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ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13

Chapter 1
Introduction to
Mechanisms
Uicker, Pennock, and ShigIey
With notes from Dr. Teik Lim and
Dr. Joey Parker

ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
OUTLINE
Definitions
Types of Motion
Links, Joints, and Kinematic Chains
Kinematic Pairs
PIanar DOFs
GruebIer's equation
Kutzbach's equation
SpatiaI DOFs
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Kinematics versus Kinetics
Kinematics
Study of motion without regard to forces
Position, VeIocity and AcceIeration
Kinetics:
Study of forces on systems in motion

Kinematics
Kinetics
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Definitions: Mechanism & Machines
Mechanism:
A device which transmits motion in a specific way
UsuaIIy invoIves Iow forces & transmit IittIe power
Low speed and IightIy Ioaded mechanisms are
kinematic devices (negIect the effect of dynamics)
Machine:
Contains mechanisms
TypicaIIy invoIves significant forces & transmit
significant power
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Introduction to Kinematics of MechanicaI Systems
MechanicaI and Mechanism Design Process:
Customer needs
Background research
Define objectives
Performance specifications
Ideation and invention
AnaIysis phase
SeIection & DetaiIed Design
Prototyping, testing and production
Kinematics
(create desired motion)
Dynamic Forces
Stresses
Failure criteria
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Applications of Kinematics
Automotive suspension, transaxIe
Steering system, seat adjuster, brake pedaI
BicycIe, roIIer coaster
Garage door, Iock, window
Landing gears
Robotic arms and Iinkages
TeIescope, microscope, scanner, copier
Pumps, pistons, screw compressors
and many many more exampIes

ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Example: Automotive Powertrain
Engine Transmission
Load
MACHINE
Planetary
gear set
MECHANISM
Gear Pair
KINEMATIC
DEVICE
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
5 types of reIative motion
RoIIing contact
SIiding contact
Linkages
Wrapping connectors: beIts and chains
TackIe: rope or hoists
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Kinematic Pair
Two devices connected as a joint
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
6 Basic MechanicaI
Components
Link
WheeI
Cam
Screw
Ratchet
BeIt
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Degrees of Freedom (DOFs)
A system's DOF is equaI to the number of
independent parameters (measurements) that
are needed to uniqueIy define its position in
space at any instant of time.
ExampIe: a rigid body or Iink in a pIane has 3
DOF -- x, y, theta
a rigid body in space has 6 DOF -- x, y, z, theta,
phi, rho
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Kinematics Fundamentals
Degrees of freedom (DOF)
A way to cIassify mechanicaI systems.
Number of independent coordinates which are needed to
uniqueIy define the positions of aII parts of a system at any
instant of time.
AIso number of inputs needed to give a predictabIe output
x
y
0
X
Y
3 DOFs
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Degrees of Freedom (DOF)
DOF defines gross motions in a rigid body/Iink
In the design-concept stage, the kinematic
bodies are assumed rigid and massIess
In reaIity, eIastic bodies have infinite number of
DOFs, but we often approximate certain parts as
massIess eIements. This simpIifies anaIysis and
reduces the number of effective DOFs.
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Types of Motion
Pure rotation -- one point in the body has no
motion wrt the frame of reference. AII other
points on the body describe arcs about that
center
Pure transIation -- aII points on the body
describe paraIIeI paths (curviIinear or
rectanguIar)
CompIex motion -- combination of rotation and
transIation
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Rigid body planar (2-D) motion
Pure rotation
Center of
rotation
Pure curvilinear translation
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Complex planar (2-D) motion
Translation + Rotation
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Links, Joints,
and Kinematic Chains
Links -- (buiIding bIocks) rigid body that
possesses at Ieast 2 nodes
Nodes -- points for attachment to other
Iinks
Binary Iink -- 2 nodes
ternary Iink -- 3 nodes
quaternary Iink -- 4 nodes
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Linkages (kinematic chains)
Linkages = Iinks + joints (kinematic pair
connected to nodes) .
Provide a controIIed output motion in response to
input motion.
Linkages are basic buiIding bIocks of mechanisms.
Gears, beIts, chains etc. are mechanisms.
