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NOTES TO PREIDDEU

ANNWN



Edited by Gwynogvryn Evans,
Facsimile and Edition (Llanbedrog,
1910), fols. 54.16-56.1. !"#olars
#ave traditionally dated t#is $! to
t#e t#irteent#-"ent%ry. $arged
&ay"o"', #owever, arg%ed in #er
dissertation t#at it was "o()iled
so(ew#at later (Llyfr Taliesin:
Astudiaethau ar Rai Agweddau,
*berystwyt#, 19+). ,#e )oe(
itself (ay be dated anyw#ere
between t#e nint# and twelft#
"ent%ry, -%dging fro( le.i"al and
(etri"al eviden"e (&ay"o"'/
012reidde% *nnwn1 and t#e 3ig%re
of ,aliesin,0 Studia Celtica 1+419
(19+-+4)/ 5).


,#e 6els# word annwn, annwfyn is
traditionally translated
0ot#erworld,0 and is a'in to so(e
of t#e 7ris# worlds of t#e gods (Tr
na mBo, 0Land of t#e Living,0 et".)
8ne will re"all t#at in t#e 3irst
9ran"# of The !a"inogi, 2wyll
e."#anges )la"e and s#a)e wit#
*rawn, 'ing of *nnwn, w#ose real(
is t#ere de)i"ted as "o-e.istent
wit# 2wyll1s :yfed. 7n anot#er
)oe( fro( The Boo# of Taliesin (
Angar $yfyndawt, 1+.;6-;.+) t#e
s)ea'er de"lares annwfyn to be
%ndergro%nd/
yn annwfyn ydiwyth, in *nnwfyn
t#e )ea"ef%lness,
yn annwfyn ygorwyth in *nnwfyn
t#e wrat#,
yn annwfyn is eluyd in *nnwfyn
below t#e eart#...
7t "an be s%ba<%eo%s, as it see(s
to be #ere in t#is )oe(. *nnwn is
)o)%larly asso"iated wit# t#e land
of t#e old gods w#o "an bestow
gifts, in"l%ding t#e gift of )oetry
(awen)/ awen aganaf % odwfyn ys
dygaf, 07t is *wen 7 sing, 4 fro( t#e
dee) 7 bring it0= *>). !e(anti"ally
and "on"e)t%ally t#e ter( is
a(big%o%s. ,#e $6 )refi. an& "an
negate as well as intensify (as in
Latin in&) so t#at t#e word yields
eit#er or bot# an ? dwfyn, 0%n-
world,0 0very-dee),0 )ossibly
0e.tre(e world.0 7t is not a @elti"
0%nderworld,0 )er se, alt#o%g#
(ention of 0#ell,0 ('ffern, s%ggests
t#at asso"iations between *nnwn
(0very dee)0A) and t#e land of t#e
dead were vivid to w#oever
"o((itted t#is te.t to writing.


,#is )oe( #as traditionally #ad
val%e only insofar as it (entioned
*rt#%r, and it is fre<%ently
ant#ologiBed in "olle"tions on
*rt#%riana. 9%t witness t#e
baffle(ent of vario%s s"#olars
abo%t t#e tra-e"tory of t#e )oe(,
w#i"# de)arts fro( a so(ew#at
"onte()lative a""o%nt of *rt#%r1s
raid on an ot#erworldly fortress,
t%rning in t#e last #alf of t#e )oe(
to a #eated den%n"iation of
"owards and ignora(%ses, and
ending wit# a )assionate rant
abo%t (on's and wolves.
@onne"ting t#ese a))arently
se)arate t#e(es (*rt#%r1s
e.)edition and t#e den%n"iation of
"owards and (on's) #as been
"#allenging/ :.6. Cas# loo'ed
%)on t#ese last stanBas as
inter)olations (The Boo# of
Taliesin, or The Bards and (ruids of
Britain DLondon/ Eo#n F%ssell !(it#,
1+5+G, ). ;1;)= *.8.&. Ear(an
de"lared t#at t#e final stanBas
were irrelevant to t#e t#e(e of
*rt#%r (0,#e :elineation of *rt#%r
in Early 6els# Herse,0 in An
Arthurian Ta)estry: Essays in
!emory of Lewis Thor)e, ed.
>ennet# Harty DGlasgow/ ,#e
Iniversity of Glasgow, 9ritis#
9ran"# of t#e 7nternational
*rt#%rian !o"iety, 19+1G, ). 11),
and bot# >ennet# Ea"'son (0*rt#%r
in Early 6els# Herse,0 in Arthurian
Literature in the !iddle Ages, ed.
F. !. Loo(is D8.ford/ @larendon
2ress, 1959G, ). 16) and Foger
!#er(an Loo(is (see t#e
s%bse<%ent referen"e) o(it t#e(.
Eo#n >. 9ollard translates t#e w#ole
)oe(, re(ar'ing t#at 0t#e )oet
see(s to be dis"ontented wit# t#e
lowly (en and "owardly (on's
aro%nd #i(, in "ontrast to t#e
warriors w#o( #e a""o()anied on
*rt#%r1s e.)edition0 (0*rt#%r in t#e
Early 6els# ,radition,0 in The
Romance of Arthur, eds Ea(es E.
6il#el( and Laila J. Gross DCew
Kor'/ Garland 2ressG, ). ;1)=
$arged &ay"o"', (0,#e 3ig%re of
,aliesin0) is t#e first to s%ggest t#at
t#e )oe( is in fa"t not abo%t
*rt#%r b%t abo%t ,aliesin and #is
va%nting of 'nowledge, and 7
identify t#e )oe( as a (eta)#or of
its own (a'ing--a )oe( abo%t t#e
(aterial 0s)oils0 of )oeti"
"o()osition t#at t#e s)ea'er #as
wrested fro( 6els# )oeti" lore
(0,#e !)oils of *nnwn/ ,aliesin and
$aterial 2oetry0 in A Celtic
Florilegium: Studies in !emory of
Brendan * +ehir, eds. >atr#yn *.
>lar, Eve E. !weetser, and @lair
,#o(as (Lawren"e, $*/ @elti"
!t%dies 2%bli"ations, 1966), )). 4-
5). !ee also 2atri"' !i(s-6illia(s,
0,#e Early 6els# *rt#%rian 2oe(s,0
in The Arthur of the ,elsh: The
Arthurian Legend in !edie'al
,elsh Literature, eds. Fa"#el
9ro(wi"#, *.8.&. Ear(en, and
9rynley 3. Foberts (@ardiff/
Iniversity of @ardiff 2ress, 1991)
)). -51= *ndrea 9%dgey,
012reidde% *nnwn1 and t#e 6els#
,radition of *rt#%r,0 in Celtic
Languages and Celtic -eo)les:
-roceedings of the Second .orth
American Congress of Celtic
Studies, eds. @yril E. 9yrne,
$argaret &arry, and 2Ldraig M
!iad#ail (&alifa./ Cova !"otia/ !aint
$ary1s Iniversity, 199;) )). 91-
404= and 8.E. 2adel, Arthur in
!edie'al ,elsh Literature (@ardiff/
,#e Iniversity of 6ales 2ress,
;000), )). 4-6.


