scale images$ &hich in turn to -e normali@ed into imageries
that are porta-le for the training or testing stages of different algorithms.
Procedures for preprocessing.
'. Resi@e the image to '90 4 '=0 4 ABPP
). 5he gra, value of the gra, scale images is cast into decimal
9. 5he image &ill -e rotated such that the t&o e,e points &ill -e l,ing on the
same , coordinate.
3. 5he redundant part &hich is supposed not to -e carr,ing an, face feature &ill
-e cropped -, an ellipse mask.
=. Normali@e the histogram of the image.
J. Normali@e the pi4el values such that mean and SD is e/ual to 0 and '
respectivel,.
Table 3.2.1 0roced!res o* 0re#rocessing
Figure 3.2.1 -ormaliBed image o* a comic *ace
10;0; PC, ? Principle Component ,nalysis
Principle Component 8nal,sis 6PC87 ;)0<$ also named as Darhunen-oeve transform
in functional space$ is &idel, used to reduce dimension. "nder face recognition PC8 is
going to find the most accurate data representation$ that is the ma4imum variance$ in a
lo&er dimension space and perform a similarit, measure -et&een the given data.
9.).).' 5 raining
So during training stage the eigenvectors -est represents the input data are found. For
instance$ in Fig!re 3.2.2.1$ the diagram on the left side is not an ideal pro+ection of
ma4imum variance as it e4hi-its large pro+ection error? an optimum ma4imum variance
is sho&n on the right diagram.
Figure 3.2.2.1 Determination o* t$e ma5im!m variance b) 0C" (modi*ied *rom =29>)
#iven an image$ it can -e represented -, a vector of pi4els$ in &hich the attri-utes of
the vector is filled in -, the gra,scale value of the respective pi4el. For our e4ample$ a
m -, n image can -e represented -, a ' -, mn vector. 5hen the image is said to -e
located in the mn dimensional space$ &here this is the original space &here the image
&ill -e located at. 5hen the procedures are lists as follo&s ;90<.
'. #iven a set of N training images$
R 4
'
$ 4
)
$ ...$ 4
N
S in mn-space
5here are a set S &ith : num-er of faces$ represent in vectors$
S OR 4
'
$ 4
)
$ ...$ 4
N
S
PC8 &ill pro+ect it onto a d T mn space.
). %ith these set of training images the mean image U can -e o-tained$ &here
U O 6'2:7V4
v 6&here vO si@e of vector7
9. 5hen the difference -et&een the input images and the mean image is
defined -,
W
i
O 4
'
-U
3. Ne4t &e &ill find a set of : ortho-normal vectors 6u
n
7 &hich -est descri-es
the distri-ution of data. *n set of :$ each attri-ute 6k7 is found -,
:a4; 6'2:7 V6 u
k
W
v
7
)
< Oeigenvectors of k 6for k O ' to :7
=. 5o find the covariance matri4 $
= (1/M) V 6W
v
W
v
5
7O88
5
&here 8 O RW
'$
W
)$
W
9$ N $
W
v
S
J. 5he eigenvectors can -e o-tained -,$
G O XG
6&here ; is the set of eigenvectors associated &ith the eigenvalues X7
Table 3.2.1 0roced!res o* *inding 4igen*aces
8s one ma, notice$ PC8 takes into account of ever, pi4el intensit, to -e a feature and
reduce the dimension of them to find the variance. 5herefore under face recognition$ it
did not take into the advantage of kno&n features such as e,es or nose points? also
under PC8$ no classification information is re/uired to train the image.
For PC8 that have -een used for face recognition and gives an outstanding result$ it is
more likel, that most of the faces are of registered image$ &here the vector generated
for all training and testing images &ill not have much discrepanc, so the recognition
+o- could -e completed &ith less error. But rationall, speaking$ PC8 &ill not perform
that good under comic images.
9.).).) 5 esting
*n testing stage$ e4ploiting eigenvectors from the training data$ a similarit, measure of
the testing image &ith the data in the training stage can -e measured -, pro+ecting the
test image onto the face space$ the closer the distance is$ the more likel, it &ill -e of
the same class. 8s illustrated in Fig!re 3.2.2.1$ after the normal points 6green7 had
undergone training$ the ma4imum variance on the right is found. 5he su-space 6green7
for pro+ection &ill -e o-tained$ and given a test data 6the ,ello& circled point7$ it &ill
-e pro+ected onto the su-space and the distance -et&een test data pro+ected point and
other training data on the pro+ection can -e measured$ apparentl,$ the closest point &ith
the test data is the normal data &hich is marked -, the light -lue cross$ thus PC8 &ill
sa, this data should -e a class of the ,ello& test point and &ill rank it on the first place
in the recognition result. 5he distances could -e measured -, various kinds of distance
measures.
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
10;01 4D, ? 4inear Discriminant ,nalysis
PC8 &orks on the face space -, simpl, entering the &hole set face images instead of
considering the entered face image is of &hich class during training. But the direction
of ma4imum variance determined -, PC8 might not -e that useful in classification as a
good representation of the data 6ma4imum variance7 does not impl, that it &ill -e
useful to the classification of data. Fig!re 3.2.3a illustrates an e4ample &hen PC8
classification cannot separate the classes. ogicall,$ -, taking the advantage of kno&n
image classes$ D8;)'<$ &hich aims on finding the -est su-space so that the data can
-e &ell separated as classes of o-+ects$ ma, -e o-liging to accomplish the
identification +o-.
Figure 3.2.3a 0roblem .it$ 0C" in classi*ication=31>
Fig!re 3.2.3b e4plains ho& Fisher inear Discriminant 6FD7 is a-le to separate t&o
classes in )D dimension. (n the left diagram$ the separation plane$ lies -et&een )
classes$ has -ad result on classification as the pro+ection of the t&o classes are mi4ed?
&here the diagram on the right$ the pro+ection of the classes onto the -lue plane can -e
&ell separated. D8 tries to find a linear transformations &hich is similar to the case
on the right si@e$ &hich ma4imi@e the &ithin class scatter and minimi@e the -et&een
class distance.
Figure 3.2.3b F2D tries to *ind a #ro@ection t$at can ma5imiBe t$e bet.een-class distance =31>
9.).9.' 5 raining
D8 is trained -, appl,ing PC8 to reduce the dimensionalit, of the feature vectors$
thus -, PC8 the ma4imum variance of the training data is found$ and then D8 &ill
further reduce the dimensionalit, mean&hile maintaining the class distinguishing
features. 5hus here D8 can -e descri-ed as a com-ination of PC8 and D8.
9.).9.) 5esting
5he testing part is +ust the same as PC8 -ut using the trained su-space in D8.
10;04 /ayesian 9ntrapersonal@5>trapersonal Classifier
5&o of the mentioned recognition algorithms pro+ect face images onto a su-space -,
taking assumption that the pro+ection of the face images onto the su-space &ill have a
tighter cluster of points$ if the, -elong to the same class. *nstead of representing the
imager, as points on the face su-space$ the spanned space of the difference -et&een
t&o face images are to -e considered -, this classifier$ &hich are the intrapersonal
6same character7 and e4trapersonal 6different character7 su-space. :oghaddam and
Pentland ;))< propose that the intrapersonal and intrapersonal from different classes
could -e represented -, #aussian distri-ution ;)9<.
