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1

Above all, Armand Boileau, Enqute dialectale sur la


toponymie germanique du Nord-Est de la Province de
Lige, 2 vols., Lige 1954 and 1971.
2
Illuminating examples are !oris "agenau, Die Besonderheiten der deutschen Schriftsprache in
Luem!urg und in den deutschsprachigen "eilen Belgiens, "ann#eim 19$4% &eter '. (elde, Norma!#eichungen
im $eitungsdeutsch %st!elgiens. In
!euts)#e *pra)#e +,1974, 2++-251.
+
.#is period is t#e most important
/or
t#e
linguisti)
anal0sis
o/ east
Belgium.
1xamples 2udol/ 3ern, $ur Situation des Deutschen als &mgangs- und 'uttersprache in Belgien( In Deutsch als
&mgangs- und 'uttersprache in Belgien, ed. 'ubert 4enniges e.a., Br5ssel,1upen 1966, pp. 15-+1% &eter '.
(elde, )ol*ssprache und +ultursprache, 7iesbaden 1979.
4
1xamples &eter '. (elde, , -ase of 'ultilingualism in Eastern Belgium. In Languages in -ontact and in
-ontrast . Essays in -ontact Linguistics, ed. 8. 4uir,!. 3alog9era, Berlin,(e: ;or< 1991, pp. ++5-+44% 2udol/ 3ern,
Deutsch als 'uttersprache in Belgien( In Begegnung in P/cs012nf*irchen, ed. 3atalina 7ild, =5n/<ir)#en 1994,
pp. 9-16.
5
(ormand Labrie and &eter '. (elde, L3am/nagement linguistique dans la communaut/ europ/enne. In Les
langues de l3Europe, ed. =. >arton,4.". ?d@ri), &aris 1994, pp. 117-126% &eter '. (elde, ,n Ecological ,pproach
to -ontact Linguistics. In Languages in -ontact, ed. 2. =ilipovi),". Bratani), Aagreb 199B, pp. 14-24% Al:in =ill,
4*olinguisti*, .5bingen 199+.
$
.#is trilingual 0earboo< CDerman, 1nglis#, =ren)#E #as been publis#ed sin)e 1967 b0 (ieme0er-8erlag,
.5bingen, ed. F. Ammon, 3. "att#eier and &. (elde. .#e Grst sixteen volumes give t#oroug# in/ormation about
trends in )urrent 1uropean so)iolinguisti)s.
&1.12 'A(* (1L!1 - B2F**1L*
CB1LDIF"E
(17 "FL.ILI(DFALI*" H &12*&1>.I81* =?2 A 1F2?&1A(
LA(DFAD1 &?LI>;
?. LI(DFI*.I>*, "FL.ILI(DFALI*" A(! .'1
1F2?&1A( F(I?(
Linguisti)s as a so)ial s)ien)e #as al:a0s understood itsel/ H :it# in)reasing tempo in t#e last
de)ades H as t#e mirror image o/ so)iet0Is so)ial s0stems and t#ere/ore is, and :as, sub9e)t to
various tenden)ies and trends. .#is #olds eJuall0 true /or development on t#e ma)ro-level
Cgovernmental and supra-governmental levelE as :ell as t#e mi)ro-level Cregional language
)ommunities, minoritiesE. .#roug# t#e example o/ Derman as a minorit0 language in ?ld and
(e: Belgium Ct#e Derman east )antons o/ BelgiumE, t#e )#ange in perspe)tive on resear)#
emp#asis o/ t#e last )entur0 )ould be read as /ollo:s
.#e *ixties p#ilologi)al, et0mologi)al and diale)tologi)al studies
1
serve partiall0 to 9usti/0
nation state prin)iples in a multilingual )ontext Ce.g. arguments /or t#e /ran)op#onisation o/ t#e
linguisti) transition areas in "almed0E%
.#e *eventies resear)# on inter/eren)e and error anal0sis based on )omparison :it# t#e
Kmot#erlandL Ce.g. #o: /ar does Belgian Derman diMer /rom standard DermanNE
2
%
.#e 1ig#ties Grst so)iolinguisti) studies )on)erning t#e relevan)e o/ so)ial stratiG)ation /or
language use
+
CO#ig#O-Olo:OE un)over /rontier-)rossing perspe)tives :#i)# anal0se diglossi)
situations and migrant Juestions in an international )ontext C e.g. :or< )on)erning t#e
integration problems o/ t#e (ort# A/ri)ans in (ort# ?ld BelgiumE%
.#e (ineties a )onta)t linguisti) approa)# begins :it# an emerging 1uropeanisation and
dis)overs t#e blooming border-permeabilit0 o/ O1uregiosO as an ob9e)t o/ stud0
4
Ce.g. t#e
meaning o/ multilingualism /or edu)ational poli)0 in t#e t#ree-)ountr0-PoneE%
.#e &resent t#e past perspe)tives #ave been )omplemented b0 e)olinguisti)s, :#i)#, in
respe)t to our Geld, )on)erns itsel/ :it# t#e )ultural-linguisti) )onseJuen)es o/ regional
planning, urbanisation and internationalisation o/ transportation s0stems H an essential
mainsta0 o/ t#e regional gross national produ)t
5
.
A loo< at t#e national and )#ronologi)all0 stru)tured issues on t#e 1uropean ma)ro-level Cas in
t#e regularl0 publis#ed bibliograp#0 o/ t#e 0earboo< Sociolinguistica
5
E demonstrates t#at toda0
t#ere are )ountr0-overlapping sub9e)ts in so)io- and )onta)t linguisti)s :#i)# )ould be
des)ribed as *)andinavian Clanguage a)Juisition, signlanguageE, "editerranean Cminorities,
standardisationE or as t0pi)al Benelux Clanguage and edu)ational poli)0E issues. =or bot#
levels, ma)ro as :ell as mi)ro, t#e )ommon /a)tor o/ multilingualism #as in)reased
dramati)all0
in importan)e sin)e t#e
K
redis)over0
7
"ilestones in t#is development are Friel 7einrei)#, Languages in -ontact, (e: ;or< 195+% 1inar 'augen,
Language -on6ict and Language Planning7 "he -ase of 'odern Nor#egian, >ambridge, "A 19$$% &eter '. (elde
Ced.E, Languages in -ontact and in -on6ict, 7iesbaden 196B% 'ans Doebl, &eter '.(elde, Adene< *tar0,
7ol/gang 7Ql)< Ceds.E, -ontact Linguistics . ,n 8nternational 9and!oo* of -ontemporary :esearch; 2 vols.,
Berlin,(e: ;or< 199$-1997.