,aliesin is first (entioned by
Cenni%s in #is +istoria Britonum as
being a bard of stat%s in t#e si.t#
"ent%ry along wit# Ceirin (*neirin),
@ian, ,al#aearn, and 9l%"#bard.
8nly ,aliesin and *neirin a))ear as
a%t#ors of (edieval 6els# te.ts.
,aliesin as "o%rt bard to Irien
F#eged gave way fro( t#e
beginning in )o)%larity to ,aliesin
t#e (agi"ian, wiBard, s#a)e-s#ifter,
riddler, and re)ository of esoteri"
'nowledge. 7n / 0ododdin, by
*neirin, ,aliesin is referred to as
one 0w#o 'nows it0--)ossibly as a
fellow 0seer0 w#o went t#ro%g# a
)oeti" initiation des"ribed by
*neirin as an i()rison(ent
%ndergro%nd/ mi na 'i Aneirin % ys
gwyr Taliesin % o feg gywrennin (07
yet not 7 *neirin, 4 ,aliesin 'nows
it 4 s'illed in e.)ression0/ /
0ododdin: Britain1s *ldest +eroic
-oem, ed., trans., *.8.&. Ear(an
DLlandys%l/ Go(er 2ress, 1990G, )).
, ;). 2atri"' 3ord #as (ade
available several of t#e te.ts
devoted to 0,#e ,ale of Gwion
9a"#0 and 0,#e ,ale of ,aliesin,0
w#ere it is des"ribed #ow little
Gwion re"eived 'nowledge fro(
t#e "a%ldron of @erridwen t#at t#e
goddess (eant for #er %gly son
*fagdd%= #ow #e fled fro( #er in
vario%s s#a)es, was eaten and
given birt# to by #er= and #ow as
,aliesin #e "onfo%nded t#e bards of
t#e "orr%)t 'ing $aelgwn wit# a
daBBling dis)lay of #is own ar"ane
'nowledge, #is (ani)%lation of
s#a)es and stor(s, and so fort#
(3ord, The !a"inogi and *ther
!edie'al ,elsh Tales D9er'eley/
Iniversity of @alifornia 2ress,
1955G, )). 159-19;. !ee also #is
/storia Taliesin D@ardiff/ Iniversity
of 6ales 2ress, 199;G).


0,#e !)oils of *nnw(0 Dsi"G, in The
,hite 0oddess: A +istorical
0rammar of -oetic !yth (Cew Kor'/
3arrar, !tra%s, and Giro%., 1966),
)). 105-10+.


0,#e !)oils of *nnwn/ *n Early
6els# 2oe(,0 in ,ales and the
Arthurian Legend (@ardiff/
Iniversity of 6ales 2ress, 1956),
)). 11-15+.


012reidde% *nnwn1 and t#e 3ig%re
of ,aliesin,0 Studia Celtica, 1+419
(19+-+4)/ 5;-5+.


0-reideu Annw'yn: ,#e !)oils of
t#e Inworld,0 in Eo#n ,. >o"# and
Eo#n @arey, eds., The Celtic +eroic
Age: Literary Sources for Ancient
Celtic Euro)e and Early 2reland and
,ales (*ndover, $assa"#%setts,
and *berystwyt#/ @elti" !t%dies
2%bli"ations, 7n". ;000), )). ;95-
;95. 3or an earlier translation wit#
"o((entary, see #is arti"le by t#e
sa(e na(e in Bulletin for the
Board of Celtic Studies, vol. ...i
(19+4)/ +5-9;.


0,#e !)oils of *nnwn/ ,aliesin and
$aterial 2oetry,0 in A Celtic
Florilegium: Studies in !emory of
Brendan * +ehir, eds. >at#ryn *.
>lar, Eve E. !weetser, and @lair
,#o(as (Lawren"e, $*/ @elti"
!t%dies 2%bli"ations, 1966), )). 4-
5.