9.).3.' 5 raining
5he densit, estimation is done -, PC8$ training the classifier for t&o times. first for
the set of images of intrapersonal difference and second for e4trapersonal difference.
5his is done as to defining the distri-ution of #aussian.
9.).3.) 5esting
:atching is done -, computing the possi-ilit, of the differences of testing and trained
images to see if the, are from the intrapersonal or e4trapersonal space. B, pro+ecting
the pro-e image onto each space$ the pro-a-ilit, of &here the pro-e image is come
from is computed.
10;08 5/67A5lastic /unc* 6rap* 7atc*ing
Contrived -, %iskott et al. ;'0<$ !B#: utili@es the fundamental nature of human face
and e4tract the features of those fiducial points to differentiate from class to class. 8s
mentioned from the roadmap in Fig!re 3.2$ it undergoes a totall, different
classification process from the other recognition methods mentioned in previous
sections. !B#: have its o&n preprocessing$ then training is done -,
!B#:ocali@ation and after o-taining the face graphs of the face images$ distance
measure can -e finall, computed. *n this pro+ect$ the CS" !B#:$ &hich is -ased on
the thesis of Bolme from Colorado State "niversit, ;)3<$ &ill -e applied.
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
9.).=.' Nor m ali@ation
5o enhance the locali@ation performance$ !B#: &ill e4ploit another normali@ation
process o&ing to the algorithmCs specialt,. 8s !B#: took into account of the head of
the imager, -ut not onl, to the face$ more features &ill -e included in the
preprocessing outcome compared to the preprocessing descri-ed in 9.).'$ for &hich the
top of the head of the latter is occluded after preprocessing. 5he image on the right of
Fig!re 3.2.6.1 are the original image of the left$ &hich is the normali@ed face image
processed -, !B#:$ note that it comprises of more features than Fig!re 3.2.1. 5he
!B#: normali@ed face images &ill -e of ')A 4 ')A 4 ABPP.
Figure 3.2.5.1 (le*t) Image o!t#!t a*ter !ndergoing #re#rocessing o*
4B7(? (rig$t) original
cro##ed image
9.).=.) andmark ocali@ation
#oing though this process the algorithm can locate the feature locations on the set of
preprocessed training images$ and hopefull, a -unch graph can -e generated. Before
automatic landmark locali@ation of the preprocessed images is proceeded$ the
landmarks of the training imager, have to -e selected manuall,. 5he )= landmarks are
listed in Fig!re 3.2.6.2.
Figure 3.2.5.2a 9$e 26 landmar+ *eat!res t$at $ave to be +no.n *or t$e
constr!ction o* a model gra#$=2%>
8fter locating all the landmarks$ the, have to -e connected together to form a model
graph$ &hich is similar to Fig!re 3.2.6.2b. 5hen$ the algorithm &ill load all the model
graphs and e4tract the corresponding #a-or &avelets from the image to serve as the
feature and add them onto the respective +et in the -unch graph. For e4ample if &e
have J model graphs$ all the R!,e +et from the J model graphs &ill -e e4tracted and -e
appended onto the face -unch graph$ Fig!re 3.2.6.2c illustrates this e4ample &ith B
landmark +ets.
Figure 3.2.5.2b (le*t)C model gra#$ on a real #erson image *rom
=2%> (rig$t)C model gra#$ .it$ landmar+s on t$e #re#rocessed
image?
t$e crosses (le*t) and dots (rig$t) in red re#resents t$e landmar+ @ets?
.$ere t$e lines(bl!e) denotes t$e connection o* inter#olated @ets
Figure 3.2.5.2c le*tC a @et? centerC image gra#$ .it$ 9 landmar+ @ets?
rig$tC *ace b!nc$ gra#$=10>
9.).=.9 Face #raph
5o -e a-le to test all the images in the data-ase$ graph descriptions for the entire
images have to -e constructed. 5his is done similarl, as a-ove &ith the aid of the
-unch graph created in the previous step. For the landmark location of ever, test image$
the, can -e estimated -, the kno&n position of e,e coordinates$ for e4ample the
coordinates of CNoseBridge could -e estimated as the coordinates lies -et&een the
e,es$ in turn for other coordinates. (nce all the automatic landmark locali@ation are
done$ the image &ill -e of no use to !B#: as the face graph &ill -e the representation
of the images. 8s a face graph file is much smaller than an image regarding to the file
si@e$ it is -elieved that the matching procedure is along more efficient.
9.).=.3 Distance :easure
For recognition part$ the pro-e face graph is to -e compared to +ets in the -unch graph
to find a similarit, measure. *n the right most diagram of Fig!re 3.2.6.2c$ the input
face graph is to -e compared &ith the +ets on the corresponding +ets on the -unch graph
and the -est fitting +et in each of the -unch +ets are selected accordingl,$ &hich is
highlighted in gre,. 8fter&ards$ the average similarit, of the #a-or +ets are computed
-et&een the testing data and each of the -est fitting +et in the -unch graph. 5he smaller
the distance is$ the more likel, the test data is of a class of that training data.
9.).=.= !B#: on Comi c *mages
Since the e,e points are alread, a kno&n feature$ the rest of the points can roughl, -e
estimated. 8s the progress of manuall, selecting the )= landmark on the &hole set of
training images is e4haustive$ those )= points are roughl, estimated in appl,ing
!B#: to the CB*R s,stem developed.
C*apter 4 (( Comic $aces 9mage 'etrieval System
(7,9'5"
5his section gives a detail description on the application that has -een -uilt under this
pro+ect to cater for comic readersC needs? it is named as :8*R! 6co:ic f8ces *mage
Retrieval s,st!m7. 5he follo&ings &ill focus on the functionall, of :8*R!.
3.' (vervie&
:8*R! is an e4ecuta-le implemented -, :FC. %ith the aid of :8*R!$ comic readers
could -e a-le to search a particular scene -, specif,ing the character6s7 that is related
to the scene from a large set of comic images in the data-ase. :8*R! performs its
search -, the face recognition.
3.) S,stem Structure
Fig!re %.2a sho&s the use case of :8*R! and Fig!re %.2b is the class diagram.