6
&eter '. (elde, Perspe*tiven einer europ<ischen Sprachpoliti*. In =>er*?eug Sprache@ . Sprachpoliti*;
Sprachf<hig*eit;
L
o/ t#e resear)# on language )onta)t in t#e G/ties
7
. .#e in)rease in interest is due to a mani/old
o/ /a)tors su)# as internationalism, globalisation et). H in 1urope t#e in)reased interest )an be
related to t#e integration o/ individual )ountries into t#e 1uropean Fnion and t#e de)ision o/
t#e parti)ipants regarding linguisti) and )ultural diversit0.
It ma0 sound trivial, but never in t#e #istor0 o/ #uman<ind #as an0 )ountr0 or a /ederation o/
)ountries de)ided in /avour o/ su)# an expli)itl0 multilingual model as t#e 1uropean Fnion.
=i/teen )ountries agreed on eleven oR)ial languages, :#i)# s#ould at t#e same time serve as
:or<ing languages. .#is means t#at mat#emati)all0, t#ere are 11B language )ombinations
possible C11x1BE. Loo<ing a#ead to t#e planned 1F expansion and t#e related in)rease in t#e
governmental language arsenal, :ell over 2BB language )ombinations :ill be involved. An
absurdit0, :#i)# reminds one o/ &ieter Breug#elIs building o/ t#e .o:er o/ Babel, sin)e t#ere is
obviousl0 no translation oR)e in t#e :orld :#i)# )an provide ever0 1uropean )ommissioner
:it# t#e ne)essar0 number o/ translator boot#s at t#e same time. &resentl0 nearl0 4BBB
translators and interpreters in Brussels and Luxembourg ta<e )are o/ t#e 1uropean
)ommuni)ations )#annels
6
. It is onl0 during t#e last ten 0ears t#at t#e 1uropean >ommission
#as re)ognised t#e importan)e o/ multilingualism as being )ondu)ive to t#e /un)tioning o/ t#e
e)onomi), politi)al and so)ial )omponents and #as made t#e ne)essar0 means available and
learned to deal :it# t#e as0mmetr0 o/ multilingualism. Besides t#e governmental and :or<ing
languages, at least /ort0-Gve ot#er languages C:#i)# o/ten are minorit0 languagesE exist
9
. .#is
resulted in t#e establis#ment o/ a K"inistr0L in Brussels C<no:n as t#e !D SSIIE :#i)# #as
responsibilities t#at in)lude t#e smaller languages. In t#is :a0, t#e 1F a)<no:ledged t#e /a)t
t#at linguisti) )onTi)ts are )losel0 bound :it# so)io-e)onomi)al )onTi)ts and vi)e-versa. It
s#ould be obvious t#at :it# t#e in)reasing number o/ language en)ounters, t#e unilingual
1uropean #as little )#an)e o/ survival in su)# a multilingual stru)ture. >onsidering t#e 1FIs
Jui)<l0 progressing e)onomi) integration and t#e )learl0 noti)eable )onstraints on t#e nation
statesI aut#orit0, 1uropeans are assimilating more and more to ea)# ot#er. A )reeping
assimilation :#i)# ta<es pla)e t#roug# trade, e)onom0, in/ormation te)#nolog0 and )ulture and
at t#e same time is determined to integrate and to assimilate nation state diMeren)es. .#ese
s#rin<ing diMeren)es bet:een t#e individual )ountries give rise to a re)on)iliation in nearl0 all
areas o/ 1uropean )ommunal living - #ardl0, #o:ever, in t#e areas o/ language, )ulture and
edu)ation. .#us it )an be )on)luded t#at :it# in)reasing integration and de)reasing nation
state insularit0, t#e enduring linguisti)-)ultural diversit0 :ould be one o/ t#e /e: remaining
diMeren)es :it#in 1urope, sin)e a Kmultilingual assimilationL H )ommon in Asia and A/ri)a H is
rat#er seldom in present-da0 1urope. Fnder t#ese prereJuisites, t#e linguisti)-)ultural
idios0n)ras0 o/ t#e member )ountries :ill ultimatel0 be)ome t#e most important identit0
)#ara)teristi) o/ /uture 1uropeans. In ot#er :ords, t#e importan)e o/ languages :ill in)rease.
"ultilingualism :ill be)ome an essential )#ara)teristi) o/ 1urope as is alread0 t#e )ase in
*:itPerland, Luxembourg and Belgium :#ere t#e importan)e o/ multilingualism /or t#e
e)onomi) prosperit0 o/ its o:n )itiPens #as long been t#e /o)al point o/ language planning
)onsiderations. =urt#ermore, Drin and 8aillan)ourt #ave proven )onvin)ingl0
1B
:#i)#
e)onomi)-Gnan)ial advantages lie in multilingualism /or t#e individual )itiPen. =or t#is reason
:e )an also assume t#at t#e meaning o/ language and o/ languages in 1urope :ill in)rease in
importan)e and :ill )ertainl0 be)ome a ne: )#allenge /or resear)#ers on multilingualism and
)onta)t linguists, and espe)iall0 /or language planners and language poli)0 ma<ers. Language
planning and language poli)0 #ave developed as a part o/ )onta)t linguisti)s and as a part o/
t#e language so)iolog0 and so)iolinguisti)s in t#e G/ties and sixties at a time :#en t#e /ormer
)olonial realms :ere )ollapsing and 0oung, rising nations H espe)iall0 t#ose outside 1urope H
attempted to bond t#eir ne:l0 dis)overed identities :it# a national language t#roug# an oR)ial
and standard language. It must be readil0 apparent t#at t#e underl0ing ideolog0 primaril0
determines t#e )#ara)ter o/ language planning and language politi)s. .#ere/ore, it does not
seem essential to us to dis)uss t#e existen)e o/ 1uropean planning be/ore t#e end o/ t#e
t:entiet# )entur0. 'o:ever )ontent-related #eterogeneit0 )ontinues to exist, lin<ed to a
terminologi)al as0mmetr0. In 1nglis# :it# Ulanguage planningI, Ulanguage poli)0I and Ulanguage
politi)sI t#ree )omplementar0
1B
=ranVois Drin, "he Economics of Language7 Survey; ,ssessment and Prospects. In International 4ournal
o/ t#e *o)iolog0 o/ Language 121, pp. 17-44% =ranVois 8aillan)ourt, Economie et langue, Wu@be) 1965.
Sprache und 'acht, ed. 3at#arina 7eisro)<, 'ildes#eim,A5ri)#,(e: ;or< 1999, pp. 41-42.
9
A )onta)t
linguisti) anal0sis is presented in t#e )losing report &eter '. (elde, "iJuel *trubell, Dl0n 7illiams,
Euromosaic
. Production and :eproduction of 'inority Language -ommunities in the European &nion,
Luxemburg 199$.
terms exist t#at )learl0 diMer /rom one anot#er and are ver0 similar to !ut)# Ctaalplanning,
taalbeleid, taalpolitie<E and ot#er 1uropean languages. In Derman t#ere is onl0
U
*pra)#planung
I
and
U
*pra)#politi<
I
:#ereb0 poli)0 is part o/ politi)s. In =ren)# t#ere is
U
planiG)ation linguistiJue
I
next to
U
politiJue linguistiJue
I
but t#ese terms :ere originall0 used in a )entralisti) meaning. .oda0, t#e general term
U
am
@
nagement linguistiJue
I
11

.#us deGned b0 7illiam "a)<e0, "he Ecology of Language Shift. In Languages in -ontact and in -on6ict, 1d.
