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members of the
entabliiture of an Order, being, as its name imports, the chief
beam employed in it, and resting
immediately on the columns. It is called hi Grecian
from eTr;, upon, and (ttvXos. a column. The heiglit of the
varied in the different Orders, as also in different examples of the same Order.
An entablature consisting of an architrave and cornice only,
without the
interposition of a frieze. It is never used with columns or pilasters, unless
through want of heiglit. It is, however, allowable.
Architrave of a Door ob Window. A collection of members and mouldings round
either, used for the
decoration of the aperture. The upper part, or lintel, is called the
traverse, and the sides t\io.jcunbs. See Antepagmenta.
(Lat. Arcus volutus.) The ornamental band of mouldings round thevoussoirs,
or arch-stones of an arch, which terminates horizontally upon the impost. It is deco-
rated, as to the
members, analogously with the architrave, which, in arcades, it may be
said to
represent. It differs in the different Orders.
In mediaeval architecture, an arched receptacle for filth. A cesspool or
common sewer.
Mouldings. The series of mouldings forming the decoration of an arch as used
in mediaeval
architecture. The illustration of the Early .
English period, is from St. Mary's Church, Lincoln.
Aechway. An aperture in a building covered with a vault.
Usually an arched passage or gate wide enough for carriages
to pass.
Arcus Ecclesi^. In mediaeval architecture, the arch dividing
the nave of tlie church from the choir or chancel.
Ai;cus Presbyterii. In mediaeval architecture, the <irch over
the tribune marking the boundaries of its recess.
Arcus Toralis. In mediaeval architecture, the lattice sepa-
rating the choir from the nave in a basilica.
Area. In Architecture, a small court or place, often sunk
below the genrral surface of the ground, before windows in
the basement story. It is also used to denote a small couit
or yard, even when level with the ground.
Aeka. In Geometry, the superficial content of any figure.
The "area" of every building shall be deemed to be the
superficies of a horizontal section of such building made at
the point of its greater surface, inchiding the external walls and such portion of the
p:>rty wall- as belong to the building, but excluding any attached building tiie height
of whicli does not exceed the height of the ground story. Metropolitan Building
Act, 1855.
Arena. The central space in a Roman amphitheatre, wherein the gladiators fought.
Armoury. An apartment destined for the reception of instruments of war.
a junction of several lines forming indentations like the upward
boundary of an embattled wall, except that the middle of every raised part is ter-
minated by a convex arch, which arch does not extend to the length of that part.
Areiere Voussure. a secondary arch. An arch placed within an opening to form a
larger one, and sometimes serving as a sort of discharging arch.
Arris (probably abbreviated from the Ibil. a risecja, at the projection, or from the Sax.
apipan. to rise). The intersection or line on which two surfaces of a body forming an
exterior angle meet each other. It is a term much used by all workmen concerned in
building, as the arris of a stone, of a piece of wood, or any other bodj'. Though, in
common language, the edge of a body implies the same as arris, yet, in building, tlie
word edge is re-strained to those two surfaces of a rectangular parallelopipedal body on
which tlie length and thickness may be measured, as in boards, planks, doors, shutters,
and other framed joinery.
Arris Fillet. A slight piece of timber of a triangular section, used in raising the slates
against chimney shafts, or against a wall that cuts obliquely across the roof, and in
forming gutters at the upper ends and sides of those kinds of skylights of which the
planes coincide with those of the roof. When the arris fillet is used to raise the slates,
at the eaves of a building, it is then called the caves board, caves' lath, or eaves catch.
Arris Gutter. A wooden gutter of this
Vform fixed to the oaves of a building.
Arsenal. A public establishment for the deposition of arms and warlike stores.
Artificer. (Lat. Ars and P'acio.) A person who works with his hands in the manufacture
of anything.
He is a person of intellectual acquirements, independent of mere opera-
tion by hand, which place him above the artisan, whose knowledge is limited to
general rules of his trade.
Artificial Stonr. A material produced by the use of cement and other substances,
as Austin's artificial stone, which is not burnt.