Figure 4.2a Dse Case o* ("IR4
MARIEApp
imgFile
1
TrainingDataSelector
SelectTrainingData()
0..*
OpenImgFile()
OnDetect()
OnAnnotate()
OnSelect()
OnAutoVie()
On!ac"Img()
On#e$tImg()
On%elp()
OnTrain()
OnRecogni&e()
OnSearc'()
OnVie!an"()
0..*
0..* 1
Searc'Selector
Multiple('aracter&Searc'er
OnSearc'()
1
('aracter&!an"
Single('aracterSearc'
OnVieSa)e*()
1
1 0..* OnSearc'()
0..*
1
Ran"Mo*i+ier
0..*
Mo*i+,Ran"()
Figure 4.2b t$e class diagram o* ("IR4
1
'
5he classes that are insignificant to the s,stem flo& are not sho&n
(omicRea*er& -
.&er
1- in)o"e
M A RI E -
M A R IE A p p
- T ra in ing D at a S e lec t o r - S e a rc ' S e le c t o r - S ing le( 'a ra c t e rS ea rc ' - R a n" M o *i +ie r - ( ' a rac t e r& ! a n " - M u lt ip le ( 'a ra c t e r& S ear c 'e r
/- OnDetection( )
0- OnAnnotate( )
1- SelectTrainingData( )
2- Traine*Set
3- OnRecogni&e( )
4- SelectSearc'()
5- OnSearc'( )
6- Mo*i+,Ran"( )
10- Sa)e7i&t()
11-
1/-
10- &electe*ImgFace
11- OnSearc'( )
12- &electe*ImgFace
13- &electe*ImgFace
14-
15- SelectSearc'()
16- OnSearc'( )
/0- Mo*i+,Ran"( )
/1- Sa)e7i&t
//-
/0-
/1- &electe*ImgFace
/2-
/3- &electe*ImgFace
/4- &electe*ImgFace
/5- OnVieSa)e*( )
/6- &electe*ImgFace
Figure 4.3a 9$e se:!ence diagramA stating t$e se:!ence *lo. o* !sing ("IR4.
MARIE -
MARIEApp
- TrainingDataSelector - Searc'Selector - Single('aracterSearc'
- Ran"Mo*i+ier - ('aracter&!an" - Multiple('aracter&Searc'er
3.9 *mage Retrieval
*n order to search for a particular scene$ as specified -, the se/uence diagram 6Fig!re
%.3a7$ users have to.
'. Specif, the image folder of the desired comic set -, opening an image that is
located in the comic set. *f face detection has -een done -efore$ the image &ill
sho& the regions &here the faces &ill -e located -, red -olded rectangles.
). :8*R! provides ) face detection techni/ues for users to automaticall, detect
comic faces in comic images ---- the 8da-oost and HSG skin color detection. "sers
can opt for either of them to perform face detection. 5he recommended one is
8da-oost since it is faster and the locali@ation of faces is more accurate. %hile
:8*R! is &orking on finding faces$ a progress -ar &ill pop out to notif, users the
image :8*R! is &orking on. 8fter :8*R! has found all the faces$ the detected
faces &ill then -e displa,ed -, red -olded rectangles and the corresponding e,es
are marked -, ) eclipses.
9. 8s the detection performed -, the s,stem is not perfect$ some amendments of the
results are suggested -efore proceeding to the process of recognition. B, using the
rectangle tool and the e,e tool$ users can add in undetected faces$ delete or modif,
the locali@ation of faces and e,es. For convenient use$ users can traverse the
images -ack and for&ard -, the -ack and for&ard -uttons. (nce the, moved from
image to image$ the amendments$ &hich have -een done -, the user on the former
image$ &ill -e saved automaticall,.
3. 8fter the annotation of faces has -een done$ :8*R! is read, for face recognition.
:8*R! has 3 different face recognition techni/ues for users to select according to
their preferences$ in &hich includes PC8$ D8$ Ba,esian intrapersonal2
e4trapersonal classifier and !B#:. 8s !B#: outperforms the other algorithms$ it
is advised to -e used in the recognition part. 5o -e a-le to recogni@e$ training has to
-e done first? -, clicking on the training -utton of the selected face recognition
techni/ues$ the preprocessing of all the annotated faces in the image set &ill -e
done and a dialog &ill -e popped out for users to specif, the data for training.
8fter specif,ing the faces for training$ :8*R! &ill then perform training on those
faces. *t ma, take a &hile for the &hole training process to -e done$ depending on
the num-er of training images and the face recognition techni/ue.
=. :8*R! is prepared for recognition after training has -een completed. 5o operate
recognition$ user should have clicked on the recognition -utton of the trained
algorithm. B, then$ :8*R! &ill perform the similarit, distance measure of the test
images$ in &hich the test images can -e o-tained -, the &hole set of comic
annotated faces e4cluding the training faces.
J. B, the time the recognition process is finished$ the user can perform /uer, and
searching. :8*R! &ill ask &hether the user &ant to search for a single character
or multiple characters. 5hen the dialogue of userCs choice &ill -e instantiated for
/uer,. (nce the desired face image is found$ :8*R! &ill -e a-le to locate the
comic page that the face image origins and the user &ill then -e a-le to find that
particular scene.
3.3 "ser *nterface
5o cater for different t,pes of comic readers$ :8*R! provides a graphical user
interface for vie&ing and searching comic images. :8*R! is designed to -e as similar
as the common &indo& s,stem so that :8*R! starters &ill have a familiar feeling on
:8*R!. 5he ma+or functions in the tool-ar are specified in alpha-etical orders in
Fig!re %.%a.
Figure 4.4a Dser Inter*ace
:a+or functions.
8. (pen a comic image page
B. !,e tool for marking the e,es of face image
C. Rectangle tool for locating face regions
D. 5raverse previous image page
!. 5raverse ne4t image page
F. 8utomatic vie&ing of comic image pages 6i.e. :8*R! &ill sho& the
ne4t comic page automaticall, after J seconds7
#. Retrieve saved characters face images 6Character Bank7
H. "ser :anual (nline Help
*. :8*R! 8pplication Detail
E. 8daBoost Detection
D. HSG Skin Color Detection
. 5raining and
Recognition for the 3 face recognition techni/ues
:. Search comic character 6can onl, -e activated after training and
recognition has completed for at least once7
:inor functions in annotation of face and e,e region.
Select tool$ to select the annotated o-+ect such as rectangles or eclipses.
Change the color of an o-+ect 6rectangle or eclipses7. 5he default color is red.
Change the line &idth of o-+ect.
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
4040! Performing Detection
Fig!re %.%.1 sho&s the progress of 8daBoost detecting faces in the comic images in a
progress -ar.
Figure 4.4.1 0rogress Bar
4040; Training Data Selector
*n the training mode$ once :8*R! has collected all the image faces from the comic set$
a menu &ill come up for users to specif, the class6es7 he &ants to train on 6Fig!re %.%.27.
5he ma4imum num-er of classes :8*R! can handle is '0000. 5he left panel displa,s
the added face images -, the user that are of the same class? &hile users can cull the face
image in the data-ase generated in the detection process on the right panel. 5o add a
training image to a class$ &hat the users have to do is simpl, click that particular face
image and click Ladd to trainM -utton. "sers can create a ne& class of characters -, +ust
pressing the LCreate Ne& Class of CharacterM -utton. "pon entering the training set
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
name and click L(DM$ :8*R! &ill then perform training on those set of characters.
Figure 4.4.2 9raining Data elector
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
40401 Searc* Selector
%hen the recognition part is completed$ users can choose to perform a search on single
character or multiple characters 6Fig!re %.%.37.