&eter '.
in)ludes not onl0 language planning and language politi)s but also - in t#e meaning o/
linguisti) #ouse#old
11
-t#e Gndings in e)olinguisti)s.
1. .'1 (17 "FL.ILI(DFALI*"
In order to get t#e reJuirements o/ a modern 1uropean language planning and language poli)0
under )ontrol, it ma<es sense to anal0se t#e /a)tors :#i)# )#ara)terise t#e present
multilingualism. 2egarding t#e )ountless )#anges in t#e e)onomi) lives o/ t#e 1F member
states sin)e t#e politi)al s#i/t in 199B and t#e /ollo:ing extension in 1995 CAustria, *:eden,
=inlandE, language planning and language poli)0 #ave also #ad to deal :it# t#e ne: )onditions
o/ language )onta)t in 1urope. .#e most re)ent multilingual development :ill be presented
under t#e title (e: "ultilingualism :it# some ever0da0 examples o/ 1uropean multilingualism.
1.1 I(.12(A.I?(ALI*A.I?(
.#e s#eer Tood o/ regulations /rom t#e 1F-#eadJuarters in Brussels is amaPing in t#e /a)e o/
t#e relativel0 small number o/ 1uropean )ivil servants and to a great extent )ontributes to t#e
surmounting o/ national idios0n)rasies and national borders.
3e0 terms su)# as K*)#engenL C/ree movement o/ people and goodsE, /usions and allian)es o/
all possible <inds, ma<e )lear t#at in t#e e)onomi) and ever0da0 li/e o/ t#e 1uropean, nation
state borders onl0 #ave a s0mboli) meaning.
In t#e beginning, t#ere :as t#e television. In Belgium :#en t#e need to re)eive )#annels /rom
neig#bouring )ountries arose in t#e seventies, t#e multinorm set :as invented. .#is :as a
television :#i)# )ould re)eive bot# &AL and *e)am, a te)#ni)al advan)ement :#i)# lost
meaning t#roug# 0et anot#er te)#ni)al advan)ement, )able and satellite s0stems. 2e)entl0 t#e
Grst #ig#-speed rail :as supposed to run /rom =ran)e a)ross Belgium t#roug# to Derman0.
.#ree diverse national po:er s0stems /or lo)omotives :ere )ombined in one ve#i)le CBelgian,
=ren)# and Derman dire)t )urrent, alternating )urrent po:er s0stemsE. >urrentl0 t#is train
<no:n as K.#al0sL lin<s &aris and Brussels :it# >ologne and is not #ampered b0 )ustom
barriers or diMering train plat/orm edges
12
.
1.2 (1?LIB12AL 1>?(?"I> *;*.1"
=ollo:ing t#e (ort# Ameri)an example, t#e /ree mar<et prin)iple #as on t#e :#ole
predominated in t#e 1uropean Fnion, :#ereb0 e)onomi) and border-overlapping /a)tors #ave
gained meaning :#ile ot#er /a)tors o/ nation state origin #ave lost meaning. !uring t#e )ourse
o/ t#e mutual rappro)#ement and in t#e /a)e o/ gro:ing neoliberal tenden)ies, t#e ne:
multi)ultural and multilingual mar<ets H o/ten onl0 dominated b0 1nglis# as a lingua /ran)a H
s#o: an in)reasing interest not onl0 in t#e identit0 and personalit0 o/ 1uropean )itiPens but also
in t#eir attitudes and stereot0pi)al be#aviour. 'o:ever, as /ar as t#e 1uropean e)onom0 is
)on)erned, national )lassiG)ation s0stems, on)e t#e pride o/ ever0 )ountr0, #ave be)ome
obsolete .#e )onsumer is no longer sure o/ t#e origin o/ a parti)ular good, sin)e t#e point o/
produ)tion is o/ten outsour)ed to more )ost-eMe)tive )ountries, neit#er t#e #eadJuarters nor
t#e produ)er )an be )ategoriPed in terms o/ nation states. In trend leading Derman0,
national )ompanies :#i)# are be)oming multinationals, )onsistentl0 repla)e t#eir brand
s0mbol Kmade in Derman0L :it# Kmade b0 *iemens,Bos)#L et). =ormerl0 perip#eral
e)onomi) regions in language or national border areas :ill be s0stemati)all0 )#osen /or ne:
(elde, 7iesbaden 196B, p. +5.
12
A))ording to t#e report o/ a parti)ipant in a multilingual )on/eren)e in
*trasbourg in 1991 C2eports appear in >. .ru)#ot,
Le plurilinguisme europ/en, &aris 1994E t#e main reason :#0 Ka train )ould never travel /rom &aris
to BerlinL.
produ)tion sites in order to ease a))ess into t#e ne: mar<ets, a)Juire ne: mar<ets and
per#aps produ)e more )ost-eMe)tivel0 t#roug# multilingual staM !aimler,>#r0sler built its
Gnis#ing plant /or t#e *mart )ar in t#e *aar-Lor-Lux region on t#e Lorraine side in order to
)onJuer ne: multinational and multilingual mar<ets /or t#is ver0
1+

&resented in detail in An@mone Deiger-4aillet, Das Saar-Lor-Lu-'odell, *t. Augustin 2BB1.
14

.#e 2esear)# >entre 7ales in Bangor under t#e dire)tion o/ Dl0n 7illiams #as been espe)iall0
a)tive% so in Developing
1+
reason .
1.+ DL?>ALI*A.I?(
2esear)# on multilingualism in t#e past 0ears #as been some:#at one-sided, /o)using on t#e
e)onom0supported eMorts to:ard unit0 in parent organiPations su)# as t#e (A=.A in (ort#
Ameri)a Ce)onomi) /ree trade agreement bet:een "exi)o, >anada and t#e Fnited *tatesE or
t#e 1uropean Fnion, :it#out ta<ing into a))ount a polarising resistan)e movement :#i)# rose
up in parallel :it# t#e advan)ing 1uropean uniG)ation% namel0, t#e need o/ 1uropeans o/
various origins to be able to identi/0 :it# t#eir o:n region, t#eir )ountr0, t#eir lo)al /eatures and
t#eir )ultural environment. .#ere/ore, in lig#t o/ t#is ne: 1uropean li/est0le, :e evidentl0 )an
use t#e term UDlo)alisationI Cglobalisation vs. lo)alisationE in order to des)ribe t#e ne:l0
emerging multi-identities o/ 1uropean )itiPens. .#ese multi-identities )ould dissolve t#e pent-up
tension bet:een multinational de)isions t#at are not al:a0s intelligible and seldom o/ personal
)on)ern to t#e 1uropean )itiPens on t#e one #and and regional or lo)al resolutions :#i)# are
more )losel0 )onne)ted to t#e 1uropean )itiPens on t#e ot#er #and. .#e latter relate ver0 strongl0 to t#e 1uropeanIs dire)t environment and t#e ma9orit0 :ill be
)onve0ed in #is or #er o:n language and )on)epts o/ )ulture and t#oug#t, :#ereas
regulations /rom Brussels usuall0 originate /rom a /oreign mentalit0 sin)e 1F-internal texts
are nearl0 al:a0s )on)eptualised in =ren)# or 1nglis#, subseJuentl0 translated and t#ere/ore
donIt )orrespond to t#ree-Juarters o/ t#e Fnion membersI )on)eptual :orld or mentalit0.