/ 0eiriadur !awr (09ig
:i"tionary0)/ The Com)lete ,elsh&
English English&,elsh (ictionary,
Elevent# Edition, ed. &. $e%rig
Evans and 6.8 ,#o(as (Llandys%l/
Gwasg Go(er, 19+).


0eiriadur -rifysgol Cymru
(0Iniversity of 6ales :i"tionary0)/
A (ictionary of the ,elsh
Language, eds. F.E. ,#o(as et al
(@ardiff/ Iniversity of 6ales 2ress,
1950-). ,#o%g# still %nfinis#ed, t#is
di"tionary is (ore "o()re#ensive
t#an G$.


0eirfa Barrdoniaeth 0ynnar
Cymraeg, ed. Eo#n Lloyd-Eones
0Early 9ardi" Ho"ab%lary of 6ales0
(@aerdydd/ Gwasg 2rifysgol @y(r%,
191-).


,#e title -reid3d4eu Annwn loo's to
be written in a different #and fro(
t#at of t#e s"ribe w#o "o)ied t#e
)oe(, and see(s to e"#o t#e
)#rase in line 5 wit# a later s)elling
of annwfyn. ,#e 0r0 of -reiddeu is
t#e long ins%lar 0r,0 and t#e for( of
t#e 0d0 indi"ates t#at it is to be
ta'en as t#e voi"ed interdental
fri"ative wit# t#e later s)elling
)reiddeu.


$!/ )y. 6illia(s, Ea"'son, and
&ay"o"' s%))ort e(ending )y to
t#e )erfe"tive )arti"le ry. &ay"o"'
translates 0w#o #as e.tended0 on
t#e gro%nds t#at ry #as relative
for"e= t#en"e t#e s%b-e"t s#o%ld be
0t#e Lord0 and not 0sovereignty.0


,#e str%"t%re of t#is )oe( is based
on t#at of a "olle"tion of awdlau
(awdl N a s#ort )oe( or stanBa of
lines t#at r#y(e), w#erein ea"#
line is a "o%)let/ two related %nits
and a "aes%ra. !everal of t#ese
lines, #owever, are tri)lets--t#ree
%nits w#erein t#e first two r#y(e
and two "aes%ras--t#at stand o%t
(etri"ally and dra(ati"ally. ,#is is
one s%"# line, and all t#e
"on"l%ding lines t#at re)eat
(0e."e)t seven none rose %)0) are
tri)lets (lines 10, 19, ;+, 4, 4;,
and 4+). 8t#er tri)lets are to be
fo%nd in lines +, 1, ;, and +. 7
indi"ated t#e "aes%ras by )rinting
t#e( wit# line brea's.


6e do not #ave (%"# (aterial on
Gweir= #e is (entioned (Gweir a)
Geirioed) in Tryoedd /nys -rydein
(0,#e ,riads of t#e 7sle of 9ritain0=
ed. trans. Fa"#el 9ro(wi"#
D@ardiff/ Iniversity of 6ales 2ress,
1961G, ). 140) as one of t#ree
fa(o%s )risoners along wit# Llyr
Lledyeit# and $abon %ab $odron
(a for(er god w#ose "areer see(s
to be i()rison(ent and wailing).
Loo(is notes t#at L%ndy, an island
off t#e "oast of @ornwall is 'nown
as ynys weir, 0Gweir1s 7sland,0 a
detail t#at reinfor"es t#e sense of
#is i()ortan"e as a resident or
)risoner of an island fortress
(Loo(is, 0!)oils of *nnwn,0 ). 150).


$aer Sidi a))ears in anot#er )oe(
in The Boo# of Taliesin in a line
wit# t#e sa(e r#y(ing )atterns/ ys
#yweir 'yg #adeir yg #aer sidi,
0E<%i))ed is (y (bardi") "#air in
>aer !idi0 (9,/ fol. 4.+-1). &ere,
,aliesin boasts of being seated in
for(ality and #onor in an
ot#erworldly )la"e of )leas%re (.ys
)lawd heint aheneint auo yndi,
0neit#er disease nor old-age affli"ts
#i( w#o (ay be #ere0), w#erein
t#ree ((%si"alA) instr%(ents )lay
before it aro%nd a fire (teir oryan y
am tan agan recdi. &e sits in a
fortress w#ose )ea's (or "orners)
are s%rro%nded by t#e sea (Ac am
y "anneu ffrydyeu gweilgi, wit# t#e
fr%itf%l fo%ntain above #i( (Ar
ffynhawn ffrwythlawn yssyd
oduchti. Li'e t#e s)ar'ling
beverage in -reideu Annwn,
0sweeter t#an w#ite wine is t#e
drin' in it0 (ys whegach nor gwin
gwyn yllyn yndi). ,#e s)ea'er
de"lares t#at 0$anawyddan and
2ryderi 'now it0 (ys gwyr manawyt
a)hryderi), s%ggesting t#at >aer
!idi is li'e Gwales in t#e !e"ond
9ran"# of The !a"inogi, w#ere t#e
bereaved retin%e of 9endigeid%ran
rest for eig#ty years in )leasant
forgetf%lness. Sidi (ay "o(e fro(
8ld 7ris# sde, fro( no(inative sd,
0gods0 or 0fairy-fol',0 or t#e (o%nd
or dwelling )la"e of s%"# fol'.
,#ese ot#erworldly abodes were
often s%b(erged, w#i"# (ay
a""o%nt bot# for t#e 0fr%itf%l
fo%ntain0 above t#e "#air in t#e
one )oe( and t#e fa"t t#at t#e
s%rvivors 0rose %)0 in -reideu
Annwn5 7nstead of t#e bardi" "#air,
it is a )rison t#at is e<%i))ed in t#is
>aer !idi. Feward and )%nis#(ent
ali'e are doled o%t in t#e fairy
fortress, b%t note t#at Gweir, li'e a
)oet, is singing (or la(enting)
before t#e 0!)oils of *nnwn.0