Figure 4.4.3 earc$ elector
40404 Single C*aracter Searc*er
*f the user specifies searching for single character$ he first picks the character he &ants to
search -, traversing through the face image data-ase 6Fig!re %.%.%7. %hen he finds the
desired character$ clicking on it and press LSearch CharacterM can then make a /uer, for
that comic character.
Figure 4.4.4a ingle C$aracter earc$er
:8*R! &ill then return the list of images &hich are more likel, to -e the /uer, character
in top ranks 6Fig!re %.%.%b7. 5he /uer, image is sho&n on the top left corner. 5he first
page lists )A rankings$ and to vie& other rankings$ user can click on the Lne4tM arro&
-utton? it is -elieved that the lo&er the ranking$ the chance of finding the desired character
&ill -e lo&er. 5he rank of each image is sho&n under the thum-nail of face image. 8fter
vie&ing the results$ if the user still &ants to perform another searching$ he can -arel,
choose the face image and search for that character again? &here$ if the user alread, found
the desired face and &ould like to read in detail &hat is going on &ith that particular scene$
clicking L(DM &ill -ring the user to that particular image page on the main application.
Ho&ever$ if the user is not satisfied &ith the result that is given -, :8*R!$ he can modif,
the ranking of the /uer, character -, the L:odif, RankM -utton.
Figure 4.4.4b 9$e res!lt o* ingle C$aracter earc$er a*ter a :!er) is made
40408 'an) 7o&ifier
5he operation of rank modifier is similar to the procedure of specif,ing training data. Here$
the /uer, image of previous search is also sho&n on the top left corner of the rank
modifier 6Fig!re %.%.67. 5he right panel displa,s the ranking that the user &ants to modif,
in the previous search result. 5o add the images on the save list$ select the face image from
the rank panel and add the face image. (nce the list of the /uer, character has -een
completed$ the user can give this /uer, character a name and so the list can -e saved into
the Character Bank.
Figure 4.4.5 Ran+ (odi*ier
40406 C*aracters /an)
(nce the rank list of the characters is saved$ the list can -e retrieved -, the users at
an,time -, the Characters Bank. 5he list of saved characters can -e selected -, the
drop -o4 on the top of the dialogue 6Fig!re %.%.&7. *f the user noticed that the desired
face image is on the list$ clicking on it &ill return the image page &here the face image
origins.
Figure 4.4.6 C$aracters Ban+
4040B 9mprovement on t*e Cuery result
(nce the comic character is saved in the characters -ank$ the, &ill -e sho&n as top
rank on performing a ne& search. 8n e4ample is sho&n on Fig!re %.%./a.
:aking a /uer, of the same character from the saved list$ if the /uer, face image is
saved as a record in the characters -ank$ 6not necessaril, the same /uer, face image as
-efore7$ the single character searcher &ill retrieve the saved list from the -ank and rank
them on top of the /uer, result$ &hich in turn increase its performance$ Fig!re %.%./b
sho&s the top rank result of performing a search on the /uer, result &ithout saving
an,thing in the characters -ank? &here Fig!re %.%./a is the result of saving the list in
Fig!re %.%.&.
Figure 4.4.7a 9$e :!er) res!lt o* a c$aracter .$o $ad its *ace image saved in t$e Ban+
Figure 4.4.7b 9$e :!er) res!lt o* a c$aracter .$o doesnEt $ave an) *ace images saved in t$e Ban+
4040: 7ultiple C*aracters Searc*er
*f users &ant to search for a particular scene of different characters the, can select the
multiple characters search in 3.3.9. Fig!re %.%.' is an e4ample of the search result.
Notice that none of the image faces in the /uer, e4ists in the /uer, result. But -, using
the multiple searcher &e then &ould -e a-le to o-tain the image page &here t&o of the
/uer, characters coe4ist.
Figure 4.4.8 (!lti#le C$aracters earc$er
4040= Help site
*f users are confused of the progress of :8*R!$ clicking the LhelpM -utton &ill take
them to the help &e-site for more information.
Figure 4.4.9 <nline ,el# ite
4040!0 Specifying 5/67 4an&mar) 4ocations
Before performing !B#: recognition$ the original design of !B#: re/uires to
enter )= landmarks? ho&ever$ as entering all the landmarks for the entire set of
training model might -e unfeasi-le for users as this step is more tiring than
-rute-force searching their craved comic pages? moreover as the -oosted !B#:
performance is -etter than that &ith all the locations of the landmarks specified$ this
function is not furnished in the real release of :8*R!$ -ut simpl, kept for research
use.
So in the current application release the face model of )= landmarks &ill -e
predefined automaticall, -, the kno&n information of the e,e coordinates$ the
others could possi-l, -e roughl, estimated.
Figure 4.4.10 #eci*)ing 4B7( 2andmar+ 2ocation a*ter clic+ing on t$e rig$t e)e
3.= Design Gie& of :8*R! to Cope &ith the *naccurac, of
8lgorithms
Since the performance of detection and recognition algorithms &ill not &ork
perfectl,$ it &orths to have a little discussion on ho& the design of :8*R! can avail
against the performance.
#round 5 r uth 5 ool
:8*R! is em-edded &ith the face and e,e tools for users to annotate the face
details. So one ma, suspect if the detection part is that necessar, to the application
as the detection rate is not as accurate as it can -e. *n fact$ even if the detection rate
is not perfect$ in realit, it does save userCs effort on manuall, annotating the faces
on the comic pages. 8ctuall,$ it is /uite e4hausting to annotate all the faces from
scratch? to annotate faces on '000 comic pages manuall,$ it costs more than J hours?
&hile it onl, costs users ) hours to amend the results and o-tain all the faces &ith
the aid of face detection. Hence the ground truth tool is onl, served as a &a, to
improve the results of detection$ -ut not the pure solution to annotate all the faces.
Ranking
Recognition is a t,pe of classification$ in &hich the latter is &ell-kno&n for
classif,ing a test o-+ect to ,es or no upon training. *n presenting the results of the
/uer,$ :8*R! could also -e implemented as merel, returning the comic faces
&hich the distances of them from the /uer, images are &ithin a certain threshold.
Ho&ever$ it is difficult to determine the threshold of distances. *t ranges from the set
of data set$ the algorithms and the distance measures applied -, the algorithms.
8lthough the algorithms and the distance measures could -e set -, :8*R!$ the
distri-ution of data set$ specified -, the user$ is unkno&n. So the threshold of
distance is unpredicta-le.
!ven if &e have o-tained a nice threshold that can classif, the face image results
into Lsame character as the /uer, imageM and Lother charactersM$ and :8*R!
displa,s all the face images that are &ithin the distance threshold$ due to the nature
of classification pro-lem$ the result of the /uer, is not al&a,s perfect. *n turn this
&ill -e more difficult for users to find a desired comic face from the pool of &rong
results.