Belgians /rom 3raainem Csituated in t#e outs<irts o/ BrusselsE :ill presumabl0 introdu)e
t#emselves as )itiPens o/ 3raainem in Brussels, per#aps as UBrusselaarsI C)itiPens o/ BrusselsE
8iennese in D#ent% in 7allonia as =lemings, in Austria as Belgians and in A/g#anistan as
1uropeans. .#is doesnIt #ave mu)# to do :it# opportunism, it is, #o:ever, ver0 mu)# about
/eelings o/ rootedness and about a regional identit0 :#i)# )an be )#ara)terised as a multi-
identit0.
1.4 I(=?2"A.I?( .1>'(?L?D; A(!
"1!IA
.#e so-)alled ne: media H above all tele)ommuni)ations H and t#e Jui)<l0 spreading
appli)ation Gelds o/ in/ormation te)#nolog0 #ave strengt#ened t#e abilit0 to observed
tenden)ies in t#e areas o/ internationalisation and globalisation. .#ese tenden)ies #ave also
been re)ognised and put into pra)ti)e b0 resear)# on multilingualism, as )ountless ne:l0
/ounded spee)# te)#nolog0 industries Csu)# as on t#e Belgian-=ren)# border in t#e ninetiesE
demonstrate. 7#at is o/ /undamental importan)e to us are t#e )onseJuen)es o/ language
minorities :#o are o/ten seen as t#e Grst vi)tims o/ internationalisation and globalisation.
'o:ever sin)e t#e use o/ so/t:are and its )ustomiPed appli)ations /or small language
)ommunities is not )ostl0, and sin)e t#ere is little eMort ne)essar0 ot#er t#an a /e: adaptations
and translations, perip#eral minorities :#o until no: #ave not #ad t#e linguisti)-)ultural-
e)onomi) a))ess to t#e dominating ma9orit0 mar<ets, #ave be)ome beneG)iaries o/ modern
te)#nologies. In t#is :a0, t#e latest >elti) language revitalisation attempts in 7ales and Ireland #ave been
supported t#roug# tele)ommuni)ation and t#e ne: media appli)ations Ctelemati)sE. Linguisti)
resus)itation attempts in t#e Gelds o/ small and middle-siPed )ompanies put t#e most modern
te)#nologi)al Gndings into pra)ti)e in emplo0ment oMers and above all, in advertising
14
. ?t#er
language minorities Cli<e t#e :est *lavi) *orbians in t#e &olis#H>Pe)#-Derman border areaE :ill
probabl0 /ollo:
15
. It is, #o:ever, still too earl0 /or a su))ess/ul prognosis in t#e sense o/
Digital Democracy( In 'inorities and Language Policy, eds. &eter '. (elde,2osita 2indler *)#9erve, *t. Augustin
2BB1, pp. 12+-1++.
15
An initial attempt )an be /ound in t#e >onvention &apers o/ t#e .as< Droup o/ t#e *orbian
Institute /rom 1$.,17.4.1999
Leos *atava, *usanne 'ose, Erhaltung; :evitalisierung und Ent#ic*lung von 'inderheitensprachen,
BautPen 2BBB.
a linguisti)-)ultural revival sin)e
U
reversing
I
t#e language o/ )ommuni)ation )an onl0 be solved in an integral manner and #ardl0
monodire)tionall0.
1$
>ompare :it# =rans 'ins<ens, 4eMre0 3allen, 4o#an .aeldeman, 'erging and Drifting ,part(
-onvergence and Divergence of Dialects ,cross Political Borders. In International 4ournal o/ t#e *o)iolog0 o/
Language 145, pp. 1-26.
1.5 1!F>A.I?(AL &?LI>;
I/ e)onomi) poli)0 :it#in t#e 1uropean Fnion is seen as a uni/0ing element, t#en language
poli)0 reTe)ting linguisti) diversit0 seems to be a dividing element. In an even /urt#er
developing 1urope, :it# t#e predi)table uniG)ation and )omplete dismantling o/ border
/un)tions Cserving onl0 as s0mboli) value in t#e /utureE, t#e importan)e o/ language poli)0 as
part o/ edu)ational poli)0 in)reases in most )ountries :it# national languages. In man0 )ases
edu)ational poli)0 is even )ongruent :it# language poli)0. I/ all e)onomi) and politi)al s0stems
are so bound up :it# one anot#er t#at t#e0 :eave seamlessl0 toget#er under BrusselsIs
prote)tion, t#en H under t#e )onsent o/ t#e )ultural autonom0 )riterion o/ t#e member )ountries
H t#e edu)ational s0stems :ill be )on/ronted :it# one anot#er and :ill surel0 pla0 a main role in
1uropeansI sear)# /or identit0. Fnder t#e dire)tion o/ =rans 'ins<ens, a !ut)# team /rom (im:egen #as alread0 observed t#e
disappearan)e o/ t#e /ormer border-)ons)iousness in t#e ad9a)ent Benelux )ountries, so t#at
toda0, 0oung !ut)# people diMer /rom 0oung Dermans t#roug# t#eir diverse s)#ool edu)ations
and diverse lesson )ontents
1$
. .#is as)ertainment be)omes o/ even greater importan)e :#en
one )onsiders t#at on t#e Belgian-!ut)# border, in )ontrast to t#e Derman-!ut)# border, t#e
same language is spo<en and 0et t#e spea<ers )an diMerentiate amongst t#emselves as being
!ut)# or =lemis# on t#e basis o/ t#e various edu)ational s0stems. .o date, #o:ever, t#ere #ave
onl0 been tentative eMorts at re)on)iling t#e t:o edu)ational s0stems.
1.$ 21!F>.I?( ?= (A.I?(H*.A.1
&?712
7it#out mu)# publi) a)tion or media attention, a po:er s#i/ting pro)ess is being )arried out
:it#in t#e 1uropean Fnion :#i)#, be)ause o/ e)onomi) di)tates resulting /rom t#e uniG)ation
pro)ess, trans/ers t#e main aut#orities /rom t#e )apitals o/ t#e member )ountries to Brussels.