Binary link - 2 nodes
Ternary link - 3 nodes Quaternary link - 4 nodes
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Joints (Kinematic Pairs)
Connection between two or more Iinks
Occur at nodes
AIIow some motion (or potentiaI
motion) between connected Iinks
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Joint CIassification
Type of contact between Iinks
Iine
point
surface
# of DOF at the joint
PhysicaI cIosure of the joint: force
or form
# of Iinks joined (joint order is one
Iess than the number of Iinks joined)
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Type of contact
Lower pair -- joint with surface
contact
Higher pair -- joint with point or Iine
contact
PracticaI advantage of Iower pairs is
that they are better abIe to trap
Iubricant between their surfaces
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
1oint - 6 basic lower pairs (Figure 1-2)
RevoIute (R) 1 DOF R
Prismatic (P) 1 DOF P
HeIicaI (H) 1 DOF RP
CyIindric (C) 2 DOF RP
SphericaI (S) 3 DOF RRR
PIanar (F) 3 DOF RPP
Basic building blocks
(good for planar motion)
3-D spatial mechanism
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Illustration
of six basic
lower pairs
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
1oint Concepts
1 DOF joint
removes 2 DOF
2 DOF joint
removes 1 DOF
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Could be two
1 DOF joints,
each removes
2 DOF
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Lower pairs, cont.
RevoIute and prismatic pairs are the
onIy Iower pairs that can be used in a
pIanar mechanism
The other four Iower pairs (heIicaI,
cyIindricaI, sphericaI, pIanar) are
used in spatiaI mechanisms
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Joint terminoIogy
One-freedom joint -- fuII joint
Two-freedom joints (higher pairs) --
aIIow two independent,
simuItaneous, reIative motions
between joined Iinks
Two-freedom joints -- haIf joint -- roII-
sIide joint
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Locking out DOF
Sometimes an appIied force can
change the number of DOF at a joint
ExampIe: automobiIe tire
NormaI friction: pure roII
Reduced friction: pure sIide (Iocked
brakes)
Sudden start: roII-sIide
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
PhysicaI cIosure
Form-cIosed -- joint is cIosed by its
geometry, preferred for Iinkages
Force-cIosed -- an externaI force is
needed to keep joint together,
preferred for cam foIIowers
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
More def'ns
Joint order -- number of Iinks joined
minus one
Kinematic chain -- assembIage of
Iinks and joints to provide a
controIIed output in response to a
suppIied input
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Mechanism components
Crank -- Iink which makes a compIete
revoIution and is pivoted to ground
Rocker -- Iink which has osciIIatory
rotation and is pivoted to ground
CoupIer -- has compIex motion and is not
connected to ground (connecting rod)
Ground -- any Iink or Iinks that are fixed
wrt the reference frame
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Special kinematic links
Crank - makes a compIete
revoIution (pivot to ground)
Rocker - has osciIIatory rotation
(pivot to ground)
CoupIer - connecting rod with a
compIex motion (not pivot to
ground)
Ground - fixed Iink (not moving
reIative to a reference frame) ground
coupler
rocker
crank
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Open versus Closed kinematic chains
Closed (no open node) Open (always more than 1 DOF)
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Determining DOF
MobiIity, M = # DOF
DOF -- # of inputs to be provided to
create a predictabIe output
DOF -- # of independent coordinates
required to define a system's
position
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Open and cIosed mechanisms
CIosed mechanism -- wiII have no
open attachment points and 1 or
more DOF
Open mechanism -- has a"free end"
that is not grounded, has more than
1 DOF, requires as many actuators
as it has DOF
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
DOF in pIanar mechanisms
Accounts for numbers of Iinks, joints, and
their interaction
Any unconnected Iink has 3 DOF, x, y, and
theta
If two Iinks are connected by a fuII joint (1
DOF), the x's of each Iink are combined
and the y's of each Iink are combined,
resuIting in X, Y, theta1, and theta2
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
DOF in pIanar mechanisms
Therefore, a fuII joint removes 2 DOF
SimiIarIy, a haIf joint (2 DOF)
removes 1 DOF from the mechanism
If 2 Iinks are connected by a haIf
joint, the resuIting mechanism has 5
DOF
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
DOF in pIanar mechanisms
If a Iink is fixed to the ground, aII of
its DOF are removed
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
GruebIer's eqn
M = 3L - 2J - 3G
M = # DOF or mobiIity
L = # of Iinks
J = # of joints, corrected based on
whether they are fuII or haIf joints
G = # of grounded Iinks
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
BUT
In any reaI mechanism, if more than
one Iink of the kinematic chain is
grounded, the net effect wiII be to
create one super-duper ground Iink.