5hus$ instead of solel, classif,ing a testing image as the same t,pe of the /uer,
character$ the results are displa,ed -, rank. Ranking is also a popular &a, of
presenting results from recognition -, &hich it ranks all the testing images from the
smallest distance to the larger distance. 5he testing images more likel, to -e as the
same class of the /uer, image &ill -e of a higher rank. So -, ranking$ the threshold
pro-lem is solved$ also$ even if the recognition result is not that good$ the user
&ould still -e a-le to retrieve his desired face image in a lo&er rank.
:odif, rank list
Het the recognition result is not ideal$ the user can modif, the list -, using the
Lmodif, rankM dialog to save the characters of the same class and modif, the rank of
the search result. "pon modification$ if the user uses :8*R! to search for that
distinct character again$ those face images &hich have -een saved &ill appear as top
ranks$ conse/uentl,$ the recognition result produced -, :8*R! &ill -ecome more
and more accurate as users use it constantl,.
:ultiple char acters search
*t seems to -e /uite a difficult +o- for users to remem-er the e4act comic face of a
particular scene$ &hich he &ants to find$ from hundreds and thousands of comic
faces ranking results. !ven if the single character search returns all e4act face
images of the searched character in top ranks cannot help the user to determine
&hich face image is dra&n from the scene he &ants to find. 5hat means simpl, the
single character search is not po&erful enough to achieve the o-+ectives of :8*R!.
So multiple characters search is implemented. B, searching a list of comic
characters$ :8*R! &ill then -e a-le to find the image pages that contains those
characters$ in turn narro&ing do&n the scope of possi-le searched comic pages. 8s
users most likel, &ill remem-er &ho else are related to that scene$ -, entering all
the different characters that are related to the scene$ not onl, that it is easier for users
to find &hat it &ants$ -ut also the performance of :8*R! on recognition is
enhanced as the characters &ho has misclassified &ill not appear in the result. Sa,
for e4ample$ if the user &ants to search for ) characters from different stories$
:8*R! &ill return 0 results. 5hus -, specif,ing more characters related to the
desired comic pages :8*R! in turn has more information on the scene the user
&ants to search$ in addition to that the performance can -e enhanced from simpl,
single character search.
C*apter 8 (( 5>perimental 'esults an& Discussion
*n this chapter the e4periments of the 1 algorithms descri-ed in chapter 9 &ill -e
conducted? discussion &ill -e follo&ed accordingl,. From the results done -, these
e4periments 8da-oost and !B#: are the recommended algorithms to detect and
recogni@e comic character faces.
=.' !4periments on Face Detection
8s mentioned in the iterature Revie&$ detection methodologies can -e classified
into image and feature -ased approach. 5hus some methods from -oth categories
&ill -e tested in a set of comic pages to investigate the performance.
5o compare the results from different algorithms$ initiall, the ground truth of the
faces from the data set is o-tained$ -, e4amining if the Ldetected facesM lie roughl,
on the coordinates provided -, the ground truth$ the ) vital elements in evaluating
the accurac, of the result$ true positive 6actual faces7 and false positive 6false
detected faces7$ can -e determined.
80!0! 5>perimental Setup
=.'.'.' Data Set
'03 e-comic pages are e4tracted from ) sets of comics$ CondorHeroes 67
and Bioha@rdPro+ect4 6 Pro+ect I7$ containing 3'9 faces overall.
=.'.'.) 8ssumption
@ 8ll the LfacesM$ consisting of the ma+or and minor characters$ are taken into
an account of a LfaceM. So all kinds of -lo-s are assumed to -e faces$ no
matter if the, are am-itious$ -lurred or occluded.
80!0; 4o. 4evel ,nalysis ? S)in Color Segmentation
=.'.).' Deter m ining the Color Space
5he common color spaces for testing are R#B$ HSG$ HC-Cr and 8B. 5he results
are listed in 9able 6.1.2.1.
=.'.).) Filtering of False Detected Faces in HSG
8s the false positive rate is too high to accept$ filtering is to -e done as mentioned in
section 9.'.)? and the corresponding final result is sho&n in 9able 6.1.2.2$ &here the
triangle denotes the result percentage of the real application.
=.'.).9 5he Result of Skin Color Seg m entation
From the receiver operating characteristic 6R(C7 curve in Fig!re 6.1.2.3$ it can -e
seen that HSG &ould provide the -est performance. 5hus HSG are selected to -e
included in the application of this pro+ect.
For comic data set$ the advantages for using skin color detection for faces are.
@ Faces of varies poses could -e detected if the face color lies on the specified
skin color region.
@ 5he ma+orit, of comic faces are in the same color region$ it is not needed to
deal &ith various ethnicities of faces like skin color detection for real-&orld
images.
Ho&ever$ the pro-lems still remain as.
@ 8 good color space and threshold have to -e determined
@ (ccasionall, there are comic faces of non-skin color
@ 5he results include some regions of the skin color even after filtering has
-een completed 6e.g. hands$ pink -ackgrounds7
Color Space 8ccurac, False Detect :iss
R#B AJ.3> JB.')> '9.J>
HSG AA.9> J0.)0> ''.J>
HC-Cr A3.0> AB.)> 'J.0>
8B A=.0> AJ.3> '=.0>
Table 5.1.2.1. 9$e *ace segmentation res!lt *or di**erent color s#aces
8ccurac, False Detect :iss
Final result 10> 10> 90>
Table 5.1.2.2. 9$e res!lt a*ter *iltering
1.5
LAB
1
0.5
0
0 0.5 1
1.5 fale
!"#t#$e
%&'
&(
)*+
,-B
Figure 5.1.2.3. R<C C!rve *or t$e % color s#aces
80!010 9mage -ase& ,pproac*
5he result of Neural Net&orks and 8da-oost$ as descri-ed in section 9.'.9 and 9.'.3$
are revealed in 9able 6.1.3 and the corresponding R(C curve is sho&n on Fig!re
6.1.3.
t
(
.
e

!
"

#
t
#
$
e
8ccurac, False Detect :iss Running
5ime
Neural Net&orks 39.9> J3.0> =J.1> YB hours
8da-oost 3=.=> 9=.)> =3.=> Y90 minutes
Table 5.1.3 9$e detection res!lts o* -e!ral -et.or+s and "daboost
5he 8da-oost performance is not as good as the result from other researches$
although it is a state of the art methodolog, that had -een applied on loads of face
detection scenario. 5he reason -ehind this is that during in the training process$ a
large num-er of data set has to -e o-tained$ for -oth face and non-face. 8nd if each
pose of the face had to -e trained -, sa, '000 pose images$ and in the comic sets
usuall, e4hi-its more than 3 poses$ one pose for a cascade$ each strong classifier
ordinar, takes 9 &eeks of full computation time to train$ so at least ') &eeks of
merel, training is re/uired$ not including the optimal &a, for training a -etter
classifier mentioned in section 9.'.9.'. 5hus here a simplified version is used -,
appl,ing one cascade$ so undou-tedl,$ the performance is not as good as the
research alread, done.
5he Neural Net&ork had a lo& performance could -e -ecause of Lthe s,stem is onl,
a-le to detect upright$ frontal facesM ;'1<$ &hich are not the ma+orit, of the faces
occurred in comics images.
