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Production Control in Process

Industry
Buffa, Sarlin
Chapter 10
Scheduling
Process-orientated production system.
Product-orientated production system.
Scheduling problem exists in every
production process.
Scheduling is important in process-
orientated production, where different
products are made with the same general
purpose machines/processes (job shop).
scheduling
Methods of scheduling tasks or operations
on available resources to achieve some
specified objectives.
An example of scheduling is to determine
the order in which jobs in a manufacturing
will be completed.
Single Machine/Processor
Scheduling
Its possible to produce several different products.
One product at a time.
Process
Task is to place four products to scheduled operation.
Product Production Due Date
time (from this moment)
1 4 6
2 7 9
3 2 19
4 8 17
Total of 24 different
production schedule
possibilities
Single Machine/Processor
Scheduling
Many production plants can be studied as a
processor.
Often theres one department that sets limits
to production etc.
Single processor problem helps to solve
tasks with several processors.
Assumptions
All jobs can be started at time of 0 and all
set up and changing times are constants (do
not depend on production order) so that they
can be included to production times.
Process is always usable without
breakdowns and job that has began can be
finished without breaks or delays.
Notation and Definition
p
i
= processing time for job i (including set up
times)
d
i
= due date for job i (=delivery date)
W
i
= waiting time for job i
C
i
= completion time of job i
F
i
= flow time of job i
L
i
= lateness of job; L
i
=C
i
-d
i
T
i
= tardiness of job (positive lateness)
E
i
= earliness of job I (negative lateness)
Criteria for scheduling
Mean flow time
Mean tardiness
Maximum tardiness
Number of tardy jobs n
T

n
i
i
F
n
F
1
1

n
i
i
T
n
T
1
1
} max{
max i
T T
Scheduling Procedures
Shortest processing time procedure
(SPT)
Due date procedure (DD)
Moore procedure
Weighted shortest processing time
procedure (WSPT)
Other procedures
Shortest Processing Time
Procedure (SPT)
In the example process SPT gives the order:
< 3,1,2,4>
Mean flow time
F=(F
1
+F
2
+F
3
+F
4
)/4=(6+13+2+21)/4=10.5
ty 3 ty 1 ty 2
2
6
13
4
7
Completion time
8
Due Date Procedure
Jobs are completed in order of longer due
date.
In the example < 1,2,4,3 >
This procedure minimizes the maximum
delay.
Moore Procedure
Number of delayed jobs in SPT was 2 and
in DD 3.
Moore procedure tries to minimize the
number of delayed jobs.
Moore Procedure
Step 1:
Arrange job in increasing order of due
dates (DD). If this sequence yields zero
or one tardy jobs, then DD is optimal
and procedure stops.
In our example there are three tardy
jobs so we continue to step 2.
Moore Procedure
Step 2.
Lets identify the first tardy job in the DD
schedule:
Job Processing time Due date Completion Tardiness
time
1 4 6 4 0
2 7 9 11 2
3 2 19 21 2
4 8 17 19 2
In our example its job 2, so lets mark it with *.
Moore Procedure
DD schedule < 1 2* 4 3 >
Completion time 4 11 19 21
Due Date 6 9 17 19
:
Step 3:
Identify the longest job from among
the jobs including and to the left of the
job marked with *. The longest job
that is completing before first tardy
job.
In the example jobs 1 and 2 are
candidates and job 2 has longer
processing time.
This job is removed from the schedule
and we obtain a new schedule for the
rest of jobs.
Moore Procedure
< 1 4 3 >
Completion time 4 12 14
Due date 6 17 19
We now repeat the step 2 optimal.
( no tardy jobs)
Moore schedule is therefore < 1,4,3,2>
Weighted Shortest Processing
Time Procedure (WSPT)
If jobs are not equally important, then we
may minimize weighted flow time.
Weighted processing times p
i
/w
i
The job with lowest p
i
/w
i
goes first etc.

n
i
i i
F w
1
Flow Shop Scheduling
Basic case: One-way shop, where is 1m
phases (machines) and job requires at max
m processes to complete.
Further, for every job, if operation j
precedes operation k, then the machine
required for operation j has a lower number
than machine for operation k.
A pure flow shop
A general flow shop
An Example Problem
Two-machine shop
Example table 10-4
If we schedule jobs like in example, we
obtain system shown in figure 10-2.
Flow time of the last job defines the
makespan.
Johnsons Procedure
Step 1:
Determine the minimum processing time on either
machine.
In example, its 2 for job 3 on machine 1
Step 2:
If minimum processing time occurs on machine 1,
place the associated job in the first available position
in the sequence. Proceed to step 3.
If the minimum processing time occurs on machine
2, place the job in the last available position in
sequence. Proceed to step 3.
Johnsons Procedure
Step 3:
The job sequenced by either step 2a or
step 2b is removed from consideration.
The process is repeated, starting with step
1, until all jobs are sequenced.
If jobs have equal processing time, either
can be chosen.
General Job Shop Scheduling
There are no optimal rules or procedures for job
shops with more than two machines and two jobs.
Different procedures provide good solutions
most of the time.
Example table 10-5.
We start scheduling from machine A and we need
to decide whether job 1 or job 2 goes first.
Different Rules of Decision
Earliest Due Date first, EDD.
Priority to job with earliest due date. J ob 1 in Example
First in System First Served (FISFS).
Priority to the job that arrived in the shop first (not on
the machine).
First come first served (FCFS).
Priority to the job that arrived on the machine first.
Least Slack First (LSF).
Priority to the job with least slack. Slack is the
difference between the due date and the work remaining
on the job.
Different Rules of Decision
Shortest Processing time (SPT)
Priority for job with shortest processing time on
the machine under consideration.
Least Work Remaining (LWR)
Priority for job which has least processing time
to be done.
GANTT-chart figure 10-3.
Table 10-6 Results
Number Total Mean
of tardy tar di ness Fl ow ti me Makespan
Rul e j obs
EDD 3 14 15 22
FISFS 3 15 15.67 22
FCFS 5 22 17.33 22
LS 4 18 16.5 20
SPT 3 13 15.33 20
LWKR 3 24 15.5 29
More complex examples
Tang L., Yang Y., Liu J , (2012), Modeling
and Solution for the Coil Sequencing
Problem in Steel Color-Coating Production,
IEEE Transactions on Control System
Technology, 20, pp. 1409-1420.