.#is sluggis# 0et a))elerating pro)ess pertains to onl0 a small part o/ t#e nation state
legislative po:er and intervenes in various areas o/ t#e 1uropeanIs li/e t#roug# t#e
interdependent )#ara)ter o/ t#e e)onomi) /a)tors and t#e in)reasing unitarian tenden)ies
sin)e "aastri)#t and Amsterdam. .#ese eMorts )ome up against a politi)all0 united 1urope
be)ause all member states insist on t#e linguisti)-)ultural distin)tiveness o/ t#e nation states.
.#e respe)tive governments, #o:ever, are tr0ing to ta<e )are o/ t#eir language and )ultural
domains as :ell as t#e a/orementioned edu)ational s0stems Cin)luding elementar0 and
se)ondar0 s)#ool instru)tionE under t#eir o:n dire)tion. Brea)#es indeed alread0 )#ara)teriPe
t#e universit0 level, :#i)# due to t#e international inter:oveness o/ 1uropeanisation, )annot
:it#dra: to t#e same extent as t#e s)#ool level. Also national art and literature )ontinue to )reate Juite a ro)<0 retreat area /or t#e eleven
governmental and :or<ing languages o/ t#e 1F as a result o/ its linguisti)-)ultural
)lassiG)ation in t#e various national languages and )ultures. .#is po:er redu)tion )aused b0
e)onomi) /usion and globalisation measures H an as 0et little )ommented upon and apparentl0
voluntar0 renoun)ement - oMers at t#e present point in time one o/ t#e possible explanator0
/a)tors /or t#e observable in)rease in t#e importan)e o/ national languages. As a retarding
moment, t#is maintains t#e illusion o/ nation state autonom0 o/ t#e member )ountries and
t#ereb0 #elps ma<e possible t#e transition to a Kunited 1urope in diversit0L.
A /a)tor anal0sis o/ nation state po:er in member )ountries :it# re)ent )#anges in
government li<e =ran)e, Belgium, Derman0 or Austria :ould H on t#e basis o/ t#e
innumerable ne: ordinan)es and regulations - s#ed lig#t on t#e po:er redu)tion o/ t#e ne:
governments. Independent o/ t#e respe)tive part0 and )oalition ba)<ground, t#e
intervention and administrative )ompeten)ies - and t#ereb0 t#e sovereignt0 - o/ t#e 4ospin,
8er#o/stadt, *)#rQder and *)#5ssel governments in )ontrast to t#eir prede)essors 4upp@,
!e#aene, 3o#l and 3lima, #ave been )onsiderabl0 redu)ed t#roug# re)ent legal measures
ta<en b0 t#e 1uropean >ommission.
1.7
*FB*I!IA2I.;
17
=or t#e various )on)eptualisations o/ language poli)0, see &eter '. (elde,
Perspe*tiven einer europ<ischen Sprachpoliti*, op. )it., p. +9.
16
Ibid, p. 4+.
Fntil t#e mid-nineties - be/ore t#e members#ip o/ *:eden, =inland and Austria H t#ere :as a
)ertain balan)e bet:een t:o ver0 diMerent )on)eptualisations o/ national mentalit0 :it#in t#e
1F. 7#ile "editerranean )ountries - above all =ran)e H pro/essed a )entralisti) prin)iple,
/ederall0 stru)tured )ountries H li<e Belgium or Derman0 - pleaded /or a subsidiarit0 prin)iple
:it# reper)ussions /or t#e language and )ulture poli)ies o/ t#e member )ountries. 7#ereas
:it# t#e appli)ation o/ t#e )entralisti) prin)iple, t#e existen)e o/ a national language
legislature moving in pre)eden)e on t#e #ierar)#i)al administration pat#s /rom KupL to Kdo:nL
is de)isive, subsidiaril0 governed )ountries o/ten do :it#out a national minister /or )ulture or a
governmental level responsible /or language and )ulture, t#ere/ore delegating suitable legal
regulations to a lo:er level Cprovin)es, )ounties, institutions under private la:, et). E
17
. .#e
strong politi)al and e)onomi)al :eig#t o/ t#e nort# and middle 1uropean )ountries a/ter t#e
members#ip o/ *:eden, =inland and Austria #as re)entl0 ver0 mu)# in)reased t#e trend
to:ards subsidiarit0 in t#e 1F H )learl0 re)ognisable in t#e example o/ Dreat Britain as
*)otland and 7ales #ave )on)eded t#eir o:n politi)all0 a)tive parliaments H somet#ing :#i)#
)annot remain :it#out )onseJuen)e /or t#e trends in language planning and language poli)0.
(onet#eless, )ompeten)e )onTi)ts are alread0 re)ognisable. In t#e /uture t#e0 )ould even
in)rease, :#ile t#e responsibilit0 /or auto)#t#onous language )ommunities Ct#e so-)alled
native or indigenous minoritiesE lies :it# t#e nation state and t#eir subsidiar0 institutions,
:#ereas /or allo)#t#onous groups CmigrantsE more t#an one government or more t#an one
)ountr0 is politi)all0 responsible and #as 9urisdi)tion over t#em. .#ese :ould give pre/eren)e H
i/ one allo:ed t#em /ree )#oi)e H to a border-overlapping, supranational )onTi)t solution H
:#ereb0, #o:ever, supranational 1F-aut#orities :ould settle upon ne: tas<s.
!espite t#is and ot#er border-overlapping auto)#t#onous or allo)#t#onous language and
)ulture )onTi)ts :it# so)io-e)onomi)al ba)<grounds, t#e indeed strengt#ening subsidiarit0
prin)iple o/ t#e member )ountries must be on guard against Brussels /or radi)al interventions
in t#e national language and )ulture planning.
Also allo)#t#onous groups o/ten #ave a )learl0 KnationalL )#ara)ter and appear onl0 under
)ertain national pre)onditions. .#e example o/ Derman0 demonstrates t#at allo)#t#onous
groups are to be )#ara)terised as )ountr0 spe)iG) and t#at language mani/ests itsel/
mainl0 as a se)ondar0 s0mbol.