80!04 HS Segmentation S ,&a-oost
8s the Skin Color Segmentation -, HSG color space and 8da-oost are the -est ones
&e have e4perimented$ &e &ould like to see &hich of them fits -etter in the CB*R
s,stem.
Comparing the ,ello& triangle and the pink s/uare applied in :8*R! in Fig!re
6.1.3$ 8da-oost can detect less true positive than skin color segmentation$ -ut the
false positive rate is not that high. So as it is easier to complete a delete operation in
the user interface design of :8*R! rather than adding in or modif, the coordinates
of the face features$ some users could prefer the skin color detection? ho&ever
generall, speaking 8da-oost is -etter at locali@ation
)
$ and as some of the LfacesM
that are am-iguous are not necessaril, to -e detected$ thus 8da-oost is promoted to
-e used. But it reall, depends on need of users and the set of the input comic
images.
1./
1
0.5
0.3
0.1
#eutral #etor"
A*a8oo&t
%SV
0./
0
0 0.2 1 1.2
+al&e po&iti)e
Figure 5.1.3 R<C c!rve *or t$e e5#erimented met$odologies
)
HSG detection &ill include unnecessar, features in annotation like neck
t
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JA
=.) !4periments on Face Recognition
Recognition e4periments are conducted on the set of comic charactersC faces -,
appl,ing different algorithms. %ith the o-tained data set$ half of the images &ill -e
used for testing and the other half &ill -e for training$ the images are selected -,
random sampling. 5he results are recorded and the e4periments are performed again
&ith another set of training and testing set. 5he overall averaged result from these
e4periments are presented in this report.
80;0! 5>perimental Setup
=.).'.' Data Set
5he Data Set is dra&n from the outcome of 8da-oost detection &ith manual
amendment and annotation. '0'9 images are o-tained
9
from = stories including
CondorHeroes 67$ Dragon5iger=#eneration'6/0 = 17$
Dragon5iger=#eneration) 6/0 = 1G7$ Firemen 6234/7 and
Bioha@ardPro+ect4 6 Pro+ect I7. 5here are 1B classes &ith more than '
face image and 'A1 single-class-image$ &hich can -e classified as outliners.
5o have more premier kno&ledge on the data set$ -oth Fig!re 6.2.1.1a and Fig!re
6.2.1.1b sho& some distri-ution of the data from the comics$ and the class and
class-comic distri-ution. 5he le4icographical order in the latter figure corresponds to
the se/uence of comic sets sho&n in the former graph.
9
Some of the imageries are appendi4ed on 8ppendi4 B
=.).'.) 8ssumption
@ !ver, comic set has its o&n set of characters &hich &ill not overlap &ith
other comic sets.
5he comic set Dragon5iger=#eneration' and Dragon5iger=#enerations)
seems to -e pre/uel and se/uel. But here the, are treated as different set of
comics
3
$ so some of the characters in either class ma, look similar as the
other in a &a, that the se/uel faces e4hi-it more gro&n up features. So as
the, are identified as different comic sets$ these t,pes of characters are
classified as ) classes$ one class in the se/uel and one from pre/uel.
@ %ithin the same comic stor,$ the child faces and the gro&n up faces are
classified as the same character if these t&o t,pes of face images are
representing the same comic character.
For some of the comic stories such as CondorHeroes$ the plot focuses a large
portion in descri-ing the life of a character$ so although the character ma,
look not e4actl, the same &hen the comic chapter proceeds$ the, are to -e
classified into the same character.
3
5his is -ecause it is al&a,s not likel, for the plot of the se/uel to -e related to the pre/uel$ that is
simpl, some of the -ackground and the se/uel is more likel, to -e a set of other stor,.
B0
60
2um-er of
Class per
80 Story
40
2um-er of
Single 9mage
;0 Class per
!0
Story
0
Figure 5.2.1.1a class c$aracters distrib!tion o* t$e comic sets
Figure 5.2.1.1b Class and class-comic distrib!tion o* t$e data set
(onl) t$e most *re:!ent classes are s$o.n)
10
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80;0; PC, an& 4D, Distance 7easure
!4periments are conducted on appl,ing different distance measures on PC8 and
D8 to o-tain the -est one that can &ork on the comic data set.
From Fig!re 6.2.2a and Fig!re 6.2.2b$ PC8 Ham-or8ngle and D8 Covariance
are the most applica-le distance measures in PC8 and D8 on recogni@ing the
comic image faces.
9(A O)erall A)erage* 9er+ormace
0.2
0.12
0.1
0.02
0.0
0./2
0./
0.12
0.1
0.02
(it,!loc"
(orrelation
(o)ariance
Eucli*ean
Ma'(o&ine
Ma'alino8i& 71
Ma'alino8i& 7/
:am8orAngle
0
0 0.1 0./ 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 1
Recall
Figure 5.2.2a <verall 0C" 0er*ormance on di**erent distance meas!res
9
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7DA O)erall A)erage* 9er+ormace
0.12
0.1
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Eucli*ean
:am8orAngle
(orrelation
(o)ariance
0
0 0.1 0./ 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 1
Recall
Figure 5.2.2b <verall 2D" 0er*ormance on di**erent distance meas!res
9
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80;01 %verall Performance
5he figure -elo& 6Fig!re 6.2.3a" sho&s the overall performance of the 3 different
recognition algorithms.
0.8
Overall Average Performance
PCA
YamborAngle
LDA Covariance
0.7
Bayesian MAP
0.6
Bayesian ML
0.5
0.
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%ecall
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Figure 5.2.3a <verall "veraged 0er*ormance b) t$e % recognition algorit$ms a##lied
PC8 Ham-or8ngle and D8 Covariance &ill give the -est results in the
PC8 categor, and D8 categor, -, the a-ove section$ so the, are selected to
-e compared &ith other algorithms.
*t is sho&n that Ba,esian *ntrapersonal2!4trapersonal Classifier$ for -oth ma4imum
a posteriori 6:8P7 and ma4imum likelihood 6:7$ have poor performances$ &here
D8$ as &ell$ doesnCt give us a -etter outcome. 5he -est algorithm on the comic set
P
r
e
c
i
s
i
o
n
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
is sho&n to -e !B#:$ &ith specificall, outstanding retrieval results -, the Nestares
%avelets.
5he !B#: standard curve is dra&n -, manuall, locating all the )= landmarks from
the &hole set of images instead of using the normali@ed ones$ -, using the Nestares
%avelets. "ndou-tedl,$ it gives a -etter result than !B#: #a-or:askNestares
6&hich simpl, locates all the landmarks -, estimation7? ho&ever$ it takes around 9
minutes to locate all the points on a face image$ &hich makes it half a da, on solel,
locating the entire set of the training data if the training si@e is huge$ this is /uite
impractical for real-life application as it is an e4hausting +o- to locate all features.