,#is word e"ostol wo%ld a))ear to
(ean 0a)ostle,0 and yields a
se"ond (eaning, 0e)istle,0 0letter,0
0#o(ily,0 0tale,0 w#i"# "o%ld very
well be a "onf%sion wit# L. e)istola.
0,#e ,ale of 2wyll and 2ryderi0 is
an obvio%s referen"e, so it wo%ld
see(, to t#e fo%r bran"#es of The
!a"inogi, b%t Gweir is never
(entioned t#erein. *s Loo(is
s%ggests, t#o%g#, t#e te.ts t#at
re(ain to %s #ave )robably been
re"o()iled, and earlier stories lost=
t#ere (ay well #ave been an
E"ostol -wyll a -hryderi, -%st as
t#ere are ot#er (entions in t#e
bran"#es to tale titles.


,#is )#rase is a(big%o%s. Rac in
G$ #as several (eanings/ 0in front
of,0 0before,0 or 0on a""o%nt of,0
be"a%se of,0 or 0for t#e sa'e of.0
,#e (ost obvio%s translation of
)reideu is 0s)oils,0 0)l%nder,0 t#at
w#i"# *rt#%r1s (en #ave "o(e for
(t#e "a%ldron). 9%t )reideu "an
also (ean 0"attle,0 0#erds0, and
#owever %nli'ely t#is (eaning fits
t#e "onte.t, re"all t#at t#ere are
(agi"al beasts (entioned f%rt#er
on in t#e )oe(. &ay"o"'/
0wondro%s #erds are fre<%ently
en"o%ntered in t#e 7ris#
8t#erworld0 (0,#e 3ig%re of
,aliesin,0 ). 65).


/n "ardwedi is s%b-e"t to vario%s
inter)retations. Bardwedi "learly
see(s to be a "o()o%nd of "ard ?
gwedi, 0)rayer,0 b%t yn is not "lear.
,#e (ost "o((on %se of )refi.ed
yn is 0o%r.0 9%t t#is "o%ld also be
t#e )re)osition 0in0/ 0in bardi"
)rayer.0 &ay"o"' also s%ggests an
error for ym, 0(y0 (). 65), or even
y, 0#is.0 >o"# #as/ 0*nd %ntil
E%dge(ent #e will )ersist as an
i()loring bard.0 7f no error is
ass%(ed, t#en are Gweir and
,aliesin (t#e s)ea'er) identifiedA
*re t#ey singing toget#erA *re t#ey
si(ilarly in"ar"eratedA :o t#ey
s)ea' for all bardi" (and divine)
)risoners and singersA &ay"o"'
disa(big%ates wit# 0o%r (own),0 as
t#o%g# t#e s)ea'er is %sing t#e
0royal we.0


,#e na(e of *rt#%r1s s#i).


$any s"#olars s%ggest e(ending
to ochlywit to "o#ere wit# t#e
r#y(e on &it, in w#i"# "ase we
wo%ld #ave 0song was #eard.0


&ay"o"' #as 0first %tteran"e0=
>o"#/ 0)oetry.0 ,#is word #ynneir
(G2@) literally (eans 0fore(ost
%tteran"e or song,0 #en"e its later
(eaning of 0e%logy,0 0song of
)raise,0 0)oetry.0


,#e "a%ldron is a very "o()le.
i(age, wit# a "o()le. ba"'gro%nd.
3irst of all, t#ere is t#e @erridwen1s
"a%ldron in 0,#e ,ale of Gwion
9a"#0 (see 3ord, The !a"inogi and
*ther Tales, (entioned above) in
w#i"# t#e (agi" brew t#at will
"onfer )oeti" and (agi" )ower is
stolen fro( *fagdd% by t#e yo%ng
,aliesin. 7t is to t#is story t#at t#e
)oet in -reideu Annwn "learly
refers, as t#e "a%ldron is literally
t#e so%r"e of #is 0fore(ost
%tteran"e.0 9%t t#e "a%ldron is also
an ob-e"t wrested by
9endigeid%ran in 0,#e !e"ond
9ran"#0 of The !a"inogi and given
(along wit# #is sister 9ranwen) to
$at#olw"#, >ing of 7reland. ,#is
"a%ldron #as t#e )ro)erty of
bringing slain warriors ba"' to life.
6#en 9endigeid%ran "o(es to
res"%e #is sister 9ranwen fro( ill-
treat(ent, war brea's o%t between
6ales and 7reland, and t#e
"a%ldron is bro'en. 7t is stated t#at
seven 6els# warriors ret%rned
fro( t#at tragi" event/ 2ryderi,
$anawyddan, Glifie% son of ,aran,
,aliesin, Knawg, Gr%ddie% son of
$%riel, and &eilyn son of Gwyn
&en. 7t wo%ld a))ear t#at t#e
events of t#is story #ave been
given a new "onte.t in -reideu
Annwn w#erein *rt#%r #as been
s%bstit%ted for t#e god4#ero 9ran.
9%t t#ere is also a wrested 7ris#
"a%ldron in Culhwch and *lwen in
w#i"# *rt#%r is dire"tly involved.
&aving )ro(ised to #el) @%l#w"#
"o()lete t#e i()ossible tas's
de(anded of Ksbyddadan, one of
t#e( being t#e attain(ent of t#e
"a%ldron of t#e giant :iwrna"#,
*rt#%r sails in #is s#i) to 7reland
and "o(es away wit# it after a
(ore s%""essf%l battle t#an t#e
one des"ribed #ere. 7reland (ay
also #ave been "on"eived of as a
'ind of 08t#erworld0 in 6els# lore,
w#i"# (ay e.)lain t#e 7ris# na(e
given to t#e first (ention of t#e
fortress. 3%rt#er(ore, an 7ris# tale,
Sia"urchar)at Conchulaind, 0,#e
2#anto( @#ariot of @%"#%lain,0
"ontains a )oe( "alled (un Sc6ith,
03ortress of !#adow0 (in Le"or na
+uidre: Boo# of the (un Cow, F.7.
9est and 8sborn 9ergin, eds.
D:%blin/ Foyal 7ris# *"ade(y, G, )).
;+1-;+5. 3or an a""essible
translation, see t#at in ,o( 2eete
@ross and @lar' &arris !lover, eds.,
Ancient 2rish Tales DCew Kor'/
9arnes and Coble, 196G, )). 5;-
5). 7t #as in "o((on wit#
-reideu Annwn a sea voyage, a raid
%)on an island strong#old wit# iron
doors and a s%bterranean
"#a(ber, (agi" "attle, a "a%ldron
w#i"# is filled wit# treas%re, and an
es"a)e. Evidently t#ere was a
so%r"e legend 'nown in bot# 7ris#
and 6els# lore t#at (ay #ave
f%rnis#ed t#e (aterials for all t#ese
stories, and w#i"# involved a raid
%)on a god1s fortress for a divine
"a%ldron.