!espite t#e /a)t t#at allo)#t#onous and auto)#t#onous groups predominantl0 dra: attention to
t#e )omparativel0 poor prestige o/ t#eir languages and )ultures as a )ommon disadvantage
:it# respe)t to t#e dominant group, until no:, ver0 little i/ an0 )ooperation in t#e demand /or
linguisti) rig#ts is to be dis)erned in 1urope on t#e part o/ t#ese t:o groups. .#e need /or t#is
<ind o/ )ooperation, #o:ever, s#ould be obvious, as )omparable disadvantages reJuire
)ommon solutions. Fndoubtedl0, t#e ne:, o/ten so)iall0 deGned minorities su)# as t#e
migrants, guest :or<ers, returnees, expatriates, resettlers, re/ugees, emigrants, transmigrants
and UremigrantsI Cre-immigrantsE
16
)ome to t#e /ore o/ 1uropean politi)s. All o/ t#ese groups
#ave given rise to a ne: )ons)iousness among minorit0 populations, resulting mu)# rat#er in a
promotion o/ indigenous minorities rat#er t#an in t#eir suppression. *in)e t#e immigration
boom in neig#bouring )ountries ex#ibits a )ompletel0 diMerent stru)ture, t#ere )an be no
dis)ussion /or t#e meantime o/ a uniGed 1uropean regulation :#i)# :ould do 9usti)e to all t0pes
o/ migration. Anot#er aspe)t o/ t#e subsidiarit0 prin)iple, namel0 t#e )on)eptual diMeren)e to t#e )entralisti)
prin)iple is emp#asiPed b0 t#e /ollo:ing observation /rom m0 o:n resear)#, :#ereb0 :e :ill
restri)t ourselves to =ran)e as a )entralisti) example and Derman0 as a subsidiar0 example. In
t#e Grst )onTi)t anal0sis o/ auto)#t#onous minorit0 language )ommunities in t#e 1uropean
Fnion Cpublis#ed in 199$ as EuromosaicE
19
, resear)#ers /rom t#e pro9e)t designated )ountries
CDreat Britain, =ran)e, *pain and BelgiumE disagreed about t#e s)ientiG) pro)edure /or setting
up a pilot stud0. .#e diMering opinions obviousl0 #ad t#eir origin in opposing )on)eptualisations
o/ #o: to signi/0 t#em as )entralisti) or subsidiar0. In t#is :a0, t#ere :as disagreement as /ar
as t#e politi)al or )ultural )onta)t partner in t#e examined )ountries goes. *#ould one )onta)t
t#e national government or t#e
1
9 &eter '. (elde, "iJuel *trubell, Dl0n 7illiams,Euromosaic . Production and :eproduction of 'inority
Speech
>ommunities in t#e 1uropean Fnion, Luxemburg 199$. &eter '. (elde, "iJuel *trubell, Dl0n 7illiams,
Euromosaic 88 . Etension of the Study to ,ustria; 1inland and S#eden, Bar)elona,Bangor,Brussel 1999
Cunpublis#ed manus)riptE.
minorit0 representative on siteN As a )ompromise solution t#e Brussels Deneral !ire)torate
SSII reJuested all 1F government leaders to provide a linguisti)-politi)al anal0sis and detailed
in/ormation about t#e respe)tive national auto)#t#onous poli)0. .#e result :as amaPing. 7#ile
=ran)e C4upp
@
governmentE
H
to anti)ipate possible )riti)al rea)tions - )orrespondingl0 advised t#at t#e government :as
parti)ularl0 a)tive on be#al/ o/ minorities, t#at )onTi)ts C:it# t#e ex)eption o/ >orsi)aE #ardl0
o))urred, t#at eJual rig#ts /or all =ren)# )itiPens #ave been assured sin)e t#e =ren)#
2evolution and t#at t#e "inistr0 o/ 1du)ation #ad set up an optional s)#ool )ourse
K
langues et )ultures regionales
L
in ever0 minorit0 area. .#e Derman-spea<ing )ountries did not provide us :it# an oR)ial
operative ans:er. .#us, t#e /ormer Bonn government under 'elmut 3o#l obviousl0 didn
I
t /eel responsible /or an ans:er )on)erning language-spe)iG) minorit0 Juestions. ?ur letter
landed in *axon0Xs main and )apital )it0 !resden C"inistr0 /or >ultureE, sin)e t#e existen)e o/ a
*lavi) minorit0 in t#e Gve ne: /ederal states Cin t#is )ase Brandenburg and *axon0E :as
indeed <no:n and sin)e t#e press o/ten spe)ulated about t#e legal situation o/ t#e *orbian
minorit0 in t#e 0ears a/ter t#e Derman reuniG)ation and sin)e ne: legal national regulations
/or t#e prote)tion o/ t#ese minorities still #ad to be dis)ussed. .#e ministr0 /or:arded t#e
letter to t#e !omo:ina, a )ultural, private la: organisation o/ t#e Fpper *orbs in BautPen,
:#i)# in turn )onta)ted us in Brussels in t#e 1uromosai) #eadJuarters and, :anted to <no:
:#at :e a)tuall0 tried to a))omplis# :it# our letter. 7#ile t#e example o/ =ran)e made not
onl0 t#e
K
#ierar)#isation
L
o/ t#e minorit0 dilemma readil0 apparent, but also t#e ne)essit0 /or language la:s and publi)
prote)tion measures /or small and endangered language )ommunities. .#e Derman pro)edure
demonstrated t#e subsidiarit0 prin)iples all )ultural and linguisti) provisions /or t#e prote)tion
o/ language )ommunities :ere met on t#e lo:est possible level, not al:a0s b0 politi)al or
governing bodies, but rat#er o/ten b0 )ultural and ot#er privatel0 organised asso)iations.
2B
=ranVois Drin, op. )it.
21
Ibid
2. >?(>LF*I?(* =?2 A 1F2?&1A( LA(DFAD1
&?LI>;
A t#oroug# language planning and t#e realisation o/ its results in a 1uropean language poli)0
reJuires not onl0 t#e a))eptan)e o/ t#e most re)ent developments o/ resear)# on
multilingualism in 1urope :#i)# )ome to t#e /ore in su)# )onta)t linguisti) pro9e)ts as
1uromosai) CI199$% II1999E, but also t#e in)lusion o/ :orld :ide trends in t#e obviousl0 rapidl0
gro:ing multilingualism in )ountries and )ontinents :it# a positive demograp#i) development.