Since the &hole set of images are cropped from different sets of comics$ the overall
result can -e enhanced -, first retrieving the images that are cropped from the same
stor, of the /uer, image$ &hich is the !B#: improved curve in Fig!re 6.2.3a -,
appl,ing the Nestares %avelet. *t has sho&n that this can improve the performance
of !B#: Nestares significantl,$ in &hich the result is even much -etter than
e4haustive finding all the )= landmarks manuall,. 5hus$ -, appl,ing the improved
!B#: Nestares to :8*R!$ not onl, the tough &ork could -e saved$ -ut also the
performance is ameliorated -, 9A.1B>.
B, comparing the improved curve and !B#: Nestares curve$ more information
regarding to the data set can -e o-tained. 8s the Nestares curve onl, dra&n on the
face graphs to compute the ranking -ut the improved curve is facilitated -, &here
the test face graphs are from$ one can sa, that a num-er of characters in a comic &ill
have similar features from another comic$ of &hich the se/uel and pre/uel can prove
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
this.
*t is /uite logical to see that !B#: to&ers over the other algorithms. 5he features
represented -, !B#: are the #a-or &avelets$ &hich are &ell kno&n for
multi-resolution anal,sis. B, the e4tra properties of #a-or &avelets 6such as -eing
a-le to accommodating fre/uenc, and position simultaneousl,7$ it suits perfectl,
into the face recognition pro-lem &hich varies at different scales or resolution.
Besides #a-or &avelets$ the characteristics of face graphs also contri-ute to the
effectiveness of !B#:. Not onl, until the face graphs &ith fiducial points of the
face images are o-tained$ it is difficult to determine &here to locate the #a-or
&avelets for feature e4traction. 8s the landmarks are located onto facial features
such as the e,es and mouths$ &hich are more distinctive features of faces$ the #a-or
&avelets then can select the features located on the respective landmarks for
comparison$ in turn determining &hich images are more likel, to -e classified as the
same t,pe of the /uer, image.
(-viousl,$ PC8 does not perform as good as !B#:$ this result is e4pected as PC8
does not make use of the intrinsic features of a face to recogni@e? ho&ever it at least
outperforms D8.
D8 operates -, finding a pro+ection &hich ma4imi@es the ratio of distances
-et&een classes and distances &ithin classes$ so it sounds like D8 &ill have a
-etter performance than PC8$ &hich simpl, finds a su-space &ith vectors
corresponding to the ma4imum variance directions in the original space. Ho&ever$
as the comics data set is not that large and it consists of varies num-er of class si@es
and outliners$ the performance of D8 is not as good as PC8 as the latter is less
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
sensitive to different training datasets;)=<. Fig!re 6.2.3b is an illustration of the
scenario &hen PC8 outperforms D8.
Figure 5.2.3b it!ation .$en 0C" o!t#er*orms 2D" =26>
5he less perfect result of Ba,esian classifiers could -e due to the undesira-le
distri-ution of #aussian generated -, the parameteri@ed -, PC8.
(pting for finding out &hat factors affect the result of recognition of !B#:$ the
follo&ing anal,ses are done -ased on the !B#: standard curve in Fig!re 6.2.3a.
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
80;04 Cartoonist an& Story plots
C/arac*ers %ecogni*ion Performance of 5 */e comics
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.
0.!
Con,or0eroes
Dragon1iger5'en
era*ion#
Dragon1iger5'en
era*ion"
0."
2iremen
0.#
0
0 0.# 0." 0.! 0. 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.$ #
%ecall
Bio/a3ar,Pro4ec*5
Figure 5.2.4 C$aracters Recognitions 0er*ormance o* t$e 6 comics
Ne4t$ the performances of different set of comics are plotted as a-ove 6Fig!re 6.2.%7.
B, o-servation$ it is -elieved that the recognition performance could have -een
affected -, the cartoonists. CondorHeroes and Dragon5iger=#enerations'Z) are
dra&n -, :r. %ong 65677? &here :r. Chan 689:7 and :r. am 6;<=7 are
the cartoonist of Biohar@ardPro+ect4 and Firemen correspondingl,. 8ll comics -, :r.
%ong have a -etter recognition result$ this could -e related to the design of the
comic characters$ most of the characters in the first 9 comics carr, more
distinguisha-le features.
*n fact the characters in Firemen also carr, distinguisha-le features$ -ut o&ning to
the stor, plot is a-out firemen$ &ho &ears ,ello& helmets in most of the scenes and
half of the head features are covered up$ !B#: might not -e a-le to accomplish as
good as the non-firemen.
For another t,pe of comic faces &hich have less distinguisha-le features$ as in
Bioha@ardPro+ect4$ it is e4pected that the recognition rate is not as good as those
e4hi-its more facial feature$ for e4ample$ the characters in this set of comic does not
P
r
e
c
i
s
i
o
n
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
have an, nostrils$ &here most of the characters dra&n -, :r. %ong have these
features.
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
80;08 %cclu&e&
Fig!re 6.2.6a sho&s the recognition rate of some of the occluded faces in the data
set.
Occlu*e* Stati&tic& a)erage
1./
image1
1
image/
0.5
image0
0.3
image1
0.1
image2
0./
image3
0
0 0.1 0./ 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 1
recall
image4
Figure 5.2.5a <ccl!ded tatistics
*mage' *mage) *mage9 *mage3 *mage= *mageJ *mage1
Table 5.2.5b (a##ing o* *aces to Fig!re 6.2.6a
*t can -e seen that not all occluded faces &ill lead to poor recognition result. 5he
result of recognition of occluded faces &ill onl, -e affected -, ho& occluded the
/uer, images are$ or &hat t,pe of features of face image is missing.
(ccluded face in *mage=$ *mageJ and *mage1 onl, have minor missing features in
the chin$ left head and the top head region respectivel,$ -ut still the, are a-le to get
good recognition result.
8ccording to *mage3$ the right e,e is cut off and the right head is also a -it occluded.
9
r
e
c
i
&
i
o
n
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
Compared &ith *mageJ$ of &hich onl, the left head is cut off$ *mage3 has far lo&
performance on recognition. 5hus it is -elieved that the e,es are ver, deterministic
feature in !B#: in providing a good classification.
*mage'$ *mage) and *mage9 also give undesira-le classification result. 5his is
-ecause most of the features of the faces are missing. in *mage' &e can onl, vie&
the left e,e$ left e,e-ro& and left head? in *mage) although e,es$ nose and mouth
are present$ the chin and ever, outline of the head is missing. So &hen too man,
information of the face image are missing$ it is difficult for the algorithm to do the
matching +o-.
80;06 5/67 Class C*aracters ie.
5he follo&ing graph sho&s the performances of the class characters -, the Nestares
&avelets.
1
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0./
0.1
0
a
9er+ormance o+ in*i)i*ual c'aracter cla&&e&
8
c
*
e
+
g
'
i
;
"
l
m
n
o
p
<
r
&
t
u
)

$
,
=
aa
0 0.1 0./ 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 1
a8
ac
Recall
a*
Figure 5.2.6a 0er*ormances o* individ!al class c$aracter
9
r
e
c
i
&
i
o
n
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
egend mapping.
a - c d e f
g h i j ) l
m n o p / r
s t u v & 4
, D aa a- ac a&
Table 5.2.6b 2egend ma##ing *or Fig!re 6.2.&a? t$e c$aracters $ig$lig$ted in red and
!nderlined $as #er*ormed badl)? .$ere t$e ones bolded (in )ello.) $ave a good
recognition rate(F0.')
