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MBA Semester 1

Summer 2014

MB0038: MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR

Q1. What do you mean by Span of Control? Differentiate between narrow span of control
Q1. What do you mean by Span of Control? Differentiate between narrow span of
control and wide span of control. Describe the factors that influence the span of
control.
The term span of control indicates the number of employees or managers who work under
one head.
When a very few people report to a head and a chain is made that way upward, then it is
called narrow span. Thus in a narrow span, a department may have three or four sections,
under each section head, there could be another two or three sub section and under each
sub section there could be nine or ten employees. In a wide span there may be 20, 30, or
more subordinates under one head.
Table : Advantages and Disadvantages of Narrow Span and Wide Span
Narrow Span
Wide Span
Advantages
Disadvantages
Advantages
Disadvantages
Close supervision
Superiors tend to get
too much involved in
Forced to delegate
Overloaded superiors
may
become
the
work
of
decision bottlenecks
subordinates
Close control
Many
levels
of
Clear
policies
must
management
be made
Danger of superior
loss of control
Faster
communication
High cost Excessive
distance between top
and bottom level
Subordinates must
be carefully selected
Requires high quality
managers

There is some optimal limit to the number of subordinate a manager can have. But considering the communication and control in mind, usually we say that the number should be within a range of seven to ten. This however depends on the nature of the industry and technology level. In a computerised environment, it is possible to have even 40 to 50 people

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undergone head. More the number of subordinates under one head, flatter the organisation becomes. But keeping the factors that influence the span of control, a balance has to be struck.

Factors that influence the span of control

The time that a manager gets to spend with the subordinate is the fundamental factor. Based on this, several sub factors emerge and are discussed below.

on this, several sub factors emerge and are discussed below. Training – Wide span demands high

Training Wide span demands high level of training while in narrow span, one can manage with less.

Task definition and delegation Wide span demands clear task definition and delegation while this can be much less in a narrow span.

Well defined plans and repetitive process If the business has these, a wide span is viable, if not a narrow span is preferred.

Verifiable objectives Wide span demands verifiable objectives and this is much less in narrow span.

Speed of change When the speed of change is high, a wide span may not be practical from a communication perspective but may not be practical if such changes need close control.

Organisation structure, written and oral communication When this is of a higher order, wide span can work well.

Effective interaction and meeting Wide span demands both more than narrow span.

Specialists When there are a greater number of specialists at the upper level, a wide span is preferable. If the number of specialists is more at the lower level, then a narrow span can work better.

Task simplicity If the task is simple, a wide span is viable.

– If the task is simple, a wide span is viable. Q2. Define the term controlling.

Q2. Define the term controlling. What are the pre-requisites of effective control?

Controlling can be defined as measuring and correcting of performance to achieve the organisational goals. According to Brech, “Controlling is a systematic exercise which is called as a process of checking actual performance against the standards or plans with a view to ensure adequate progress and also recording such experience as is gained as a contribution to possible future needs.

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Prerequisites of Effective Control

All managers like to have controls because without them their plans would go awry. Let us now study the pre-requisites to have an effective control system.

Tailoring controls to plans and positions A control is exercised on an activity or a group of activities. It follows that what control is good for a position may not be relevant for another e.g., the Vice President of marketing and the Vice President of operations cannot have the same controls though both maybe based on a financial control system.

though both maybe based on a financial control system. Tailoring controls to individual manager – Controls

Tailoring controls to individual manager Controls have to be adjusted to the individual manager’s capability also. If someone does not understand a control, he/she will not trust it or use it as a result of which it will become dysfunctional.

Designing ‘point to the exceptions at critical point’ – If a control has to be effective, it must control the exception and that too at the critical point. For example, the critical point in home delivery of a birthday cake is the time and accuracy of writing the name.

Objectivity of controls Many management actions are subjective, but when controls are created, they must be objective, accurate, and must suit a standard. While this may be relatively easy in machine related systems and financial related indicator, we have to be careful when we have to relate it to the intangible areas.

Flexibility Controls must be flexible to include the changed plans, unforeseen circumstances, or outright failure.

Fitting to the organisational culture Imagine putting tight control over Sambhavi whose culture is family-like and open with the freedom to experiment. The control will most certainly affect the culture which to begin with is the competitive advantage of Sambhavi. Therefore, it must fit the culture. If you have a tight and bureaucratic system, a lose control will also not work.

Economy of controls Controls must be worth their costs. Creating controls which are excessively expensive is counter-productive. For example, we cannot have the same controls in an aircraft and a car.

we cannot have the same controls in an aircraft and a car. Q3. Define the term

Q3. Define the term ‘personality’. Describe Cattell’s Personality Factor Model.

Q4. Discuss the contemporary theories of motivation.

Q5. What are the factors that affect group behaviour?

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Q6. Define the term ‘leadership’. Write a brief note on “Contingency Theories of Leadership”.

Remaining answers are available in the full assignments.

For full assignments contact us:

Global Education

For full assignments contact us: Global Education Rajdeep: 098662 48187 / 077958 40110 Email:

Rajdeep: 098662 48187 / 077958 40110

Note: Paid assignments will be in word format without any water mark as per SMU’s new requirement.

Note: Paid assignments will be in word format without any water mark as per SMU’s new

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