7#en )onsidering t#e #ig#l0 populated areas o/ Asia and A/ri)a, multilingualism #as, /or some
time, no longer appeared as an ex)eption rule as in (A=.A-)ountries and 1F-states but #as
rat#er be)ome t#e norm. =urt#ermore, t#e most re)ent development s#o:s t#at H in )ontrast to
t#e bilingual literature o/ t#e post-:ar 0ears H t#e transition to multilingualism no longer
automati)all0 means t#e end o/ an auto)#t#onous minorit0 language H on t#e )ontrar0, almost
all minorit0 spea<ers in 1urope #ave be)ome multilingual. .#is points /ar more to t#e /a)t t#at
multilingualism is o/ten seen as an e)onomi) and pro/essional engine, :#i)# raises t#e
standard o/ living and ma<es a))ess possible to ne: )areer Gelds in border overlapping trade,
and :it# international and globalised emplo0ers. It also ma<es pro/essions in translation
possible :#i)# re)ruit t#eir translators and interpreters pre/erabl0 /rom multilingual )ountries
CLuxembourg, BelgiumE and language border areas C/or example /rom t#e Derman-2oman)e
language boundar0E. "ultilingual minorit0 language spea<ers a))ordingl0 give up t#eir
generation-old de/ensive attitude and re)ognise t#e )#an)es o/ multilingualism in t#e ne:
1uropean. !is)ourse no longer /or)es t#em to den0 t#eir identit0 and )on/orm to t#e language
o/ prestige. 1xa)tl0 t#e /ormer average )ase H t#e monolingual H )omes up against diR)ulties in
/or)ibl0 pursuing t#eir e)onomi) or politi)al interests in a multilingual 1urope. At t#is stage,
mar<et e)onom0 )riteria )learl0 )ome into pla0. Language be#aviour and language a)Juisition
)orrespond to t#e /ree mar<et, meaning t#at t#e 1uropean multilingualism :#i)# #as largel0
been /reed /rom bot# outdated #istori)al and ps0)#ologi)al stereot0pes as :ell as pre9udi)es
and emotions, )on/orms to t#e la: o/ suppl0 and demand. ?ut o/ t#is arise ne: and primar0
e)onomi)al la: patterns - globalisation and internationalisation reJuire t#e readiness o/ 0oung
1uropeans to a)Juire several languages t#e master0 o/ :#i)# pa0s proven dividends
2B
.
=ranVois Drin and =ranVois 8aillan)ourt estimate, /or example, t#e added value o/
multilingualism in *:itPerland H depending on t#e reJuired se)ond language C/or example
2omans# or 1nglis#E H at 7 to 15Y. In traditional and e)onomi)all0 monolingual )ountries li<e
=ran)e or t#e Fnited *tates
21
t#is e)onomi)all0 important surplus up to <no: )ould not be
rea)#ed due to predominan)e o/ monolingualism. (o :onder t#at more and more linguisti)
)ommuni)ation )ompeten)ies are part and par)el o/ modern 1uropean management and t#at
t#e0 are usuall0 )ounted amongst t#e minimum <e0 JualiG)ations. (o :onder t#at t#e labour
mar<et opens itsel/ to t#ese 1uropeans oMering at t#e same time o))upational possibilities in
t#e
languages o/ t#e originating and target mar<ets. In t#e long-term, su)# a multilingual model o/
suppl0 and demand motivates su))ess/ul and sensible multilingualism in a better :a0 t#an
)entralisti) language planning :#i)# proves to be an inTexible instrument o/ language poli)0
and does not respond to t#e )#anging language needs o/ t#e 1uropean language mar<ets.
.#ese experien)es )ould be o/ use to a 1uropean language poli)0 :#i)#, in t#e nineties, :as
to a )ertain extent Juite su))ess/ul in attending eJual rig#ts and eJual opportunities o/ small
language )ommunities and served as )on)epts /or a propaedeuti)al language planning
22
.#e
institutionall0 bilingual H meaning separated H s)#ool s0stem o/ =lemings and =ran)op#ones in Brussels is a
good
1 .#e )on)ept o/ positive discrimination7 t#at minorities, largel0 independent o/ t#e number o/
spea<ers, are provided t#e same opportunities /or promotion as t#e dominant language group
in order to be)ome integrated in so)io-politi)al and e)onomi) li/e. In pra)ti)e, /or national and
regional aut#orities, t#is means underta<ing an attempt in language poli)0 to get under )ontrol
t#e #ig# )osts and appli)ations /or materials :#i)# must be produ)ed and )ommer)ialised, and
/or spe)iall0 trained personnel in t#e sub-dominant and )o-dominant languages o/ t#eir o:n
)ountr0. ?nl0 b0 doing so )an ever0 minorit0 spea<er exer)ise #is language rig#ts to t#e same
degree, as t#e )learl0 more privileged ma9orit0 spea<ers #ave done so /ar
22
. 2 .#e )on)ept o/
decentralisation; :#i)# stems /rom t#e subsidiarit0 prin)iple and :as supposed to #ave been
applied in :#at :ere until re)entl0 )entralised member )ountries, #as earned spe)ial attention
/rom a linguisti)politi)al perspe)tive. It must be investigated as to #o: /ar de)isions in linguisti)
and )ultural areas )an be s#i/ted to lo:er demo)rati) levels so t#at subdominant languages
and t#eir spea<ers gain legal se)urit0 and t#at language poli)0 )an un/old on a regional level. +
A training concept :#i)# ma<es it possible /or all )itiPens to use t#eir language in as man0
)ontexts as possible so t#at t#e0 are in t#e position H :it# or :it#out language legislation H to
Gnd solutions /or t#eir linguisti) and )ultural problems and appl0 t#em in ever0da0 situations
instead o/ rel0ing on t#e national administration and aut#orities. 4 A )on)ept o/
t#eena!lement of multilingualism :#i)# does not permit t#e learning o/ one language at t#e
expense o/ anot#er or t#e a)Juisition o/ one language :it# t#e goal o/ stiTing or dis)rediting
anot#er. .#ese <inds o/ enablements are valid to a )ertain degree /or publi) administration and
also /or t#e entire e)onomi) li/e. .#e prestige o/ languages )ould /urt#er in)rease :#en t#ose
are also applied in all /urt#er domains. *u)# an enablement )atalogue serves as an initial prompt to 1uropeanise t#e idle-l0ing national
language planning. At t#e same time, #o:ever, a :arning s#ould be issued )on)erning t#e
misunderstanding t#at su)# pre)onsiderations )ould detra)t /rom a generall0 valid multilingual
model. .#e spe)iG) multilingual )ontext must be reTe)ted in t#e regional and supra-regional
language poli)ies o/ ever0 1F-member )ountr0 and H as /ar as possible H be tailored to t#e
respe)tive language )ommunit0 in order to )ater to t#e a)tual e)onomi) )onditions. A single
master plan /or t#e solution o/ language )onTi)ts is onl0 doomed to /ail. Its /oundation lies H as
our examples #ave s#o:n H in t#e politi)all0 determined re)ognition o/ t#e linguisti)-)ultural
diversit0 o/ 1urope :#i)#, instead o/ blan<et and generaliPed )onTi)t solutions :#i)# )an onl0
be deGned b0 )ase, )an be su))ess/ul in situational and )ontextual adapted language poli)ies.
.#is appears to us to be t#e onl0 possible )#an)e to even begin to neutraliPe t#e tension in t#e
domains o/ language and )ulture :#i)# #as developed bet:een nation state sel/-government
and t#e in)reasing e)onomi) integration o/ t#e 1F )ountries.
+. &12*&1>.I81* =?2 >?(.A>.
