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SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAAN KHIR JOHARI

BIOLOGY




NAME : NURUL IZZATIE BINTI MOHAMAD
CLASS : 4 SCIENCE 3
TEACHER : PN NOORNUJAIMI BT NORDIN
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CONTENTS PAGE
Objectives 2
Problem Statement 3
Air Pollution
The Sources
The Pollutants
The Effects
Formation of Acid Rain
4-8
Water Pollution
The Sources
The Pollutants
The Effects
Eutrophication
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
9-14
Reference 15

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To identify human activities that cause air and water
pollution
To explain the effects of air and water pollution on living
things and environment
To state the sources of the pollutants of air and water
pollution
To describe the process of eutrophication and the
formation of acid rain
To explain the effects of eutrophication and acid rain

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What are the human activities that cause air and water
pollution?
What are effects of air and water pollution on living
things and environment?
What are the sources of the pollutants of air and water
pollution?
What are the process of eutrophication and the
formation of acid rain?
What are the effects of eutrophication and acid rain?

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Air pollution takes places when gases or particles accumulate in the air in high
concentrations that can harm living organisms and the environment.

SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION
Sources of Air Pollution Due To Human Activities Are:
MOTOR VEHICLES
a. Motor vehicles such as cars, motorcycles, lorries, aeroplanes, ships and
trains
b. Fossil fuels that include petroleum, diesel and gas used in motor vehicles
produce carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen
dioxide, lead, soot and dust.
INDUSTRY
a. In the industrial sector, electric power stations and factories (cement,
wood, chemical, iron) use diesel and discharge many types of pollutants
into the atmosphere
b. Among the pollutants produced are carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide,
nitrogen dioxide, chlorine, dust and smoke.
c. Agricultural chemicals such as airborne, pesticides, insecticides and
herbicides are also sprayed into the air instead of landing on planted
crops.
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OPEN AIR BURNING
a. The burning of rubbish, solid wastes and forests produces a lot of smoke
(causing haze), carbon dioxide and dust.
b. There are many people who practise open burning either of domestic
rubbish or at rubbish dumps.

Figure 1 Sources of Air Pollutants
THE AIR POLLUTANTS
1. Sulphur dioxide
2. Nitrogen dioxide
3. Small particles, dust, smoke or soot
4. Hydrocarbons (volatile organic compounds)
5. Carbon monoxide
6. Ozone
7. Heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium and others)

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EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION
Effects of Air Pollution on the Health of Humans:
BRONCHITIS
a. Acute inflammation of the air passages within the lungs
b. The patients suffers from high fevers, chest pains, breathing difficulties
and incessant coughing
EMPHYSEMA
a. Alveolar walls collapse and air sacs join with each other, thereby
reducing the total surface area to volume ratio. Hence the total effective
respiratory surface of the lugs for gaseous exchanged is reduced.
b. The symptoms are breathing difficulties and coughing and feeling tired.
SILICOSIS AND DARK LUNGS
a. Silicosis is caused by the breathing in of silicon dioxide (silica) and also
of carbon particles.
b. The dust in the lungs stimulates the growth of scar tissue or fibroid
around the dust particles.
c. The continuous growth of scar tissue will reduce the efficient
functioning of the lungs
Effects of Air Pollution on Buildings:
Pollutants Material acted on Damage
Carbon
dioxide
Bricks made from limestone Weakens the structure
Oxides of
sulphur
Iron, copper, aluminium, skin,
materials of the building
structure (bricks, limestone,
marble)

Corrodes to rust, copper
sulphate, and aluminium
sulphate. Chemical reactions
weaken the whole building
structure and denatures
proteins and enzymes
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Hydrogen
sulphide
Metal silver and copper,
paintworks
Turn metallic surface dull,
lead based paints turn black
because of the formation of
lead oxide
Ozone Rubber, textiles and colour Cracks appear, becomes soft
and easily torn colour turns
dull
Nitrogen
dioxide
Colour Colour turns dull
Dusts Building Dust covered and dirty

FORMATION OF ACID RAIN

Figure 2 Formation of Acid Rain
1. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide released subsequently dissolve in
atmospheric water vapour before coming down as acid rain in the form of
sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid, nitrous acid and acid nitric.
2. Acid rain absorbed by the soil dissolves many mineral salts and washes
them into rivers and lakes. This releases poisonous chemicals.
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3. Acid rain flowing into rivers and lakes upsets the ecosystem by destroying
many species of living organisms such as phytoplankton, zooplankton,
fishes and other aquatic animals.
4. Acid rain falling on plants changes the colour of the leaves from green to
purple and cause the leaves to die.