lluch lleawc (ay be a garbled
version of a na(e/ 0t#e sword of
Ll%"# Lleaw"#.0 Loo(is "alls it 0a
re(ar'able (%ddle0 (). 161)/ in
Culhwch and *lwen we #ave two
(entions of Llenlleaw" t#e
7ris#(an in t#e list of na(es
@%l#w"# invo'es, )l%s a Llw"#
Llawwynnyaw" (Llw"# 06indy-
#and0 a""ording to Gwyn Eones and
,#o(as Eones, trans. The
!a"inogion DLondon/ Every(an,
1955G, ). 105). LLenleaw" 6yddel
is also t#e warrior a(ong *rt#%r1s
(en w#o 'ills t#e giant :iwrna"#,
enabling t#e "a%ldron to be ta'en
in Culhwch and *lwen. 9ot# E.
Lloyd Eones and !ir 7for 6illia(s
w#o( Loo(is "ons%lted in t#e
)re)aration of #is arti"le (Loo(is,
). 15, note 0) ta'e lluch lleawc
to be se)arate ad-e"tives/
0flas#ing0 and 0deat#-dealing.0
&ay"o"' s%ggests t#at Lleaw" (ay
#ave been an earlier, or variant
for( of t#e na(e Llenleaw" (). 50).
>o"# #as 0a sword of lig#tning
sla%g#ter0 (). ;96).


*not#er )ossibly (%ddled na(e.
Loo(is s%ggests t#at Ll%"# Lleaw"
is a variant of Llw"# Llawwynnaw"
in Culhwch and *lwen, "ognate
wit# t#e 7ris# se(i-deity L%g#,
0w#o #ad an e)it#et w#i"# is given
in Cath !aige Tured as
LonnbO(ne"# and in *ided
Chloinne Tuirenn as
Loinnb#Oi(niona"#0 (). 16).
&ay"o"' is s'e)ti"al= s#e s%ggests
it (eans 0lea)ing one0 and (ay be
an e)it#et for *rt#%r. !#e also
notes its a))earan"es in ot#er
te.ts as a )ersonal na(e (). 51). 7
t#in' Loo(is1s sense of "oin"iden"e
is not to be wondered at, and 7
s%ggest t#at t#ere is "onsiderable
s"ribal "onf%sion #ere.


7edwit, )ossibly a "o()o%nd, as
&ay"o"' )oints o%t, wit# med ?
gwit, G2@ 0feast, ban<%et, li<%id,
fl%id, #oney.0 Loo(is translates
03ortress of $ead-@aro%sal0= >o"#/
03ort of 7nto.i"ation0= &ay"o"'/
03ortress of t#e $ead 3east.0 *ll of
t#ese na(ed fortresses (ay
(erely s%))ly e)it#ets for t#e
sa(e ot#erworldly "astle to w#i"#
*rt#%r #as led #is e.)edition.


>o"# #as 0strong door0 (). ;96),
and so does Loo(is (). 16)=
&ay"o"'/ 0radiant0 (). 6;). -y"yr in
G$ is defined as 0sta%n"#, strong,
ent#%siasti", brig#t, fine.0 &ay"o"'
s%ggests s"ribal "onf%sion wit#
)efyr, 0radiant,0 0fla(ing,0 in t#e
interests of seeing it in "onne"tion
wit# line ;0, and s#e )oints to
ot#er "onf%sions of t#ese two
words (i.e., t#e na(e Gronw
2ebyr42efyr in 0$at# %ab
$at#onwy,0 )ointed o%t by
6illia(s in #is notes to -edeir
$einc !a"inogi (0,#e 3o%r
9ran"#es of t#e $abinogi0 D@ardiff/
Iniversity of 6ales 2ressG, ). ;+6).
7ntrig%ed by t#e (ore sed%"tive
i(agery, 7 too originally #ad
0fla(ing door0 (0$aterial 2oetry,0
). 51), b%t #ave #ere e(ended to
0strong door,0 wit# its i()li"ations
of 0s#ining0 and 0fine.0


