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Year: III Semester: I

Teaching Schedule
Examination Scheme
Theory Tutorial Practical Internal Assessment Final Total
3 1 3/2
Theory Practical* Theory** Practical
20 25 80 -
* Continuous
** Duration: 3 hours

Course Objectives: To provide the fundamental knowledge of antennas, propagation, and to
introduce optical fibre communications.

1.Introduction: (6 hours)
1.1 Review of electromagnetic waves and equations
1.2 Introduction of Antenna & Radiation Mechanism.
1.3 Relationship between a current element and an electric dipole
1.4 Power radiated by a current element, Input impedance of short and longer
1.5 Electromagnetic field close to an antenna: Quadrature and inphase terms, Antenna

2. Antenna Fundamentals & Types: (14 hours)
2.1 Antenna gain, effective area, and terminal impedance
2.2 Directional properties of dipole antennas
2.3 Radiation pattern for traveling wave antenna
2.4 Two-element array
2.5 Horizontal patterns for broadcast arrays
2.6 Multiplication of patterns, patterns in other planes
2.7 Yagi-Udi type dipole arrays, log-Periodic array, Aperture antenna: Parabolic dish
antenna, Horn antenna, and Microstrip Patch antenna

3. Antennas Propagation: (10 hours)
3.1 Transmission loss between antennas
3.2 Transmission loss as a function of frequency
1.1 Antenna temprature and signal to noise ratio
1.2 Plane earth propagation: Ground reflection, reflection factor and ground wave
attenuation factor, Different propagation regions and Fresnel diffraction at a knife

4. Propagation in the radio frequency: (10 hours)
4.1 Reflection from ionospheric layers
4.2 Reflection at medium and high frequencies
4.3 Experimental determination of critical frequencies and virtual heights.
4.4 Maximum usable and optimal frequency, lowest useful high frequency
4.5 Tropospheric waves: Formula for VHF propagation, tropospheric scattering

5. Introduction to optical fibers: (5 hours)
5.1 Basis of light propagation, snell's law, total internal reflection
5.2 Acceptable angle and numerical aperture
5.3 Number of modes in a fibre
5.4 Light sources and detectors

Laboratory: The students should perform six laboratory exercises covering the all the topics.
1. Familiarization of different antennas.
2. Design of Yagi Uda Antenna.
3. Radiation Pattern of Different Antennas.
4. Verification of Antenna Theorem
5. Design of Microstrip Patch antenna
6. Introduction to Optical Fiber

1. John D. Krauss: Antennas, Tata McGraw Hill book company ltd.
2. Constantine A. Balanis Antenna Theory: Analysis and Deisgn
3. E.C. Jordan and K.G. Balmain, "Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating system", 2nd
Edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1997
4. R.E.Collin, "Antennas and Radio Wave Propagation", McGraw-Hill Book Company,
5. Gerd Keiser, "Optical Fibre Communications", McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1997

Marking Schemes

Chapter Marks Question Types
1 5-10 Theory, Derivation
2 25-30 Theory, Design, Definition
3 16-20 Derivation, Numerical, Theory
4 16-20 Derivation, Numerical, Theory
5 5-10 Theory, Derivation