LI(DFI*.I>*
"ultilingual resear)# as a )entral topi) o/ )onta)t linguisti)s )ontinuall0 opens up ne: domains
and t#ere/ore )onstantl0 )#anges. .#e reasons /or t#is are more t#an )lear 1irst of all; small
spee)# )ommunities :#i)# #ave )onserved t#eir language and ot#er identit0 )#ara)teristi)s H
t0pi)al /or man0 1uropean minorities H are o/ten to be /ound on t#e perip#er0 o/ t#e various
1uropean )ountries and /or t#is reason are o/ten )onsidered marginal. I/ t#e0 :anted to s#are
t#e prosperit0 and e)onomi)al advan)es, t#e0 #ad to integrate t#emselves into t#e pro)ess o/
urbanisation and industrialisation. In man0 )ases, t#e0 lost t#eir spe)ial Jualities during t#is
pro)ess, in)luding t#eir language and )ulture. (o: man0 o/ t#ese )ommunities Gnd t#emselves
at t#e #eart o/ t#e ne: 1urope, as t#e0 lie along t#e borders and t#ereb0 on t#e ne: )onta)t
axes o/ a 1urope :#i)# is gro:ing toget#er. Deograp#i)all0 and geopoliti)all0, t#e0 are as su)#
no longer marginal. =urt#ermore, it )an )ertainl0 be t#e )ase t#at a supranational 1urope is
more li<el0 to tolerate regionalism t#an t#e /ormer nation states. .#is, #o:ever, also means
t#at t#ese )ommunities Gnd t#emselves in
example /or t#is )on)ept% see &eter '. (elde, 'ultilingualism and the Economy as 8ssues in European Language
Policy. In 'ultilingual -ities and Language Policies, 1ds. 39ell 'erberts,4osep# .uri, 8asa 1999, pp. 251-256,
espe)iall0 p. 257.
a regrouping pro)ess. It is ne)essar0 to anal0se t#is )#anged dis)ourse. In order to understand
:#at in some o/ t#ese )ommunities #as alread0 #appened and :#at is 0et to )ome, :e must
)on)ern ourselves :it# t#e language groups :#i)# #ave su))eeded in retaining t#eir language
and tradition. "inorit0 groups li<e t#e >atalans in nort# east *pain )an s#ed lig#t on :#at is
needed to <eep and maintain a minorit0 group. 'ere, t#e lo)al and regional development #as
earned more attention.
Secondly;
multilingualism in big )ities is a relativel0 re)ent p#enomenon. In some )ases, it alread0 #as
been more t#oroug#l0 investigated C
K
Language s#i/t in metropolitan areas
L
2+
=or
t#is,
examples o/ 1uropean multilingual metropolises in &eter '. (elde, Languages in -ontact and in -on6ict7 "he
Belgian Eperience and the European &nion. In >urrent Issues in Language and *o)iet0 I,2, 1994, pp. 1$5-192%
spe)iG)all0, t#e )#apter Z"ultilingualism in .o:ns and >itiesK, pp. 172-17+.
24
A Grst step in t#is dire)tion is surel0 t#e publis#ing o/ t#e t:o-volume 'andboo< o/ >onta)t Linguisti)s
Cop. )it.E. .#is #andboo< presents models, t#eories and )on)epts C8olume 1E and 1uropean )ase studies C8olume
2E t#at #ave alread0 inTuen)ed and enri)#ed present resear)#.
E, in ot#er )ases, t#ere is still mu)# le/t to do in
order to understand t#e )onta)t linguisti) development better
2+
. .#is )on)erns an area in :#i)#
pre9udi)e resear)# and linguisti)s meet and :#ere problems and )onTi)ts )an result /rom
multilingual and multi)ultural )onta)ts. *o)iologi)all0, t#ese problems and )onTi)ts )an be
explained as stemming /rom a /eeling o/ t#reat on t#e part o/ t#e dominated group :#o /ears
t#at its o:n identit0 :ill be :iped out b0 ot#er gro:ing groups. .#e0 )an also be regarded as
attempts b0 t#e dominant group to ensure so)ial as)ension /or its o:n members. "hirdly; t#e
problem o/ languages in t#e 1uropean Fnion remains on t#e :#ole undis)ussed and t#ere/ore
unsolved. 7#atever t#e solution :ill be H t#ree, /our, eleven or more oR)ial languages H t#e
1urope o/ t#e /uture :ill, at an0 rate, not be monolingual. .#e members#ip o/ t#e *)andinavian
neig#bours H )ountries :#o #ave traditionall0 pre/erred 1nglis# as a se)ond language H and
Austria in t#e Fnion, )ould alread0 put t#e traditional linguisti) po:er balan)e in Brussels,
Luxembourg and *trasbourg into Juestion C/or example, =ren)# as t#e dominant language
domesti)all0, 1nglis# as t#e dominant language /or t#e )ommissionIs /oreign )onta)tsE and #as
started t#e debate ane:. 1ourthly; :e must deal :it# t#e language )onTi)ts along t#e 1FIs
borders :it# t#e /ormer 1ast Blo)<, :#ere language appears more and more to be)ome a
s0mbol o/ t#e rea:a<ening o/ nationalism. 'ere, it must be diMerentiated bet:een )onTi)ts
:it# #istori)al roots and t#ose :#i)# are artiG)iall0 <indled H /or reasons o/ border
read9ustments or simpl0 out o/ ideologi)al motives.
A/ter all, possible reasons /or language )onTi)ts exist ever0:#ere in t#e :orld 9ust as t#e0 do in
1urope - )onTi)ts, :#i)# o/ten ma<e t#emselves noti)eable as polarising trends. In addition to
supranational allian)es C(A=.A and 1FE, nationalism and regional )ons)iousness are gro:ing at
t#e same time C1uregio, Alpen-Adria-2egio, ne: /oundlings li<e *lovenia, 1stonia, et).E. =rom
#istor0, :e are a:are o/ t#e possible )onseJuen)es o/ )onTi)t repression. =or t#is reason,
)onta)t linguists s#ould ma<e sensible )ontributions to anal0sis, des)ription and )ontrol o/
)omplex linguisti) situations as t#e0 un/old da0 in and da0 out be/ore t#e e0es o/ t#e
resear)#er :orld and 1urope :ide
24
. A :ide ranging, de)isive )onta)t linguisti) perspe)tive
prote)ts t#e 1uropean linguist on one #and /rom nationalisti) and monolingual po:er interests
o/ parti)ular narro:-mindedness and on t#e ot#er /rom va)uous t#eoreti)al )onstru)tions
distant /rom an0 empiri)al or #istori)al /a)tual expertise. >onta)t linguisti)sI observant attitude
and prudentl0 /ormulated suggestions /or a language planning :#i)# supersedes language
divisions and t#e )ountless empiri)al pro9e)ts /or t#eir appli)ation in multidis)iplinar0 language
politi)s seem to 9usti/0 a )autious optimism in vie: o/ 1uropeIs linguisti) and politi)al /uture.
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