Echwydd #as two (eanings/
0noonday0 and 0river0 or 0flowing
water.0 Loo(is )refers t#e first
(eaning, and ta'es t#e word 0-et0
(muchyd to (ean 0-et-bla"'ness0
to f%rt#er #is inter)retation of a
0"re)%s"%lar0 ti(e of day 'nown to
deniBens of t#e 8t#erworld
(Loo(is, ). 165). &is translation/
0Coon-day and -et-bla"'ness are
(ingled.0 >o"#, &ay"o"' and 7 ta'e
t#e se"ond (eaning, b%t t#e
(i.t%re of 0-et0 and 0flowing water0
is (ysterio%s. &ay"o"'/ 0,#e
(i.ing of water and -et to "reate
fire (ay be a learned referen"e to
a belief (entioned in 7sidore of
!eville1s Etymologiae, .vi.iv (ed. 6.
$. Lindsay D8.ford/ 1911G)0 (). 5;).
Loo(is/ 0D,Go no one w#o #as
followed t#e dis"%ssion t#%s far will
it see( an ob-e"tion t#at t#e island
)aradise and t#e s%bterranean
la()-lig#ted region are not easy
for %s to re"on"ile i(aginatively.
Cot#ing is (ore (anifest t#an t#at
t#e @elts blended s%"# in"ongr%o%s
)i"t%res, not only wit#o%t effort b%t
even wit# delig#t.0


*n error for gosgor, 0retin%e.0


Latin/ 0intra"tibility, rigidity,
#ardness.0


,#is is )robably t#e #ardest word
to find an e<%ivalent for, and it
o""%rs t#ree ti(es in t#e o)ening
line of t#is and t#e ne.t two
stanBas. Loo(is translates/ 07 do
not reward0= >o"#/ 07 set no val%e
on,0 bot# of t#e( following
6illia(s, as #e advised Loo(is ().
16). *""ording to t#e G$ and t#e
G2@, t#is verb go"rynaf%go"rynu
(eans 0(erit,0 0deserve, be
wort#y of0 and a))ears to be a
"o()o%nd of )rynu (G$/ 0b%y,0
0redee(0) wit# intensive )refi. go&.
6illia(s advised as #e did be"a%se
07 do not deserve P0 or 07 do not
(erit P0 %nfort%nately first "onvey
in Englis# t#e sense of 07 a( not
wort#y of P.0 w#i"# is w#y &ay"o"'
s%))lies a (odifying )arant#esis in
#er very literal translation/ 07 do not
deserve (i.e., 7 deserve better
t#an).0 6#en one is after a
s(oot#er e<%ivalent, one strays
fro( t#e original 6els#/ 07 (erit
(ore t#an0 wo%ld give t#e sense
t#at &ay"o"' is after, b%t it erases
t#e sense of negation and denial in
t#is line. ,#is, alas, (ay be t#e
only way to e.)ress t#e valen"y of
go"rynaf. 7 wonder if it is a verb
t#at e.#ibits one (ore arg%(ent
t#an o%r Englis# word 0deserve,0
s%"# t#at it "an (ean bot# 0(erit0
and 0bestow (erit.0 7t )robably
(eans to set %) a "o()arison, a
sense of e<%ation, given t#e )rynu
)art of its "o()o%nd--07 do not
(at"# little (en0 ((eaning t#ey
are not (y (at"#, t#ey are not in
(y leag%e). ,#e s)ea'er is
denigrating t#e llawyr, not loo'ing
%) to t#e(. ,#e ,aliesin )oet
s)ea's fre<%ently of s"oring 0(erit
)oints0 or winning "ontests wit# #is
)oetry, and 7 wonder if go"rynaf
"arries t#is sense of 'ee)ing s"ore.
!o, wit# a "on"ession to t#e la"' of
an e<%ivalent verb in Englis#, 7 go
wit# 0(erit.0 ,#ere are, after all,
e.)ressions in Englis# s%"# as 0it
does not (erit attention,0 or 07
don1t deserve t#is )%nis#(ent0
w#i"# "o(e "loser to w#at t#is
verb "onveys in t#is "onte.t. *s
"#ief )oet, ,aliesin does not (erit
t#e wort#less (en of letters w#o(
#e loo's %)on as )oor readers,
%nlearned "o()etitors, slo))y
"o)iers ()er#a)s) and #olier-t#an-
t#o% "riti"s. ,#is is a revision of (y
earlier translation (0reward0).


Llawyr is a "o()o%nd of llaw,
0s(all,0 0(ean,0 0)altry,0 and
gwyr, 0(en0/ 0insignifi"ant (en.0
&ay"o"' s%ggests e(ending to
llewyr, 0readers,0 in order to
disa(big%ate w#at it is t#at t#e
s)ea'er, as )oet, 0deserves (ore
t#an,0 sin"e as t#e )oe(
)rogresses it is "lear t#at t#ese are
(en of letters and not warriors.
!#e also arg%es t#at llewyr (ig#t
not #ave been 0i((ediately
fa(iliar to t#e s"ribe of t#e 9, or
one of #is )rede"essors.0 7 "annot
"o%ntenan"e t#is 'ind of
(ani)%lation of t#e te.t in aid of
inter)retation. 3%rt#er, it "olla)ses
an i()ortant lin' between
0readers0 wit# sla"' s#ield stra)s
and 0warriors.0 7f t#e )oe( is abo%t
)oeti" as well as fol'lori" )l%nder,
as 7 arg%e in 0$aterial 2oetry,0 wit#
t#e elaborate (eta)#or of a raid,
t#en it is i()ortant to 'ee) bot#
sides of t#e sy(bolis(.