THEREFORE, G = 1
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Modified GruebIer's Equation
M = 3(L-1) - 2J
with the variabIes as previousIy
defined
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Planar Mechanisms
Connected by a full-joint
(pin)
DOF÷M ÷ 3`2-2`1-3`0 ÷ 4
Two uncoupled links
DOF M ÷ 2`3 ÷ 6
Connected by a half joint
(roll-slide)
DOF M ÷ 3`2-2`0.5-3`0÷ 5
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
DOF in Planar Mechanisms
Kutzbach-GruebIer's equation (G=1)
M = 3 (L - 1) - 2 J
1
- J
2
DOF (mobility)
Number of links
Number of 1 DOF (full) joints
Number of 2 DOF
(half) joints
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Kutzbach's Equation
Reduces confusion over the vaIue of
J
M = 3(L-1) - 2J
1
- J
2
M = # DOF
L = # of Iinks
J
1
= # of fuII joints, 1 DOF
J
2
= # of haIf joints, 2 DOF
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
DOF in spatiaI mechanisms
M = 6(L-1) - 5J
1
- 4J
2
- 3J
3
- 2J
4
- J
5
L = # of Iinks
J
i
= number of joints of each
different possibIe type
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
CIassification of Mechanisms
If M > 0, the mechanism has M DOF
If M = 0, the mechanism is a
structure. AII motion has been
constrained.
If M < 0, there are redundant
constraints, and the mechanism is a
staticaIIy indeterminate structure or
preIoaded structure.
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Applications of mobility
Pin-jointed five-
bar linkage
Reciprocating
mechanism
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Applications of mobility
1
2
5
3
4
1
2
3
5
4
n÷5, J
1
÷5, J
2
÷0
m ÷ 3(n-1)-2J
1
-J
2
÷ 3(5-1)-2*5 ÷ 2
DOF ÷ 2
n÷4, J
1
÷4, J
2
÷0
m ÷ 3(n-1)-2J
1
-J
2
÷ 3(4-1)-2*4 ÷ 1
DOF ÷ 1
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
Pin-jointed five-
bar linkage
Reciprocating
mechanism
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Applications of mobility
slipping
Roller mechanism
Cam mechanism
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Applications of mobility
1
2
2
3
4
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
1
n÷4, J
1
÷3, J
2
÷1
m ÷ 3(n-1)-2J
1
-J
2
÷ 3(4-1)-2*3-1 ÷ 2
DOF ÷ 2
1 slipping
n÷3, J
1
÷2, J
2
÷1
m ÷ 3(n-1)-2J
1
-J
2
÷ 3(3-1)-2*2-1 ÷ 1
DOF ÷ 1
Roller mechanism
Cam mechanism
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Special Case or Exception
n÷5, J
1
÷6, J
2
÷0
m ÷ 3(n-1)-2J
1
-J
2
÷ 3(5-1)-2*6 ÷ 0
DOF ÷ 0 ÷ Structure
2
1
1
3
4
5
2
3
4 5
6
n÷¸¸, J
1
÷¸¸, J
2
÷¸¸
m ÷ 3(n-1)-2J
1
-J
2
÷
DOF ÷
Double Parallelogram
5-bar
linkage
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
Special Case or Exception
n÷5, J
1
÷6, J
2
÷0
m ÷ 3(n-1)-2J
1
-J
2
÷ 3(5-1)-2*6 ÷ 0
DOF ÷ 0 ÷ Structure
2
1
1
3
4
5
2
3
4 5
6
n÷4, J
1
÷4, J
2
÷0
m ÷ 3(n-1)-2J
1
-J
2
÷ 3(4-1)-2*4 ÷ 1
DOF ÷ 1 ÷ Mechanism
2
1
1
3
4
3
4
6
4
4
3
Double Parallelogram
5-bar
linkage
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
More complex examples
Wanzer
needle-bar
Double-slider
ME 450, Mechanisms I, Summer 13
More complex examples
Wanzer
needle-bar
Whitworth
Quick-return
mechanism
1
2
3
4
5
1
Slider 4: 2,3
Slider 5: 4,5
6
Slider ô: ô,7
n÷6, J
1
÷7, J
2
÷0
m ÷ 3(n-1)-2J
1
-J
2
÷ 3(6-1)-2*7 ÷ 1
DOF ÷ 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
4,5
ô,7
n÷6, J
1
÷7, J
2
÷0
m ÷ 3(n-1)-2J
1
-J
2
÷ 3(6-1)-2*7 ÷ 1
DOF ÷ 1
3