Figure 3 Effects of Acid Rain on Human Health, Plants and Aquatic Animals

Figure 4 Effects of Acid Rain on Statue
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Water as a universal solvent because many types of chemical substances can
dissolve in it makes it easy to be polluted. Water pollution is caused by
domestic wastes, industrial wastes that are discharged directly into rivers. Soil
erosion can also lead to water pollution.

THE SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTANTS AND THEIR
EFFECTS

Figure 5 The Causes of Water Pollution


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Source of Air
Pollution
Pollutants Harmful Effects
Discharge of
domestic
wastes into
rivers
Untreated
sewage
(faeces and
liquid wastes)

Encourages growth of bacteria, causing
diseases such as cholera, typhoid and
dysentery
Bacteria increases due to increased
concentration of nitrates and phosphates in
untreated sewage
Bacteria use up the oxygen supply in water
to decompose the untreated sewage and
other organic wastes. This reduces the
oxygen concentration and kills the aquatic
animals and plants. The decomposition of
dead organisms further increases the
bacteria population in the water
Cause bad odour and unsightly view
Rubbish
Detergents
Non-biodegradable rubbish prevents
sunlight from reaching the plants in the
river and prevents oxygen diffusion. This
threatens aquatic life
High concentration of detergents reduces
the concentration of oxygen in the water
and threatens the lives of aquatic organisms
Oil spillage Oil that spills
from ships oil
tanks
Causes death to all life forms in the sea
Causes death of sea birds and sea lions
Pollutes the beaches




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Figure 6 Discharge of Industrial Wastes

Source of Air
Pollution
Pollutants Harmful Effects
Discharge of
industrial
wastes into
rivers
Organic wastes
from remains of
oil palms and
rubber
plantations
Toxic chemical
wastes from
electronic
factories such as
arsenic, lead,
mercury and
zinc
Contaminate the water physically
Decomposition of organic wastes
reduces the concentration of oxygen in
water
Accumulation of toxic chemicals that
are non-biodegradable through the
food chain in aquatic organisms results
in the poisoning of aquatic animals and
man. These toxic substances damage
body organs and are harmful to man,
causing cancer and mutation.
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Source of Air
Pollution
Pollutants Harmful Effects
Discharge of
agricultural
wastes
(leaching
from farms to
nearby
rivers)
Fertilisers and
faeces which
contain
nitrates and
phosphates
The high concentration of nitrates and
phosphates in rivers or ponds results in
eutrophication. The nitrates and phosphates
promote rapid growth of algae, the algae will
later use up the oxygen supply in the water,
killing fish and other aquatic organisms.
Agrochemicals
such as
insecticides,
pesticides,
herbicides and
fungicides
Agrochemicals are non-biodegradable,
highly toxic and harmful as they can be
passed on in food chains and accumulate in
the bodies of aquatic animals and man. These
chemical wastes in significant amounts are
poisonous to aquatic animals and can
damage the organs in the body, cause cancer
and contaminate water supplies.









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EUTROPHICATION

1. Eutrophication occurs when inorganic nutrients and organic material enter
a river or a lake. The discharge of untreated sewage into a river also has an
immediate effect on the biotic and abiotic components of the water
ecosystem.
2. The enrichment of lakes and rivers with nutrients encourages
photosynthesising organism in the water, particularly algae, to grow
rapidly, resulting in a population explosion known as an algal bloom.
3. The density of the algae so high that light intensity in the water to reach the
lower depths is greatly reduced. As a result, the plants in the water die.
4. The death of plants and algae and the subsequent decomposition of these
organisms by bacteria lead to a severe depletion of oxygen in the water for
the decomposition increases the usage of oxygen, causing the death of
aerobic organisms.
5. The rapid growth of the algae and the process of decomposition lead to the
increase in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).

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Figure 7 Eutrophication of a River

BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)
1. BOD refers to the amount of dissolved oxygen taken up by microorganisms
that decompose organic waste matter in water.
2. The dissolved oxygen concentration can be used as an indicator of water
pollution level.
3. A high BOD indicates the presence of a large number of microorganisms
which suggest a high level pollution. The higher the BOD value, the more
polluted the water sample is.
4. Methylene blue solution is used to analyse the presence of oxygen in water.
In the presence of low concentration of oxygen, the colour of methylene
blue is decolourised rapidly. Hence, the BOD value of the water is high.





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