Llen llywyadur )resents anot#er
"on%ndr%(. &ow do we "onne"t
t#ese t#ree words--llawyr llen
llywyadur--a"ross t#e "aes%raA
6illia(s/ 07 set no val%e on boo'-
reading fol'.0 Loo(is/ 07, Lord of
Letters, do not reward (ean fol'.0
>o"#/ 07 set no val%e on t#e
dire"tor1s wret"#ed s"ribes.0
&ay"o"'/ 07 deserve (i.e., 7 deserve
better t#an) Areaders "on"erned
wit# t#e literat%re of t#e Lord.0 ,#e
den%n"iation of (on's at t#e end
of t#e )oe( s#eds lig#t on t#is
)e"%liar senten"e, w#i"# see(s to
denigrate s"ribes. &ay"o"' arg%es
t#at be"a%se llen llywyadur (a'es
a )rosodi" %nit, divided fro( llawyr
by t#e "aes%ra, we s#o%ld see it as
a gra((ati"al %nit/ 0literat%re of
t#e Lord0 i.e., 0s"ri)t%re.0 &er
translation is )robably t#e (ost
"orre"t, and t#e #ardest to e.)ress
in any elegant way e."e)t to find a
(ore "on"ise e<%ivalent. !ee
above.


03ortress of Glass.0 Glass, says
&ay"o"', is a (aterial asso"iated
wit# 0ot#erness.0 Loo(is writes
t#at bot# t#e 3ortress of Glass and
t#e !ilent !entinel are (otifs to be
fo%nd in Cenni%s1s +istoria
Brittonum w#i"# des"ribes t#e
0original0 in#abitants of t#e 7ris#,
"o(e fro( !)ain, w#o en"o%nter a
glass tower in t#e (iddle of t#e
sea, and w#ose )eo)le do not
res)ond to t#eir #ails. ,#ey atta"'
t#e "astle wit# t#irty s#i)s w#i"#
fo%nder, save one= and t#e )eo)le
of t#at s#i) )o)%late t#e w#ole of
7reland. !ee t#e translation by
2a(ela !.$. &o)'ins and Eo#n.,.
>o"#, in The Celtic +eroic Age:
Literary Sources for Ancient Celtic
Euro)e and Early 2reland and
,ales, eds. Eo#n ,. >o"# and Eo#n
@arey, ). ;55).0 Loo(is writes t#at
t#is story is well-'nown to t#e
*rt#%rian ro(an"ers. @#rQtien1s
Erec 0refers to $a#eloas as 1t#e
lord of t#e 7sle of Glass10 w#erein
one #ears no t#%nder or lig#tning
or te()est, nor is it too #ot or "old.


,#is word brea's t#e r#y(e wit#
&ur. ,#e <%estion #ere is w#et#er it
is golud or colud. 0oludd,
0#indran"e,0 0i()edi(ent,0 gives
good sense in t#e "onte.t of t#is
stanBa abo%t a glass "astle and an
in"o((%ni"ative sentinel. Loo(is
translates 0fr%stration0 (). 165).
9%t t#e )attern in t#ese e)it#ets
wit# #aer s#ows lenition of t#e
se"ond ele(ent, so it1s )ossible
t#at t#is is coludd, 0g%ts,0
0bowels.0 Loo(is is dead set
against 0bowels0 as an
inter)retation= )erfedd is a
synony( (eaning bot# 0entrails0
and 0(iddle of0 ()erfeddd nos,
0dead of nig#t0 G$), and #e
tentatively s%ggests as a
se"ondary (eaning 03ortress in t#e
$iddle of t#e Eart#.0 &ay"o"'/
0i()edi(ent0= >o"#/ 0"on"ealed
fort.0


Cow we enter t#e )art of t#e )oe(
w#ere t#e referen"es and t#e
lang%age are do%bly obs"%re.
&ay"o"' (entions a n%(ber of
)ossibilities for )eridyd/ it is a no%n
(eaning 0@reator0= it is a verb
(eaning 0is "reated.0 !#e "#ooses
t#e latter in #er notes (). 5), b%t
)%ts ellision (ar's in #er
translation/ 0t#ey do not 'now on
w#at day...w#at ti(e...was born...0
(). 6). Loo(is1s translation ends
wit# stanBa fo%r. 0,#ey 'now not
w#at was "reated on w#at day,0 is
>o"#1s translation. -wy "o%ld be
0w#o0 or 0w#o(.0 * very dar'
"o%)le of lines.


@o%ld ymeindyd be 0(id-day0A mei
? dyd, for(ed by analogy wit#
meinoeth, 0(iddle of t#e nig#t0A


Co one #as a "onfident translation
for t#is word cwy or for t#e w#ole
line. >o"# #as/ 0w#at #o%r of t#e
day it was born and w#ere0=
&ay"o"'/ 06#at ti(e... was born...0
71( not (%"# (ore enlig#tened.
Cwy "o%ld be a )ersonal na(e=
&ay"o"' (a'es t#e interesting
s%ggestion, based on a )ro)osed
e(end(ent by Eo#n Lloyd-Eones in
#is G, t#at it is an error for dwy,
0God.0 7f we e(end )wy in t#e
)revio%s line to )lwy3w4, t#en 0lines
6-5 (ig#t be %nderstood t#%s/
1...w#o do not 'now on w#at day
t#e A#%(an ra"e is (Awas) "reated
(nor) at w#at ti(e Aof t#e day God
(i.e. Ees%s) was born.10 @learly,
w#at we are seeing #ere is t#e
ty)i"al ,aliesin-)oet boasting of
esoteri" 'nowledge t#at #is
"o()etitors (t#e wret"#ed s"ribes,
t#e (ean (en of letters) are not
)rivy to.


