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And like any machine, the heart

has several layers that enable it


to operate.
Lets take a look at what you need
to build a circulatory system.
Your heart is an
extraordinary machine.
The most basic component
of the heart is its role as a
four-chambered muscle.
The top two chambers are the
atria and the bottom two are
the ventricles.
The right atrium receives deoxygenated
blood and empties it into the right ventricle;
the left atrium empties oxygenated
blood into the left ventricle.
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Semilunar valves
Atrioventricular valves
In order to pump blood in
and out of the chambers,
the heart needs doors.
The hearts valves open and
shut, regulating the amount
of blood that enters and its
destination.
The atrioventricular valves control the blood
flow into the two ventricles, and are pulled open
and closed by fibrous cords called chordae
tendineae.
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The external surface of
the heart is also known
as epicardium, and
is covered by fat.
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The great vessels of the heart are:
They connect the heart to the
arteries and veins that distribute
blood throughout the body.
The aorta
The pulmonary trunk
The vena cavae
The aorta delivers
oxygenated blood from the
left ventricle to the rest
of the body.
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The pulmonary trunk
delivers deoxygenated blood
from the right ventricle to
the lungs.
At the aortic arch, the pulmonary trunk splits into
the pulmonary arteries, which extend into
the lungs. The pulmonary arteries are the only
arteries in the body that carry venous blood.
The vena cavae deliver
deoxygenated blood from the
top and lower halves of the
body, respectively, to the right
atrium.
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The hearts conduction
system does exactly what
it sounds like: it conducts
electricity throughout
the heart.
The pulses of electricity motivate
the heart to contract, or beat.
The pathways of the conduction system
are made up of bundles and specialized
muscle bers within the heart. Electrical
signals move down these pathways.
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4 chambers
4 valves
4 great vessels
Lets take a break and recap.
The conduction system motivates the
heart to pump blood.
But where does that blood go?
The heart has:
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Not only does the heart
provide blood for the bodys
organs and tissues, but also
for itself. The coronary
vessels supply blood to the
heart.
The arteries supply the heart
with blood, while the veins carry
deoxygenated blood from the
heart tissue into the right atrium.
The pulmonary
vasculature manages
the passage of blood
between the heart and
the lungs, as well as gas
exchange.
Pulmonary arteries move
deoxygenated blood from
the right ventricle to the lungs.
Pulmonary veins move
oxygenated blood to the
left atrium for distribution.
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Systematic vasculature
manages blood flow to other
organs and tissues throughout
the body.
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Click the image to watch a demo on cardiac output.
Available for
iPad and PC or Mac.
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