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
From this graph$ it can -e noticed that a ma+orit, of the &ell -ehaved classes are the
female characters? and out of e4pectation$ the characters that e4hi-it more intrinsic
facial feature 6aa$ l and p7 cannot -e recogni@ed -, !B#: in top most ranks? it is
-elieved that the more distinctive features a character e4hi-its$ the easier it is for
recognition? also notice that all of the 3 red highlighted characters are not the
fre/uent set list in Fig!re 6.2.1.1b$ so the poor performance might due to the lack of
#a-or +ets in the -unch graph to represent enough feature of the character.
8lso$ apparentl,$ the performance of a class is not affected -, the num-er of training
data used in the training stage? s$ k and ad do not have a lot of training data to train
on 6Fig!re 6.2.1.1b7$ -ut the, could -e recogni@ed -, !B#: rather accuratel,. So it
is -elieved that once &e have o-tained a good enough model graph to represent the
character$ and provided that the /uer, image could fit into the model nicel,$ the
recognition result &ill -e /uite ideal.
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
80;0B 9mages .it* 4o. Performances on 5/67
8part from the understanding the -ehavior of !B#: -, class vie&s$ there might -e
some shared features in the classification of the /uer, images &hich lead to poor
recognition rate. Belo& sho&s the images of &hich the recognition -, !B#:
Nestares are e4traordinar, coarse 6&ith lo&er than 0.0= precision7.
Figure 5.2.7 G!er) Image .it$ lo. recognition rate b) 4B7( -estares
*t can -e easil, spotted out that a ma+orit, of these images$ surprisingl,$ are in form
of full-colored spread imageries$ &hich most of them are cropped from the comic
cover or poster pages. 5hus$ these images are -elieved to -e the attri-ute for
lo&ering the performance of recognition.
5o deal &ith this kind of situation$ this kind of full-colored imageries should have
-een trained -, !B#: in the locali@ation stage. But since these kind of nicel,
colored comic pages are not fre/uent 69-= pages from a volume of 90 pages7$ along
&ith the characters on these pages mostl, focus on the main characters$ it is difficult
to o-tain these kind of training data for other characters. *t is sho&n that if these
kinds of imageries are trained in the training stage$ !B#: &ould -e a-le to
recogni@e those faces of the character in full-colored spread.
C*apter 6 (( Conclusion an& $uture 3or)
J.' Critical Revie&
5o cater for the need of comic readers to dodge from e4haustive searching for a
particular scene in a set of comics$ :8*R!$ a CB*R s,stem for vie&ing and
searching comic characters is introduced in this pro+ect.
CB*R operates on image$ &hich is difficult to -e comprehended -, computers in
form of a matri4 of pi4els. 5o them the matri4es are simpl, num-ers corresponding
to &hich color should -e displa,ed on the respective coordinate on the screen. 5hus
it is not an eas, task for machines to distinguish faces and characters in an image
and there is no guarantee of '00> accurac, although various of algorithms are
furnished to complete the task.
Comparing different techni/ues to appl, on :8*R! -, e4perimenting the
performances on the comic data set$ the most &orka-le techni/ues for detection and
recognition are found to -e 8da-oost and !B#: correspondingl,. Despite of their
imperfectness$ the results are still reasona-le to -e emplo,ed on the application for
deplo,ment. 5o cope &ith the inaccurac, from machine vision$ modification of the
results can -e facilitated -, :8*R!.
5he results of this stud, ma, provide an additional channel for comic readers to ease
their searches of character images -, narro&ing do&n their searching area to a
particular scene. Hopefull, the arise of :8*R! not onl, can fulfill usersC need$ -ut
can also advertise the popularit, of e-comics over the traditional paper volumes so
as to save more trees.
J.) Further Development
Hopefull, this research is a-le to open up ne& vistas to searching and identif,ing
characters in Lvideo comicsM like cartoons.
'eferences
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*mplementation References
;91<. (pen Source Computer Gi sion i-rar,
;9A<. Professional "* Solutions
;9B<. 5he Code Pro+ect
;30<. Code#uru.com
,ppen&ices
,ppen&i> , (( 7ont*ly 4og
Pro+ect :onth Progress og
Sept. %eek '. Detection (vervie&
%eek ). Color Detection Coding
%eek 9. Pro+ect Plan Q improving code
%eek 3. Comparing Detection results
(ct. %eek '. *mprove Color Detection as to
reduce the false detected faces
%eek ). Summar, of Color Detection
phase
%eek 9. #enerate images for
Recognition part
%eek 3. (-tain recognition source code
Q Recognition overvie&
Nov %eek '. Face Recognition (vervie&
%eek ). Stud, of methods
%eek 9 Q3. !4perimenting &orking
methods on comic images 6S*F5 Q
!B#:7
Dec %eek '-3. !4perimenting !B#:$
Ba,esian$ D8 and PC8 on comic sets
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
Ean Coding the application
%eek '. -uilding application interface
outline &indo&
%eek ) Q %eek 9. Reuniting the ground
truth tool and the application
%eek 3. 8dd Detection part to the
application
Fe- Coding recognition demo
:ar -8lgorithm evaluation$ :easurement of
effectiveness
-Changes to the application s,stem
-8dd-in functions to the application
s,stem
-Consolidation of the pro+ect
8pr -Change Re/uest
-Reporting
B'
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
B)
,ppen&i> / ? Data Set for $ace 'ecognition
6Not all of them are listed7
,ppen&i> C ? Colla-oration Diagram of 7,9'5
/- OnDetection( )
0- OnAnnotate( )
3- OnRecogni&e( )
(omicRea*er& -
1- in)o"e
14-
MARIE -
M A R IE A p p
1- SelectTrainingData( )
2- Traine*Set
- TrainingDataSelector
.& e r
4-
SelectSearc'()
15- SelectSearc'()
- Multiple('aracter&Searc'er
/6- &electe*ImgFace
13- &electe*ImgFace
/4- &electe*ImgFace
- Searc'Selector
11- OnSearc'( )
/2-
10-
&electe*ImgFace
/1-
&electe*ImgFace
5- OnSearc'( )
16- OnSearc'( )
6- Mo*i+,Ran"( )
12- &electe*ImgFace
/3- &electe*ImgFace
-
Si ngle('arac t erS earc '
/0- Mo*i+,Ran"( )
/5- OnVieSa)e*( )
- ( ' a rac t er & ! an"
11-
//-
1/-
/0-
-
10- Sa)e7i&t()
/1- Sa)e7i&t
R a n" M o * i+ie r
$ace Dete c tion an& $ a ce ' e cognition of Human(li)e C*ara c ters in Co mics
,ppen&i> D ? Data Set for $ace Detection
6Not all of them are listed7