,#is word dychnut #as o""asioned
so(e "onf%sion a(ong
le.i"ogra)#ers. ,#e entry for
8dychnudo (wit# t#e asteris'
indi"ating ar"#ais() in G$ gives
t#e (eaning 0#owl.0 9%t t#e entry
for t#e sa(e word dychnudaf,
dychnuddo in G2@ gives t#e
(eaning 0to "rowd toget#er in a
)a"',0 fro( di ? cnud, 0)a"'.0 ,#e
only referent it "ites, #owever, is
t#is line in -reideu Annwn, w#i"#
s%ggests t#at t#e word is a ha)a9.
7f t#is )oe( is t#e only )la"e it
o""%rs, "learly one le.i"ogra)#er1s
g%ess is as good as anot#er1s. ,#e
G$ entry see(s driven by t#e
"onte.t of t#e word, and it (%st
#ave been ass%(ed t#at it was a
"o()o%nd wit# udo, 0#owl,0
instead of cnud, 0)a"'.0 9%t bot#
(eanings are "o()letely relevant
to t#e line. 7f t#e (on's are dogs or
yo%ng wolves 0)a"'ing toget#er0 in
a "#oir, t#en one "an also i(agine
t#e( #owling (instead of singing).
,#e satiri" )%n is effe"tive, and
re(inds (e of $aelgwn1s bards in
0,#e ,ale of ,aliesin0 w#o, (ade to
say 0blerw( blerw(0 wit# t#eir
fingers on t#eir li)s, are si(ilarly
rendered inarti"%late by a bard
0w#o 'nows.0 ,o #onor t#is
a(big%ity, 7 #ave translated t#is
first %se as 0#owl0 and t#e se"ond
%se (in line 5) as 0)a"' toget#er.0


cunin cor, literally, 0w#el)s of (or
in) a "#oir.0 0@#oir dogs.0 Cor #as a
delig#tf%l array of (eanings t#at
e.tend t#e word-)lay in t#e
)revio%s line/ 0"#an"el, "#oir,
san"t%ary, "o%rt, "ir"le, "o()ass,
range0 (G2@). !o w#ile t#e dogs are
"learly in a )a"', as (on's t#ey
are also se<%estered in a "#an"el
or "#oir, w#ere t#ey "%sto(arily
sing. >o"#/ 0$on's )a"' toget#er
li'e a troo) of dogs.0 &ay"o"'/
0$on's t#rong toget#er li'e a
wolf)a"'.0 7 )refer to retain t#e
s%ggestion of a "#oir.


* gyfranc udyd is translated by
>o"# as 0Ds#rin'ingG fro(
en"o%nter wit# t#e lords.0 &ay"o"'/
0be"a%se of t#e en"o%nter of t#e
(asters.0


ae gwidanhor in t#is line and ae
gwidyanhawr in line 54 are
"ontested. Ae/ a relative )arti"le
t#at "an be eit#er s%b-e"t or ob-e"t.
,#e ending s%ggests a )assive
"onstr%"tion. >o"# ta'es t#ese
verbs to be de)onents, and
translates 0w#o 'now0= &ay"o"'
sees t#e( as i()ersonals of
gwyddiannu (A verb (ade fro(
gwydd:i;onA 0wiBard0A 0one w#o
'nows0A) or gwy"ot, 0'now,0 and
translates 0to w#o( is (ade
'nown.0


,#is is a diffi"%lt line be"a%se it
yields so (any )ossibilities. "et, or
"edd "an (ean 0grave,0 b%t it (ay
also be a lenited for( of )et, 0#ow
(anyA0 *s &ay"o"' advises,
anot#er <%estion wo%ld be in
'ee)ing wit# t#e <%estions t#at
#ave gone before. 0&ow (any
saintsA0 s#e translates. >o"# o(its
t#is line altoget#er. !ee t#e ne.t
note on diuant5


Eit#er t#e interrogative or 0w#et#er
t#ere is...0


difant, a""ording to t#e G2@, #as a
n%(ber of intrig%ing (eanings t#at
"o%ld be (%lti)ly a))lied to t#is
word/ as a no%n/ 0total loss,
)erdition, anni#ilation, dissol%tion,
disa))earan"e= abyss, t#e void=
desolate or lonely )la"e= t#e
ot#erworld.0 *s a )arti"i)le/
0vanis#ing, vanis#ed, fleeting,
transient, "o()letely lost, )assed
away.0 *s an ad-e"tive/ 0base,
"onte()tible.0 &ay"o"' translates
0in t#e void.0 !ee t#e ne.t note on
llawr.


,#is word llawr "an (ean 0eart#,0
or 0"#a()ion0 (G$, G2@). Allawr
(eans 0altar.0 ,#e w#ole line (ay
be vario%sly rendered as/ 0,#e
grave of t#e saint is vanis#ing,
bot# grave and gro%nd,0 or/ 0,#e
grave of t#e saint is #idden, bot#
grave and "#a()ion,0 or/ 0&ow
(any saints in t#e 8t#erworld, and
#ow (any on eart#A0 or/ 0&ow
(any saints lost, and #ow (any
altarsA0 &ay"o"'/ 0&ow (any
saints in t#e void, and #ow (any
on eart#A0 6#atever t#e line
(eans, diuant is a gloo(y "on"e)t,
and t#e sense e.)ressed #ere is of
sadness and loss, w#i"# is
"onfir(ed by t#e last line of t#e
)oe(.